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Dr Gopisankar.M.G.

 Nicotiana Tabacum
 Digitalis Pupurea
 Nerium Odorum
 Cerebera thevetia
 Cerebera Odallam
 Cleistanthus Collinus
 Qunine
 Aconite
 Allparts are poisonous except ripe seeds
 Dried leaves  1-8% of nicotine
 Toxic alkaloids
1. Nicotine
2. Anabasine (equally toxic )
3. Nornicotine (less toxic)
 Agricultural, horticultural works
 Fumigation , spraying , insecticide , worm
powder
 Each cigarette  15 – 20mg N
 1-2 mg is absorbed by smoking
 15 – 40 mg /cigar
 Absorbed from  skin , mucous
membrane , lungs
 90% is metabolised by liver
 Some metabolised by lungs and kidneys
 Excreted by kidneys
 Acts on Autonomic ganglia stimulated
first and then depressed and blocked
 Also acts on somatic neuromuscular
junction and afferent fibers from sensory
receptors
 GIT
 Cardiopulmonary  arrhythmias
 CNS  mydriasis
 Death  respiratory failure
 Amblyopia
A short period of 6 to 12 weeks of
maintenance often followed by a gradual
reduction in 6 – 12 weeks is done
 NRT
 FD 50 – 100 mg of nicotine
 15 – 30 mg of crude tobacco
 Stomach wash
 Colonic washout
 Inversine /Mecamylamine  specific
antidote
 Atropine / hexamethonium chloride
 VD
 Oxygen
 Asphyxia
 Entire plant is toxic
 Over 30 cardiac and steroidal glucosides
 Roots , leaves ,seeds
1. Digitoxin
2. Digoxin
3. Digitalin
4. Digitonin
 GIT
 Cardiac arrhythmias , block
 Endocrine  gynaecomastia
 Visual  transient amblyopia , scotomata,
colour aberration , halos
 Skin  urticaria
 CNS  nueropsychiatric , delerium ,
hallucinations , trigeminal nueralgia
 Deathoccurs from cardiovascular collapse
 FD 2 gm leaf
15 – 30 mg digitalin
10 mg digoxin
4 mg digitoxin
 FP 1 – 24 hours
 Stomach wash with tannic acid
 Bowel wash
 Activated charcoal
 Digoxin specific antibody fragments (Fab)
one vial IV over 30 min
 1 vial = 38 mg Fab
 Total 10 – 20 vials
 Phenytoin
 Specific antidote for digitalis induced
cardiac arrhythmias  lignocaine 100 mg
,Dilantin , Propanalol
 Trisodium EDTA  to lower s. calcium
 Potassium suppliment
 Atropine if brady
 White oleander or kaner
 All parts except roots , including nectar are
poisonous
 Cardiac glycosides
1. Oleandroside(oleandrin)digitalis in
action
2. Nerioside(nerin) digitalis in action
3. Folinerin
4. Rosagenin
 Contact dermatitis
 Emenations Headache, dizziness,
respiratpry difficulty, Nausea
 Ingestion difficulty in swallowing and
articulation , V, profuse frothy salivation and
diarrhoea , abdominal pain
 Pulse is first slow and later rapid and weak
 Arrhythmias , block
 Mydriasis , tetanic spasm, lock jaw ,
 Death usually results from cardiac failure
 FD 15 – 20 g of root
5 to 15 leaves
 FP 20 – 36 hours
 Treatment  symtpomatic
 PMA -
 Root  abortifacient , veneral disease
 Cattle poison  into anus of cattle
 Smoke from the burning plant is toxic
 When plant material is used to roast food
over a fire , the poisonous sap transferred
to the food may be lethal
 Yellow oliander / pila kaner
 All parts are poisonous
 Seeds (A) 4% thevetin  which is 1/8th as
potent as ouabain
 Similar to digitalis in action
 (B) thevetoxin
 ( C) nerifolin
 (D) Peruvoside
 (E) Ruvoside
 (F) Cereberin
 And a bitter principle that act on CNS to
produce tetanic convulsions
 All active principles are glycosides
 Milky juice exudes from all parts of the
plant
 Contact dermatitis
 Chewing bark /seed numbing sensation ,
feeling of heat in the mouth
 Mydriasis
 Heart block
 Death due to peripheral circulatory failure
 FD 8 – 10 seeds
15 – 20 g of root
5 – 10 leaves
 FP  2- 3 hours
 Stomach wash
 Sodium Molar lactate solution with glucose
and 1 mg atropine , 2 ml adrenaline, 2 mg
noradrenaline
 PMA
 Circumstances  criminal abortion , cattle
poison
 Pilikirbir
 Contains glycosides
1. Cerberin
2. Cerberoside
3. Odollin
4. Odolotoxin
5. Thevetin
6. Cerapain
 Milky acrid juice (toxic) from all parts of the
plant
 Within 1 hour
 GI
 Cardiac  3 hours  brady , AF ,
 Irregular respiration
 Death from heart failure
 Hyperkalemia and depression of
transaminase activity are chief biochemical
changes
 FD Kernal of 1 fruit
 FP  1-2 days or more
 PMA asphyxia
 Sub epi, endo , plueral ptecheal bleed
 Stomach wash
 Atropine
 Correct hyperkalemia

 Circumstances
 Odovan , karlajuri , karada, garari
 All parts of the plant are poisonous
 Toxic principle  Oduvin  glucoside
 MOA blocks nueromuscular
transmission , and cardiac conductive
system
 FD  200 – 400 gm of leaves
 FP  1 – 3 days
 Mydriasis
 Hyperpyrexia
 Cardiac conductive
 Species of cinchona plants
 Quinine
 Cinchonidine
 Alkaloids
 It is a strong protoplasmic poison
 Anaesthetic
 Sclerosing action
 It stimulates and depresses CNS
 Starts in 15 – 30 min
 Partial deafness, disorders of vision ,
pupils fixed dilated
 Rash
 Methhaemoglobinemia
 Death occurs due to respiratory failure
 Large doses cause hemolysis
 Renal tubule block  uremia
 Repeated therapeutic doses or over dose
 Tinnitus, vertigo , deafness, diplopia ,
scotomata, blindness, skin rash ,
hypoglycemia , and cardiac arrhythmias
 FD 8 – 15 g
 FP  6 hours
 Quinidine  4 – 6 g
 Gastric lavage
 Concentrated solution of magnesium
sulphate left in stomach for rapid
elimination of poison
 Activated charcoal +MgSo4 until stool
looks black
 Forced acid diuresis
 Bilateral Stellate ganglion block cause
immediate return of vision
 Hemolysis
 Renal tubules blocked with Hb

 Circumstances abortifacient
 Monk’s hood
 Blue rocket
 Mitha zaher
 Bish
 Bikh
 Aconitum napellus
 Aconitum ferox

 Roots are used


 All varieties and all parts are poisonous
 Most when seeds ripen and bloom
 Roots and seeds are most potent
 Contains
1. Aconitin
2. Pseudo aconitine
3. Indaconitine
4. Bikhaconitine
5. Picraconitine
6. Aconine
7. Mesaconitine
8. Jesaconitine
 Contact  tingling and numbness
 Odour has narcotic action
 Pollen causes pain and swelling of the
eyes
 Symptoms immediately or within min
 GI
 Salivation  dry and difficulty in
swallowing
 Limbs weak , paraestheisa, ataxia, slurred
speech
 The pupils alternate contract and dilate 
Hippus …but remain dilated in later stages
 Diplopia
 Dim vision
 cardiac arrhythmia , blocks
 Mind clear =+/_ hallucinations
 Death  paralysis of cardiac or respiratory
centres or both
 FD 1 g root
2 – 5 mg Aconitine
250 mg extract
2 – 30 ml tincture
 FP  2 – 6 hours
 Gastric lavage
 Weak solution of iodine , in KI , or tannic
acid to precipitate alkaloid
 Animal charcoal
 Cathartic
 Atropine
 Eliminated mainly by urine