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Outline of


The following outline is provided as an
overview of and topical guide to

Geography – study of earth and its

The physical world.

The human world.

Nature of geography
Geography is

an academic discipline – a body of
knowledge given to − or received by −

a disciple (student); a branch or sphere
of knowledge, or field of study, that an
individual has chosen to specialize in.
Modern geography is an all-
encompassing discipline that seeks to
understand the Earth and all of its
human and natural complexities − not
merely where objects are, but how they
have changed and come to be.
Geography has been called 'the world
a field of science – widely recognized
category of specialized expertise
within science, and typically embodies
its own terminology and nomenclature.
Such a field will usually be represented
by one or more scientific journals,

Many of . a natural science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of natural environment (physical geography). a social science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society (human geography). an interdisciplinary field – a field that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought. as new needs and professions have emerged.where peer reviewed research is published. There are many geography- related scientific journals.

"earth describe-write"[3] geo. usually in the sense of "ground or land". an art.– a prefix taken from the Greek word γη or γαια meaning "earth". -graphy – an English suffix. the branches of physical geography are also branches of Earth science. or a field of study. lit.geographia. Geo. Etymology of Geography Etymology of "geography": from Greek γεωγραφία . Words that include this suffix usually are about a a prefix for many words dealing in some way with the earth. Branches of geography .

.. Physical geography .As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences." geography is divided into two main branches: human geography physical geography[4][5][6] Other branches include: integrated geography geomatics regional geography All the branches are further described below.

and landforms are produced and interact. . Physical geography – examines the natural environment and how the climate. and more broadly.[7] Fields of physical geography Geomorphology – study of landforms and the processes that them. vegetation & life. soil. to understand landform history and dynamics. water. and to predict future changes through a combination of field observation. and numerical modeling. Seeks to understand why landscapes look the way they do. physical experiment. of the processes controlling the topography of any planet.

distribution. water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. ocean currents. including the hydrologic cycle. and geophysical fluid dynamics. or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.Hydrology – study of the movement. Oceanography – studies a wide range of topics pertaining to oceans. Glaciology – study of glaciers. including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics. and quality of water throughout the Earth. and fluxes of various . waves. plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor.

it is also tied to the concepts of species and their past. chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. or their interim living sites.[8] Climatology – study of climate. or present living 'refugium'.[9] . Over areal ecological changes. their survival locales. scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. It aims to reveal where organisms live. Biogeography – study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally. and at what abundance.

soil morphology.Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting (in contrast with climatology). and soil classification. Coastal geography – study of the dynamic interface between the ocean . Palaeogeography – study of what the geography was in times past. most often concerning the physical landscape. but also the human or cultural environment. Pedology – study of soils in their natural environment[10] that deals with pedogenesis.

coastal geomorphology. including the last ice age and the Holocene period. . Quaternary science – focuses on the Quaternary period. geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes. which encompasses the last 2.e. particularly wave action.6 million years. incorporating both the physical geography (i.and the land. and also the ways in which humans interact with the coast. sediment movement and weather.

See also the quantitative revolution. Systems approach – Human geography Human geography – one of the two main subfields of geography. it is the . Landscape ecology – the relationship between spatial patterns of urban development and ecological processes on a multitude of landscape scales and organizational levels.[11][12][13] Approaches of physical geography Quantitative geography – Quantitative research tools and methods applied to geography.

and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy.[7] Fields of human geography Cultural geography – study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places. It focuses on describing and analyzing the ways . viewed. Human geography broadly differs from physical geography in that it focuses on the built environment and how space is created. study of human use and understanding of the world and the processes which have affected it.

government and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant.language. politically and ethically. religion. politically and ethically significant and which are worthy of study.[14] Children's geographies – study of places and spaces of children's lives. economy. characterized experientially. Children's geographies rests on the idea that children as a social group share certain characteristics which are experientially. from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially. The pluralisation in the title is intended to imply that .

and class. Children and globalization Methodologies of researching children's worlds Ethics of researching children's worlds . family. The range of focii within children's geographies include: Children and the city Children and the countryside Children and technology Children and nature.children's lives will be markedly different in differing times and places and in differing circumstances such as gender.

Otherness of childhood Animal geographies – studies the spaces and places occupied by animals in human culture. . pets.g. wild animals in the city). farm animals. Another impetus that has influenced the development of the field are ecofeminist and other environmentalist viewpoints on nature-society relations (including questions of animal welfare and rights). because social life and space is heavily populated by animals of many differing kinds and in many differing ways (e.

Linguistic geography – deals with regional linguistic variations within languages.[15] 2. Geography of languages – deals with the distribution through history and space of languages.[16][17][18][19][20] Sexuality and space – encompasses all relationships .Language geography – studies the geographic distribution of language or its constituent elements. There are two principal fields of study within the geography of language: 1.

use of sexualised locations in the arts. space.[21] the geographies of prostitution and adult entertainment. global sexualities. and interactions between human sexuality. on religious belief.e.[25] Development geography – study of the Earth's geography with reference to the . i. public sex environments.[24] Religion geography – study of the influence of geography. place and space. and place.[22][23] and sexual citizenship. sites of queer resistance. sex tourism. including the geographies of LGBT residence.

Measures development by looking at economic. and seeks to understand both the geographical causes and consequences of varying development. economies of . in part by comparing More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) with Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). Subjects of interest include but are not limited to the location of industries.standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants. distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. Economic geography – study of the location. political and social factors.

transportation. core- periphery theory. gentrification. the relationship between the environment and the economy (tying into a long history of geographers studying culture- environment interaction). ethnic economies.agglomeration (also known as "linkages"). and globalization. the economics of urban form. gendered economies. real estate. Marketing geography – a discipline within marketing analysis which uses geolocation (geographic information) in the process of planning and . international trade and development.

implementation of marketing activities. price. Transportation geography – branch of economic geography that investigates spatial interactions between people. or place (geo targeting). promotion.[26] It can be used in any aspect of the marketing mix – the product. freight and information. . It studies humans and their use of vehicles or other modes of traveling as well as how markets are serviced by flows of finished goods and raw materials.

Time geography – study of the temporal factor on spatial human activities within the following constraints: 1. the distribution of disease in an area. perspectives. disease. and the environment's effect on health and disease. Health geography – application of geographical information. It also deals with accessibility to health care and spatial distribution of health care providers. and methods to the study of health. Authority . to provide a spatial understanding of a population's health. and health care.limits of accessibility to certain places or domains placed on .

Capability . drink. such as the need for food. and seeks to determine how cultural features of various societies across the planet emerged and evolved.individuals by owners or authorities 2. and sleep 3. physical.limitations on the movement of individuals. For example. Coupling . anchoring him or her to a location while interacting with other individuals in order to complete a task Historical geography – study of the human. theoretical. movement is restricted by biological factors. and "real" geographies of the past. by . based on their nature. fictional.restraint of an individual.

state. and territory. including how people have interacted with their environment and created the cultural landscape. Basically.understanding how a place or region changes through time. the inter-relationships between people. Electoral geography – study of the relationship between election results and the regions they affect (such as the environmental impact of voting decisions). and of the . Political geography – study of the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.

Geopolitics – analysis of geography. spatial areas that affect the security and prosperity of nations. ranging from the level of the state to international. and techniques to . history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales. information.effects of regional factors upon voting behavior. Military geography – the application of geographic tools. Strategic geography – concerned with the control of. or access to.

Population geography – study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution. composition. Tourism geography – study of travel and tourism. and their effect on places. and growth of populations are related to the nature of places. the geographies of tourism and leisure economies. solve military problems in peacetime or war. migration. as an industry and as a social and cultural activity. including the environmental impact of tourism. answering tourism industry and management concerns .

Urban geography – the study of urban areas. in terms of concentration. infrastructure. economy. and environmental impacts. Approaches of human geography Behavioral geography – Cognitive geography – Critical geography – Feminist geography – Marxist geography – Non-representational theory – Postcolonialism – . and the sociology of tourism and locations of tourism.

Integrated geography Integrated geography – branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. and geomorphology. Post-structuralism[27] – Qualitative geography – qualitative research tools and methods applied to geography. biogeography. . as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment. hydrology. It requires an understanding of the dynamics of geology. meteorology. ecology.

Geomatics Geomatics – branch of geography and the discipline of gathering. Geographic Information Systems (GIS). photogrammetry. and delivering geographic information. processing. and related forms of earth mapping. remote sensing. storing. cartography. Fields contributing to geomatics Photogrammetry – . It is a widespread interdisciplinary field that includes the tools and techniques used in land surveying. or spatially referenced information. Global Navigation Satellite Systems.

GLONASS. Cartography – Digital terrain modelling – Geodesy – Geographic information systems – Geospatial – Global navigation satellite systems – (GPS. COMPASS) Global Positioning System – Hydrography – Mathematics – Navigation – Photogrammetry – Remote sensing – Surveying – Regional geography . GALILEO.

A region can be seen as a collection of smaller units.Regional geography – study of world regions. and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. human elements. Regional geography breaks down into the study of specific regions. human characteristics. Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural elements. . defined by physical characteristics. or functional characteristics. The term is used in various ways among the different branches of geography. Region – an area.

such as a country and its political
divisions, or as one part of a larger
whole, as in a country on a continent.


Earth may have had a single supercontinent called

List of supercontinents A supercontinent
is a landmass comprising more than one
continental core, or craton.

Afro-Eurasia (formed 5 million years
Americas (formed 15 million years ago)
Eurasia (formed 60 million years ago)


Continent – one of several large
landmasses on Earth. They are generally
identified by convention rather than any
specific criteria, but seven areas are
commonly regarded as continents. They

1. Africa   (outline) –
2. Antarctica –
3. Australia   (outline) –
The Americas:

4. North America   (outline) –
5. South America   (outline) –
6. Europe   (outline) –
7. Asia   (outline) –


Subregion (list)

Biogeographic regions

Map of six of the world's eight ecozones

9 mil.1 mil. km² (including most of North America) Palearctic 54. km² (including the bulk of Eurasia and North Africa) .    Palearctic    Afrotropic    Indomalaya    Australasia    Neotropic    Oceania and Antarctic ecozones not shown Ecozone Ecozone The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a system of eight biogeographic realms (ecozones): Nearctic 22.

1 mil. km² (including Australia.7 mil. Fiji and Micronesia) Antarctic 0.5 mil. km² (including Polynesia.3 mil. Neotropic 19. km² (including South America and the Caribbean) Oceania 1. Ecoregions . km² (including Antarctica). The northern boundary of this zone is known as the Wallace line.0 mil. New Guinea. km² (including the South Asian subcontinent and Southeast Asia) Australasia 7.0 mil. km² (including Sub-Saharan Africa) Indomalaya 7. and neighboring islands). Afrotropic 22.

Geography of the political divisions of the World . See Lists of ecoregions by country.Ecoregion Ecozones are further divided into ecoregions. The World has over 800 terrestrial ecoregions.

Geography of Africa   (Outline) West Africa#Geography and climate Geography of Benin   (Outline) Geography of Burkina Faso   (Outline) Geography of Cape Verde   (Outline) Geography of Côte d'Ivoire   (Outline) Geography of Gambia   (Outline) Geography of Ghana   (Outline) Geography of Guinea   (Outline) .

Geography of Guinea-Bissau   (Outline) Geography of Liberia   (Outline) Geography of Mali   (Outline) Geography of Mauritania   (Outline) Geography of Niger   (Outline) Geography of Nigeria   (Outline) Geography of Senegal   (Outline) Geography of Sierra Leone   (Outline) Geography of Togo   (Outline) .

North Africa#Geography Geography of Algeria   (Outline) Geography of Egypt   (Outline) Geography of Libya   (Outline) Geography of Mauritania   (Outline) Geography of Morocco   (Outline) Geography of Sudan   (Outline) Geography of Tunisia   (Outline) Geography of Western Sahara   (Outline) .

Central Africa Geography of Angola   (Outline) Geography of Burundi   (Outline) Geography of Cameroon   (Outline) Geography of Central African Republic   (Outline) Geography of Chad   (Outline) Geography of Democratic Republic of the Congo   (Outline) Geography of Equatorial Guinea   (Outline) .

Geography of Gabon   (Outline) Geography of Republic of the Congo   (Outline) Geography of Rwanda   (Outline) Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe   (Outline) East Africa#Geography and climate Geography of Burundi   (Outline) Geography of Comoros   (Outline) Geography of Djibouti   (Outline) .

Geography of Eritrea   (Outline) Geography of Ethiopia   (Outline) Geography of Kenya   (Outline) Geography of Madagascar   (Outline) Geography of Malawi   (Outline) Geography of Mauritius   (Outline) Geography of Mozambique   (Outline) Geography of Rwanda   (Outline) .

Geography of Seychelles   (Outline) Geography of Somalia   (Outline) Geography of Tanzania   (Outline) Geography of Uganda   (Outline) Geography of Zambia   (Outline) Geography of Zimbabwe   (Outline) Southern Africa#Geography Geography of Botswana   (Outline) .

Geography of Lesotho   (Outline) Geography of Namibia   (Outline) Geography of South Africa   (Outline) Geography of Swaziland   (Outline) Dependencies in Africa Geography of British Indian Ocean Territory   (Outline) (UK) Geography of Mayotte   (Outline) (France) Geography of Réunion   (Outline) (France) .

Geography of Saint Helena   (Outline) (UK) Canary Islands#Geography   (Outline) (Spain) Geography of Ceuta   (Outline) (Spain) Geography of Madeira   (Outline) (Portugal) Geography of Melilla   (Outline) (Spain) Geography of Socotra   (Outline) (Yemen) Geography of Puntland   (Outline) Geography of Somaliland   (Outline) .

Sahrawi Arab Democratic
Republic   (Outline)
Geography of Antarctica   (Outline)
Geography of Asia   (Outline)
Central Asia#Geography
Geography of Kazakhstan  
Geography of Kyrgyzstan  
Geography of Tajikistan  
Geography of Turkmenistan  
Geography of Uzbekistan  
East Asia

Geography of China  
Geography of Tibet  
Geography of Hong Kong
Geography of Macau  
Geography of Japan  
Geography of North Korea  
Geography of South Korea  
Geography of Mongolia  

Geography of Taiwan  
North Asia#Geography
Geography of Russia  
Southeast Asia#Geography
Geography of Brunei  
Burma (Myanmar) - Outline)
Geography of Cambodia  
East Timor (Timor-Leste) -
Geography of Indonesia  
Geography of Laos   (Outline)

Geography of Malaysia   (Outline) Geography of the Philippines   (Outline) Geography of Singapore   (Outline) Geography of Thailand   (Outline) Geography of Vietnam   (Outline) South Asia#Geography Geography of Afghanistan   (Outline) Geography of Bangladesh   (Outline) .

Geography of Bhutan   (Outline) Geography of India   (Outline) Geography of Maldives   (Outline) Geography of Nepal   (Outline) Geography of Pakistan   (Outline) Geography of Sri Lanka   (Outline) Western Asia#Geography[28] Armenia#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Azerbaijan   (Outline) .

including: Geography of Northern Cyprus   (Outline) (disputed territory) Georgia   (Outline) Geography of Iran   (Outline) Geography of Iraq   (Outline) Geography of Israel   (Outline) Geography of Jordan   (Outline) Geography of Kuwait   (Outline) .Geography of Bahrain   (Outline) Geography of Cyprus   (Outline).

Geography of Lebanon  
Geography of Oman  
Geography of the Palestinian
territories   (Outline)
Geography of Qatar   (Outline)
Geography of Saudi Arabia  
Geography of Syria   (Outline)
Geography of Turkey  
Geography of United Arab
Emirates   (Outline)

Geography of Yemen  
Caucasus#Geography and ecology (a
region considered to be in both Asia
and Europe, or between them)
North Caucasus
Geography of Russia  
(Outline) (the following parts
of Russia are in the North
Caucasus: Chechnya,
Ingushetia, Dagestan,
Adyghea, Kabardino-Balkaria,
Karachay–Cherkessia, North
Ossetia, Krasnodar Krai,
Stavropol Krai)
South Caucasus

Georgia   (Outline), including:
Geography of Abkhazia  
(Outline) (disputed
Geography of South
Ossetia   (Outline)
(disputed territory)
Geography of Azerbaijan  
(Outline), including:
Geography of Nagorno-
Karabakh   (Outline)
(disputed territory)
Geography of Europe   (Outline)

Geography of Akrotiri and Dhekelia   (Outline) Geography of Åland   (Outline) Geography of Albania   (Outline) Geography of Andorra   (Outline) Geography of Armenia   (Outline) Geography of Austria   (Outline) Geography of Azerbaijan   (Outline) Geography of Belarus   (Outline) Geography of Belgium   (Outline) Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina   (Outline) Geography of Bulgaria   (Outline) Geography of Croatia   (Outline) .

Geography of Cyprus   (Outline) Geography of Czech Republic   (Outline) Geography of Denmark   (Outline) Geography of Estonia   (Outline) Faroe Islands#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Finland   (Outline) Geography of France   (Outline) Geography of Georgia   (Outline) Geography of Germany   (Outline) Geography of Gibraltar   (Outline) Geography of Greece   (Outline) Geography of Guernsey   (Outline) Geography of Hungary   (Outline) .

Geography of Iceland   (Outline) Republic of Ireland#Geography   (Outline) Geography of the Isle of Man   (Outline) Geography of Italy   (Outline) Geography of Jersey   (Outline) Geography of Kazakhstan   (Outline) Geography of Kosovo   (Outline) Geography of Latvia   (Outline) Geography of Liechtenstein   (Outline) Geography of Lithuania   (Outline) .

including: Geography of Transnistria   (Outline) (disputed territory) Geography of Monaco   (Outline) Geography of Montenegro   (Outline) Geography of Netherlands   (Outline) Geography of Norway   (Outline) .Geography of Luxembourg   (Outline) Geography of Macedonia   (Outline) Geography of Malta   (Outline) Geography of Moldova   (Outline).

Geography of Poland   (Outline) Geography of Portugal   (Outline) Geography of Romania   (Outline) Geography of Russia   (Outline) Geography of San Marino   (Outline) Geography of Serbia   (Outline) Geography of Slovakia   (Outline) Geography of Slovenia   (Outline) Geography of Spain   (Outline) Geography of Svalbard   (Outline) Geography of Sweden   (Outline) Geography of Switzerland   (Outline) Geography of Turkey   (Outline) .

Geography of Ukraine   (Outline) Geography of United Kingdom   (Outline) Geography of England   (Outline) Geography of Northern Ireland   (Outline) Geography of Scotland   (Outline) Geography of Wales   (Outline) Geography of Vatican City   (Outline) Geography of North America   (Outline) Geography of Canada   (Outline) By province .

Geography of Alberta Geography of British Columbia   (Outline) Geography of Manitoba Geography of New Brunswick Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador Geography of Nova Scotia Geography of Ontario Geography of Prince Edward Island .

Geography of Quebec   (Outline) Geography of Saskatchewan   (Outline) By territory Geography of the Northwest Territories Geography of Nunavut Geography of Yukon Geography of Greenland   (Outline) Geography of Mexico   (Outline) Geography of Saint Pierre and Miquelon   (Outline) .

Geography of United States   (Outline) Geography of Alabama   (Outline) Geography of Alaska   (Outline) Geography of Arizona   (Outline) Geography of Arkansas   (Outline) Geography of California   (Outline) Geography of Colorado   (Outline) Geography of Connecticut   (Outline) .

Geography of Delaware   (Outline) Geography of Florida   (Outline) Geography of Georgia   (Outline) Geography of Hawaii   (Outline) Geography of Idaho   (Outline) Geography of Illinois   (Outline) Geography of Indiana   (Outline) Geography of Iowa   (Outline) .

Geography of Montana   (Outline) Geography of Kansas   (Outline) Geography of Kentucky   (Outline) Geography of Louisiana   (Outline) Geography of Maine   (Outline) Geography of Maryland   (Outline) Geography of Massachusetts   (Outline) Geography of Michigan   (Outline) .

Geography of Minnesota   (Outline) Geography of Mississippi   (Outline) Geography of Missouri   (Outline) Geography of Nebraska   (Outline) Geography of Nevada   (Outline) Geography of New Hampshire   (Outline) Geography of New Jersey   (Outline) Geography of New Mexico   (Outline) .

Geography of New York   (Outline) Geography of North Carolina   (Outline) Geography of North Dakota   (Outline) Geography of Ohio   (Outline) Geography of Oklahoma   (Outline) Geography of Oregon   (Outline) Geography of Pennsylvania   (Outline) Geography of Rhode Island   (Outline) .

Geography of South Carolina   (Outline) Geography of South Dakota   (Outline) Geography of Tennessee   (Outline) Geography of Texas   (Outline) Geography of Utah   (Outline) Geography of Vermont   (Outline) Geography of Virginia   (Outline) Geography of Washington   (Outline) .

Geography of West Virginia   (Outline) Geography of Wisconsin   (Outline) Geography of Wyoming   (Outline) Geography of Washington. D.) Central America#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Belize   (Outline) Geography of Costa Rica   (Outline) .C.   (Outline) (Washington. D.C.

Geography of El Salvador   (Outline) Geography of Guatemala   (Outline) Geography of Honduras   (Outline) Geography of Nicaragua   (Outline) Geography of Panama   (Outline) Geography of the Caribbean   (Outline) Geography of Anguilla   (Outline) Geography of Antigua and Barbuda   (Outline) .

Geography of Aruba   (Outline) Geography of Bahamas   (Outline) Geography of Barbados   (Outline) Geography of Bermuda   (Outline) British Virgin Islands#Geography   (Outline) Cayman Islands#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Cuba   (Outline) Geography of Dominica   (Outline) .

Dominican Republic#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Grenada   (Outline) Geography of Haiti   (Outline) Geography of Jamaica   (Outline) Geography of Montserrat   (Outline) Netherlands Antilles#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Puerto Rico   (Outline) Geography of Saint Barthélemy   (Outline) .

Geography of Saint Kitts and Nevis   (Outline) Geography of Saint Lucia   (Outline) Saint Martin#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   (Outline) Geography of Trinidad and Tobago   (Outline) Turks and Caicos Islands#Geography   (Outline) United States Virgin Islands#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Oceania (includes the continent of Australia) .

Australasia Geography of Australia   (Outline) Dependencies and territories of Australia Geography of Christmas Island   (Outline) Cocos (Keeling) Islands#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Norfolk Island   (Outline) Geography of New Zealand   (Outline) .

Geography of Melanesia Geography of Fiji   (Outline) Geography of Indonesia   (Outline) (Oceanian part only) Geography of New Caledonia   (Outline) (France) Geography of Papua New Guinea   (Outline) Geography of the Solomon Islands   (Outline) Geography of Vanuatu   (Outline) Geography of Micronesia Geography of Federated States of Micronesia   (Outline) .

Geography of Guam   (Outline) (USA) Geography of Kiribati   (Outline) Geography of Marshall Islands   (Outline) Geography of Nauru   (Outline) Northern Mariana Islands#Geography and climate   (Outline) (USA) Geography of Palau   (Outline) Geography of Wake Island   (Outline) (USA) Geography of Polynesia .

Geography of American Samoa   (Outline) (USA) Chatham Islands#Geography   (Outline) (NZ) Cook Islands#Geography   (Outline) (NZ) Easter Island#Location and physical geography   (Outline) (Chile) Geography of French Polynesia   (Outline) (France) Geography of Hawaii   (Outline) (USA) Loyalty Islands#Geography   (Outline) (France) .

Geography of Niue   (Outline) (NZ) Pitcairn Islands#Geography   (Outline) (UK) Geography of Samoa   (Outline) Geography of Tokelau   (Outline) (NZ) Geography of Tonga   (Outline) Geography of Tuvalu   (Outline) Geography of Wallis and Futuna   (Outline) (France) Geography of South America   (Outline) .

Geography of Argentina   (Outline) Geography of Bolivia   (Outline) Geography of Brazil   (Outline) Geography of Chile   (Outline) Geography of Colombia   (Outline) Geography of Ecuador   (Outline) Geography of the Falkland Islands   (Outline) Geography of French Guiana   (Outline) Geography of Guyana   (Outline) Geography of Paraguay   (Outline) Geography of Peru   (Outline) Geography of Suriname   (Outline) Geography of Uruguay   (Outline) .

Geography of Venezuela   (Outline) Other regions Atlantic World Bermuda Triangle Pacific Rim Pacific Ring of Fire History of geography .

created during ancient Greek times Topics pertaining to the geographical study of the World throughout history: By period Ancient roads Ancient Greek geography Age of discovery .Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the W orld.

Major explorations after the Age of Discovery Critical geography Environmental determinism By region Chinese geography History of human geography in China By subject Historical population of the world By field History of human geography History of cartography History of longitude .

Longitude Prize History of cultural geography History of economic geography History of health geography History of political geography History of demography History of physical geography History of biogeography History of climatology History of meteorology History of geodesy History of geomorphology History of hydrology History of oceanography History of landscape ecology .

History of regional geography Elements of geography Topics common to the various branches of geography include: Tasks and tools of geography The equal-area Mollweide projection Exploration – the act of traveling and searching for resources or for information about the land or space itself. .

stores.Geocode (Geospatial Entity Object Code) – geospatial coordinate system for specifying the exact location of a geospatial point at. statistical analysis. and database technology. . or above the surface of the earth at a given moment of time. Geographic information system (GIS) – set of tools that captures. below. or moon. analyzes. and presents data that are linked to location(s). manages. Globe – a three-dimensional scale model of a spheroid celestial body such as a planet. star. Combines elements of cartography.

Map projection – any method of representing the surface of a sphere or other shape on a plane. typically of the Earth or a region thereof. regions. Necessary for creating maps. . depicting the elements of that area such as objects. Cartography – the study and practice of making maps. Terrestrial globe – globe of the Earth. and themes. Map – a visual representation of an area. Atlas – a collection of maps.

Surveying – the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them.Demographics – the characteristics of a human population as used in government. geometric. Spatial analysis – a variety of statistical techniques used to study entities using their topological. or the demographic profiles used in such research. These . Distinct from demography. which is the statistical study of human populations. marketing or opinion research. or geographic properties.

place. and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. points are usually on the surface of the Earth. or region. Types of geographic features Geographic feature – component of a planet that can be referred to as a location. A geographic feature may be natural or artificial. Location and place . site. area. and therefore may show up on a map.

Population density per square kilometre by country. 2006 Location – Absolute location – Latitude – Prime meridian – Longitude – Equator – Tropic of Cancer – Tropic of Capricorn – Altitude – Elevation – Place .

Aspects of a place or region Climate – Population – Demographics – Population density – Overpopulation – World population – Sense of place – Terrain – Topography – Tourist attraction – Lists of places – Natural geographic features .

Ecosystems Ecosystem – community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Biodiversity hotspot Ecozone – broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface. interacting as a system. water and mineral soil).Natural geographic feature – an ecosystem or natural landform. .

based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms. Ecoprovince – biogeographic unit smaller than an ecozone that contains one or more ecoregions. Ecoregion – Ecodistrict – Ecosection – Ecosite – Ecotope – Ecoelement – Biome – Bioregion – Biotope – Bioelement – .

Natural landforms The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world. Helens in Washington. United States. The volcano Mount St. .

Some landforms are artificial. Landforms are categorized by traits such as elevation. stratification. Natural terrain feature types Continent – Island – Mainland – Mountain – .Natural landform – terrain or body of water. slope. rock exposure. and are defined by their surface form and location in the landscape. and soil type. orientation. Landforms are topographical elements. but most landforms are natural. such as certain islands.

Mountain range – Subcontinent – Natural body of water types Natural bodies of water – Bodies of sea water Channel – Firth – Harbor – Inlet – Bay – Bight – Gulf – Cove – Creek (tidal) – Estuary – .

Fjord (fiord) – Kettle – Kill – Lagoon – Barachois – Loch – Arm of the sea – Mere – Ocean – Phytotelma – Salt marsh – Sea – Types of sea: Mediterranean sea – Sound – .

Sea components or extensions: Sea loch – Sea lough – Strait – Bodies of fresh water Bayou – Lake (list) – Oxbow lake – Subglacial lake – Tarn – Pool – Pond – Billabong – Tide pool – .

Vernal pool – Puddle – River (list) – Parts of a river: Rapid – Source – Waterfall (list) – Roadstead – Spring – Boil - Stream – Beck – Brook – Burn – Creek – .

or it may be abstract and exist only on maps (such as the Equator. Arroyo (creek) – Wash – Draw – Run – Wetland – Freshwater marsh – Slough (wetland) – Mangrove swamp – Artificial geographic features Artificial geographic feature – a thing that was made by humans that may be indicated on a map. which . It may be physical and exist in the real world (like a bridge or city).

Interstate 5. the Great Wall of China. but cannot be seen where it lies).has a defined location. rural settlement which is too small to be considered a village. Artificial geographic feature – physical construct that is part of the landscape (and anthrosphere). Settlement – Hamlet (place). when a hamlet became large enough to justify building a church. it was then classified as a . Historically. and the Boeing Everett Factory. Some examples include Tokyo. the Suez Canal.

Town – human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts . One example of a hamlet is a small cluster of houses surrounding a mill. larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand (sometimes tens of thousands).village. Village – clustered human settlement or community.

such as bread and milk. while many British "small towns" would qualify as cities in the United States. for example. many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages.of the world. so that. 1st-order towns – bare minimum of essential services. Urban hierarchy – ranks the structure of towns within an area. 2nd-order towns .

a city is distinguished from a town by attainment of designation according to law. In many regions. 3rd-order towns 4th-order towns City – relatively large and permanent settlement. disproportionately . Financial centre Primate city – the leading city in its country or region. for instance being required to obtain articles of incorporation or a royal charter.

and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications. political and cultural center for a country or region. Metropolis – very large city or urban area which is a significant economic.larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. Metropolitan area – region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less- populated surrounding .

facilitated and enacted in strategic geographic locales (including global cities) according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade. Globalization is largely created.[29] Global city – city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system. and housing. sharing industry. . infrastructure.territories.

Maryland and ending in Washington. extending from Boston. Pennsylvania. D. Philadelphia.Megalopolis – chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. The world does not have one . Eperopolis – theoretical "continent city". An example is the huge metropolitan area along the eastern seaboard of the U. Baltimore.C. Massachusetts through New York City.S..

building. See also construction engineering and infrastructure. yet. railroad. Will Europe become the first one? Ecumenopolis – theoretical "world city". airport. Artificial landforms Artificial dwelling hill – Artificial island – . or reservoir. bridge. dam. Will the world ever become so urbanized as to be called this? Engineered construct – built feature of the landscape such as a highway.

Aqueduct – artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another. . or to prevent erosion of a coastal feature. Breakwater – construction designed to break the force of the sea to provide calm water for boats or ships. including one or more runways and one or more passenger terminals. Artificial reef – Airport – place where airplanes can take off and land.

Causeway – Dam – structure placed across a flowing body of water to stop the flow. road. for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. Canal – artificial waterway. usually . or other physical obstacle such as a canyon. Building – closed structure with walls and a roof. body of water. often connecting one body of water with another.Bridge – structure built to span a valley.

especially the growing . Levee – artificial slope or wall to regulate water use the water for irrigation or to generate electricity.[30] Farm – place where agricultural activities take place. usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river or the coast. Dike – barrier of stone or earth used to hold back water and prevent flooding.

Manmade harbor – harbor that has deliberately constructed breakwaters. Industrial region Marina – Orchard – Parking lot – Pier – Pipeline – Port – Railway – . sea walls. or jettys. or which was constructed by dredging.of crops or the raising of livestock.

Ranch – Reservoir – Road – Highway – Race track – Street – Subsidence crater – Ski resort – Train station – Tree farm – Tunnel – Viaduct – Wharf – .

Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China Abstract geographic feature – does not exist physically in the real world. Geographical zone Hardiness zone Time zone Political division – Nation . yet has a location by definition and may be displayed on maps.

Administrative division – Special Economic Zone Country subdivision – a designated territory created within a country for administrative or identification purposes. Examples of the types of country subdivisions: Bailiwick – Canton – Commune – County – Department – District – Duchy – .

Emirate – Federal state – Parish – Prefecture – Province – Region – Rural district – Settlement – Municipality – City – Borough – Township – Village – Shire – State – .

Latitude line – Equator – Longitude line – Prime Meridian) – Geographical pole – North pole – South pole – . Subdistrict – Subprefecture – Voivodeship – Wilayat – Cartographical feature – theoretical construct used specifically on maps that doesn't have any physical form apart from its location.

Geographic features that include the natural and artificial Waterway (list) – Geography awards Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow Lindbergh. showing her flight route Some awards and competitions in the field of geography: Geography Cup – Gold Medal – .

and culture. Hubbard Medal – National Geographic World Championship – Victoria Medal – Persons influential in geography A geographer is a scientist who studies Earth's physical environment and human habitat. Geographers are historically known for making maps. They study the physical details of the environment and also its effect on human and wildlife ecologies. Geographers . weather and climate patterns. the subdiscipline of geography known as cartography. economics.

Influential physical geographers Alexander Von Humboldt. 20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography. Richard Chorley. .focus on the spatial relationships between these elements. considered to be the founding father of physical geography.

[33][34] Ibn Sina (Avicenna.168) – who compiled Greek and Roman knowledge to produce the book Geographia.[31][32] Ptolemy (c. Eratosthenes (276 – 194 BC) – who made the first known reliable estimation of the Earth's size.[31] He is considered the father of geodesy.90 – c. 980–1037) – whose observations in Kitab Al-Shifa contributed to later formulations of the .bring the systems approach to geography. Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī (973 – 1048 AD) – considered the father of geodesy.

the most accurate world map in pre-modern times.[36] Piri Reis (1465 – c.1165) – who drew the Tabula Rogeriana. Bernhardus Varenius (1622–1650) – Wrote his important work "General Geography" (1650) – first overview of . 1100 – of superposition and concept of uniformitarianism.1554) – whose Piri Reis map is the oldest surviving world map to include the Americas and possibly Antarctica Gerardus Mercator (1512–1594) – an innovative cartographer and originator of the Mercator projection.[35] Muhammad al-Idrisi (Dreses.

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) – father of Russian geography and founded the study of glaciology.the geography. Published Kosmos and founded the study of biogeography. especially in fast ice flow. the foundation of modern geography. Arnold Henry Guyot (1807–1884) – who noted the structure of glaciers and advanced the understanding of glacial motion. Alexander Von Humboldt (1769–1859) – considered the father of modern geography. Louis Agassiz (1807–1873) – the author of a glacial theory which .

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) – founder of modern biogeography and the Wallace line. founder of Geomorphology and developer of the geographical cycle theory. William Morris Davis (1850–1934) – father of American geography. Vasily Dokuchaev (1846–1903) – patriarch of Russian geography and founder of pedology. Wladimir Peter Köppen (1846–1940) – developer of most important climate classification and founder of Paleoclimatology.disputed the notion of a steady-cooling Earth. .

Walther Penck (1888–1923) – proponent of the cycle of erosion and the simultaneous occurrence of uplift and denudation. most notably the Bretz (Missoula) floods. . Robert E. Horton (1875–1945) – founder of modern hydrology and concepts such as infiltration capacity and overland flow. Sir Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922) – Antarctic explorer during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. J Harlen Bretz (1882–1981) – pioneer of research into the shaping of landscapes by catastrophic floods.

instrumental in the use of oxygen-isotope dating and co-identifier of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Hans Oeschger (1927–1998) – palaeoclimatologist and pioneer in ice core research. co-identifier of Dansgaard-Orschger events. Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937–2006) – who demonstrated that oscillations in climate over the past few million . Richard Chorley (1927–2002) – a key contributor to the quantitative revolution and the use of systems theory in geography.Willi Dansgaard (born 1922) – palaeoclimatologist and quaternary scientist.

Influential human geographers Sketch of Carl Ritter . Stefan Rahmstorf (born 1960) – professor of abrupt climate changes and author on theories of thermohaline dynamics. years could be correlated with variations in the orbital and positional relationship between the Earth and the Sun.

Paul Vidal de la Blache David Harvey Carl Ritter (1779–1859) – considered to be one of the founding fathers of modern geography and first chair in geography at the Humboldt University .

invented the term Lebensraum Paul Vidal de la Blache (1845–1918) – founder of the French School of geopolitics and possibilism.of Berlin. along with the Geographical Association. . Friedrich Ratzel (1844–1904) – environmental determinist. also noted for his use of organic analogy in his works. co-founder of the London School of Economics. Sauer (1889–1975) – critic of environmental determinism and proponent of cultural ecology. Carl O. Sir Halford John Mackinder (1861– 1947) – author of The Geographical Pivot of History.

Torsten Hägerstrand (1916–2004) – critic of the quantitative revolution and regional science. Tobler (born 1930) – developer of the First law of . noted figure in critical geography. Waldo R. one of the most important geographers in South America. Milton Santos (1926–2001) winner of the Vautrin Lud prize in 1994.Walter Christaller (1893–1969) – economic geographer and developer of the central place theory. Richard Hartshorne (1899–1992) – scholar of the history and philosophy of geography.

David Harvey (born 1935) – world's most cited academic geographer and winner of the Lauréat Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud. Professor of geography at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. Yi-Fu Tuan (born 1930) A Chinese- American geographer. Known for recognizing inequality with marginalized groups including women and Māori using geography. . Evelyn Stokes (1936–2005). also noted for his work in critical geography and critique of global capitalism.geography.

Allen J. agglomeration theory. Doreen Massey (born 1944) – key scholar in the space and places of . along with coining the terms synekism and postmetropolis. planning and governance. global city- regions and the cultural economy. author of numerous books and papers on economic and urban geography. new industrial spaces. Edward Soja (born 1941) – noted for his work on regional development. known for his work on regional development. Scott (born 1938) – winner of Vautrin Lud Prize in 2003 and the Anders Retzius Gold medal 2009.

Cindi Katz (born 1954) – who writes on social reproduction and the production . Berkeley Nigel Thrift (born 1949) – developer of non-representational theory. and UK actions in the Middle East after 9/11. Class of 1963 Professor of Geography and Development Studies. winner of the Vautrin Lud Prize. influenced by Edward Said and has contributed work on imagined geographies.globalization and its pluralities.S. Derek Gregory (born 1951) – famous for writing on the Israeli. University of California. U. Michael Watts.

Gillian Rose (born 1962) – most famous for her critique: Feminism & Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge (1993) – which was one of the first moves towards a development of feminist geography. place and nature. of space. everyday life and security. Writing on children's geographies. Geography educational frameworks Educational frameworks upon which primary and secondary school curricula for geography are based upon include: Five themes of geography[37] – .

The World in spatial terms 2. Region – The six "essential elements" identified by the Geography Education Standards Project. Human-environment interaction – 4.[38] under which the National Geography Standards they developed are organized:[39][40] 1. Place – 3. Physical systems . movement – 5. 2. 1. Places and regions 3. Location – a position or point that something occupies on the Earth's surface.

Environment and society 6. Environment and society 3. 4.): 1. Space and place 2.S. Spatial dynamics and connections See also Association of American Geographers Canadian Association of Geographers Gazetteer Geographer Geographical renaming . The uses of geography The three content areas of geography from the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress[41] (U. Human systems 5.

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4. Archived from the . Fundamentals of Physical Geography.ufl. "1(b).prn. Elements of Geography" . 2nd Edition.pdf 5. by Pidwirny.clas. Alastair What is Geography? London. Retrieved 2009-04-17. "Online Etymology Dictionary" . AAG Career Guide: Jobs in Geography and related Geographical Sciences. http://web. Sage. "What is geography?" .2. Physicalgeography. 2008 3. 6. Retrieved 2009-04-17. Bonnett. 2006 ture_2. Association of American Geographers.

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P. Timothy M.35. p. pp. (2010-01-01). ISBN 9781438128597. 461-2: The compilation of Edrisi marks an era in the history of science. Scott (1904) – History of the Moorish Empire. Infobase Publishing. Kusky. 36. but its descriptions of many parts of the earth are still authoritative. Katherine E.. Encyclopedia of Earth and Space Science . S. 817. Not only is its historical information most interesting and valuable. For three centuries geographers copied his maps without . Cullen.

. and their number is the same. Joint Committee on Geographic Education of the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers. 1984. Guidelines for Geographic Education— Elementary and Secondary Schools. alteration. as delineated in his work. 37. The relative posi tion of the lakes which form the Nile. does not differ greatly from that established by Baker and Stanley more than seven hundred years afterwards.

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Kelowna. (2014). Michael. and Spatial Dynamics and Connections. and uses three content areas for assessing the outcomes of geography education. competent and productive 21st century citizens. Canada. External links Pidwirny. Planet Earth Publishing. . These content areas are Space and Place. Glossary of Terms for Physical Geography. Environment and Society.

0 unless otherwise noted. ISBN 9780987702906.wikipedia. Michael. Available on Google Play .php? title=Outline_of_geography&oldid=805074578" Last edited 2 months ago by an an… Content is available under CC BY-SA 3. Canada. ISBN 9780987702944. Kelowna. Planet Earth Publishing. Available on Google Play .org/w/index. Retrieved from "https://en. (2014). Pidwirny. Understanding Physical Geography. .