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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

Vol. 11 No. 2
December 2017

EDITURA UNIVERSITARĂ
Bucureşti

Foreword
Welcome to the Journal of Information Systems & Operations
Management (ISSN 1843-4711; IDB indexation: ProQuest, REPEC,
EBSCO, COPERNICUS). This journal is an open access journal
published two times a year by the Romanian-American University.
The published articles focus on IT&C and belong to national and
international researchers, professors who want to share their results of
research, to share ideas, to speak about their expertise and Ph.D.
students who want to improve their knowledge, to present their
emerging doctoral research.
Being a challenging and a favorable medium for scientific discussions,
all the issues of the journal contain articles dealing with current issues
from computer science, economics, management, IT&C, etc.
Furthermore, JISOM encourages the cross-disciplinary research of
national and international researchers and welcomes the contributions
which give a special “touch and flavor” to the mentioned fields. Each
article undergoes a double-blind review from an internationally and
nationally recognized pool of reviewers.
JISOM thanks all the authors who contributed to this journal by
submitting their work to be published, and also thanks to all reviewers
who helped and spared their valuable time in reviewing and evaluating
the manuscripts.
Last but not least, JISOM aims at being one of the distinguished
journals in the mentioned fields.
Looking forward to receiving your contributions,
Best Wishes
Virgil Chichernea, Ph.D.
Editor-in-Chief

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

GENERAL MANAGER
Professor Ovidiu Folcut

EDITOR IN CHIEF
Professor Virgil Chichernea

MANAGING EDITORS
Professor George Carutasu
Lecturer Gabriel Eugen Garais

EDITORIAL BOARD

Academician Gheorghe Păun Romanian Academy
Academician Mircea Stelian Petrescu Romanian Academy
Professor Eduard Radaceanu Romanian Technical Academy
Professor Pauline Cushman James Madison University, U.S.A.
Professor Ramon Mata-Toledo James Madison University, U.S.A.
Professor Allan Berg University of Dallas, U.S.A.
Professor Kent Zimmerman James Madison University, U.S.A.
Professor Traian Muntean Universite Aix–Marseille II, FRANCE
Associate. Professor Susan Kruc James Madison University, U.S.A.
Associate Professor Mihaela Paun Louisiana Tech University, U.S.A.
Professor Cornelia Botezatu Romanian-American University
Professor Ion Ivan Academy of Economic Studies
Professor Radu Şerban Academy of Economic Studies
Professor Ion Smeureanu Academy of Economic Studies
Professor Floarea Năstase Academy of Economic Studies
Professor Sergiu Iliescu University “Politehnica” Bucharest
Professor Victor Patriciu National Technical Defence University
Professor Lucia Rusu University “Babes-Bolyai” Cluj Napoca
Associate Professor Sanda Micula University “Babes-Bolyai” Cluj Napoca
Associate Professor Ion Bucur University “Politehnica” Bucharest
Professor Costin Boiangiu University “Politehnica” Bucharest
Associate Professor Irina Fagarasanu University “Politehnica” Bucharest
Professor Viorel Marinescu Technical Civil Engineering Bucharest
Associate Professor George Carutasu Romanian-American University
Associate Professor Cristina Coculescu Romanian-American University
Associate Professor Daniela Crisan Romanian-American University
Associate Professor Alexandru Tabusca Romanian-American University
Associate Professor Alexandru Pirjan Romanian-American University
Lecturer Gabriel Eugen Garais Romanian-American University

Senior Staff Text Processing:
Lecturer Justina Lavinia Stănică Romanian-American University
Lecturer Mariana Coancă Romanian-American University
PhD. student Dragos-Paul Pop Academy of Economic Studies

PhD Professor Phone +4-0729-140815 | +4-021-2029513 E-mail chichernea.ro vchichernea@gmail.RAU. Item Value 1 Category 2010 (by CNCSIS) B+ 2 CNCSIS Code 844 JOURNAL OF INFORMATION 3 Complete title / IDB title SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 4 ISSN (print and/or electronic) 1843-4711 5 Frequency SEMESTRIAL Journal website (direct link to journal 6 JISOM. JISOM journal details 2017 No.rau.virgil@profesor.RO section) PROQUEST EBSCO IDB indexation (direct link to journal 7 section / search interface) REPEC GALE Cengage Learning Contact First name and last name Virgil CHICHERNEA.com ISSN: 1843-4711 .

305 Dimitrios Kallivokas MOTZKIN IN LINEAR PROGRAMMING Oana Mihaela Văcaru THE STATE AND DYNAMICS OF ECOECONOMY IN 310 Cristina Teodora Bălăceanu ROMANIA. 11 No. 2 CONTENTS Costin-Anton Boiangiu MRC – THE PROPOSED DOCUMENT IMAGE 219 Luiza Grigoraş COMPRESSION SCHEME Goran Ćorluka SEASONAL CONCENTRATION OF TOURISM 232 Ana Vukušić IN CROATIA Sanda Micula APPLICATIONS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS 243 Rodica Sobolu OF MARKOV CHAINS Paz San Segundo Manuel THE DIGITAL UNIVERSITY: INFORMATION 254 SECURITY AND TRANSPARENCY Iuliana Andreea Sicaru A SURVEY ON AUGMENTED REALITY 263 Ciprian Gabriel Ciocianu Costin-Anton Boiangiu Alexandra M. REMARKS AND PERSPECTIVES Mihaela Gruiescu Stefan Prajica UNIVERSE SIMULATOR 318 Costin-Anton Boiangiu Mariana Coancă FEATURES OF SMART LEARNING 328 Alin Zamfiroiu BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MOBILE WEB 338 Carmen Rotună APPLICATIONS AUTHENTICATED USERS Catalin Ispas AN IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME BASED ON 350 Costin-Anton Boiangiu LAPLACIAN PYRAMIDS Camelia Slave USING SOFTWARE PACKAGES TO ANALYZE THE 359 Mariana Coanca VULNERABILITY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE BUILDING Mihai Alexandru Botezatu INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN 369 Claudiu Pirnau E-GOVERNANCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED Radu Mircea Carp Ciocardia ECONOMY SPECIFIC FACTORS Alexandra Perju-Mitran AGE DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSES TO 385 Andreea-Elisabeta Budacia MARKETING COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES USED IN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS . Corbea (Florea) SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF ROMANIA’S INTRADAY 280 Adina Uţă ENERGY MARKET Dana-Mihaela Petroşanu SOLUTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE 293 Alexandru Pîrjan N-BODY SIMULATION ON THE PASCAL COMPUTE UNIFIED DEVICE ARCHITECTURE Manolis Kritikos THE ELIMINATION METHOD OF FOURIER. I. The Proceedings of Journal ISOM Vol.

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to increase clarity of text against the background. 060042 Bucharest. At first. Resampling Filters. to better suit JPEG/JPEG2000 algorithms. 060042 Bucharest. Romania. The algorithm is applied in YCrCb color space. clusters are composed only of their 1* corresponding author.ro 2 Engineer. In the segmentation stage. which is darker. Document Compression. lower ones for the foreground. Professor PhD Eng. which is lighter. clusters represent groups of pixel values: higher ones for the background. THE PROPOSED COMPRESSION SCHEME Among the aims of developing this MRC-based compression algorithm were the following: to obtain the best compression rate possible. This scheme also uses JPEG2000 for the actual compression of the foreground and background layers and JBIG2 for mask compression. costin. ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. In this case. based on optimal decomposition of an image into overlapping layers. KEYWORDS: MRC. The preprocessing stages ensure the quality and efficiency of the actual compression. From the best ones selected. Additionally.pub. Romania. Image Processing.grigoras@cti. the image is decomposed into the foreground and background layers using a k-means clustering algorithm. to reduce or even eliminate artifacts introduced by digital devices used to obtain the image or image irregularities coming from the page that was scanned (the case of old. specifically 2-means clustering. Image Compression. more than 30 resampling filter functions representing three main filter families (polynomial. as there are two groups of pixels that need to be identified: those pertaining to the foreground and those pertaining to the background. based on an image quality analysis using PSNR and OCR mean text confidence. OCR. enhancing readability and the number of OCR successful character recognitions. several conclusions and recommendations have been derived. in which luminance/luma values are the most important. The steps of the proposed compression scheme are depicted in Fig 1. luiza.pub. based on k-means clustering for image decomposition into layers and on image interpolation and resampling for filling in sparse layers. Data Compression. exponential and windowed-sinc) have been implemented and their effects on this compression scheme analyzed. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MRC – THE PROPOSED DOCUMENT IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME Costin-Anton Boiangiu 1* Luiza Grigoraş 2 ABSTRACT In this part we propose a new MRC compression scheme.boiangiu@cs. The paper at hand continues the work presented by Boiangiu and Grigoraş (2017)..ro 219 . ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. more degraded books).

the segmentation algorithm cannot clearly classify all edge pixels as pertaining to the foreground or to the background layer. 1] . it produces satisfactory results for image decomposition into layers.in normalized RGB space). The algorithm ends after no notable displacement of the centroids is observed or after a maximum number of iterations. Figure 1. The clusters are constructed further on by assigning each pixel color to one of them. the delimiter is moved so that the resulting layer will contain only appropriate pixels. Proposed MRC compression scheme Figure 2. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT centroids. which hinder good compression and produce artifacts on the edges in the resulting image. based on the Euclidean distance from the cluster's centroid. similar for the background layer. the foreground layer will contain pixels from the background. in order to counteract the undesired effects generated by soft transitions of edges from foreground to background. The edge is not sharp. also described by Zaghetto and De Queiroz (2008) and illustrated in Fig 2. and some to the background (B). 0] and respectively [1. Although the algorithm is a simple one. new centroids are calculated as the mean value of all pixels in each cluster and the process is repeated. The mask dissolving step is necessary before using the mask for separating the foreground and background layers from the original image. 0. which are established at Black and White ([0. in the established colorspace. as shown by the “Normal Mask” delimiter. The mask dissolving 220 . Illustration of the smooth transitions problem. a distance which has to be smaller than a pre-established threshold. 1. By dissolving the mask when classifying pixels for foreground or for background. Afterward. In this case. thus some pixels will be classified as belonging to the foreground (F). Therefore.

where MipMapPower represents the actual downsampling factor. information is taken from the newly filled in layer and propagated upward in the same manner. The compression engine uses JPEG2000 compression for the foreground and background layers and JBIG2 compression for the mask layer. The downsampling ratio can be defined as: 1 : MipMapPowe r 2MipMapLev el . This is a non-empty pixel. preserving the original existing information. (2002). the rest of the pixels are copied from the original levels. but with no gaps. thus a complete information derived from the existing one in the image. the ratio between the width or height of adjacent level images. As exemplified by Mukherjee et al. The final image layer to be passed to the specific compressor can be a downsampled one. (2009). For RGB images. i. Pyramid of downsampled and upsampled versions of the original foreground/background layer. that of pixels resolution. until original image resolution is reached back. a new image is obtained. Further on. empty pixels are not taken into account when interpolating. Figure 3. each color channel is resampled individually. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT preprocessing step implies enlarging or shrinking the holes in the foreground or background layer so that no border pixels will be contained. The white pixels indicate holes in the layer. During the upsampling process.. The proposed method for data-filling implies using a simplified version of the single image super-resolution technique proposed by Glasner et al. 221 . only the empty portions of the image have to be filled with information from higher mipmap levels.e. the algorithm may stop at a higher mipmap level. when going upwards. This value is then used to fill in the gaps in the closest mipmap level. Fig 3 schematically describes the process. in order to preserve the existing information. This super-resolution scheme is based on resampling the image: downsampling and upsampling back. A pyramid of images is created by successively downsampling the original image until the most basic level is reached. These algorithms have been chosen because they are quite recent and have been developed with the specific purpose of improving (and even replacing) older compression schemes for continuous-tone images and bi-level images respectively. At this level.

Images used for testing: (a) “Book Page 1”. Quantitative Measurements The purpose of the first case study was to determine the best-suited resampling filters for the proposed MRC compression scheme. (c) “Minstrels”. The best filters were considered to be those which determined the best compression ratio (the smallest final image size). These parameters are the resampling filters. The age of the scanned book pages and the scanning process may produce unwanted artifacts (exemplified below the test images) in the final images. The first case study performs a strictly quantitative. determining the best filters based on the size of the obtained image. stains. objective analysis. (d) “Wedding”. For the results to be relevant. Figure 4. 222 . followed by the mipmap power and downsampling ratios for the foreground and background layers. based on qualitative objective measures (PSNR and OCR confidence). first of all. from which several final conclusions have been derived. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The performances of the proposed MRC codec have been evaluated with regard to machine-printed document images. fading of letter edges or other contours. background noise. A part of the results of this test is exemplified in Fig 5. The second case study performs a finer analysis of these best filters. making automated text recognition harder: the texture of paper. which influence the entire MRC compression process. some containing graphics and also line art (Fig 4). (b) “Book Page 2” . The case studies presented in the following subsections were conducted in order to determine the best parameters for the data-filling stage. JPEG2000 lossless compression was used and the resulting foreground and background layers were kept at original image sizes (mipmap level to return is zero).

having sharpening effects. 223 . and B-Spline.windowed-sinc filters. produce the best results. similar filter performances have been registered. It can be observed that the polynomial filters perform best. an efficient resampling filter would be one that produces a smooth layer. This can be justified by the fact that the Box filter produces large patches of constant color. green . Performances of the Gaussian filter are similar to those of the polynomials. which.polynomial filters. and thus produce poorer results. A similar grouping of filters can be observed in both images. As emphasized in Section 1. Blackman-Harris and Blackman-Nuttal. Filter names are colored as follows: red . At the other extremity are the windowed-sinc filters. the sinc windowed by the Flat-Top function performs best. in this case. Even though simple. The Gaussian filter. diminishing blurring. the results can be easily explained. or worst performance. Image sizes obtained for all tested filters. which sometimes showed average performance. The dimensions obtained and the filters are marked on the axis. (a) “Book Page 1” and (b) “Minstrels”. property requested by JPEG2000 compression. with Mitchell. followed (not closely) by Nuttal. which can be well compressed (even though transitions between these patches may be abrupt) and the Triangle filter produces smooth gradients (Thyssen. Figure 5. 2017). with their excessive blurring. the Notch filter produces very good results. magenta . From the BC family. is advantageous. Robidoux and Catmull-Rom following at some distance. as suggested by their grouping in the left extremity of the graph. The windowed-sinc filters are designed to preserve details in the image. The behavior of the filters from the BC-family can be explained through the fact that they are designed as the best compromise between the level of detail in the image and the number of artifacts. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT For all images and mipmap powers. The exceptions from this category are the Cubic Spline filter with parameter α=-1 and the Box filter. The most blurring polynomial filters perform best.exponential filters. depending on the content of the image. the Cubic Splines. In the light of this statement. comparable to that of Flat-Top windowed-sinc. From this category. the Box and Triangle filters perform quite well.

as follows: Triangle. Several mipmap powers have been tested. Nuttall. PSNR values did not decrease drastically. a power of 5 produces the finest transitions. but isolate patches of color. while powers of 6 and 7 make the foreground more uniform. It has also been observed that PSNR values varied inversely proportional to the foreground mipmap power and directly proportional to the background mipmap power. (b) 5. The Box and Robidoux Sharp filters have been omitted. higher values for mipmap powers have been preferred (5-8) and smaller values (1-2) for mipmap levels to return. For time performance reasons. Qualitative Measurements The purpose of the second study was to further distinguish between performances of the filters for which similar compression ratios have been previously obtained. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT For the second case study. Gaussian. 2007). Blackman-Nuttall. These values do not necessarily produce the same effects for all filters. and the latter has been preferred over them. good qualities for all images have been obtained even for high values. Blackman-Harris. because of their inconsistency between tests. different foreground mipmap powers: (a) 4. The emphasis was on the quality of the image: both PSNR and OCR mean text confidence metrics have been used to evaluate filter performances. Parzen. their influence on the quality of images being illustrated in Fig 6. Foreground outputs for the Notch filter. Cubic_H4_4 have also been omitted because their performances in terms of the size of image and PSNR are almost equivalent to those of Hermite. Mitchell. Flat-Top. a number of 14 filters from all categories have been selected. 224 . each filter has specific best- functioning parameters. In this case. (c) 6. Robidoux. Hermite. Figure 6. Notch. (d) 7. Quadratic. The text confidence was obtained using the Tesseract OCR engine (Smith. ”Book Page 1” image. Cubic_H4_3. The cubic splines Cubic_H4_2. such as 7 or 8. Catmull-Rom. having better time results as well. Cubic B-Spline.

5.5. 4th line .7. 6. 6. various combinations of parameters (mipmap power foreground. 1. mipmap level to return background).original. 1. 8. 2. 1. 2nd line . mipmap level to return foreground. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 7. 3rd line . mipmap power background. Progressive background smoothing of image ”Minstrels” (detail). 2. with corresponding background layer of entire image (below each one): 1st line . 225 . 1. Cubic B-Spline filter.

Evolution of filter performances is shown comparatively. PSNR graphs for images: Top to bottom: “Book Page 1”. “Minstrels”. “Book Page 2”. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 8. “Wedding”. 226 . over several configurations of parameters (in ascending order of compression rate).

“Minstrels”. the selected windowed-sinc filters (the Flat Top filter can be outlined again) and BC-family filters (excepting Notch) have usually registered best results. OCR graphs for images: Top to bottom and left to right: “Book Page 1”. followed by Quadratic and Robidoux. “Book Page 2”. placing itself well among the polynomials. OCR relative performance was rather constant for each filter. For images with many more lines of text ("Book Page 1" and "Book Page 2"). Quadratic. Triangle.. Notch. i. Evolution of filter performances is shown comparatively. Gaussian. PSNR tests results are quite similar for all images and all combinations of mipmap powers. OCR confidence values improved with the smoothing of the background (Fig 7). and Triangle. "Wedding"). For "Wedding" and "Minstrels" images. Also. Gaussian and Flat-Top performances vary especially with the types of images. For "Book Page 1". Mitchell comes to the front as the best and Robidoux places itself quite high as well. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 9. These were chosen as a compromise between all filters. For "Book Page 2". For severe compressions of images "Minstrels" and "Wedding". the windowed-sinc filters (especially Blackman-Nuttall) have comparable performances with the others and even outperform the Notch filter and some of the polynomials. Notch and Cubic B-Spline stood out. Gaussian and Notch filters were constantly the best. Cubic B-Spline. Hermite. OCR confidence tests results are depicted in Fig 9. Catmull-Rom.e. This phenomenon is less obvious in the case of "Book Page 1" and "Book Page 2" images (Blackman-Harris performs best). Cubic B- Spline. the OCR 227 . In some cases ("Book Page 1". The top performers were (constantly) Quadratic. over several configurations of parameters (in ascending order of compression rate). Robidoux. producing good smoothing of foreground and background and ensuring high compression rates and smaller computation time. The graphs of these results are shown in Fig 8. The Flat Top window has constant performances and distinguishes itself as the best (in most cases) from its family of windowed-sinc filters also in terms of PSNR. for all images. Hermite. Mitchell. the increase of mipmap powers and mipmap levels to return.

2 (mipmap power foreground. Constant and good performances for all images have been registered by Hermite. by varying the parameters which influence the data- filling stage: the resampling filters. Emphasis was placed on the data- filling stage. the BC-family and the windowed-sinc filters advanced more on the PSNR scale. mipmap level to return foreground. 8. BC-family filters distinguished themselves. the mipmap powers and the mipmap levels to return. Their performances reflect theoretical predictions and several of them can be recommended for usage. along with Notch and Flat-Top. while others sometimes performed the best and sometimes average or even the worst. as this way a smoother. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT confidences become uniform with high parameter values (high compression rate). Higher values for foreground powers (8- 9) and lower values for background powers (4-5) can also be used. We recommend medium compression rates . Generally. sometimes severe. mipmap level to return background). The rest of the BC-family and the windowed-sinc filters. computation time and quality of the image. 6. Quadratic. polynomial filters are recommended. because they produce the most smoothing of the layers. These filters represent a good compromise between size. 1. Mip-map powers and mipmap levels to return have great influence on the size and quality of the final image. but with high cost of computation time and sometimes poor PSNR and OCR results. This is proven by the increased values of PSNR for high background mipmap powers and higher OCR confidence for increased levels to return. the same filter characteristics will remain valid. along with the Gaussian have shown fluctuations in performances. The performances of the codec have been evaluated in terms of size and quality of the final image and time of compression. The Gaussian filter produces similar blurring. Filter performances vary greatly with the type of content the image has and with the aforementioned parameters. namely Mitchell (graphics and line art images).tested combinations of 5. for MRC compression using JPEG2000. CONCLUSIONS In this part we presented an MRC-based codec which uses a compression scheme based on a simple super-resolution idea for the data-filling of sparse foreground and background layers and JPEG2000 compression for the same layers. 1. We also recommend that the background layer should be at least as heavily compressed as the foreground (by using higher values for mipmap powers and the levels to return). clearer background is obtained for the text which becomes easier to read and to be processed by an OCR. Catmull-Rom (graphics and line art images) and Robidoux (text 228 . This concludes the work described in Paşca (2013). Cubic B-Spline and even Triangle. Triangle and Hermite filters registered good results on all types of images. 2 or 7. all filters registering the same values approximately. mipmap power background. Noise and other artifacts from the original paper or caused by the scanning process are eliminated. With the increase of compression rate. An equilibrium between the values of these parameters is preferable. Some filters registered constant performances in terms of both image size and quality in most cases. of great importance on preparing layers for actual JPEG2000 compression. For medium to high compression rates. For small to medium compression rates.

GA. volume (3653). volume (2). M. 2015). alongside with the choosing of the most appropriate filter function and automatic tuning of parameters involved in the plane-filling method. M. without the usage of the k-means clustering. P.S. L. REFERENCES [1] Bottou. Japan. sparse-smooth decomposition (Minaee et al.44. 229 . determining k based on certain heuristics. D. Electron. by encompassing modern approaches like model-based fitting background information (Minaee and Wang..L. (2009). windowed-sinc filters obtained the best performances. P. Super-Resolution from a Single Image. (2005). In Barni. Atlanta. [3] De Queiroz. J. Hybrid Compression Using Mixed Raster Content. [2] De Queiroz.). Bagon. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT images). Vancouver. Kyoto. M.G. 1106-1117. pp. pp.. [4] De Queiroz. especially Blackman-Harris and Blackman-Nuttall. In Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. Imaging. This will ensure that. Y. R.. (ed. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. Xu. such as cropping the layer so that only the actually useful part is subdued to compression and using MRC header options to specify offsets and regions of constant color. Diploma Thesis. 2005).. Irani. Haffner. R. in order to achieve even better performance. R. LeCun... R.A. In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision.L. The compression scheme can be further improved by implementing more suggestions from the MRC recommendation (ITU-T Recommendation T. (1998). [7] Paşca L. P. On Data Filling Algorithms for MRC Layers. The segmentation algorithm could be modified so that the image is split into more than two layers: k-means clustering with k equal to 3 or 4. pp. Smart Resampling Filters and Super Resolution. Marcel-Dekker. unpublished work (original author name Paşca L.L. Simard. (2013). The Document and Image Compression Handbook. [6] Glasner. Pre-Processing for MRC Layers of Scanned Images. the MRC codec will also benefit from selecting the most suitable plane separation technique. 2015).)... a mathematical study and filter design matching the characteristics of the resampling filter to those of the wavelet filter used in JPEG2000 compression might prove useful. Compressing Compound Documents... In Proceedings of SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing. Canada. Bengio. pp. R. 349-356. (2000). 410-425. actual name Grigoraş L. Howard. [5] De Queiroz. 2013). (1999).L. Y. 586-589. High-Quality Document Image Compression with DjVu. S. U. Also.. pp. (2006). for high compression rates. 3093-3096. 7. Buckeley. Future work will also be conducted on three main directions in order to improve the multi-layer separation technique. Mixed Raster Content (MRC) Model for Compound Image Compression. and morphological-based methods (Mtimet and Amiri.

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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

SEASONAL CONCENTRATION OF TOURISM IN CROATIA

Goran Ćorluka 1*
Ana Vukušić 2

ABSTRACT

The majority of Mediterranean countries is suffering from seasonality. The seasonal
pattern is most expressed in destinations famous for leisure tourism. Croatia is one
established example of sun-and-sea destinations. Tourist activities are increasing,
whereby tourism is growing but not developing, resulting with seasonality of business.
The paper makes evaluations based on secondary data acquired from statistical
publications of The Croatian Ministry of Tourism. Using methodological approaches:
Seasonality ration, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient seasonal concentration is measured.
Extreme seasonal concentration in tourist arrivals and overnights is identified.
Economical, employment, ecological and socio-cultural implications arising from tourism
seasonality are elaborated and proposals for future activities to mitigate seasonal
concentration of tourism are provided. The paper contributes to the seasonality literature
by applying different measurement methods in a holist way and by detailed elaboration of
implications arising from seasonal concentration of tourist activities.

KEYWORDS: Seasonal concentration, tourism, Croatia, seasonality implications

INTRODUCTION

Tourism is one of the leading and fastest growing industries in the world (Volvo, 2010).
The importance of tourism in the world economy is highlighted in the World Travel &
Tourism Council report (WTTC 2017). According to the annual research in 2016 total
contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP was 10.2% of total GDP, the total
contribution of Travel and Tourism to employment was 9,6%, visitor exports generated
USD1,401.5bn (6,6% of total exports), while the contribution of Travel and tourism to
total investment was 4,4%. Tourism is seen as an economic generator, especially in less-
developed countries. Economies are looking for an economic breakthrough through
tourism. The main achievement is the increase in tourist arrivals and overnights, whereby
the tourism industry is growing under uncontrolled conditions. Nowadays we have
examples of countries experiencing a rapid growth of tourist activities and dominantly
relying on tourism as economic activity, experiencing growth rather than development.
Strategic planning is missing and the focus is on tourism expansion instead on tourism
development. The unconstrained increase in tourist activities is resulting with spatial and

1
* corresponding author, PhD, Lecturer, Head of Business Trade Unit, University of Split, Croatia,
Department of Professional Studies, gcorluka@oss.unist.hr
2
Professional assistant, University of Split, Croatia, Department of Professional Studies,
ana.vukusic01@gmail.com

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temporal overuse of tourist facilities. Destinations end up suffering from overutilization in
one part of the year and underutilization in the rest of year. Synonymous for such tourism
development is given in many destinations on the Mediterranean, one example is Croatia.
Croatia is a well-established tourist destination on the Mediterranean famous for beach
tourism. The last two decades tourism became Croatian leading industry. With the
intention to highlight the increase of tourist activities on the territory of Croatia the
comparison of tourist arrivals 2016 to 2005 and 1995 is provided. Number of tourist
arrivals in 2016 was 15.594,157 comparing to 9.995,000 in 2005 and 2.438,000 in 1995,
which is an increase of 56% to 2005 539,65% to 1995 (Ministry of Tourism, Republic of
Croatia, 2015). In the new decade average increase in the annual rate of change in arrivals
is 6,66% and 5,59% in overnights (Ministry of Tourism, Republic of Croatia, 2010-2016),
tourism revenues are also increasing with an average annual rate of change in the
observed period of 4,79% (Croatian National bank, HNB 2010-2016). Without doubt
Croatia is expanding in tourism. Tourism is continuously gaining on importance in the
overall national economic situation. Tourism is a great contributor to the GDP (share of
18,2%), exports (share of 35,1% of visitor exports in total exports), employment (direct
tourism employment share of 6,6% in total employment) and investment (0,92% share of
investments in tourism sector in GDP (Croatian National bank, HNB 2015). The growth
of Croatian tourism is extensive and uncontrolled, with an increased dependence of the
national economy on tourism. Multiplying tourism effects is the set goal, but
sustainability is missing. Today Croatian tourism is internationally established as a sun-
and-sea destination. Tourist activities are concentrated on the coastline within the seven
coastal counties during the summer months.
Table 1. Coastal counties share in total tourist arrivals

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Share of coastal arrivals in total
88,74 88,85 88,66 87,90 87,54 87,21 87,12
arrivals (%)
Source: Author´s calculations based on data obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS)
and “Tourism in figures”, Editions 2010.- 2016., Ministry of Tourism, Republic of Croatia

Table 2. Coastal counties share in total tourist overnights

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Share of coastal arrivals in
total overnights (%)
96,07 96,12 96,11 95,79 95,57 95,38 95,25
Source: Author´s calculations based on data obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS)
and “Tourism in figures”, Editions 2010.- 2016., Ministry of Tourism, Republic of Croatia

According to Table 1 Croatia is facing a high degree of spatial concentration in tourist
arrivals as the share in total arrivals is up to 88,74% in the observed period. Despite the
slight decrease from 88,74% in 2010 to 87,12% the concentration is alarming. The spatial
concentration in tourist arrivals is outperformed in overnights reaching 96,12% in the
observed period. The share of 95,25% tourist overnights in the coastal area in 2016 is
supporting the perception of Croatia as a summer sun and beach tourist destination.
Croatia is beside the spatial concentration facing temporal concentration presented in the

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remainder of the paper. The aim of this paper is to, by comparing methodological
approaches, identify the degree of seasonal concentration in Croatian tourism and to
highlight main implications deriving from extreme temporal concentration of tourism.

METHODOLOGY

Data on arrivals and overnights, for the observed period of six years 2010-2016, was
obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS) and “Tourism in figures”, Editions
2010.- 2016., Ministry of Tourism, Republic of Croatia. In order to calculate seasonal
concentration in tourist arrivals and overnights a combination of measurement methods
including Seasonality ratio, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient were applied to measure
the degree of seasonality and compare the degree of seasonality between years. The
Seasonality ratio is calculated by taking the highest number of visitors and dividing these
by the average number visitors (Yacoumis, 1980). The Seasonality ratio is increasing with
the increase of the degree of seasonal concentration, ranging from 1 to 12. If the number
of visitors is constant over the year, 12 months, the Seasonality ratio will be 1, in case the
number of visitors is concentrated in one month, the Seasonality ratio will be 12. The
Lorenz curve is a graphical illustration of inequality. The Lorenz curve, line of inequality,
is calculated by dividing the monthly numbers of tourist arrivals/overnights with the total
number of tourist arrivals/overnights within a given year, hence the monthly ratios have
been calculated. Further, the monthly ratios have been ranked from low value to high
value and cumulative values of ratios of calculated. The gap between the Lorenz curve
and the line of equality is the inequality gap. A higher slope points out higher seasonal
concentration. The Gini coefficient is the most commonly used measure of inequality
representing the area between the Lorenz curve and the line of equality (Lundtrop, 2001).
The Gini coefficient is ranging from 0 to 1, whereby 0 indicates perfect equality and the
value of 1 indicates full unequal distribution of tourist arrivals by months (Kalamustafa
and Ulma, 2010). The formula used in the calculation of the Gini coefficient is explained
by Lundtrop (2001) G= n = ratio value, xi = ratio order, yi = cumulative
actual ratios in the Lorenz curve. With the increase of Gini coefficient increases the level
of seasonal concentration.

RESULTS

Analysis of seasonal concentration in Croatian tourism started with the application of
Seasonality ratio on collected data (Table 3).

234

57789 73. Republic of Croatia According to the calculated Seasonality ratio Croatia is experiencing extreme seasonal concentration of tourist arrivals and overnights.041895 3.92 times more overnights than the annual average. The ratio indicates a higher concentration in tourist overnights than tourist arrivals.65968 27. August.68146 64.16147 27. January.977242 3.49049 25.916564 ratio Aug/Jan 26. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 total total total total total total total arrivals nights arrivals nights arrivals nights arrivals nights arrivals nights arrivals nights arrivals nights 1 January 107108 303264 108444 275138 119765 310462 107754 277420 124105 311790 143193 362383 155197 394353 2 February 125783 292959 131720 294759 117325 284543 135206 311455 143180 319693 164234 368780 193690 425593 3 March 212840 542570 202780 466786 232981 560273 261242 681147 241823 555711 287506 677798 346753 847986 4 April 470355 1324473 573754 1656647 575333 1632032 548736 1465288 642150 1737616 662418 1749515 653634 1676660 5 May 847641 2979672 792199 2615880 923520 3247770 1037489 3819611 1039816 3319560 1193491 3980684 1218276 4270234 6 June 1325814 6425037 1597348 7794268 1594451 7597318 1667168 7726889 1832442 8708442 1907030 8742000 1909354 8960910 7 July 2747894 17353975 2889885 17810473 2882654 18456016 2915868 18791963 2945798 18401984 3328448 20373298 3914067 22852480 8 August 2856101 19002424 2990657 20233298 3051943 20696087 3346678 21376907 3613735 22499225 3868922 23732640 3985686 25473938 9 September 1122874 6059794 1319949 6852477 1452988 7464083 1454024 7683276 1467872 7840157 1640773 8669315 1878168 9666033 10 October 453963 1372735 501834 1547446 536148 1681016 588361 1798675 658857 1876270 677904 1963488 767087 2275386 11 November 185816 429971 191491 456282 195203 464047 208946 508077 224472 488482 240194 511624 286228 612032 12 December 147927 329505 155616 350821 152849 349816 170004 387106 194166 425018 229210 473790 286017 594247 Average 883676.3 4701365 954639.66222 31.060991 3. Within the observed period.236842 3.227924 3.067061 3.59679 Source: Author´s calculations based on data obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS) and “Tourism in figures”.59 times more overnights than January.13276 4.53873 25.01893 65. 235 .09445 3. which is attributed to the longer period of stay in high season per arrival and correspondingly a higher share of August overnights compared to August arrivals.48276 66..-2016. Seasonality ratio 2010. Editions 2010.232067 4.8 5029523 986263.07 times more arrivals than the annual average and 3. and the lowest tourist arrivals/overnights. Compering the month with the highest tourist arrivals/overnights. enormous uneven proportions are identified.11837 72. despite some slight changes.0585 77. The Seasonality ratio is emphasizing an uneven distribution in tourist activities as can be seen in 2016 August had 3.303127 4..68 times more arrivals than January and 64. the seasonal ratio is constant in arrivals and overnights (Figure 1).2016.95823 3. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Table 3. The unevenly distribution of tourist activities is presented by the August/January ration.66562 62. August achieved 25.05611 29.956988 3. Ministry of Tourism.3 5228622 1036790 5402318 1094035 5540329 1195277 5967110 1299513 6504154 Seasonal ity 3.022906 3.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. The Lorenz curve (Figure 2) shows the distribution of tourist arrivals against the months of year.. Republic of Croatia The analysis continued with the calculation of the Lorenz curve. Ministry of Tourism. compering to tourist arrivals. The Lorenz curve for tourist overnights (Figure 3) is more yield. The share of tourist arrivals in the best performing quarter of year outstrips arrivals in the rest of year. Diagram of seasonality ratio for tourist arrivals and overnights 2010. Source: Author´s calculations based on data obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS) and “Tourism in figures”. pointing out uneven distribution and seasonal concentration. Editions 2010.-2016. The shape of Lorenz curve within the observed period is consisted.2016. 236 . indicating an even higher concentration over tourist overnights in the high tourist season.. pointing out stability of seasonal concentration of tourist activities. Due to the intense concentration of tourist arrivals in the top performing months of year the gap between the line of equality and the Loren curve is high. The unequal distribution of tourist arrivals has yielded the curve.

. As a support to the Lorenz curve. Editions 2010. Gini coefficient of tourist arrivals and overnights Source: Author´s calculations based on data obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS) and “Tourism in figures”. Source: Author´s calculations based on data Source: Author´s calculations based on data obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics obtained from Croatian Bureau of statistics (CBS) and “Tourism in figures”. Lorenz curve for tourist overnights 2010..-2016. Lorenz curve for tourist arrivals Figure 3.. Republic of Croatia 237 . (CBS) and “Tourism in figures”.. 2010. Ministry of Tourism. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 2.2016. Republic of Croatia The last applied measurement method is the Gini coefficient. Tourist overnights have the same intense and are even higher in value compared to arrivals. average value during observed period is 0. Editions 2010.64. Republic of Croatia 2016. Ministry of Tourism. Ministry of Tourism.- 2016. As given in Figure 4 Gini coefficient for tourist arrivals in the observed period is very high reaching a maximum of 0.55. Figure 4. Since the maximum value of Gini coefficient is 1 it can be stated that extreme seasonal concentration is experienced.68 in 2011.. As did the previous measurement methods also does the Gini coefficient indicate constancy over years.-2016. average value during observed period is 0. Gini coefficient is using Lorenz curve data to present the inequality of tourist activities. Editions 2010.

Goulding. 2003. while underuse of accommodation facilities in the off-season period can have disastrous economic effects (Koenig and Bischoff. IMPLICATIONS OF SEASONAL CONCENTRATION Implications of seasonal concentration are resulting due to the overuse of capacities and resources in one part of the year. The phenomenon of seasonality in the tourist industry has a dramatic impact on employment. Acute seasonal concentration of tourism in Croatia is one of the causes for not having branded international investment in tourism sector. Seasonal employment affects the economy. Goeldner and Ritchie. 2010. The Lorenz curve together with the Gini coefficient demonstrate the uneven distribution of tourist arrivals and overnights within the year. which means if the product or service is not sold on the day its value is zero (Cooper et al. Butler. Baum and Morrison. The Seasonality ration points out a disproportionate proportion of tourist arrivals and overnights in the best performing month. employees and local communities. 2001. and the annual average. Literature is classifying implications arising from tourism in four major categories: economical. that are usually scheduled for off-season. Bauman and Morrison. can be named. 2001). 2001). Companies and society should achieve a sufficient level of income in a few hectic weeks of summer in order to ensure coverage of annual fixed costs and success for the full year (Goulding. ecological and socio-cultural implications. The economic implications are mainly related to the off-season period (McEnnif. employment. and therefore is separately considered from the other impacts of seasonality. showing high concentration of tourist activities in one month of year. 2005. while ecological and socio-cultural arise from overutilization in the high season. Furthermore. August. 1994). supporting the construction and related economic activities. excessive utilization is resulting with price increase during the tourist peaks (Cellini and Rizzo. 2004). 2004. showing intensive concentration of tourist activities during the main tourist season with a great share in overall annual tourist activities. Economic implications occur due to excessive use of resources in the high season and underuse of resources in low season (Butler. Commons and Page. Sutcliffe and Sinclair 1980). 1994. the negative implications of seasonal fluctuations in demand are leading to a lack of accommodation in the high season. Commons and Page. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Used methodological approaches identified extreme seasonal concentration in tourist arrivals and overnights. Seasonality and employment in the tourism industry is a well-researched topic in the academic 238 . so products do not have the possibility of storing or redistribution. 1992). The problem of seasonal business operation is particularly pronounced in the tourism industry because tourism product bears the characteristics of intangibility and impermanence. and underuse of capacities and recourses in the other part of year. Seasonality causes loss of profits due to the inefficient use of resources and the constant fear of insufficient use of capacities (Butler. 2005). causing high employment in peak season and reduced employment in off- season. 2005. In the accommodation sector. In an effort to emphasizing the existence of positive economic implications of seasonality name maintenance on buildings or sites. Commons and Page. From the aforesaid arise low return on capital invested what is the main obstacle to the entry of new capital from private investors and lenders in the tourist sector (Cooper et al. Economical and employment implications arise form underutilization in off season. 1994)..

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

literature, but there is still a general lack of theoretical knowledge (Krakover, 2000). The
biggest problem of seasonal employment occurs in the full time recruitment and retention
of employees in destinations marked with seasonality of business (Yacoumis, 1980).
Instability of employment conditioned by seasonal demand for labor caused a significant
decline in the rate of employees in the off-season period, where the workforce is forced to
leave the tourist destination in search of permanent employment, which has negative
economic impacts on the destination (Szívás et al. 2003). The workplace in tourism is
usually considered as temporary jobs with low wages and unpopular working hours,
wherein seasonality makes this kind of work more unstable, so employees are exhausted
in the high season and they are forced to seek alternative sources of income in off season
(Kolomiets, 2010). Murphy (1985) points out that the ratio of staff and skills are minimal,
since less training is provided for the temporary employees. Therefore, it is particularly
difficult to maintain the standards and quality (Baum, 1999). Seasonal work is usually
seen as "less significant" and tends to attract less educated, semi-skilled or unskilled staff.
Seasonality in employment is not always necessarily negative, positive effects are seen in
the employment of students and housewives who are able to be employed only during
certain periods of the year (Koenig and Bischoff, 2005). Seasonal tourism companies are
faced with a number of challenges, contrary to companies that operate continuously
throughout the year, as they require productive and trained staff but also seasonal and
temporary employed. Recruitment and hiring an adequate number of seasonal employees
cause financial cost on training and is a challenge for the human resources department
(Cooper et al. 2005). What makes this issue even more challenging is that such companies
must maintain effective and professional staff and at the same time rely on those less
experienced and less skilled workers. Seasonal workers have less time to adapt to the
working environment but still have to give their best in the peak season. What would be
desirable for these companies is to try to restore the same, already trained workers year
after year and thus reduce training costs, increase the quality of services and thus increase
the usefulness and satisfaction of the consumer. Croatian tourism is over the last few
years facing enormous problems regarding seasonal employment. Despite government
activities the problem couldn’t be overcome and even escalated even more. This challenge
is going to increasingly affect the tourism economy in Croatia. On the other hand,
workers benefit because they return to the same job, season after season, and are already
familiar with the environment and the workplace and therefore stress is minimized.
Consequently, the return of seasonal workers in the same workplace is mutually beneficial
for both the employee and the employer (Kolomiets, 2010).
Hartmann (1986) highlights that it would be wrong to evaluate tourism seasonality only in
economic conditions, and to separate the regional tourism services system from their
social environment and ecological base. Environmental implications are largely
synonymous with the negative effects arising through the concentration of visitors during
the peak season in the tourist destination. This includes, for example, congestion of rural
areas, disruption of wildlife, waste water production, noise, pollution, depletion of natural
resources, etc. (Chung, 2009; Bender, Schumacher and Stein, 2005). Manning and Powers
(1984) highlights the vulnerability of the ecological carrying capacity of the excessive
concentration of tourist demand in the area. Articulate pressure on the often fragile
environment, caused by overcrowding and over-utilization during the summer, is cited as
the main problem of environmental protection (Butler, 1994), and as one of the causes of

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unsustainable tourism development. Although in long term raises the belief that
seasonality is positive for the environment, according exclusively high use during the
season, and not scattered all year round use of natural resources, providing rest and time
for renewal during the off-season period (Higham and Hinch, 2002; Butler, 1994;
Hartmann, 1986), but under question is the degree of overuse during the peak season
period as it might cause damages which are not renewable. High-rise seasonal
concentration is endangering protected areas in Croatia. Natural carrying capacity level is
on topic, having set limitations of daily visitors in protected areas, as it is the case in
National Park Krka Waterfalls.
Socio-cultural implications of seasonal variations do not only reflect on the local
community but also on the visitors (Koenig and Bischoff, 2005). Studies dealing with this
issue put the focus on the local community. The negative socio-cultural impacts on local
community are crowds on the streets, traffic jams and lack of parking spaces, increasing
population during the summer, waiting for various services, growth in prices of social
services, increasing crime, overloaded infrastructure and so on (Chung, 2009 ; Bischof
and Koenig, 2005; Allcock, 1989; Murphy, 1985). Manning and Powers (1984) highlight
the vulnerability of the social carrying capacity due to the excessive concentration of
tourist demand in the area. The positive socio-cultural impact of tourism seasonality is the
ability of local community, during the off-season, to fully enjoy their environment, and to
have the ability to relax from the stress and strain and to revitalize and renew (Higham
and Hinch, 2002; Butler, 1994; Hartmann, 1986; Murphy, 1985). The high concentration
of tourist activity during peak tourist season has also negative implications on the tourist
demand, which has been neglected by researchers. The satisfaction of tourists may be
reduced due to overcrowded tourist attractions, the lack of tourist facilities, insufficient
quality of services, payment of high prices in the peak season, conversely in the off-
season period numerous facilities are out of order (Young, 2004; Commons Page 2001;
Krakover, 2000; Butler, 1994). Croatia is planning, regarding the socio-cultural carrying
capacity to apply limitation of number of daily visitors in protected cultural heritage
centres, for example Dubrovnik.

DISSCUSION AND CONCLUSION

Most tourist destinations experience seasonal patterns of tourist visitation (Jang 2004).
Spatial and temporal concentration in tourist activities is not a particular characteristic of
a single destination or country, it is experienced in almost all destinations and countries in
the world. Croatia, as a Mediterranean destination, attracting mostly motivated by leisure
sun and sea tourism is experiencing pronounced seasonal concentration of tourist
activities. As presented, seasonal concentration of tourism in Croatia is extreme high.
Croatia is seen as one of the world’s most seasonal affected destinations, having in 2016
August 3,07 times more arrivals than the annual average and 3,92 times more overnights
than the annual average, with a Gini coefficient of 0,52 for tourist arrivals and 0,63 for
tourist overnights. As a result of enormous seasonal concentration implications affecting
the economy, employment, ecology and socio-cultural community are arising. Croatia is
suffering from tourism seasonality and seeking for solutions to combat or mitigate the
seasonal pattern of tourism. Croatian tourism will be challenged to expand the high
season, attract visitor in the off season and to make tourism more sustainable. Activities

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which have to be undertaken include promotion of diversity of Croatian as a tourist
destination, proactive destination management, adaptation of tourist supply to demand
needs in off season period, increasing accessibility of destinations. Croatia has to turn to
new market segments and diversify the destination product. Despite the activities
provided by the Ministry of tourism and the Croatian national tourist board, results are
missing. The public and private sector have to be involved to alleviate the implications
arising from emerging to seasonal concentration and to manage to, at least, extend the
season, as higher goal might be to unrealistic at the moment.

LITERATURE

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[4] Butler, R., (1994), Seasonality in Tourism: Issues and Problems, In: Seaton, A.V.
(ed), Tourism: The state of Art, p. 332-339.
[5] Cellini, R., Rizzo, G., (2010), Private and Public Incentive to Reduce Seasonality: a
Simple Theoretical Model, University of Catania, Faculty of Economics & DEMQ,
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[6] Chung, J. Y., (2009), Seasonality in Tourism: A Review, e-Review of Tourism
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Regions: The Case of Northland, New Zealand, u Baum T., Lundtrop, S.,
Seasonality in tourism, Pergamon, Amsterdam, str. 153-172. doi:
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(1992). (2004). 31. 67–88. Applied Economics. 23. (1985).1108/14502191011065509 [15] Koenig..2012. str. Sinclair. [22] Murphy.. 374-392. [21] Ministry of Tourism. Peak and off-peak use: Redistributing the outdoor recreation/tourism load. No. str. Travel and Tourism Analyst.org/10.. 5. T. (2010). Tourism. Labour mobility into tourism: attraction and satisfaction. (2010). Vol. and Lundtrop.. Seasonality of Tourism Demand in the European Community. 1.doi. Doi: http://dx.. Tourism: a community approach. str. A. M. str.doi. (2001). doi: http://dx. Vol. (1980). (1980). Italy [26] World Travel & Tourism Council (2017).. J. In Seasonality in tourism. T. M. Vol. Republic of Croatia. Seasonality in Tourism Employment Case: Grecotel Kos Imperial.org/10. Vol. Greece. (2002). Vol. L. Journal of Travel Research. R. New York [23] Sutcliffe. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [13] Higham.. Riley. Methuen. International Journal of Tourism Management. Powers.. Airey. sport and season: the challenges and potential for overcoming seasonality in the sport and tourism sector.doi. Imatra Degree Programme in Tourism Bachelor of Hospitality Management. E. Universita di Palermo. 461-471. 30. Seasonality in Sicilian tourism demand. str. Partitioning Seasonal Employment in the Hospitality Industry... The Measurement of Seasonality within the Tourist Industry: An Application to Tourist Arrivals in Spain. doi: http://dx. (1984). (2000). No. 2. Hinch. Ulama. K.doi. Tourism Management. [25] Volo. J. J. 84-98. Travel and tourism economic impact 2017 [27] Yacoumis. 23. No. “Analyzing Seasonality in Welsh Room Occupancy Data”. 175-185. [20] McEnnif.1016/S0261- 5177(99)00101-6 [18] Lundtrop. S.1016/S0261- 5177(01)00046-2 [14] Karamustafa. doi: http://dx. Dipartimento di Metodi Quantitativi per le Scienze Umane. Annals of Tourism Research. EuroMed Journal of Business. P. No.. S. E. E. S. 429–441 [24] Szivas. 25-31.2016. N. Tackling seasonality: the case of Sri Lanka. Imatra [17] Krakover.. (2003). 21. doi: http://dx. E. Bischoff. Measuring tourism seasonality. 1. Tourism in figures. C. pp. Tourism Management. Vol.1016/0143-2516(80)90031-6 242 . Vol. 23-50. A. S. 64-76... E. 191- 214.org/10. 4. 12. str. S. D.12. Kos.org/10. 2. Measuring the seasonality in tourism with the comparison of different methods. 3.002 [16] Kolomiets. Vol.doi. Editions 2010. (2010). Baum.ijhm.. Annals of Tourism Research. Oxford: Pergamon [19] Manning. str.1016/j.org/10. Saima University of Applied Sciences Tourism and Hospitality.

We describe the use of Monte Carlo methods for estimating probabilities and other characteristics relating to Markov chains. stochastic processes. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF MARKOV CHAINS Sanda Micula 1 Rodica Sobolu 2* ABSTRACT In this paper we discuss Markov chains. 65C05. 65C60. Markov chains have many applications as statistical models of real-world problems. rodica. Monte Carlo methods are used to perform many simulations using random numbers and probability to get an approximation of the answer to a problem which is otherwise too complicated to solve analytically. population growths and other applications in Bayesian Statistics. expected values and other distribution characteristics. Such methods use approximations which rely on “long run” simulations. MATLAB. 60J10.ro 2* corresponding author. storage systems.ubbcluj. smicula@math. University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. Monte Carlo methods. Cluj-Napoca. applications and algorithms for computer simulations in MATLAB. Department of Land Measurements and Exact Sciences. Romania. meaning that one can make predictions for the future of the process based solely on its present state. Babes-Bolyai University. AMS Subject Classification: 60E05. 1 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.sobolu@usamvcluj. such as counting processes. The paper concludes with some interesting applications. 1. INTRODUCTION In probability theory and related fields.ro 243 . KEYWORDS: Markov chains. queuing systems. is a stochastic process that satisfies the “memorylessness” property. a Markov process (named after the Russian mathematician Andrey Markov). theoretical results. computer simulations. independently from its history. A Markov chain is a Markov process that has a discrete state space. Romania. exchange rates of currencies. Monte Carlo methods can be used for (but are not restricted to) computation of probabilities. Cluj-Napoca. based on computer random number generators. 60G99.

Binomial distribution . with pdf (1.1. (1. then X is a discrete random variable.2) It is used to model “success/failure” (i. 244 . Let S be the sample space of some experiment. it is a continuous random variable. with pdf . since many distributions are described in such terms.1) Of the discrete probability laws.e. a Bernoulli trial). and the corresponding probabilities with which each value is taken. we recall two of the most widely used. an array that contains all its values . i.2. (1. Preliminaries We recall a few notions from Probability Theory that will be needed later. If is at most countable in . Consider a series of n Bernoulli trials with probability of success p in every trial ( ). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 1. Let P be a probability mapping (see [4]). Let X be the number of successes that occur in the n trials. The conditional probability of A. Definition 1. given B.e.3) Note that a Binomial variable is the sum of n independent variables and Let us also recall the notion of conditional probability and related properties. with parameter This is the simplest of distributions. A random variable is a function for which P (X ≤ x) exists. then a better way of describing it is to give its probability distribution function (pdf) or probability mass function (pmf). Let A and B be two events with . Bernoulli distribution Bern(p). with parameters . the set of all possible outcomes of that experiment (called elementary events and denoted by ).1. otherwise. for all x . is defined as The next result is known as the total probability rule. If X is a discrete random variable. Then X has a Binomial distribution. Definition 1.

stock prices. Transition Probability Matrix Definition 2. A stochastic process is Markov if for any times and any sets . Definition 2. Let E be any event and B any event with . CPU usage. It is denoted by or where is time and is an outcome. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Proposition 1.3. whereas if we fix . A stochastic process is called discrete-state if is a discrete random variable for all and continuous-state if is a continuous random variable. Throughout the paper. If is fixed. Then (1. (2.2.1. 2. Markov Processes and Markov Chains. A discrete-state. . we will omit writing e as an argument of a stochastic process (as it is customary when writing random variables).4) 2. Definition 2.e. is the same as the one given only the latest observation. STOCHASTIC PROCESSES AND MARKOV CHAINS Random variables describe random phenomena at a particular moment of time. is a function of time.1) What this means is that the conditional distribution of given observations of the process at several moments in the past. i. so we denote the states by 1. To simplify the writing. we use the following notations: Since a Markov chain is a discrete- time process. called a realization or sample path of the process . but many variables change and evolve in time (think air temperatures.4. are an exhaustive collection of events) and ( are mutually exclusive events). …. Definition 2. 2. we can see it as a sequence of random variables where describes the situation at time It is also a discrete-state process.3. currency rates. etc). discrete-time Markov stochastic process is called a Markov chain. stochastic processes are random variables that develop and change in time. Basically. for all Similarly. Let be a partition of . 245 . The values of are called states. n (they may start at 0 or some other value and n may possibly be ).1. a stochastic process is said to be discrete-time if the set is discrete and continuous-time if the set of times is a (possibly unbounded) interval in . A stochastic process is a random variable that also depends on time. then is a random variable.

8) is the h-step transition probability matrix at time t. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Then the random variable has the pdf . in h steps and the matrix (2. Proposition 2. The matrix (2. the probability that the Markov chain moves from state i to state j. Since the states (the values of the random variable ) are the same for each k. The Markov property (2. the conditional probability (2. . A Markov chain is homogeneous if all transition probabilities are independent of time.7) is called h-step transition probability.5.6.6) is called the transition probability matrix at time t.4) We summarize this information in a matrix. Throughout the rest of the paper. let (2. So. at time t.5) is called a transition probability. one only needs the second row to describe the pdf. The conditional probability (2. we will only refer to homogeneous Markov chains (even if not specifically stated so). Similarly.1) can be now written as for all (2. i.e. Let be a Markov chain. it is the probability that the Markov chain transitions from state i to state j.2). (2. Then the following relations hold: for all 246 . .7.2) where . Definition 2.3) denote the vector on the second row of (2. Definition 2.

we use the notation and. We used the fact that state destinations are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. for each we have Again. the sum of all the probabilities on each row is 1. Obviously. so. the first relation in (2. Remark 2. That is because from each state.9) is true for h = 1. in matrices P and . meaning we want . similarly.2. we have for all so . Assume . Let X be a Markov chain. by the previous relation proved.4) for . a Markov chain makes a transition to one and only one state.8.4) for the events . using the total probability rule (1. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT for all (2. is called a steady-state distribution of X. . 247 .9). thus forming a partition. for a vector v. As a consequence. To prove the second relation in (2. For a matrix M. Regular Markov Chains It is sometimes necessary to be able to make long-term forecasts. Definition 2. 2. Since the events form a partition. using (1. we get . Steady-State Distribution. so we need to compute . The vector consisting of the limiting probabilities if it exists.9.9) Proof: The proof of the first relation goes by induction. Such matrices are called stochastic.

it may be easier to try to find the steady-state distribution. As stated earlier.13. i. since π must also be a stochastic matrix. if it exists. 248 . directly. meaning that h-step transitions from any state to any state are possible. the sum of its components must equal 1. When we need to make predictions after a large number of steps. (all the rows of coincide). A Markov chain is called regular if there exists h ≥ 0. without proof. depend only on the pattern of changes. We state the following result. instead of the lengthy computation of . Proposition 2. The steady-state distribution of a homogeneous Markov chain X. If a steady-state distribution exists. That should. rather than “transitioning” to it (from another state).e. only on the transition probability matrix.11. given by Notice that π and do not depend on the initial state Actually. it is just a matter of “reaching” a certain state (from anywhere).10) is an singular linear system (multiplication by a constant on each side leads to infinitely many solutions). such that for all This is saying that at some step h. we get (2. let us notice that Taking the limit as on both sides. 2.12.11) Remark. Definition 2. when such a distribution does exist. Then. Proposition 2. which is really easy to check. indeed. has only non-zero entries. is unique and is the solution of the linear system (2. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT In order to find it. π. in the long run the probabilities of transitioning from any state to a given state are the same. a steady-state distribution may not always exist. 2.10) Notice that the system (2. Any regular Markov chain has a steady-state distribution. then also has a limiting matrix. We will mention (without proof) one case.10. However. 1.

or some of its powers. There is no exit (no transition possible) from state i. (the initial situation) and the pattern of change at each step. Then. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF MARKOV CHAINS AND MONTE CARLO METHODS Monte Carlo methods are a class of computational algorithms that can be applied to a vast range of problems. or simply not feasible. The longer run is simulated. may have some 0 entries. We use the following simple algorithm (see [4]).e. for which has all non-zero entries. Such a state is called an absorbing state. For Markov chains. at each step. 249 .e. it is preferable to estimate them by means of Monte Carlo methods. etc. The transition probability matrix P. If there exists a state i with . where computation of probabilities and other characteristics of interest is too complicated. Once is generated. then that Markov chain cannot be regular. to predict its future behaviour. Let be any discrete random variable. 3. 3. be simulated any number of times and. Regularity of Markov chains does not mean that all should be positive. 1. other distribution characteristics. They are based on computer simulations involving random number generators and are used to make predictions about processes involving random variables. the transition probability matrix P. for all h. Its pdf will be .14. the more accurate the predictions are. Another example of a non-regular chain is that of a periodic Markov chain. i. the generation of a discrete random variable is needed. does not exist. i. 2. The next steps are simulated similarly. and neither does a steady-state distribution. Monte Carlo methods can be used for estimation of probabilities. all that is required is the distribution of . A computer code that replicates a certain phenomenon can be put in a loop. Thus. conclusions about its real life behaviour can then be drawn.e. in this case. based on the outcomes. but there must exist some power h. lengths. we can use any algorithm that simulates an arbitrary discrete distribution. it takes some value (according to its pdf ). Since. at the next step. Many important characteristics of stochastic processes require lengthy complex computations. one for which there exists such that for all Obviously. i. integrals. resource or time consuming. areas. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Remark 2. is a discrete random variable taking the values with probabilities from row i of the matrix P.

1.3. The time set consists of the position of each character in the sequence. let Indeed. 4. X is a homogeneous Markov chain. the probability of transitioning from a vowel or from a consonant at any position in the sequence. 1. has two states. APPLICATIONS Let us consider the following example: An encrypting program generates sequences of letters. then X takes the values and We put Algorithm 3. hence.2. while a consonant is followed by a vowel with probability 0. 2. say X. hence. 1. 1 =“vowel” and 2 =“consonant”. Return to step 3 until a Markov chain of length is generated. Algorithm 3. make predictions for the second and third character. such that a vowel is followed by a consonant with probability 0. Since the prognosis of each character depends only on the previous one. This stochastic process. Let be a Standard Uniform random variable. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Algorithm 3. Given: sample path size (length of Markov chain).4. so it is discrete-state. If . is the same. a Markov chain. it is a Markov process and. Generate from its pdf 3.1 in a loop to generate a Markov chain.1] into the subintervals as follows: 2. 3. 4. Finally. (1) If the first character is a consonant. The initial situation (first character) is 250 . Transition: if generate with using Algorithm 3. so X is also discrete-time.1. Divide the interval [0.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

,

The transition probability matrix is

= .

For the second character, at , the pdf will be

.

So, the second character has 40% chance of being a vowel and 60% chance of being a
consonant. For the third character, the pdf is

.

The third character is a vowel with probability 0.52 and a consonant with probability 0.48.
(2) Suppose now that the first character is a consonant with probability 0.8. What is
the prognosis for the third and the 100th character?
In this case, P is the same, but (i.e. changes.
[0.2 0.8]
and

The 100th character is many steps away, so instead of computing , we find the steady-
state distribution. Notice that P has all nonzero entries, so the Markov chain is regular,
which means a steady-state distribution does exist. We find it by solving the system (2.11),
i.e,

,

with solution and So, in the “long run ”, the pdf of the
situation is

i.e., about 57% of the characters are vowels and around 43% are consonants.
(3) It was found that if more than 15 vowels or more than 12 consonants are
generated in a row, in a sequence of 100 characters, then the code becomes
vulnerable to cracking. Assuming that the first character is a consonant with
probability 0.8, conduct a Monte Carlo study for estimating the probability of the
code becoming vulnerable.
We use Algorithm 3.2 to generate a sample path of length 100, for a large number of
simulations. The MATLAB code is given below.

251

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

% Simulate Markov chain.
clear all
Nm = input(‘ length of sample path = ‘);
N = input(‘ nr. of simulations = ‘)
For j = 1 : N
p = [0.2 0.8]; % initial distr. of vowels/consonants
P = [0.7 0.3; 0.4 0.6]; %trans. prob. matrix
prob(1, :) = p;
for t = 1 : Nm
U = rand;
X(t)=1*(U<p(1))+2*(U>=p(1));
% simulate X(1), … , X(Nm)as Bernoulli variables
prob(t+1, :) = prob(t, :)*P;
p = P(X(t), :); % prepare the distribution for X(t+1);
% its pdf is the (X(t))th row of matrix P
end

i_change = [find(X(1:end-1)~=X(2:end)), Nm];
% find all indices where X changes states
longstr(1) = 1; % find a vector containing the long streak
% of consecutive vowels/consonants
if (i_change(1) ~=1)
% if X does not change state at step 1, the first long streak
begins at the first change of states
longstr(1) = i_change(1);
end

for i = 2 : length(i_change)
longstr(i) = i_change(i) – i_change(i-1);
% find all streaks
end

if(X(1)==1)
vowel = longstr(1:2:end); % find the long streaks of vowels
conson = longstr(2:2:end); % find the long streaks of the consonants
else
vowel = longstr(2:2:end);
conson = longstr(1:2:end);
end

maxv(j) = max(vowel); % longest streak of vowels
maxc(j) = max(conson); % longest streak of consonants
end

fprintf(‘probability of more than 15 vowels in a row is
%1.4f\n’, mean(maxv>15))
fprintf(‘probability of more than 12 consonants in a row is
%1.4f\n’, mean(maxc>12))

After running this code several times, for a sample path of length 100 and for a number of
104 and 105 simulations, it was found that the probability of having more than 12 vowels

252

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

in a row is approximately 0.07, whereas the chance of getting more than 12 consonants
in a row is around 0.04. Based on these results, the encrypting technique can be properly
adjusted.

REFERENCES

[1] C. Andrieu, A. Doucet, R. Holenstein, Particle Markov chain Monte Carlo
methods, J. Royal. Statist. Soc. B. Vol. 72(3), 2010, 269–342.
[2] M. Baron, Probability and Statistics for Computer Scientists, 2nd Edition, CRC
Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2014.
[3] L. Gurvits, J. Ledoux, Markov property for a function of a Markov chain: A linear
algebra approach, Linear Algebra and its Applications, Vol. 404, 2005, 85–117.
[4] D. V. Khmelev, F. J. Tweedie, Using Markov Chains for Identification of Writers,
Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol. 16(4), 2001, 299–307.
[5] T. Liu, Application of Markov Chains to Analyse and Predict the Time Series,
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4(5), 2010, 161–166.
[6] S. Micula, Probability and Statistics for Computational Sciences, Cluj University
Press, 2009.
[7] S. Micula, Statistical Computer Simulations and Monte Carlo Methods, J. of
Information Systems and Operations Management, Vol. 9(2), 2015, 384–394.
[8] J. S. Milton, J. C. Arnold, Introduction to Probability and Statistics: Principles and
Applications for Engineering and the Computing Sciences, 3rd Edition. McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1995.
[9] J. Pan, A. Nagurney, Using Markov chains to model human migration in a
network equilibrium framework, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Vol.
19(11), 1994, 31–39.
[10] http://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/, 2017.

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There are numerous challenges facing universities in the 21st century –they will be required to be digital. open. The digital university was forged in the 20th century. These challenges particularly concern the treatment. where information. information society. The goals of the digital university must be approached from the point of view of respect for individual freedoms and for citizens’ fundamental rights. transparent and crystal-clear. C/ Bravo Murillo. classes and projects are open to society. data. and it has since revolutionised all previously known information systems. and the great functions of teaching. classes and projects are open to society. creation and negotiation of data and information. data security.uned. It has also raised some considerable management challenges. researching. One of the basic aspects of this transformation concerns the data and information owned or generated by the universities themselves. publications. One of the basic aspects of this transformation concerns the data and information owned or generated by the universities themselves. 38 . and training qualified professionals are no longer fundamental decisions that are overridingly linked to the university sphere.es 254 . and it has since revolutionised all previously known information systems. The digital university was forged in the 20th century. data. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT THE DIGITAL UNIVERSITY: INFORMATION SECURITY AND TRANSPARENCY Paz San Segundo Manuel 1* ABSTRACT The digital university has today emerged from its hitherto cloistered existence and become an open.28015 Madrid. in spite of the budgetary constraints to which they have been subjected – sometimes due to the crisis–. and training qualified professionals are no longer fundamental decisions that are overridingly linked to the university sphere. publications. transparency. Head of the Department of Legal Policy for Information Data Protection Officer at the National Distance Education University (UNED). It has also raised some considerable management challenges. 1* corresponding author. transparent and crystal-clear. KEYWORDS: Digital university. Spain. should not remain on the margins of these changes. where information. researching. transparent and crystal-clear. I. The universities. and the great functions of teaching. INTRODUCTION The digital university has today emerged from its hitherto cloistered existence and become an open. but engage fully in training future professionals and taking the lead in achieving the goals of the Information Society. psansegundo@pas. transparency of information.

created by the United States Defence Department. Madrid. the English university is educational. SECURITY AND TRANSPARENCY IN THE DIGITAL UNIVERSITY The digital university holds vast amounts of information and data. whose mission is to educate. 1990. Francisco. which was a technology originally connecting a network of researchers and managers in the field of information access and exchange. Quite the reverse –the University as an institution is closely linked to the sweeping digital revolution and the creation of the global market that has emerged as a result of this far-reaching change. who said “the German university is above all a scientific institution. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT From a historical point of view. on December 2. the creators of these great projects are now seeking to have their own university. as well as being transparent. was divided into one military network –called Milnet– and another civil network known as Internet. the Madrid Polytechnic University. and profitable. among other reasons because universities are not outside the digital market. One of the enterprises worth highlighting is the Singularity University created by Google and NASA. and to significant volumes of quality information. reusable. All these new developments in the information society. 117. 1983. Escritos sobre la Universidad española. 255 . In parallel. II. it came specifically from the University's Data Communications Department in the School of Telecommunications Engineering. when the Arpanet network. secure. Universities hold the key to some of a country's most important personal information databases. this process started on January 1. Managing it all is one of the great challenges facing universities in the future. Espasa Calpe-Colección Austral. and Facebook. the Napoleonic university model that prevailed in some european countries until the 20th century was based on an educational system where one of the primary missions of universities was to train professionals and graduates. In Europe. people accredited by a licence to practice their profession. before becoming a social network for use by the public. as they must ensure that the information is of the utmost quality. began as an Internet-based communications space for students at Harvard University. Chronologically. the interaction between the digital society and the University is evident from the very instant the Internet was created. p. Edición de Teresa Rodríguez de Lecea. Universities have been on the front line in creating the Information Society. inspire and train leaders to apply technologies exponentially in order to tackle some of the major challenges facing Humanity. 1985. The largest projects in this social model have all emerged from universities: Yahoo and Google started in the 1990s as research projects by students at Stanford University. Today the new tools are an integral part of the university fabric. It is significant that the first e-mail ever recorded in Spain was sent from a university. One of the most important aspects in the analysis of the online university is thus the issue of how to manage information and databases. which emerged from the universities themselves. and the Latin one is professional"1. Here it is worth noting the analysis of Giner de los Ríos. This university model has been totally displaced by the online university. accessible. that is. have in turn transformed the very nature of these same institutions. 1 GINER DE LOS RÍOS.

europa. This service involves the use of data by people outside the universities themselves. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The importance of data in today’s society is analysed by Víctor Mayer-Schönberger. 2015. The opinion of the European Union Open Data Portal on this subject is that it has created a “single point of access to a growing range of data from the institutions and other bodies of the European Union”. The challenges and risks of big data therefore call for more effective data protection”2. 4 https://open-data. who notes that “data is to the information society what fuel was to the industrial economy: the critical resource powering the innovations that people rely on. can deliver significant benefits. The challenge is now for the universities that actually possess the data and information to tap into the potential of these products in their own benefit. Another similar aspect worth noting in terms of data management is the permission for their re-utilisation for commercial purposes by the private sector. The concern of the European Data Protection Supervisor about the privacy of data has been analysed in the past by leading legal minds such as the American Supreme Court judge William O. and understand upcoming electoral results. The European Data Protection Supervisor in its decision of November 19. Víktor.. a space where statistical data can be obtained. 1 MAYER-SCHÖNBERGER KENNETH CUKIE. for example. It goes on to say “data are free for you to use and reuse for commercial or non- commercial purposes.) But there are serious concerns about the actual and potential impact of processing of huge amounts of data on the rights and freedoms of individuals. data protection by design and accountability".eu/en/data/ 256 . 2 Executive Summary of the Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor on "Meeting the challenges of big data: a call for transparency. the portal aims to promote their innovative use and unleash their economic potential. French and German on the EDPS website www. Today. 224. almost all universities have a Google Analytics service.. which in some sectors has only just begun. the creativity and productivity that are possible may be stifled”1. Turner Publicaciones S. The importance of data in our society. as underlined by Víctor Mayer. 343 U. 2013. states as follows: “Big data.europa.eu . dissenting opinion). including their right to privacy. Douglas. 2016/C 67/05) Official Journal of the European Union 20-02 2016. By providing easy and free access to data. Universities should be highly sensitive to their databases and the quality information they contain. if done responsibly. Douglas. who decades earlier succinctly declared that "the right to be let alone is indeed the beginning of all freedom"3. Without a rich. p. vibrant supply of data and a robust market for services.S. 467 (1952) (William O. user control. estimate the map of contagion for a disease. can be seen in the important business of managing massive amounts of information –or “Big Data”–. The full text of this opinion can be found in English. It also aims to help foster the transparency and the accountability of the institutions”4.L. thanks to data analysis it is possible to recall medication after analysing mass searches of adverse effects.edps. (. Data mining is one of the big businesses of the future. 3 Public Utilities Commission v. Big data: La revolución de los datos masivos. including the publications and research in their possession. Pollak. 451. Today.

demanding and which requires the participation of (sic) the public authorities”1. secrecy served to define their identity and drive their management. The preface to Act 19/2013 of December 9 on transparency states that “transparency.es/buscar/act.boe. The Spanish legislation on the re-utilisation of public sector information was approved in 2007. In the age of transparency. became known by the term of legal administration lawyers. which amends Constitutional Law 6/1985. of the Judiciary2. when citizens can see how the decisions that affect them are made. The word “secretary” comes from the Latin verb cernere. protected.pdf 257 .php?id=BOE-A-2013-12887. access to public information and good governance. as the best way of ensuring the survival of the institution. of July 21.es/boe/dias/2015/07/22/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-8167. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT According to a study by the European Commission in 2002. the first to cast off the name of secretary in Spain were the legal secretaries. public bodies' data and information “is a potentially rich raw material for new information products and services”. However. 2015. and sees the value of secrecy –of separation– as negative. the online market requires things to be exposed and on display. 1 Act 19/2013 of December 9. Preface. Another largescale European project implemented in Spain was the transparent management of on information and data management in the public sector.000 trillion euros. of July 1 of the Judiciary. meaning to remove or separate. Official State Gazette (July 22 2015). the general secretary and secretaries have this designation. Secrecy is one of the keys to power. 440. Transparency helps ensure control over public activity and dispels what eastern philosophy would call the "thundering silence”. how public funds are handled. and has an economic value which was estimated at that time to be 68. which amends Constitutional Law 6/1985. This law represents a further significant development in managing information in universities. as they are the depositories of the secrets of their post. Only when the actions of the public authorities are submitted to scrutiny. 2 Constitutional Law 7/2015. who on October 1. which is why a large number of important jobs such as the faculty secretary. 2013). p. https://www. Art. 61618. as ordained in Constitutional Law 7/2015 of July 21. access to public information and standards of good governance should be the cornerstones of all political action. paragraph 1. or the criteria used as the basis for the actions of our institutions. will we see the start of a process in which public institutions are called to respond to a society that is critical. and therefore requires the existence of a secret sphere. http://www. of July 1. Transparency is another of the mantras of the online university. If the society of transparency is linked to politics. According to this author. it will gradually bring about what this philosopher calls a “depoliticised space”. there is a certain doctrinal sector which holds that behind the facade of transparency lies an attack on the public sector and on politics in its broadest sense. In traditional universities in the pre-digital age. A secret is something isolated. The preface to this regulation sets forth the re-utilisation of public sector documents for commercial and non-commercial purposes. on transparency. Contemporary philosophers such as Byung- Chul Han claim that politics is a strategic action.boe. Official State Gazette (December 10. and follows the same line as the European Union Open Data Portal.

Invisible. The general consensus of the society of positivity is "Like". to achieve satisfaction we 1 BYUNG-CHUL. It does not harbour negativity that might radically question the political-economic system as it stands. This penitentiary house could be called a Panopticon. Bentham. It is telling that Facebook has consistently refused to introduce a "Dislike" button. Today the physical panopticon has declined in importance. The society of positivity avoids negativity in all forms because negativity makes communications stall"1. Without reference. more rapid. 15ª edición. 258 . Barcelona. in his work Panopticon. online harassment and so on). Ediciones la Piqueta. 22 y 23. then. 3 FOUCAULT. as the digital society has absolute and unprecedented control over individuals without the need for this prisonlike institution. pp. breaking communications. In this order of things. we learn that after accepting their contract. Universities cannot hide from the glare of the Internet. but in case of need. 1989. which expresses its fundamental utility in a single word.. bids and virtual visits from Google.. namely the faculty of seeing at a single glance everything that occurs within”2.L. El Panóptico. identity theft. Herder Editorial. Michel. a design of subtle coercion for a society to come. the social networks. from a schema of exceptional discipline to one of generalised surveillance. false claims. and that in all cases. designed a prison architecture to control individuals. with all the advantages in terms of publicity. with panopticism. in the enclosed institution. Vigilar y castigar. Siglo XXI Editores. If we take the example of Facebook. Han. Universities have become a part of this panopticon. of discipline. Along the same lines. At one extreme. or –if greater– the sum we have paid in the last 12 months. La sociedad de la transparencia. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Byung-Chul expresses this idea as follows: "Transparency is inherently positive. and take their place on the “longest main street in the world”. which the author describes as follows: “A penitentiary house according to the plan I propose should be a circular building. politics deteriorates into a matter of referendum. 36 y 37. the inspector prevails –spirit-like– over all. this spirit may immediately make manifest its real presence. established on the edges of society. 2 BENTHAM. whose cells can all be seen from a central point. pp. and its drawbacks in the shape of possible damages and violations (damage to corporate image. p. S. Foucault studies Bentham’s writings and states as follows: “There are two images.A.”3. the discipline-blockade. 1988. or rather two buildings set one inside the other. For this reason the society of positivity goes hand in hand with the post-political. (…) The whole of this building is like a beehive. as they are indeed exposed so they can be observed and controlled. 2013. Only depoliticised space proves wholly transparent. is the discipline-mechanism: a functional mechanism that must improve the exercise of power by making it lighter. It is blind to what lies outside the system. the searches. the maximum amount that can be claimed in the case of litigation is $100. as Bill Gates defines the Internet. The digital panopticon of today’s society is reinforced by laws regulating information transparency in the public sector. more effective. suspending time. turned inwards towards negative functions: arresting evil. It confirms and optimises only what already exists. Jeremy. 212. On this point it is worth looking more closely at the details of the contracts for signing up to the social networks. Madrid. S. At the other extreme. scams. The movement from one project to the other.

Snowden's leaked documents and information from the US National Security Agency. and they agreed with him. The leaks in this latest scandal include the Pope's private correspondence and its subsequent publication. Another important aspect of the information and data held in universities is their security. INDIRECT. the publication of secret Vatican documents concerning cases of bribery and corruption.000 in damages. EVEN IF WE HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES”1. District Court for the Northern District of California or a state court located in San Mateo County. OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS STATEMENT OR FACEBOOK. and you agree to submit to the personal jurisdiction of such courts for the purpose of litigating all such claims. on February 12 this year. Notable examples include the data published in the press by Wikileaks. The claimant is also suing for payment of €20. cause of action or dispute (claim) you have with us arising out of or relating to this Statement or Facebook exclusively in the U. the so-called Panama papers. which underlines the critical function of data and information 1 https://es-es. Subsequently. Computerised attacks on institutions and the leakage of documents can cause significant damage. When we sign up with the social network we supposedly agree that these courts should have the authority to resolve any possible lawsuits. (…) You will resolve any claim. The contract for signing up to Facebook specifically states the following: “Your privacy is very important to us. SPECIAL. an art lover and painting enthusiast. A reflection of the pressure deriving from this situation is the fact that never before have there been two popes. In response he took the case to the High Court in Paris as he considered the clause to be abusive.com/legal/terms/update 259 . users. and to use it to help you make informed decisions. Facebook judged the image to be pornographic and cancelled his account. The laws of the State of California will govern this Statement.S. one emeritus and the other in active service.facebook. published a photo of Courbet’s painting “The origin of the world”. that they are not “LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY LOST PROFITS OR OTHER CONSEQUENTIAL. without regard to conflict of law provisions”. Then. arguing that Facebook's action constituted an act of censorship that violated his freedom of expression. and Vatileaks. in capital letters. We encourage you to read the Data Policy. Universities have also been subjected to multiple attacks on their servers. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT would need to go to the Courts in the District of Northern California or to a state court in San Mateo County. passwords and websites. in the third section they highlight. A French teacher. the international media organisation that releases leaked documents containing secret and sensitive material of public interest. All these incidents have rocked the Vatican and its power structure. We designed our Data Policy to make important disclosures about how you can use Facebook to share with others and how we collect and can use your content and information. and affected even the upper echelons. Recently this clause accepting the submission of lawsuits to the US courts has been called into question. as well as any claim that might arise between you and us. the Court of Appeal confirmed the competence of the French legal system to judge the American giant Facebook.

Security is an asset and a fundamental principle of university management. p. the University of Pennsylvania. appropriation and transformation of the material available on Internet. Following along the same lines. It has been observed that instant and permanent referendum or voting would reinforce a system of «vertical communication» between citizens and their governors. but is now done with the collaboration of around 100. From this standpoint. Antonio-Enrique.com? Editorial Genisa. This democratic system will enable direct contact with the whole community through vertical relations. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT protection and its impact on the very existence of the institution. thus allowing greater participation and legitimacy for power. The tele-democratic system would lead to the depletion of the content – and ultimately to the abolition– of the intermediate structures and associative relationships between the State and the individual. in which human beings. Another interesting issue for the online university is the practice of what is known as cyberdemocracy in the institution. some authors such as Pérez Luño are now analysing cyberdemocracy as a political system in which control over the individual takes precedence over democratic participation. think and act in important projects outside formal institutions. another point worth mentioning is that frequent use of the technological media may transform the individual into “a glass man”. the theory is that teledemocracy (or democracy at a distance) may be a vehicle for the progressive depersonalisation and political alienation of the citizens. as they look at the processes of creation. This phenomenon is occurring simultaneously with the current crisis in the process of creating contents. become realised.000 volunteers. This increased participation may also have the drawback of destroying all the intermediate fabric over time. which are precisely the elements that reinforce and unite civil society and the fabric of community relationships that conform it”1. and the recent classification of the galaxies –a work which before was the domain of the universities. This author states the following: “There is a suspicion that teledemocracy promotes the vertical structuring of socio- political relationships. Collective intelligence refers to a system where people learn. Intermediate groups would thus be eroded and dissolved (political parties. 260 . unions. Another aspect of the digital market that is certain to have a significant effect on universities is the fact that the information produced in the university sphere will lose some of its impact and supremacy within important research groups. as described in the 1 PÉREZ LUÑO. as the social animals they are. What is known as collective intelligence will move in to occupy the vacuum left by universities. The writings and website of Professor Kenneth Goldsmith are particularly interesting on this point. Examples of this new line of action include Wikipedia. associations or collective civic movements). instead of favouring channels for «horizontal communication». For this reason. January 2004. 85. The emergence of non-creative writing theorists or –what amounts to the same thing– converting appropriation into a creative act is an issue that is currently being studied in one of the leading universities in the world. ¿Ciberciudadaní@ o ciudadaní@.

Edición de Teresa Rodríguez de Lecea. There are numerous challenges facing universities in the 21st century –they will be required to be digital. according to data from Eurostat. 2013.es/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF- 8#q=Bolet%C3%ADn+de+Jurisprudencia+Constitucional. IV Foreign Constitutional Jurisprudence. Big data: La revolución de los datos masivos. should not remain on the margins of these changes. in spite of the budgetary constraints to which they have been subjected –sometimes due to the crisis–. http://www. [3] Executive Summary of the Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor on "Meeting the challenges of big data: a call for transparency. Escritos sobre la Universidad española. Víktor. Espasa Calpe-Colección Austral. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT decision of the German Constitutional Court in the case concerning the opposition to the population Census Law in 19831. creation and negotiation of data and information. Pollak. Preface.eu . Right of personality and human dignity. 467 (1952) (William O. 224. Francisco.L.php?id=BOE-A-2013-12887. 1 Bulletin of Constitutional Jurisprudence. p. REFERENCES [1] Giner De Los Ríos. access to public information and good governance. CONCLUSION Universities must adapt to the information society in order to continue spearheading some of the quality information that is produced in these institutions. it is worth noting that universities.+T ribunal+Constitucional+Alem%C3%A1n. Douglas. transparency.boe. user control. Decision of December 15. 451. 117. but engage fully in training future professionals and taking the lead in achieving the goals of the Information Society. These challenges particularly concern the treatment. The goals of the digital university must be approached from the point of view of respect for individual freedoms and for citizens’ fundamental rights.europa. The full text of this opinion can be found in English. open. [4] Public Utilities Commission v. data protection by design and accountability". 1990.es/buscar/act.google. Madrid. Turner Publicaciones S. Another important function of universities is to participate and collaborate in training the million of new professionals that will be required in the information technology sector in 2020. 2016/C 67/05) Official Journal of the European Union 20-02 2016. https://www. [2] Mayer-Schönberger Kenneth Cukie. Official State Gazette (December 10.edps.+IV+Jurisprudencia+Constitucional+Extranjera.+Sentencia+de+15+de+diciembre+de+1983+Ley+del+Censo+Dere cho+a+la+personalidad+y+dignidad+humana 261 . transparent and crystal-clear. 2013). p. [5] https://open-data. 343 U.europa. French and German on the EDPS website www. paragraph 1.eu/en/data/ [6] Act 19/2013 of December 9. 1983 against the Census Law. on transparency.S. German Constitutional Court. dissenting opinion). III. Finally.

Ediciones la Piqueta. 440. https://www. Barcelona.+IV+Jurisprudencia+Co nstitucional+Extranjera. El Panóptico. 212. [11] https://es-es. p.facebook. pp.A. Jeremy. January 2004. 2013. Decision of December 15. https://www.boe. S. Official State Gazette (July 22 2015).+Tribunal+Constitucional+Alem%C3%A1n. [13] Bulletin of Constitutional Jurisprudence. 85. Art. [10] Foucault. p. Siglo XXI Editores. Han.es/boe/dias/2015/07/22/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-8167. Vigilar y castigar. La sociedad de la transparencia.google. S. ¿Ciberciudadaní@ o ciudadaní@.L. 61618.+Sentencia+de +15+de+diciembre+de+1983+Ley+del+Censo+Derecho+a+la+personalidad+y+dig nidad+humana 262 . 1988. Madrid.es/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF- 8#q=Bolet%C3%ADn+de+Jurisprudencia+Constitucional. 1989. [9] Bentham. Herder Editorial. Antonio-Enrique. 15ª edición. of July 1 of the Judiciary.com/legal/terms/update [12] Pérez Luño. 1983 against the Census Law. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [7] Constitutional Law 7/2015. which amends Constitutional Law 6/1985.com? Editorial Genisa. German Constitutional Court. Michel. IV Foreign Constitutional Jurisprudence. Right of personality and human dignity. p. 36 y 37. pp. 22 y 23.pdf [8] Byung-Chul. of July 21.

”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. We analyze the technical requirements that are addressed in order to provide the user with the best AR experience of his surrounding context. biology.. reputed corporations such as Google. These virtual objects are embedded into the user's world with the help of additional wearable devices. KEYWORDS: Survey. but mostly it provides the user with additional information that he cannot obtain using only his senses. INTRODUCTION Augmented reality is a technique that overlays some form of spatially registered augmentation onto the physical world. ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. mathematics. Sony. IBM. The difference between augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) is that the former is taking use of the real environment and overlays virtual objects onto it.boiangiu@cs. 060042 Bucharest. We also take into account the specificity of certain domains and how AR systems interact with them. HP and many universities have put their efforts to develop it.com 3 Professor PhD Eng. Romania. whereas VR creates a totally artificial environment. and even music. astronomy. ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest.ro 263 . The user can see in real time the world around him. The purpose of this survey is to present the current state-of-the-art in augmented reality. 060042 Bucharest. history. Because AR has the potential to address different problems.com 2 Engineer. In other words. whereas VR completely replaces the real world with a virtual one. composited with virtual objects. 060042 Bucharest. medicine. 1* corresponding author.pub. These big companies are working to develop suitable technologic devices that can accommodate to any of these subjects and that can ultimately impact the user's life. Augmented Reality is suitable for applications in almost every subject. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT A SURVEY ON AUGMENTED REALITY Iuliana Andreea Sicaru 1* Ciprian Gabriel Ciocianu 2 Costin-Anton Boiangiu 3 ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to present the concept of Augmented Reality (AR) and a summary of the approaches used for this technique. chemistry. especially physics. cipriantk@gmail. Augmented Reality is a technique that superimposes 3D virtual objects into the user's environment in real time. Romania. andreeasicaru03@gmail. Engineer. costin. Augmented Reality 1. The motivation for this technology varies from application to application. Romania. AR adds virtual information to the real world.

because it has the ability to support and improve their senses and their efficacy. The input devices are consistent to the application's needs and represent the way the user interacts with the AR environment. such as: head-mounted display (HMD). travels. treats some diseases and even the way he feels the food's smell or flavors. plays. hand held devices. 264 . A study performed by [1] concluded that not only the students' understanding of a lesson increased when using augmented reality. These components are: displays. The sensors are usually MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensors) and they are useful in the tracking process. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT AR also has a big impact in education and it is probable to change the way students will learn in the future. The second part focuses on what hardware and software has been developed for this technology and how it is best put to use and the last part focuses on some of the applications of this technology. but they were also more motivated and engaged into learning more. processors and input devices. The first part of this paper presents what Augmented Reality is and the motivation behind this technology. Display Devices The user can see the virtual world through various display devices. The processor is the one that analyzes the visual field and responds to it according to the AR's application. 2. TECHNOLOGY Hardware The hardware components used for AR are the wearable devices that allow the user to see and interact with the system. It will impact the way the user learns. sensors. Modern mobile devices like smartphones and tablet computers include these elements which makes them suitable for integrated Augmented Reality. The additional 3D virtual information will represent a powerful tool in the user's life. monitors or any optical projection systems. talks. The display offers the user an instant access to the AR environment and it is usually a form of lightweight see-through optical device.

A closed-view head-mounted display. lightweight. (Photo: [2]) The standard Head-Mounted Display (HMD). They are compact devices. is closed-view and it does not allow the user to see the real world directly. It is similar to a helmet. The see-through HMDs allow light to pass through them and in case the power is cut off. but it can also be used in gaming. They usually use one or two small video cameras and the display technology varies from cathode ray tubes (CRT). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. semi-transparent mirrors reflect the computer-generated images into the user's eyes [4]. liquid crystal displays (LCDs) to organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) [3]. engineering and medicine. placed on the forehead and it is mostly used for aviation applications. These closed-view displays use computer-generated imaginary superimposed on the real world view. shown in Figure 1. the user is unable to see. As seen in Figure 2. they act like sunglasses. 265 . monocular or binocular and allow instant access to information either by optical system or video. One disadvantage of these closed-view helmets is that in case the power is cut off.

This technique is used in many applications and many companies such as Sony. The device benefits from a high resolution display that is the equivalent of a 25 inch HD screen. it can take photos up to 5MP and shoot videos using 720p resolution [10]. lightweight and compact that can show additional data and information and enables the user to remain focus on his task. a camera and a display. without taking out too much of his field of view. for a clear and focused image [6]. voice recognition and digital image correlation [8]. 2GB of RAM. Google Glass. Konica Minolta. The waveguide or light-guide technique includes diffraction optics. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 2. is one of the most well-known HUD devices that have a touchpad. available for PHP. a 570 mAh internal battery. go through old photos and events. Epson. This technique is used by Vuzix’s personal display devices (Figure 2) in applications for 3D gaming. Lumus. It also comes with a dual-core processor. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and its own operating system. 266 . The curved combiner diverge light rays for a wider field-of-view (FOV). It is also used by Laster Technologies products that combine the eyewear with interaction functions such as: gesture recognition. polarized optics. the user's eye. shown in Figure 3. manufacturing training and military tactical equipment [7]. have chosen it as a suitable technology for their devices. It was firstly used by pilots to show basic navigation and flight information. etc. holographic. reflective optics and projection. Glass OS. Google provides APIs for Google Glass. The diverged rays need to travel to a single point. Google Glass (Photo: [9]) Head-up display (HUD) is a transparent display. This device allows the user to take pictures. See-through HMD (Photo: [5]) There are two main techniques that exist for see-through HMD: curved combiner and waveguide. Java and Python [11]. Figure 1. 12GB of usable memory. offers information about weather and different news.

they are great to display AR application. Another AR device is the virtual retinal display (VRD). in effect. function as both a camera and a display. one depth camera. The viewer sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front of them. As OS uses Microsoft 10 and it comes with APIs for Visual Studio 2015 and Unity. four microphones and one ambient light sensor [13]. 267 . It comes with four environment understanding cameras. the virtual objects are superimposed in real time onto the phone's display. Because mobile devices are really powerful and can act as small computers. Microsoft Hololens (Photo: [12]) Another HUD device is Microsoft HoloLens. it uses a computer controlled laser light source) except that it also has infinite depth of focus and causes the eye itself to. by way of exact alignment with the eye and resynthesis (in laser light) of rays of light entering the eye. EyeTap. 2 HD 16:9 light engines. also known as Generation-2 Glass. The Generation-4 Glass (Laser EyeTap) is similar to the VRD (i. one 2MP photo/ HD video camera. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 4. Usually. It is Microsoft’s revolutionary AR device and packs some interesting hardware. device that allows the user to interact with the colorful virtual objects. GPS. automatic pupillary distance calibration and holographic resolution. a personal display device under development at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology Laboratory. presented by [14]. Microsoft Hololens uses 32bit architecture processors with a custom built Microsoft Holographic Processing Unit (HPU 1. It has see-through holographic lenses (waveguides).3M total light points. and substitutes synthetic computer-controlled light for each ray of real light.e. processors and other sensors.0) and benefits from 2GB RAM and 64GB of flash memory. 2. with big enough LCD screens. Not only do they offer the display technology. the phone's camera is used to capture the real world and with the help of AR application. project different objects onto the floor and even manufacture objects. as shown in Figure 5. This technology allows for the capture of real world to be directly scanned onto the retina of a viewer's eye. captures rays of light that would otherwise pass through the center of the user's lens. shown in Figure 4. but they also offer cameras.

In [16] it was identified that for AR. Mark Zuckerberg. type on a virtual keyboard and even play games. the tracking devices should be: mechanical. allows users to rearrange the furniture inside a room. virtual objects generated by a computer are merged into the real world image. Another input for the AR environment can be sensing gloves that provides tactile feedback. Input and interaction According to [7]. inertia and/ or optics. These devices have different ranges. the interaction between the user and AR world can obtained by: tangible interfaces. (Photo: [15]) Tracking devices In augmented registration. 268 . collaborative interfaces. The computer needs to have a powerful CPU and great amount of RAM in order to be able to process the images and interact accordingly with the user. ultrasonic. Senso Devices is a company that produces Senso Gloves especially for virtual reality. magnetic sensing. GPS (Global Positioning System). Tangible interfaces allow the user to interact with real world objects. move or hide different pieces of furniture. VOMAR application. developed by [17]. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 5. shown Figure 6. By registration. hybrid interfaces or emerging multimodal interfaces. Augumented reality displayed onto a handheld device. These gloves can use a range of sensors to provide the hand's position or can use vibration motors to simulate different surfaces. resolution. The user's gestures represent intuitive commands and he can select. announced that gloves will be used in the near future to draw. time response and setup that combined can generate different levels of accuracy and precision [7]. CEO of Facebook. tracking devices are used for registration.

The application presented in [19] allows remote videoconferencing and can be integrated in the medical field. Layer. The first stage detects the interest points. This process belongs to the computer vision field and it is mostly based on video tracking methods and algorithms. blob detection. By image registration. where multiple users can access the same patient and discuss the diagnosis and treatment course. ARToolKit. touch. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 6. expressive and easily integrated method that is currently receiving a lot of attention from the research labs. hand gestures or gaze. documents. Software The software used for AR is mostly focused on the application specificity. This enhances teleconferences by sharing between participants the same 3D- windows. There are some software development kits (SDK) for AR offered by Vuforia. Wikitude. Blippar and Meta that enables developers to build their own AR environment. Another method is presented by [21] and it allows the user to interact with the system by gazing or blinking. etc. It is a robust. fiducial markers or optical flow in camera images. It uses real world coordinates offered by the tracking devices and camera images. Hybrid interfaces allow the user to interact with the system through different interaction devices. Multimodal interfaces combine real object with speech. A mixed reality system can be configured for the user's desire and it can adapt accordingly. edge detection or thresholding and/ or other 269 . efficient. Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML) developed within the Open Geospatial Consotium (OGC) is used to create XML from the coordinates in order to obtain the location information. Tactile data glove SensAble's CyberTouch (Photo: [18]) Collaborative interfaces allow multiple users to connect and share the same virtual objects. Usually these methods consist of two parts. display platforms. the captured images are analyzed. A sixth sense wearable gestural interface that allows the user to interact with the projected information onto any uniform surface was proposed in [20]. This step can use feature detection methods like corner detection.

shown in Figure 7. APPLICATIONS AR is a technology suitable for innovative and creative solutions for many problems. Navigation One of the first AR applications and probably the most used one is in navigation. Figure 7. Although some research. Navigation: Wikitude Drive (Photo: [24]) Medical environment In medicine. smell. 3. With the help of GPS data. doctors can use AR to diagnose. If no information about scene geometry is available. Because of this reason. as suggested by [25]. treat and even perform surgery. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions as mentioned by [22]. This endoscopic 270 . nonlinear optimization and robust statistics. geometric algebra. such as [23] considers that AR is limited to the display technology. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be pre-calculated. Some methods assume objects with known geometry are presented in the scene (Vuforia). is an application that uses GPS data and with the help of the user's mobile phone. Kalman and particle filters. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective (epipolar) geometry. structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. AR systems can be developed to apply not only to the sight sense but also to touch. hearing or any combination of them. The user's perception of life can be enhanced by bringing virtual information to his immediate or indirect real surrounding. and rotation representation with exponential map. AR has a wide range of applicability. Wikitude Drive. The second stage restores real world coordinate systems from the data obtained in the first page. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT image processing methods. the selected route is displayed over the image in front of him. an AR system can overlay the best route to get from point A to point B. the doctors can see in 3D the region of interest and can perform image guided surgery. By using endoscopic cameras inside the patient's body.

as shown in Figure 9. flash-cards and charts and wants to present the student with virtual 3D image of the human's skeleton. Figure 9. cardiac surgery and transbronchial biopsy as suggested by [26]. Figure 8. ARnatomy is an application that wants to replace the use of textbooks. AR can be used also in plastic surgery. where the patient can have an intuitive sight of the reconstruction results. The 3D image of a cancer suffering kidney (Photo: [29]) Another practical application of AR in medicine include training and educating doctors in a more immersive manner. AccuVein is another application that projects the circulatory system onto the patient's body in order to make it easier for the nurse to drain blood. This type of augmentation is obtained by using tracking system and a virtual penetrating mirror that can visualize at least one virtual object. as presented in Figure 8. liver surgery. A model of human's organs for a Biology class (Photo: [30]) 271 . [27] and [28]. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT augmentation can be applied in brain surgery.

3D models can appear from a textbook that gives a better perspective over the subject of study. patients suffering from fear of heights can be treated by making them used to walking on virtual glass floor in tower buildings. An example of AR application used for treating arachnophobia (Photo: [31]) Education Besides the already mentioned tools in which a student can learn medicine. there are also other fields that improve the way a person studies. as shown in Figure 10. For example. Figure 11. It can also be treated to cure different phobias. Elements 4D is an application that allows students to trigger chemistry elements into images. Math alive is based on marker cards that trigger some exercises of counting and numeracy skills. addiction or mental health conditions can be treated using different AR environments. anxiety. The same can be done for patients suffering from arachnophobia and they can be put in an environment where they have to get used to spiders. Figure 10. Example of a biology textbook using Augmented Reality (Photo: [32]) 272 . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT AR can also be used in patient's treatment and therapies. Arloon Plants is another application that students can use for biology lessons and they can learn about structures and parts of plants. Patients suffering from depression.

AR can enhance the user's experience. hotels. Most techniques are marker-based in which the user needs to point to the advertising card that will trigger an animation or a presentation of a product. 273 . Pokemon Go is an example of AR app. Lego's offers the possibility to see Lego products by simply scanning some cards from their website. the user can use a mobile phone to project a multimedia presentation about what he is seeing. The teacher can use AR to display different annotation that can help him with his course as presented in [34]. Example of a view with the reconstruction of the Dashuifa's ruins (Photo: [7]) For gaming. a 3D Lego object will appear. as shown in Figure 13. Another application for AR is in advertising and commercial. Wikitude World Browser is an app that overlays information about stores. From cultural apps. Zoombie ShootAR from Metaio is an AR game where the players need to shoot the zombies that are superimposed into the real world through their mobile device. This games was nationwide spread and a lot of users started to compute against each other for the big prize. Once a webcam is put in front of the computer screen. the AR can offer more than the other physical board game by introducing animation and other multimedia objects. in which the player needs to walk as much as possible and look for pokemons. While visiting a museum. Other games are marker-based and with the help of some cards the user can see 3D objects. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT A survey completed by [33] presents the way students can interact with their lessons and also how the teaching methods can improve by using AR. to gaming and many smart-phone apps. as shown in Figure 12. with sightseeing and museum guidance. redefines it digitally and incorporates it into the actual game. Figure 12. scenery and touristic locations in real time. Or as presented by [35] the user can virtually see the reconstruction of ancient ruins and have an intuitive feeling about how the ruins looked back in the time. Piclings is an iOS game in which the iPhone's user takes a picture. Junio Browser is a famous German app in which the user needed to point the smart-phone to the TV and answer a quiz. Entertainment There are a lot of AR applications that exist for entertainment.

AR has applicability also in military field. AR can be used also for battle planning. This 3D object appeared as the user pointed to the marker trigger (Photo: [7]) Military From navigation to combat and simulation. where more soldiers are connected to the same interface and they can see in 3D the plan of the battle and decide the best way to take action. AR was used to offer a better visualization of targets and point of interest in combats. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 13. Afterwards. the two soldiers share the same environment. In the picture. as shown in Figure 14. Example of AR application with the help of Hololens. a map on which they can make battle presumptions (Photo: [36]) 274 . The first head-mounted display gave pilots information about velocity. Figure 14. positioning and other navigation information. Example of a 3D virtual model of MINI car. AR can also offer extra information to the soldiers by using IR (infrared) cameras for night vision or cameras sensible to heat that can show if someone is hidden nearby.

it may be better to control a virtual version of the robot. Example of virtual door lock assembly (Photo: [28]) Robot path planning Teleoperation is the process in which an assembly is controlled from distance. Robot Programming using AR (RPAR) is a form of offline programming that uses a video-tracking method from ARToolKit to eliminate a lot of calibration issues. there are many steps through which it needs to go: planning. AR allows for this to happen and the user can see in real time the results of his manipulations. motion capture. because there might exist long distance communication problems. A survey done by [37] on the AR application in assembly. These virtual manipulations can predict some errors that might appear in reality and improve their performance. A robot can be controlled from long distance and it can execute tasks already programmed. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Assembly and manufacturing In order for a product to come to life. Figure 15. 275 . etc. Boeing used the first AR assembly system for guiding technicians in building the airplane's electrical system. assembly modeling and human-computer interaction were presented by [41]. But. ergonomics assessment. design. as shown in Figure 16. Figure 15 shows an example of a CAD assembly in AR. in which graphical assembly instruction and animation can be shown and [40] wrote about the use of AR in design and manufacturing. Another comprehensive survey was performed by [38] and [39] about the use of augmented reality in manufacturing industry. State-of-the-art methods for developing CAD (computer-aided designs) models from digital data acquisition.

pervasive augmented reality (PAR). [2] Wikipedia. it is expected that all the wearable devices with AR technology will also have a huge impact. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Y. with a specific solution. PAR systems aims for an AR technology that can learn from the user's experience and context and adapt to it. H. vol. 12. So far. Lin and B. The future expectancy of this technology is PAR. pp. 1-14. but taking into account its evolution and its possibilities. Yang. being a continuous AR experience. CONCLUSION Throughout this survey. 276 . Virtual lines that show the planned motion of a robot arm (Photo: [34]) Pervasive Augmented Reality A survey was concluded by [42] about the future goal of augmented reality. without the user's interaction. Hsu. If standard AR was a context-aware experience. But PAR. PAR aims to offer a continuous AR experience to the user. A lot of work was already developed for this method. [Accessed 08 May 2017]. the continuous AR experience and an easy-to-use technology." Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. 1. Available: https:// en. a lot more will be developed in the future years. S.wikipedia. with as little interaction as possible. Also. Just as personal computers and smartphones changed the life of all the users. has some hardware challenges and also of ethics. most of AR applications are developed to address one problem. taking into account both the technology behind it and its applicability. "Impact of augmented reality lessons on students’ STEM interest." [Online]. the AR technology was presented. no. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 16. From the hardware point of view. the collected data needs to be safe to use and respect the privacy of others. the system needs to be able to collect and process a lot of data in real time. in order to offer a reliable solution to whatever the current context and situation might be. 2017.org/ wiki/ Head-mounted_display. for a specific domain. PAR's purpose would be to sense the current context of the user and adapt accordingly. Y. "Head-mounted display.

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namely an increase in both speed and volume of data traded. Intraday market. These changes of focus on the various energy markets offer new opportunities but also new challenges for traders and energy producers entering this new playing field. automated trading systems represent one of the tools used for meeting the challenges and demandes that arise from the situation. but also by attractive earnings potential in the new markets. As such. Bucharest University of Economic Studies. the modeling of the activities on the market through the UML diagrams as well as the operating rules and indices and indicators of market activity analysis. alexandra. As mentioned in [1] a number of factors such as the rapid and massive move in generation to more unpredictable renewable sources. Countries like Germany or the UK have seen an significant increase in the intradaily energy transactions so trade signals can occur rapidly and the volume and velocity of information available to traders can be almost overwhelming. A functioning intraday market will increase the efficiency of the balancing market. the impact of smart grid and smart devices on the demand side and the European Union’s push for a single energy market have all contributed to the rapid rise of the intra-day power markets. Bucharest. Faculty of Cybernetics. renewable production capacity.uta@ie. 1* corresponding author. KEYWORDS: energy markets. adina. Faculty of Cybernetics. Bucharest. Bucharest University of Economic Studies. analysis 1. highlighting the description of the trading mode.ro 2 Professor PhD.ro 280 . INTRODUCTION One of the main focus areas of the current European power trading environment is represented by the short-term markets.ase. Statistics and Economic Informatics. It will allow better deployment of resources if unit commitment can be rescheduled and balancing resources used only when needed. Assistant Professor PhD. the marketing and trading of electricity on these markets rapidly growing in importance. Statistics and Economic Informatics. as mentioned in [2].ase. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF ROMANIA’S INTRADAY ENERGY MARKET Alexandra Maria Ioana Corbea (Florea) 1* Adina Uţă 2 ABSTRACT The article presents a system analysis of Romania’s Intraday energy market. [3] clarifies that this development is driven by legal regulations and the increasing proportion of volatile.florea@ie.

• on the balancing market: balancing in real time supply and demand. one hour). Electricity differs from most of the other goods in that it has to be produced when it is needed because it can not be stored easily. In the wholesale market. namely a system analysis of Romania’s Intraday energy market. takes place in Romania in an organized framework. • on future markets: weeks or years in advance. most electricity transactions involve the supply of electricity at some point in the future. Within the retail market. the participants are producers (generators). • on the intraday market: delivery within a specified time period (e. for the purpose of resale or use for their own consumption. • on the day-ahead market: the next day. transactions can cover different periods of time: • long-term contracts: up to 20 years or more. Depending on the type of contract or market.g. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT challenges that lead directly to additional requirements for IT systems in terms of trade and optimisation. as well as taxes and charges that are sometimes used to support the production of renewable energies.. transmitted and distributed electricity. the actors are the suppliers that offer electricity contracts approved by the competent regulatory authority and the consumers who have the right to choose their supplier. Suppliers differentiate their bids depending on the price or origin of electricity. 2. Suppliers send invoices at the perceived price for delivered. protect more vulnerable consumers or promote other policy objectives. This paper presents a part of the researches on the electricity market in Romania carried out within the "Intelligent system for trading on the wholesale electricity market" (SMARTRADE) project. geographical location (from local offers to wholesale trans-national markets) and customer type (wholesale markets or retail markets that address consumers directly). Therefore. varying in time (from real-time balancing markets to long-term contracts). funded by the National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation through European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). Suppliers buy electricity from producers (generators) and sell it to consumers. The purchase of electricity by suppliers from producers or other suppliers. Energy exchange rates vary according to supply and demand: on the wholesale market. represented by the Wholesale Electricity Market. 281 . Electricity can be traded privately between two parties or can be sold through an energy exchange that brings together more buyers and sellers and offers transparent prices. they may increase at peak demand or may fall to zero or even less in cases of excess supply. electricity suppliers (who may at the same time be producers) as well as large industrial consumers. ELECTRICITY MARKETS Electricity markets operate at different levels.

The offers that fulfill the compatibility condition (purchase price higher or at least equal to the sale price. diminished by the value of the previously entered purchase bids. modify. participants can obtain information on the time horizon for which the transaction is made. Within the Intraday Market. d is the delivery day. selecting from the list of market instruments the instrument created for the time interval and introducing in the system the offer type (buy or sell). positive numbers with a maximum of 3 decimal places) and the proposed price (in Lei. for which there are defined 25 and respectively 23 instruments). he may enter a modified Purchase Offer so that the bid value does not exceed the guarantee. minute (m) and second (s) of the offer entry. SC Opcom SA establishes a unique alphanumeric identification code of the form INThhddmmyy (where h is the delivery time interval. withdraw for further reactivation or cancel submitted bids. with a certain amount of time before delivery or consumption begins [4]. a trading instrument is defined (except for the days when the change of daylight savings time from summer and winter time respectively. Electricity sale or purchase offers are bids (in the case of sale) or orders (in case of purchase) of quantity-price type. ROMANIA’S INTRADAY ENERGY MARKET The Intraday Electricity Market (IM) is a component of the wholesale electricity market where hourly transactions with active electricity are made for each delivery day starting from the day previous to delivery day (after the transaction on the day-ahead market have been concluded) and up. trading can be done for any calendar day at hourly trading intervals in which each market participant (seller or buyer) can submit bids or sales offers for each trading session. once. m is the month and y the year) for each instrument. For each of the 24 hourly delivery times of each day of the year. or lower sale price or at most equal to the purchase price) are automatically linked. During the trading session. positive numbers with a maximum of 2 decimal places). The purpose of this market is to help balance the contracted surplus or power deficit (imbalances that appear due to transactions on the day-ahead market) by selling or buying it. the quantity to be traded (in MWh. The trading process is as follows: the participants enter into the trading system. purchase offers or distinct sales bids consisting of quantity-cost pairs. Participants may enter. Each offer is automatically assigned a unique identification number and a time stamp of the form "hh: mm: ss" specifying the hour (h). an hourly offer may be accepted wholly or partly depending on the market conditions and the conditions of the calculated validation offer. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 2. If a Participant has received a rejection message of the entered Purchase Offer. at the end of the time interval which allows entering / modifying / canceling 282 . Each purchase offer entered into the system will automatically be compared with the validation warranty and will be rejected if the bid value exceeds the value of the validation guarantee for IM. or he may change and/or cancel the Purchase Orders previously entered so as to create the opportunity to enter new purchase offers that meet the guarantee validation condition. diminished by the value of the introduced bidding offer. Within the Trading System. code on the basis of which in the trading system. In the bidding process. for each delivery time interval. as well as the Day / Month / Year of delivery.

Participants may dispute the results confirmed in the Transaction Report published by the trading system. 3. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT bids. Any change to an offer involves automatically canceling the initial offer data and updating the data for the new bid with the time stamp of the change. after which the Registration of participants takes place. both on the sales side and on the purchase side. for which subactivities can easily be identified. At this stage all participants can view the ten best purchase offers as well as the ten best sale offers. In the case of accepted disputes. The amount of the existing guarantee will diminish. The registration process contains the following: • Receiving the registration request submitted to the license holders • Verifying submitted documents. MAIN ACTIVITIES ON THE INTRADAY MARKET A summary of the activity flow is comprised of a series of main steps. if at any given time the guarantee is less than the value of the bid offered. which are marked separately. SC Opcom SA sends the transaction confirmations to the Participants through the trading system. After the trading session ends. The submitted complaints are analyzed and resolved in the sense of accepting or rejecting them. the transaction is deemed assumed. If no appeal has been lodged. iteratively. During this stage the offers are validated in terms of the value of the guarantees. it will be invalidated. Any offer entered into the system may be canceled. sending to license holders additional information and correction of invalidated information • Registration of license holders as participants in IM • Submission by the participants of the bank payment guarantee letter Once the registration process has finished the participants can move on to submitting offers and validating bids: • Entering buy and / or sales bids in the trading system • The possibility of definitive cancellation. The first step in working on the Intraday market is the definition of trading instruments by SC Opcom SA. as well as the position of their own offers within the market. 283 . The correlation process ends when all the quantity of the compatible orders has been traded. the affected transactions will be canceled. with the value of the purchase bids entered and the value of the VAT. keeping the anonymity of the participants who have introduced these offers. modification (ie cancellation of the offer and its registration as a new offer with changed date) or suspension of bids by the Participants • Sorting bids based on price (ascending for sale offers and descending for purchase offers) and time stamp for bids of the same type with the same price • The possibility to view the top ten purchase and /or and sale offers. modified or suspended by the market participant.

of Transaction Confirmations.the VAT amount . the Transaction Confirmations and Physical Notifications of SC Opcom SA become mandatory Once the potential appeals have been resolved.the value of the outstanding payment obligations . 284 . The price at which transactions are concluded is that of the purchase offer (s). The messages exchanged between the participants. after which calculating and issuing the settlement notes and recalculating the available bank guarantees takes place. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT • Validation of offers in terms of collateral value (if the bank guarantee . Once registered the appeals are analysed and a resolution must be reached: • If the appeal has been accepted. the system provides to the Balancing Responsible Parties and transmites to the TSO the physical notifications. both on the sales side and on the purchase side • If there are disputes that can not be resolved by the deadline for settlement of appeals (14:30).the value of the purchase offers valued up to that moment <the value of the purchase offer entered. there is an offer / hourly offer / times of purchase with a price greater than or equal to a bid / hourly offer / times of purchase. • Transmission to the Participants on the IM. whose offers have been invalidated Following the submition of bids by the participants is the correlation of offers and transaction notification. If the participants are unahppy with the results then are allowed to register appeals. This stage consists of: • At the time of opening of this stage if in the Trading System. 1. the offer will be invalidated) • Notification of Participants to IM. we will proceed to the cancellation of the transactions affected by the error. the Trading System will automatically correlate them. the system and the market operator are illustrated in Figure.

• A IM participant may submit bids and offers for each trading period. • Electricity sale / purchase offers are simple quantity-price quotes / orders. 285 . decreasing by price. • Transactions are concluded at the price of response bids to a counter offer existing in the trading system. • The matching algorithm takes into account the criteria for ordering bids submitted by market participants. Sequence diagram for the activity flow on the intraday market As every other component of the wholesale energy market. • The trading time is the hour. • The hourly offer consists of a quantity-price pair and is an offer for a single hourly delivery schedule with the firm price and quantity. the Intraday market must adhere to a set of rules that governs it’s activity. for buy orders or price-ascending. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. • The correlation process will begin with the highest bid and with the order of sale with the lowest price and will continue taking into account the ordering criteria. for sales orders • In the case of orders offering equal prices. The most important ones are: • The trading day is any calendar day. the timestamp of each order is taken into account.

the Participant may take the following actions: to enter a modified bid so that the bid value does not exceed the calculated validated guarantee diminished with the value of the previously entered purchase bids. the hourly offer may be accepted in whole or in part depending on the market conditions and the conditions of the offer. 286 . • At the time of receiving a rejection message for the submitted purchase offer. • The price at which transactions will be finalized as a result of the correlation rules automatically applied by the market’s trading system. is the Use Case Diagram. • Offers that meet the compatibility condition (purchase price higher or at least equal to the sale price. 4. • Purchase offers will be correlated in descending order of the respective bid price. using the UML standardized template [5]. are correlated by an automated process conducted by the trading system. Also we have created a textual description of these use cases. • In the correlation process the trading system of IM complies with sorting rules based on price and time stamp. once at the end of the time period in which it is allowed to enter / modify / cancel bids. • Participants will enter separate bids for each hourly delivery schedule by selecting the instrument created for the desired delivery time interval from the market instrument list. is the price of the purchase bids. as well as a couple of detailed diagrams for the most important identified use cases. or sale price lower or at most equal to the purchase price). In the next section of the paper we have developed the general use case Diagram for the market. the first correlated purchase offer will be one with the highest price. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT • In the automatic process of offers correlation and establishment of transactions by the Trading System of IM. MODELING THE MARKET While analysing the market one of the more useful tools we cand use in order to get a thorough understanding of the functionalities ours system must provide. the first correlated sale offer will be the one with the lowest price. modify and / or cancel purchase orders previously entered so as to create the possibility of introducing new purchase offers that fulfill the validation condition against the value of the validation guarantee. • The correlation process will end when all the quantity of the compatible orders has been traded. • Sales bids will be correlated in ascending order of the respective bid price.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 2. Use Case Diagram for Registration Participants 287 . General Use Case Diagram for IDM Figure 3.

. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Use case element Description Code CU21 Name Registration Participants Status Sketching Scope Registration of participants on the IDM transaction Main actor OPCOM Description OPCOM registers the license holders who submitted a registration request. after checking the documents and the bank guarantee Precondition - Postcondition Transmission of documents Trigger Desire of the IDM Participant to participate in IDM trading on a given date Base flow . Participants submit a bank guarantee of payment Alternative flows If after verification of the documents there are invalidated information. Receipt of registration requests submitted by license holders . Verifying the documents submitted. Registration of license holders as participants in IDM . the license holders will be informed that they will correct and retransmit Relations The trading system Frequency of use Daily Business rules - 288 . Transmission to license holders additional information .

and then the ten best offers for sale and the top ten purchase offers are viewed. offers will be order by the price. Use Case Diagram for Transmitting offers and purchase offers validation Use case element Description Code CU22 Name Transmitting offers and purchase offers validation Status Sketching Scope Inserting offers to purchase and / or sale in the trading system and informing the participants on the best ten offers for sale and the best ten purchase offers Main actor IDM Participant Description Market participants enter the sale / purchase offers (which they can later modify or cancel them). offers will be validated from the point of view of the guarantee and the participants whose offers have been invalidated will be notified Precondition Participants to be registered Postcondition Linking offers Trigger Transmission of buy / sell offers by participants 289 . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 4.

Sorting offers based on price (increasing for sale offers and declining for purchase offers). The trading time is the hour. The trading day is any calendar day. 3. the ordering will also be made according to the time stamp d. The hourly offer consists of a quantity-price pair and is an offer for a single delivery time interval with the firm price and quantity. If the offers are on the same type and have the same price.value of unpaid payment obligations . 7. 4. Participants will enter separate bids for each delivery time interval by selecting the instrument created for the desired delivery time interval from the Market Instrument list. 5. modification (ie cancellation of the offer and its registration as a new offer with a changed date) or suspension of offers by the Participants c. the Participant at P.value of purchase offers valued up to that moment (value of the purchase offer entered will be invalidated) f. When receiving a rejection message of the purchase offer submitted. Possibility to view the best ten purchase offers and the ten best offers for sale e. A IDM participant may submit sale / purchase offers for each trading period. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Base flow a. Introducing purchase and / or sales offers in the trading system b. Notification of IDM Participants whose offers have been invalidated Alternative flows - Relations Linking offers IDM participant OPTCOM Frequency of use Daily Business rules 1. Electricity sale and purchase offers are quantity / price orders / offers.I. 290 . 6. Validation of offers in terms of guarantee value (bank guarantee . The possibility of definitive cancellation. Modify and / or cancel purchase orders previously entered so as to create the possibility of introducing new purchase offers that fulfill the validation condition against the value of the validation qugrantees.value of VAT . 2. May take the following actions: to introduce a modified bid so that the bid value does not exceed the Validated Validation Guarantee diminished by the value of the previously entered purchase bids.

. . . Weighted average price (lei / MWh) and volume traded [MWh] over a range of analysis (day / hour). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 4. system technology services .STS) or its components. 3. on which competition is directly manifested. Pivotal supplier index (PSI) – measures the limit to which an available bid to of a participant is required to ensure the demand of the system after taking into account the bids available to other participants. These indicators can be calculated for the entire market (electricity. C1>40% suggests the existence of a dominant position on the market. C3 > 70% highly concentrated market. • C1 – market share of the largest market participant (%) The significance of the indicator values is: . as illustrated in [METHODOLOGY OF WHOLESALE ELECTRICITY MARKET MONITORING FOR ASSESSING THE COMPETITION LEVEL ON MARKET AND PREVENTING THE ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION]: 1. ANALYSIS INDICES AND INDICATORS In order to analyze the activity performed on this market a set of indicators are used. 1000 < HHI < 1800 moderate concentration of market power. HHI < 1000 unconcentrated market. 40%< C3 < 70% medium concentrated market. C1>20% worrying market concentration. . the following concentration indicators are defined: • Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is the sum of squared market shares of participants that have finalized transactions (%) where: n=nr of participants Ms(i) = the market share %of participant The significance of the indicator values is: . C1>50% indicates a dominant position on the market. C3 →0% perfect competition . Wholesale energy market concentration indicators and their componenets - according to economic theory. 291 . • Market concentration ratio (%) which is evaluated through 2 elements: • C3 – total market share of top three market participants The significance of the indicator values is: . HHI > 1800 high market power concentration. 2. .

ISBN: 978 -2-930670-01-0 [3] Gary M.Creating the Internal Energy Market. beneficiary The Bucharest University of Economic Studies. ISSN 2069 – 3230 http://dbjournal. 2012. Available at http://www.psi.2016. priority axis 1 – Research. [Accessed 10 November 2017] [4] Alexandra Maria Ioana Florea.Attracting high-level personnel from abroad in order to enhance the RD capacity. Simon Tywuschik - Short-term trading – an attractive market with high IT requirements.4 . Paul Wilczek . Action 1.The State of Short-term Power Trading in Europe.Study on electricity markets in Romania. [Accessed 10 November 2017]. [online]. the balancing market or the bilateral contracts market.pdf. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper presents the scientific results of the project “Intelligent system for trading on wholesale electricity market” (SMARTRADE). [5] Ion Lungu. Editura Economica. technological development and innovation (RD&I) to support economic competitiveness and business development. [Accessed 10 November 2017] [2] Iván Pineda. Database Systems Journal.pdf. Anda Belciu .1. vol. EWEA The European Wind Energy Association. 2017. 6. 7. Vasey. Manole Velicanu. through the Competitiveness Operational Programme (COP) 2014-2020. no. 4/2016. 62/05. VII. Chris Whellams. contract ID P_37_418. Sisteme informatice: analiza. ISBN 9735908301 292 . Dr.fisglobal. 526pg.org/uploads/tx_err/Internal_energy_market.de/en/psi-energymanagement/magazin/energy-trading-on-short- term-markets. Available at https://www.pdf. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT r < 1 → PSI = 1 → determinant participant (equivalent to the absence of competition) 5.ro/archive/26/26_2.09. Gheorghe Sabau. the modeling of the activities carried out on the intraday market. 2017. 2003. no.co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). CONCLUSIONS The description of the way of functioning. Bucureşti.com/solutions/institutional-and-wholesale/- /media/fisglobal/files/brochure/the-state-of-short-term-power-trading-in- europe.ewea. the identification of the activities flow and the system of rules underlying its operation represent a first step for the realization of a decision support system for the participants in trading. as well as the activity analysis and forecast on the intraday market. the day-ahead market. REFERENCES [1] FISGlobal . [online]. http://www. This system will also include other types of energy markets such as the centralized contract market. proiectare si implementare. Philippe Vassilopoulos.

Verlet-Leapfrog Algorithm. Bucharest. Bucharest. making use of the latest features of the CUDA Toolkit 8. Splaiul Independentei. Thus. An efficient implementation of the N-body simulation has multiple applications ranging from astrophysical simulation to a variety of computational tasks in numerous scientific fields such as: fluid mechanics. Romania. University Politehnica of Bucharest. KEYWORDS: Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). the authors depict how GPUs can be used for N-body simulations. Romania. Of particular interest when developing the implementation was to attain a high level of performance and efficiency. INTRODUCTION Within this paper. alex@pirjan. on an ATI X1900XTX. PhD Lecturer Department of Mathematics-Informatics. Expozitiei Blvd. N-Body Simulation. danap@mathem. employing the architecture’s dynamic parallelism feature in order to effectively manage the unbalancing of the processing tasks that appears once the number of corresponding bodies differs throughout the processing threads. Associate Professor Faculty of Computer Science for Business Management. The innovative aspect of our research emerges from the development and implementation of the N-body simulation on the latest Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture. 1. code 060042. Dynamic Parallelism. In [2].. Romanian-American University. In [3]. 313. 1* corresponding author.com 293 .0. the authors develop an implementation of N-body simulation on the Intel Knights Landing Central Processing Unit architecture. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE N-BODY SIMULATION ON THE PASCAL COMPUTE UNIFIED DEVICE ARCHITECTURE Dana-Mihaela Petroşanu 1* Alexandru Pîrjan 2 ABSTRACT In this paper. launched in 2016 by the NVidia company. we develop and propose novel solutions for implementing the N-body simulation on the latest Pascal parallel processing Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) as to attain a high level of performance and efficiency. we have proposed and developed innovative solutions that facilitate the implementation of the N-body simulation ( ) on the latest Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). 1B. medicine and computer graphics applications.pub. in order to obtain improvements in performance over the Central Processing Units available in 2006.ro 2 PhD Hab. district 6. district 1. In [1]. CUDA. they develop an algorithm for performing the force computations that represent the most part of stellar and molecular dynamics simulations. the authors develop an implementation of the N-body simulation on the GeForce GTX8800 NVidia Graphics Processing Unit. code 012101.

benefitting from the most powerful features of the CUDA Toolkit 8. most of these are confronted with serious limitations originating from the required huge computational processing power. THE N-BODY SIMULATION IN THE ALL-PAIRS APPROACH In the following we depict the all-pairs approach of the N-body simulation ( ). like the dynamic parallelism feature that helps us to solve efficiently the unbalancing of the processing tasks that appears once the number of corresponding bodies differs throughout the processing threads.0. while is the gravitational constant This equation can be written in the vector form. represented by the functions (except the case when . We have used the dynamic parallelism feature to call an additional kernel function with the purpose of processing in parallel the last states of the bodies. consequently attaining a high level of performance and efficiency for the developed solution. up to this moment none of them have implemented the N-body simulation on the latest Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture. that highlights the directions of the and vectors. having the mases and . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Even though more implementations of the N-body simulation exist in the scientific literature. using the unit vector : (2) Taking into account all the possible pairs between the body ( ) and all the others N-1 bodies. In the following. each of the N bodies attracts every other body with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them [5]. by the force vector caused on the -body by the gravitational attraction of the -body. 2. making use of the architecture's dynamic parallelism feature. the module of the vector that has the origin at the body and the extremity at the body . considering all the possible pairs for each of the N considered bodies [4]. According to the Newton's law of universal gravitation. as depicted in the following equation: (1) where the indexes refer to two bodies. for each positive integer we denote by the initial 3D position and by the initial velocity for each of the N bodies. Thus. The novelty of our approach resides in developing and implementing the N-body simulation on the latest parallel processing Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture. Although there are many works in the literature that implement the N-body simulation. we denote the vectors with lowercase bold letters. to our best knowledge. Thus. the number of interactions is . because in this case the denominator of the equation (2) becomes zero): 294 . a technique based on the evaluation of all the interactions. one obtains the total force as the sum of all the interactions. the module of the force vector (the magnitude of the force).

the condition is no longer necessary. Considering the unpredictable nature of individual atoms or molecules motion. approaching each other. the forces grow without any limit. in N-body simulations problems. in order to compute the orbit of Halley's Comet and in 1907 by Carl Störmer. because when . Using the softening factor. arising from its properties [8]. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (3) Under the effect of the interactions. when using the N-body simulations in astrophysics. the number of equations can be very large. the vector and therefore. Using the equation (4). the bodies (that represent galaxies). denoted by at the denominator of the equation (3): (4) When adding this factor. the collisions between the N considered bodies are not possible. the numerical integration is facilitated. As the distances decrease. the magnitude of the interactions between the bodies are limited and thus. in computer graphics. one adds a softening positive factor. This growing could become an impediment when applying numerical methods for integration [6]. In our case. This algorithm is frequently used in molecular dynamics simulations. useful for integrating the Newton's equations of motion. while the denominator of is not zero. 295 . one can choose different integration methods [7]. In order to avoid the unlimited growing of the forces. we have used the Verlet-Leapfrog Algorithm. Moreover. one can express the acceleration of the -body as: (5) Taking into account the nature of the problem that is modeled using the N-body simulation ( ). The Verlet integration method has some important advantages. Thus. do not collide but pass near or through each other. who has used it in molecular dynamics in 1967. the bodies tend to move from their initial positions. Even if the distances decrease and tend to zero. it is consecrated as the Verlet's algorithm. a computationally efficient algorithm applicable to our problem. in order to obtain the current positions and velocities of each body. The Verlet-Leapfrog Algorithm consists in a numerical method. in his study regarding the electrical particles' trajectories in a magnetic field. This approach was also applied in 1909 by Cowell and Crommelin. as they are 6 for each particle (3 for the components of the position vector and 3 for the components of the velocity). the force becomes zero. Generally. an important problem that arises when modeling problems related to this motion is to use accurate and stable integration schemes for the obtained ordinary differential equations. Even if this method was previously used in 1792 by the French mathematician and astronomer Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre. it provides a good numerical stability and time reversibility.

where is the time step: (6) (7) By adding and subtracting the equations (6) and (7). we have chosen for solving our problem the Verlet Leapfrog Algorithm as it has offered the best results. As a consequence. we will describe this algorithm. we define: (10) Taking into account the equation (6). to order . one obtains: (8) (9) In the following. Leapfrog and Velocity. one obtains: (14) Equation (14) can be written as: (15) Afterwards. one obtains: (16) From the equation (16) one obtains: (17) 296 . the total number of equations is . the equation (12) can be written as: (13) By subtracting the equations (11) and (13). the equation (10) can be written: (11) The equation (10) implies that: (12) Taking into account the equation (7). features and implementation opportunities. by adding the equations (11) and (13). After analyzing and testing them. The Verlet integration schemes satisfy all of the above-mentioned requirements and comprise three main different algorithms: Basic. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT If considering particles. one must use an algorithm that reduces to the minimum the necessary number of evaluations that must be made on the right side of the obtained ordinary differential equations. The Verlet Leapfrog Algorithm can be obtained using a Taylor expansion of the position in . while the number of interaction terms is in the case of pair-wise interactions. In the following.

one obtains: (23) By dividing equation (11) with one obtains: (24) Taking into account the definition of and comparing the equations (21) and (24) one can conclude that: (25) By dividing equation (13) with one obtains: (26) Considering the definition of and comparing the equations (23) and (26) one can conclude that: (27) In conclusion. one obtains: (21) Similarly. one defines: (20) where is the velocity. (19) In the following. one obtains: 297 . Using a Taylor expansion of the right member of the equation (20). Thus. considering: (22) and using a Taylor expansion of the right member of the equation (22). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Taking into account the equation (10). the Verlet Leapfrog Algorithm uses the half time step in order to obtain accurate velocities. the velocities at time t can be computed by adding equations (21) and (23): (28) Subtracting the equations (21) and (23). after calculations. the equation (17) can be written as: (18) or.

The threading mechanism implemented in CUDA is configured as to achieve a high degree of performance without taking into consideration a chronological order in which the kernels have been invoked and the threads executed. for the result to be correct the threads would have to be 298 . In the following. of the race situations. IMPORTANT ASPECTS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE N- BODY SIMULATION IN THE PASCAL COMPUTE UNIFIED ARCHITECTURE The most important aspects that we had to take into account when developing the N-body simulation in the CUDA architecture comprised the proper management of the synchronization process. In conclusion. we depict our implementation of the N-body simulation ( ) on the Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture. between these points. in the leapfrog method the position is calculated at time intervals that have the dimension of an integer multiple of the time step. the developer must examine carefully the data flow as to identify if a specific value has been loaded from a certain variable before storing the latest updated value in it. requires less storage and is less expensive than other approaches when judging it from the computational requirements point of view [8]. Therefore. . while the velocity is evaluated at the times . The Verlet Leapfrog Algorithm has also the advantage that. while the equation (31) gives the positions of the particles. the conservation of energy is respected. The above-mentioned leapfrog algorithm. if the developer allocates a processing thread for each body. of the atomic operations. starting from an initial point . In the case of large scale computations. Like in the case of the N-body simulation. 3. when this algorithm is used. one can considerably decrease the computation time. when the state of an element at a certain step is influenced by the computed result from a previous step. race conditions have to be methodically and accurately averted. these aspects represent important advantages for the programmer. The vast majority of the compilers that are being used these days for compiling software applications that make use of a single processing thread have the technical capability to pinpoint precisely these issues. In these situations. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (29) Using equation (25) one obtains: (30) Using the notations the equation (30) can be written as: (31) The equations (28) and (29) give the velocities. the whole process of managing race conditions is extensively simplified. even at large time steps. When developers are programming applications that use multiple processing execution threads. When one develops N-body simulations ( ) that are targeted by the central processing unit (CPU) and for which a single processing thread is sufficient. as to circumvent memory leakage and achieve a sufficient amount of dynamic parallelism.

we have taken into consideration the fact that the Pascal CUDA architecture offers support for the dynamic parallelism feature and thus. we had to develop the N-body CUDA implementation by employing a synchronization process as the order of execution in the device can vary to a great extent. we made use of the implicit synchronization mechanism that is enforced by the CUDA runtime on the parent and child kernel functions. in some situations the whole application might even crash. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT processed in an ascending order and the results of the previous execution steps to have already been calculated and stored in the corresponding variables. An advantage of the dynamic parallelism solution that we have implemented in our approach consists in the nesting mechanism that is implemented in the architecture and automatically checks that a parent grid completes the processing only after the child grids have completed their tasks. until all the grids of the blocks have finalized the processing up to the precision of a processing thread residing within a block of the grid. Therefore. as the child kernel functions that were called by the parent ones were processing the tasks in parallel with minimum control 299 . All of these specific aspects provide a valuable insight on the issue of a race condition. When developing the N-body simulation ( ). so that in certain situations to have the possibility of invoking a new grid of thread blocks (a child grid of thread blocks) that belongs to the initial parent grid of thread blocks. By using the dynamic parallelism technique. This technique helped us avoid having to invoke more kernel functions or to keep always several threads idle for being used in the final steps of the computation. containing more processing threads and in the same time to postpone further processing. the risks become higher for the outcome to have errors. The shared memory that exists at the level of a block of threads helped us to interchange data between the threads that resided in the same block. isolating and solving the issues concerning the memory leaks and over-usage of memory. What makes it more complicated is the fact that in some random situations the program might produce a correct output if a processing thread has the possibility to compute and store the result before another thread needs to retrieve it. Through the dynamic parallelism solution that we have implemented. we were able to transfer data between the threads belonging to the same block and between multiple blocks that were part of the same grid of thread blocks. Therefore. By using the synchronization process. Therefore. We have used the local memory area and register memory available to each of the threads. we made sure that the graphics processing units' resources were efficiently spent and that an appropriate occupancy of the available resources was achieved. from an initial CUDA kernel. we have used the “cuda-memcheck” software instrument with the aim of identifying. In developing the N-body implementation. When more execution threads are processed in parallel. when certain functions of an application are processing data simultaneously to a particular point in the execution path. we were able to save a huge amount of computational resources and avoid inefficient results when computing a large number of bodies. we were able to call. Of particular usefulness when implementing the simulation using the dynamic parallelism solution was the fact that we were able to configure and execute grids of blocks. supplementary child CUDA kernels and synchronize the processing. we were able to program a thread from within a grid of blocks.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT divergence or even none whatsoever. denoted by . 4. we have allocated them to more blocks of processing threads. we present the experimental results that we have conducted and an analysis of the obtained performance.192 and different number of execution steps. In our experimental tests. ranging from 16 to 8. In order to analyse the level of performance.0 with the NVIDIA developer driver. DDR4 quad channel and the GeForce GTX 1080 NVIDIA graphics card with 8GB GDDR5X 256-bit from the Pascal architecture.0 GHz with 32GB (4x8GB) of 2144 MHz. In the following section. we have computed the average total execution time (measured in milliseconds) for the CPU implementation 300 . after having divided the tasks. When implementing the N-body simulation ( ) in the Pascal CUDA architecture. In order to ensure the accuracy of the results. is the number of bodies. Thus. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE N- BODY SIMULATION IMPLEMENTATION ON THE PASCAL ARCHITECTURE We have developed and run an experimental test suite in order to check the performance of the developed implementation of the N-body simulation and we have compared the results obtained when benchmarking our developed implementation on the Pascal architecture with those provided by a state of art sequential classical implementation of the N-body simulation on the central processing unit. we have developed and conducted a benchmark suite. for each of the analyzed cases. we have run 100 iterations for each of the benchmark tests and afterwards we have computed the average of these results. We have tested extensively different methods for allocating the sizes of the grids and of the processing blocks and we have reached peak performance using the following approach: (32) and (33) where represents the number of allocated thread blocks. represents the number of threads per block and is the integral part of the real number . The software configuration that we have used is Windows 10 Educational operating system and the CUDA Toolkit 8. we have programmed the solution to process using only the parent kernel and not to invoke a supplementary child kernel as there is not sufficient parallelism in this case to warrant the invoking of other functions. using as a hardware configuration the central processing unit Intel i7- 5960x operating at 3. When the number of bodies is small. we have successively benchmarked different cases regarding the number N of interacting bodies.

918 4. the total execution times registered when running the N-body simulation on the CPU (CPUT).114 0.32725 4 128 8. As our implementation is based on parallel computations.907 52.414 0.34028 6 512 130.016 4. the value of the mass for each body and the softening positive factor ). in each of the analyzed situations. the new positions.882 16.560 14013.386.387 1693.905 1.29 3. in the following we present and analyze the case when . Version 3. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (CPUT). Table 1.128 7.550. We have synthetized these results. . in order to randomly generate the initial conditions.024 523. we have decided to use a specific generator for the initial conditions (3 components of the position vector. comprising the system of differential equations (mentioned in section 2) and initial conditions.640 70.472 13. 2014) [9].67488 5 256 32. the number of interactions.5277 10 8. a comparable amount of computations.816 270.096. As the results obtained using different settings for the number of execution steps ( ) have provided similar performance results.978 2.192 33.60249 7 1.55 847.826 26.128 17.128 3433.939 8.443 208. released in March 14. in order to obtain.18558 8 2.2. The measured total execution times comprise the necessary time for computing.602 103. The N-body problem represents an initial value problem.336 54338.11928 9 4.731 0. 3 components of the velocity vector.389 32.048 2.0885 301 . on the GPU (GPUT) (both measured in milliseconds) and also the dimensionless CPUT/GPUT ratio (Table 1). velocities and accelerations of the N interacting bodies. Experimental results for execution steps Number Number of No CPUT (ms) GPUT (ms) CPUT/GPUT of bodies interactions 1 16 120 0.15857 3 64 2.961 422. Thus.07773 2 32 496 1. highlighting for each of the considered values of N.3. we have used the newest version of NEMO (A Stellar Dynamics Toolbox.666 0.776 874. the CPUT/GPUT ratio for the corresponding number of execution steps.096 8. for each step. for the GPU implementation (GPUT) and then we have also computed a relevant metric.

for execution steps. The CPUT/GPUT ratio for execution steps Analysing the experimental results presented in the above table and figures along with the results obtained for the other values of . As the 302 . In all of the analysed situations. the best results (the lowest execution time) have been recorded on the CPU because in this case. Thus. the GPU performance surpasses the CPU's one. when the number of interacting bodies is higher than 256. the required computational load does not fully employ the parallel processing power of the GPU. while in Figure 2 we have represented the CPUT/GPUT ratio. The total execution times for execution steps Figure 2. Figure 1. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT In order to facilitate the comparison of the obtained experimental results. As Figure 2 highlights. we have concluded that when the number of bodies is less than 256. in Figure 1 we have represented the total execution times. the CPUT/GPUT ratio is sub-unitary for and supra-unitary for . we have also represented them in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

efficiency and applicability of our developed solution regarding the implementation of the N-body simulation in the Pascal architecture. in various scientific fields. for the highest value of the dimensionless CPUT/GPUT ratio was . when having to process a large number of interacting bodies. choosing various settings regarding the number N of bodies. offering in a reduced execution time the accurate states of the N interacting bodies: positions. and its greatest value is reached in the case of when the average total execution time registered by the GPU is more than 32 times lower ( ) than the average total execution time registered by the CPU. but when having to process a large number of bodies. powerful tool in a wide range of scientific domains that employ fast. when compared to the state of art sequential classical approach. In the scientific literature one can find more implementations of the N-body simulation. Thus. in order to achieve a high level of performance and efficiency. proves to be a useful tool in numerous scientific fields. 5. compared to the classical sequential approaches. computing in each of the cases the average of 100 iterations. in order to obtain relevant. velocities and accelerations. The obtained results reflect the efficiency of the developed solutions and their suitability for implementing the CUDA Pascal N-body simulation. based on the Verlet Leapfrog Algorithm. our implementation has the ability of becoming a useful. harnessing the enormous parallel processing power of the latest Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture. The experimental results that we have obtained outline that our solutions for implementing the N-body simulation on the latest Pascal architecture attain a high level of performance highlighted by the reduced execution times. reliable results and a detailed analysis of our implementation. considering the high computational throughput.0. based on the Verlet Leapfrog Algorithm. The experimental suite highlights the reliability. this ratio also increases. Thus. leveraging the architecture’s dynamic parallelism feature for balancing the computational tasks. 303 . the obtained level of performance and efficiency. we have developed and proposed novel solutions for implementing the N- body simulation. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT number N of bodies increases. We have conducted extensive experimental tests. accurate. The proposed implementation of the N-body simulation. both of these values being registered for . CONCLUSIONS In our research. Our developed approach has the advantage and brings the novelty of harnessing the dynamic parallelism feature and the huge computational potential of the Pascal Compute Unified Device Architecture. highlighting the undisputable advantages of our solution. the number n of execution steps. We have registered similar results when choosing and execution steps. most of them are limited by the huge computational requirements. accurate N- body simulations. An important aspect of our research consists in employing the latest technical characteristics of the CUDA Toolkit 8. while for the highest value of this ratio was .

Addison Wesley. Springer. Co. V. Aarseth. 2006. ChiZine Publications. 77. Sodani. Reinders. 2016. ACM. Boston. Jeffers. The N-Body Problem: Classic and Relativistic Solution: Corrections to: Newton's Gravitational Force for N>2. in: Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems IV. Elsen. Hall.Levi-Civita. [5] T. J. The n-Body Problem in General Relativity. Reidel Pub. [7] K. 304 . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT REFERENCES [1] L. in GPU Gems 3. 2016. "The Stellar Dynamics Toolbox NEMO". North Charleston. Series. "N-Body simulation on GPUs". Teuben. Nyland. Franco R. New York. "Fast N-Body Simulation with CUDA". M. Harris. 1995. [4] J. Introduction to Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and the N-Body Problem (Applied Mathematical Sciences). P. Gravitational N-Body Simulations: Tools and Algorithms (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics). Pande. Hanrahan. in Intel Xeon Phi Processor High Performance Programming. chapter 31. 2009.A. D. M. and Einstein's relativistic Mass & Energy.. 2009.J. Dordrecht. The n-Body Problem. Burgess. Houston. Morgan Kaufmann. Darve. Cambridge University Press. Toronto 2013. V. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 1964. New York. vol. Meyer. under a 3-D Vectorial Relativity approach. [9] P. [8] S. 2007. [6] T. [2] E. in Proceedings of the 2006 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing (SC '06). Vishal. Offin. A. D. J. J. PASP Conf. "N-Body simulation". Prins. [3] J.. E. G. Boston.

respectively named T1 and T2. in order to be produced. optimization. dimkalliv@yahoo. 8th Floor. The operational profit from the sale of products A and B is 1* corresponding author. there are additional restrictions concerning claims about customer satisfaction and the limited capacity of storage areas which results in the production of only 400 units of product A and in the production of at least 300 units of product B per month (M.gr 2 Technological Educational Institution of Athens. named A and B. 47A Evelpidon and 33 Lefkados St. the production time of each product type is different in each department and is given in Table 1 below. Kritikos and G. decision making. linear programming. Prastacos. kmn@aueb. Ioannou. 2013). we successively eliminate variables of the model that solve a linear programming problem until its final solution. Following the Fourier-Motzkin elimination method. Table 1: Employment of the departments per unit of output PRODUCT DEPT Τ1 DEPT Τ2 Α 2 3 Β 3 2 In our problem. The enterprise has to determine the number of products A and B that should be produced in order to optimize the total profit from the disposal of these 2 products. Management Sciences Laboratory. The available operating hours of the two processing departments per month are limited and are 2100 and 1800 hours respectively. The method helps us to find the optimum solution of a linear programming problem without using Linear Programming methodology. INTRODUCTION The following problem is a simple production problem (G. 2008) of a business that produces two products. Greece. Those two products are processed by two departments of the enterprise. Athens 113-62. Furthermore. KEYWORDS: elimination method of Fourier-Motzkin. system of inequalities.gr 305 . Athens University of Economics and Business. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT THE ELIMINATION METHOD OF FOURIER-MOTZKIN IN LINEAR PROGRAMMING Manolis Kritikos 1* Dimitrios Kallivokas 2 ABSTRACT The paper applies the elimination method of Fourier-Motzkin in a production problem in Linear Programming.

Afterwards we search for a solution which on the one hand. We suppose that we earn 5 and 3 credit points from the sale of products A and B. the solution of the problem occurs from the solution of the following system of inequalities: 2 A + 3B ≤ 2100 (1) 3 A + 2B ≤ 1800 (2) A ≤ 400 (3) B ≥ 300 (4) A≥0 (5) B≥0 (6) z ≤ 5 A + 3B (7) Following the Fourier-Motzkin elimination method (Dantzig. (3). For this reason. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT respectively 5 and 3 credit units. the inequalities expressing respectively the restrictions are A ≤ 400 (3) and B ≥ 300 (4). namely: 2A +3 B ≤ 2100 (1) Similarly. (5) and (6) inequalities whereas on the other hand. we initially eliminate variable A. respectively. because the production should include only 400 units of product A and at least 300 units of product B. In this case our profit occurs from the function z = 5xA +3xB (7). respectively. 1963) in order to determine the optimal solution of the problem. we will apply the following inequality in the problem: (2 hours per product A) x (number of products A) + (3 hours per product B) x (number of products B) ≤ total hours available. that is A ≥ 0 (5) and B ≥ 0 (6). the inequality in relation to the operation of department T2 would be: 3A +2B ≤ 1800 (2) Additionally. FOURIER-MOTZKIN ELIMINATION METHOD We apply the Fourier-Motzkin elimination method (Dantzig. the system could be written as: 306 . 1963) for the solution of the above system. satisfies both (1). Of course. it is obvious that the restrictions of nonnegative output have to be applied. (2). Because every product of type A requires to be processed for two hours in department T1 and every product of type B requires to be processed for three hours in department T1 and the total availability is 2100 hours. (4). In order to delineate the set of feasible solutions of the problem of the production problem we will use the following inequalities arising from the problem data: Let A be the number of products A that we produce and B the number of products B. gives to z its largest credit that does not exceed 5 A + 3B that is.

Thus. it is evident that the values of the first group are smaller than the values of the second group. can be grouped: into those in which A is larger than a linear relationship. Of course. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 3 A ≤ 1050 − B 2 (1) 2 A ≤ 600 − B 3 (2) A ≤ 400 (3) B ≥ 300 (4) A≥0 (5) B≥0 (6) z 3 A≥ − B 5 2 (7) It should be observed that the above inequalities relating to variable A. in those that A is smaller and those that do not exhibit the variable A. we get the following system: z 3 3 − B ≤ 1050 − B 5 5 2 (1) z 3 2 − B ≤ 600 − B 5 5 3 (2) z 3 − B ≤ 400 5 5 (3) 3 1050 − B ≥ 0 2 (4) 2 600 − B ≥ 0 3 (5) 400 ≥ 0 (6) B≥0 (7) B ≥ 300 (8) Repeating the process in order to eliminate the variable B gives us the following system of inequalities: 307 .

Similarly. For example the combination of (1) and (3) gives us the inequality: 5 z 2000 10 z ( − ) ≤ (10500 − ) / 9 ⇒ z ≤ 3300 15 3 5 . the other inequalities of the method occur: 5 z z ( − 400) ≤ 15(600 − ) ⇒ z ≤ 2900 3 5 5 5 2 2 ( − 400) ≤ 1050 ⇒ z ≤ 4100 3 5 3 5 2 3 ( − 400) ≤ 600 ⇒ z ≤ 4700 3 5 2 z 10(1050 − ) / 9 ≥ 0 ⇒ z ≤ 5250 5 z 10(1050 − ) / 9 ≥ 300 ⇒ z ≤ 3900 5 308 . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 10 z B≤ (1050 − ) 9 5 (1) z B ≤ 15(600 − ) 5 (2) 5 z B ≥ ( − 400) 3 5 (3) 2 B ≤ 1050 3 (4) 3 B ≤ 600 2 (5) B≥0 (6) B ≥ 300 (7) Grouping the inequalities as in case of variable A results in inequalities of variable z whose solution results in the value of z.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT It is evident from the above solutions that the solution for z is z = 2900. A = 400 and B = 300.htm?l=en 309 . Kritikos and G. P. B.com/simplex/simplex. 68-75 [3] G. N. Working through a system of inequalities showed the usefulness of mathematics in an application of a simple operational problem.phpsimplex. (2013) The heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem with overloads and time windows. REFERENCES [1] G. (1963) Linear Programming and Extensions. Tsinghua University Press [4] http://www. We confirm the solution using the PHPSimplex tool http://www. Dantzig. Ioannou. Prastacos.com/simplex/simplex. CONCLUSION The paper applies the elimination method of Fourier-Motzkin in Linear Programming. Princeton University Press [2] M.. The method helps us to find the optimum solution of a production problem without using linear programming.htm?l=en). we have z = 2900.phpsimplex. Namely. International Journal of Production Economics. (2008). We put z=2900 in the inequalities system before the elimination of B so that B = 300. 144. Managerial Decision Making Theory and Practice. Then we set the values z = 2900 and B = 300 in the original inequalities system so that A=400.

Or. movitea@yahoo. respectively. you might say that with factors of production equipment would differentiate economies. all these factors must be discussed in terms of mutual interdependence. We cannot exclude the existence of our economic size just as we cannot exist if we do not consume and we cannot consume without having to produce. with pronounced character. development.vacaru@gmail. Romanian American University / Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest. as it is stated many times in the socio-political. the scientific research. Without exceptions. All these are determinations of the economic behaviour of the economy subjects. PhD Candidate. and there are. so far as the nominal net income allows us to purchase or not. and complicity. geopolitical and geostrategic position. of the monetary policy and exchange rate. economic indicators. This dictum is not shared by all the stakeholders in the world economy. Why this dichotomy? At first glance. a state of mind and a way of life of the contemporary man. Romania. REMARKS AND PERSPECTIVES Oana Mihaela Văcaru 1* Cristina Teodora Bălăceanu 2 Mihaela Gruiescu 3 ABSTRACT The economy has become more than just a science that is studied in any education system. the unprecedented influence of media on behaviour of consumer decision-making.com 2 Professor of Economic. the size and dynamics of the needs is likely to favour disadvantaged or an economy in its relations with other economies.gruiescu@csie. focusing on savings consumption exceeds output. there are factors determining the ratio of forces between economies. it is a state of affairs. mihaela. it seems. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT THE STATE AND DYNAMICS OF ECOECONOMY IN ROMANIA. KEY WORDS: ecoeconomy. the cicadas economy. the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies. “Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University in Bucharest. and ant economy. the ratio 1* corresponding author.ase. As a result of the development of cutting-edge technologies. how it will affect the workplace change of coordinates. complementarity. In any case we have found out. the way of the development of certain indicators affect the level of salary. Also. whose production capacity and export consumption is higher than the import. as the organic part of the social sciences. 310 .ro. we are concerned with the price of the product showing utility for us. namely consumers and producers.com. oanna. in terms of the size and structure of the aggregate supply. what impact have certain statements of dignitaries on the oil market. 3 Associate Professor of Statistics and Econometrics.

on the one hand. the economy thank s to its actors. which makes the assault on economic production of goods to meet the needs. in which case the import is preferable. but also with the presumptive increase in relation with the presumptive loan limit of the banking and nonbanking systems. such as the boomerang effect caused by the excesses of any kind. and respectively needs convergent implications of the productive sector in order to supply to the demand level. We cannot exclude imports. The stimulation of the production should be correlated with the rate of the increase of consumers’ real incomes. which would boost the domestic production capacity or the import of goods. Financial-banking system can maintain artificially the demand increase by adjusting the income. on the other hand. Modern economies are global economies the relative position of which is determined by the market competitiveness and efficiency ratios. The advantage of globalization lies in the mobility of the factors of production in order to cover the demand of economic goods in those economies where endowment with factors of production is insufficient. Also. excessive bureaucracy). Secondly. both own and acquired. which have the effect of an uncompetitive production externally. which requires increasing public spending gains. In this context. the balance of payments at the level of countries. The problem lies. taking into account the quantitative restrictions of the monetary and financial nature. there are certain restrictions on domestic production capacity of intensifying. looks for solutions to optimize the ratio between needs and possibilities in line with the natural environment. What would be the reasons? Firstly. or when the demand for factors of production may not be covered by the internal market. social factors (existence of a differentiated social structure that requires supporting disadvantaged social classes. to be particularly strong. the degree of involvement of civil society in changing people's mentality as regards the act of production and consumption addressing productive sphere as an opportunity and not as a priority in the act of consumption. in the efficient management of own resources and syndicated in the context of the continuous reduction of the conventional energy resources and the adjustment of demand in relation to its purchasing power and. such as political factors (conflict of interests with regard to facilitating the import of certain goods or economic factors. in other words the failure of meeting the internal and external demand. the correlation of the investment plan with the structure of the offer or as a result of the combination of inefficient production factors. both quantitatively and qualitatively. as a result of the discrepancy between export and import. i. in the management of the balance of trade imbalances. adjusting fiscal policy).e. What is inefficient and un equivalent is the increase in imports within those countries which own factors of production but the level of production capacity does not cover partly the demand level. it is the low dynamics of labour productivity. the ability to absorb it. it is the lack of orientation of economic operators in relation to the size and structure of the application. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT between resources and needs. This assault has direct repercussions on how to combine economic resources. the availabilities and needs. but they are done when the relative cost of a unit production on the domestic market is the relatively higher cost of product on the market. suffers the strong distortion. either as a result of the lack of adequate production facilities. 311 .

competitiveness and eco- efficiency indicator. sustainable production and consumption. energy intensity of the economy. Euro Real GDP/ inhabitant. pauperism. as well as qualitative. Table 1. This analysis starts with the indicators identified in the previous chapter. sustainable transport. grouped in accordance with 10 main themes of ecoeconomy: socio-economic development. or the unitary cost of the nominal labour. natural resources. to devise strategies through which utilisation of free goods to give balance and limits the production process mainly owing to natural grade. demographic shifts. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT At the same time. energy and climate change. public health. eco-efficiency indexes. global partnership. absorption of sustainable products in the environment. it is necessary to create mechanisms through which to identify with the laws of nature that govern it. in the context of conventional resources shortages and irrational use of resources that together have generated waste. Euro Country\year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 UE-28 26200 26200 25000 25400 25800 25600 25600 25900 26300 Belgium 34000 34000 32900 33500 33900 33700 33500 33800 34100 Bulgaria 4900 5300 5100 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5700 Czech 15200 15400 14600 14900 15200 15000 15000 15200 : Republic Denmark 46200 45600 43000 43500 43900 43700 43400 43700 43900 Germany 32100 32500 30800 32100 33300 33400 33400 33800 34100 Estonia 13300 12600 10800 11000 11900 12600 12800 13200 13400 Ireland 40700 39000 36500 36400 37200 37200 37600 39500 42300 Greece 22700 22600 21500 20300 18500 17200 16800 17000 17000 Spain 24500 24400 23300 23200 22900 22300 22000 22400 23100 France 31500 31400 30300 30800 31200 31200 31200 31100 : Croatia 11200 11500 10600 10500 10500 10300 10200 10200 10400 Italy 28700 28200 26500 26800 26900 26000 25400 25300 25500 312 . social inclusion. being an indicator of falling and in the HDI (human development index). This natural way of dealing with the economy is identified with eco-economy. including measures aimed at integrating young people who don't have a job are not present in forms of education (Young people neither in employment nor in education or training (NEET)). Real GDP/inhabitant. In our analysis we have submitted GDP per capita as an indicator to characterize the developmental level. as well as the aspects that characterize the level of employment at the country level. As for the socio-economic development indicator considering both quantitative aspects of the Economic Development (investments. to use natural resources in sustainable manner. relevant for the Innovation. in the form of research and development expenditures. savings rate of the households). and good governance.

period 2007-2015 313 .eurostat. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Cyprus 24200 24500 23300 23000 22600 21700 20400 20100 20600 Latvia 10200 9900 8600 8500 9200 9700 10000 10400 10800 Lithuania 9800 10100 8700 9000 9800 10300 10800 11200 11500 Luxembourg 82900 80800 75100 77900 78100 75600 76900 78200 80500 Hungary 10300 10400 9700 9800 10000 9900 10100 10500 10900 Malta 15500 16000 15500 15900 16200 16500 17000 17500 18400 The 38900 39400 37700 38000 38500 37900 37600 37900 38500 Netherland Austria 35700 36100 34700 35200 36100 36200 36100 36000 36000 Poland 8600 8900 9100 9400 9900 10000 10100 10500 10900 Portugal 17200 17200 16700 17000 16700 16100 16000 16300 16600 Romania 6100 6700 6300 6300 6400 6400 6700 6900 7200 Slovenia 18600 19200 17500 17700 17800 17300 17100 17600 18000 Slovakia 11900 12600 11800 12400 12800 13000 13200 13500 14000 Finland 37200 37300 34000 34900 35600 34900 34500 34100 34200 Sweden 40400 39800 37400 39400 40100 39700 39800 40300 41600 Great 30500 30100 28700 28900 29200 29400 29800 30400 30900 Britain Source: processed after www.org Source: author’s contribution after processing Eurostat data Graph 1. Evolution of GDP per inhabitant in Romania comparable to UE-28.

907 80.3 41.2 25.873 83.8 23.9 45.500 Malta 0. entrepreneurship.6 32.2 25.187 France 0.6 14.923 80.8 13.8 43.1 16 10.7 10.8 16.2 13.1 45.7 16.843 77.6 28.711 Belgium 0.922 81.907 82.660 Greece 0.903 Portugal 0.865 80.2 15.1 39.3 16.883 80.9 18.3 11.3 9.844 76.9 17.267 Luxemburg 0.839 80. 2015 Countary Number of Gross Life The main school years domestic HDI expectancy promoted estimated as income per at birth school years promoted capita Value years years years Euro 2014 2014 2014 2014 2014 Denmark 0.3 38.5 25.7 58. Table 2.1 38.2 18.2 14 11.4 12.030 Czech Republic 0.9 11.5 11.1 12.869 Finland 0. with a direct effect on living standards.045 Italy 0.885 81.9 11.056 Austria 0.883 82.5 13.89 80. through adaptability of the educational system to the requirements of the labor market.7 12. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The growth of GDP per capita in the analyzed period was due to an investment contribution.8 12. The need for training.6 17.757 314 .839 73.4 16.9 16.636 Great Britain 0.852 Spain 0.2 39.4 15.919 80.916 80.3 26.524 Estonia 0.6 12.87 78.4 15.9 27.892 81.6 16.85 80.8 16.4 10. Human development index.8 17.7 44. health.3 24.3 8.919 Ireland 0. budget allocations to areas such as education. At the same time.2 16 11.568 Sweden 0.83 80. sustaining infrastructure development policies have led to increased business-to-business expectations.435 Germany 0.9 16.177 Lithuania 0.1 10.025 The Netherland 0.4 12.845 Poland 0. will decisively contribute to increasing education and interfering with the quality of life.4 24.88 80.5 12.3 15.633 Slovakia 0.888 82.8 11.695 Slovenia 0.3 27. as a result of the translation of Romania's economy from the transition economy to the emerging economy.861 76.1 33.1 43.214 Cypruss 0.6 10.6 17.

6 15.2 15.5 22. as the defining act that supports a market economy.7 14.818 76.2 11.eurostat. as a way to reduce societal inequalities.6 22.828 75. engaged in a workable economic system.108 Bulgaria 0. develop their capacities and powers to concure the income required to satisfy societal needs.916 Letonia 0.2 10. as well as at the level of the allocation.org The importance of sustainability lies in the marginal benefit in human development. arts. culture.2 15. Through human development actually it is understood the extent to which the individual reaches a certain standard of living by identifying its subjective.409 Romania 0.782 74. both at the level of consumption. social. the tendency being to cover the needs of security.8 11 19. whereby incomes through the redistribution process. contributes to facilitating human development.4 11. justice.2 14. and multiculturalism.793 74. and cultural awareness of the ways of satisfying their reporting to existing and potential resources. education. governance (participation in community life.8 18. objective.819 74. political. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Hungary 0. It should be noted that the scope of the needs exceeds the sphere of material needs. Individuals. and factual needs. 2015 Ecoeconomy transforms the benefits of ecology and bio economics into economic policies which gives sense and rationality in economic activity.281 Croatia 0. 315 . Graphic representation of HDI.596 Source: data processed from www. Source: author’s contribution after processing Eurostat data Graph 2.4 10. involvement in decision-making processes). generated by the economic.2 14.

is the index of eco- innovation. The development is also a living system. reaching their limits and generating increasing greenhouse gases. social. evolutions within this system refer to the new forms of spontaneous order. which takes perverse effects on a finite ecosystem. and honour. CONCLUSION The presentation of the two indicators revealsthat Romania has to advance in terms of development. The development is a subsystem of the system of life (Capra Fritjof. a series of events with local specificities and different intensities of the concept of development can be identified. promoting them and opening new markets. The issue of allocation lies in the size of the scale and intensity of the increase. Ecoeconomy constitutes a chance for Romania for the purposes of the ambitions of the Europe 2020 strategy. thanks to ecoeconomy there is a particular attention for emphasizing the human dimension of the development policies as well as the qualitative approach of the economic growth policies on ensuring the sustainability of development and strengthening the links of causality between economic growth. focused on valuing natural resources according to sustainable principles. sustainable jobs can be created through the rational use of land. in the measures of improving the standard of living and the quality of life of those aspects pertaining to non- commensurable individual freedoms. evolution. to those generating economic crisis. unemployment. respect. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The problems mankind is facing. which would mean the waste of resources and energy etc. being in a permanent form of evolution. which means that they evolve. make necessary a rethinking of the economic system on the basis of rational. safety. production might lie more than the marginal cost. competitive EU economies in relation to the fact that natural resources can be used eco-efficiently. The allocation issue is obvious. especially for the fact that without effective allocation. The indicator that highlights sustainable economy benefits. or ethical issues. prolonged recession. generator of wealth that sustains not only to meet the vital needs of the people but also incorporating. with its own internal structure. which shows the progress concerning the incorporation of 316 . structural deficits with repercussions on the quality of life. ecoeconomy becomes an integrative concept which can manage unitarily environmental. equality of opportunity. by creating a sustainable and inclusive economy. Naturally. ethical. which confers dynamism. For this reason. global warming. Basically ecoeconomy is a complex process. and creativity. human development and the natural environment. honesty. We believe that the allocation can be integrated into paradigms of development/growth and completely different from the traditional approach. The concept development signifies a fundamental feature of life: living beings develop throughout life. Hence. which cannot support a continuous growth of savings through the introduction of new and new needs. ecological. Romania is found to have recorded lower values of the indicator comparable to the developed countries of the EU. 2005). morality. the intensification of natural disasters. and through education and training. as the Earth's ecosystem. economic. the use of cutting-edge technologies in the creation of products. integrator. both through investments to support sustainable development. from those related to the irrational use of natural resources.

“The economic value of the Earth’s resources”.eu/eurostat/tgm/web/table/description. The Concept of Environmental Sustainability. Niculescu Aron I. [2] Capra Fritjof. [12] http://ec.. Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics. Graciela (1995).berkeley.2. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT innovation and research into the use of resources. Vol.org [3] Chichilnisky. Simon and Eric Neumayer (2006). “Weak and Strong Sustainbility in the SEEA: Concepts and Measurement”. Ecological Economics 61 (4). and John Gowdy (2000). [6] Daly. David and Giles Atkinson (1998).pdf. labour and capital from the perspective of the production in order to cover needs in accordance with the sustainable principles.uk/3058/1/Weak_and_strong_sustainability_in_the_SEEA_(LS ERO).pdf. [10] Gowdy.8491. code tsdnr100. MPRA Paper No.rpi. Review of Social Economy.pdf http://homepages.edu/courses/ARE298/Readings/goodland.jsp. Gruiescu M. “Sustainable development and North-South trade”.ecoliteracy. [4] Chichilnisky. REFERENCES [1] Ayres.uni-muenchen. www. [7] Danciu A. and Mesner. Vol..G. “Viewpoint: Weak versus Strong Sustainability”.134 (3). http://www. http://mpra. [8] Dietz. (1998). 101-117. Vol. S. Cercul care se închide. (2007) Statistics and econometrics. The Evolution of Georgescu-Roegen’s Bioeconomics. [11] Pearce.LVI.de/8894/. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics..pdf. Ecological Economics 22. „Enciclopedica” Publisher. R.. Robert and Jeroen vand den Bergh. [9] Goodland. [5] Commoner.tinbergen. (1996).europa.ac.nl/discussionpapers/98103. (1997).R. Herman E. (1998).ub. G. http://are. http://eprints. “The concept of sustainable development: An evaluation of its usfulness ten years after Brundtland”. Development and Sustainability. 26.edu/~gowdyj/mypapers/RSE1998. Bucharest. “Georgescu Roegen versus Solow/Stiglitz”. No.lse. Politică Printing House. J. Barry (1980). 317 . Published in: Protection of Global Biodiversity (0198): pp. (2005).

scientists rely on supercomputers to model and create cosmological simulations. Notable results by computation in astrophysics were obtained in the following areas of activity: • Stellar structure and evolution • Radiation transfer and stellar atmospheres • Astrophysical fluid dynamics • Planetary. Engineer. In the areas of physics and astrophysics.ro 318 . Even if the results generated by such methods do not represent the exact solution.pub. deflected of these background galaxies by a foreground but invisible distribution of mass – the dark matter. with nowadays computational resources it is feasible to simulate complex physical systems with an accuracy which is useful. 060042 Bucharest. Romania. ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. N-body simulation 1.boiangiu@cs. ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. stellar.. The article presents two different approaches for simulating universes – the hydrodynamic cosmological simulations and N-body cosmological simulations and their corresponding state-of-the-art implementations. these approximations are far more valuable than precise solutions of approximate equations that can be determined analytically. INTRODUCTION Computational astrophysics involves the use of computers and numerical methods for solving problems identified by astrophysics researches. Stefan. solving the mystery of the dark energy’s nature can only be achieved through indirect observation [3]. when the mathematical models. KEYWORDS: astrophysics. understand more about its past or make predictions for its future. Romania. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSE SIMULATORS Stefan Prajica 1* Costin-Anton Boiangiu 2 ABSTRACT Whether they seek to verify theories of the origin and evolution of the large-scale structure of the Universe. which describe astrophysical systems. 1* corresponding author. Future space surveys will capture the light of billions of galaxies and astronomers will evaluate the subtle distortions.Prajica@tangoe. smoothed-particle hydrodynamics.com 2 Professor PhD Eng. and galactic dynamics Since about 95% of the Universe consists of “darkness” – 72% dark energy and 23% dark matter. costin. cosmology. 060042 Bucharest. caused by light. are impossible to be calculated analytically [1][2].

cosmological simulations are just tools used to investigate how millions of particles evolve. Put it simply. which astrophysicists use to study how matter clusters in the Universe by gravitational aggregations. algorithms simulate the evolution of particles by tracking their trajectories under their mutual gravity. and current observations. and to judge and understand any found discrepancies. Cosmic Timeline [5] 319 . baryonic matter as well as non-baryonic cold dark matter. Due to advancements. simulations now include the visible. The Figure 1 sketches the evolution of the Universe and the gap between observations gathered from the Cosmic Microwave Background (which describe the early Universe). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The primary tools for researching cosmic structure formation are simulations [4]. since the particles try to sample the matter density field as precisely as possible. The process of a cosmological simulation is comprised of two parts [5]: the first part requires the generation of initial conditions as stated by the structure formation model to be investigated – these conditions will be used as input. which these simulations are trying to cover. Figure 1. In the following step. In the end. cosmologists study the output of these simulations to check if it matches the data gathered by space surveys.

For processes of non-linear structure formation. two of the most common and successful methods are: 1) Hydrodynamic cosmological simulations – smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) which works by dividing the fluid into particles.4% of “flat” Euclidean • detected that the amplitude of variations in the density of the Universe is slightly larger on big scales.g. RESEARCH STANDARD AND APPROACHES The standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model [8]. 2) N-body simulations – the simulation of a dynamical system of particles. unexpectedly successful.this means that by summing the properties (which are relevant) of all of the “grouped” particles outputs the physical quantity of any particle. A few of the achievements stated by NASA on WMAP’s website include [6]: • determining that baryons make up only 4. managed to constrain down to a few percent cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant or the total amount of matter contained by the Universe. and that the number of hot spots and cold ones on the map is equal 2. gravity) [10]. galaxy clustering and weak lensing rely on predictions of the non-linear dynamics of dark matter as accurate as possible. N-body simulations can be used for research. future cosmological experiments might potentially change modern physics by clarifying two of the most difficult to find components of the Universe – dark energy and dark matter. WMAP NASA’s Explorer mission which launched in June 20101 . very accurate Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments such as WMAP [6] and Planck [7] brought us to the era of high precision cosmology. For the following decade. influenced by physical forces (e. this supports the idea of “inflation” and that tiny fluctuations were generated during the expansion and eventually grew to form galaxies • confirmed predictions of the inflation idea. which are in fact a set of discrete elements [9]. As approaches to simulate the universe.6% of the universe • narrowed down the curvature of space to < 0. made fundamental measurements of our Universe. like galaxy halos and galaxy filaments influenced by dark matter. 320 . regarding that the distribution of such fluctuations follows a bell curve with the same properties across the sky. and after WMAP’s data stream ended. A kernel function “smoothes” their properties over a special distance .Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. the analysis of the data collected by it revealed that the mission was in fact. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT During the past decade. This is particularly necessary due to the fact that two of the methods considered to quantify the clustering of matter as a function of time and scale. compared to smaller scales – among other results.

Pleiades. 321 . and the clusters of galaxies within. and the first evolved structures are the dark matter halos which contain the galaxies. Because the outputted volume represents an arbitrary portion of the Universe. Iterative splitting continue until the number of particles contained by a cell drops under a pre-determined threshold.8 million cells. the simulation generated the distribution of over 8. which was ranked 7th worldwide at the time (end of 2011). Ever since the invention of Cold Dark Matter (1984) and the first CDM N-body cosmological simulations which were essential for determining the characteristics of dark matter. and the mesh is made up of about 16. Further studying the generated data could point out the presence and location of satellite galaxies. The smallest cell has roughly 4. provided by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe website. Figure 2. This was the overall setting of the universe after inflation and the first emission of the cosmic background radiation. the comparing its content against observations must be done from a statistical point of view. used. Initially. and the following work. These large cosmological simulations are now the basis for actual research of the structure and evolution of the Universe. The simulation used 13.824 processor cores and 13 TB of memory out of NASA’s supercomputer based at the Ames Research Center. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 2. are two of the most accurate cosmological simulations ever made. Bolshoi Bolshoi [11]. The simulation started about 23 million years after the Big Bang and the initial conditions were generated using the CAMB tools.000 light years for each side. BigBolshoi [12] (which was a simulation 64 times greater than the initial one). The Bolshoi cosmological simulation. across a three- dimensional cube-shaped space of around 1 billion light years on each side. Kratsov from the University of Chicago. as opposed to the Millenium Run which used cosmological parameters from WMAP1 that became obsolete. The first step is to divide the cubical simulation into a grid of smaller cube-shaped cells. as parameters.6 billion particles of dark matter. these simulations were at the core of calculating predictions on scale where structure has formed. Since the quantum mass is this large it is pointless to attempt to distinguish between dark and baryonic matter. Ran during 2010-2011 on the NASA’s Pleiades supercomputer. The simulated particles are of dark matter. all of the particles were close to being uniformly distributed across the cube.1. data from WMAP5 that was consistent with WMAP7. The distribution of particles across the cube. during different evolution stages The algorithm behind the Bolshoi simulation was an alteration of the one created by Andrey V.

0 × 1012 5. Titan’s configuration was the following .0 × 10 250 1.4 × 10 4. managed to achieve a peak performance of 10 Pflops. the supercomputer was ranked 2nd fastest supercomputer in the world.5 1.375 6. over three years of work. scoring a performance of 17. while using more than 4000 GPU- accelerated nodes – from which over 25 billion virtual galaxies were extracted.3 × 10 1. This method was introduced by Greengard and Rokhlin in 1987 [14]. the nature of gravity is non-linear. using the AMD Opteron model 6274 with 2.688 compute nodes and a Gemini 3-D Torus network.000 GPU-accelerated nodes.3 14. The core algorithm – Fast Multipole Method.125 1. At the time PKDGRAV3 was benchmarked on Titan.0 × 10 500 10.59 Pflops (measured LINPACK performance). PKDGRAV3’s version of the FMM algorithm.9 0. which included Piz Daint and Tödi).3 0.00 ns 12 2. microscopic particles of dark matter. is a numerical technique which reduced the time to calculate long-range forces in N-body systems by using a multipole expansion that allows grouping of nearby sources and treating them as one.0150 ns 322 .000 82.750 4.2 GHz clock speed. the code titled PKDGRAV3.a Cray XE7 system with 18. The Table 1 describes the detailed benchmark and scaling results for Titan. PKDGRAV3 Astrophysics researchers from the University of Zurich developed.000 10.390 5. The chosen approach for this particular simulation was to use N-body simulations. The algorithm generated the successful evolution of over 2 trillion particles.130.172 3. The same model set another standard in computational astrophysics by simulation 8 trillion particles while running on “Titan” at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and exploiting roughly 18.2 125 ns 9 17 8. which evolve without collision while being affected by their mutual gravitational attraction.0365 ns 12 11. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 2. due to the fact that on such enormous scales.2 0.339.096.84 ns 11 266 1.000 8.0236 ns 18. In the paper [13] recently published by Joachim Stadel.124 ns 12 7. PKDGRAV3’s performance on Titan Nodes Np Mpc TFlops Time/ Particle 9 2 1.2 0. It also had the largest total system memory – 584 TB (highest across the supercomputer used for simulation.2 1.4 × 10 1.0 × 10 2.500 1. code designed to maximize the use of modern supercomputing architectures such as the Swiss National Computing Center’s “Piz Daint”.2.250 152.7 ns 10 136 6. the astrophysicists report that in only 80 hours of wall-clock time. The time-to-solution for generating 8 × 1012 particles on this setup was 67 hours. The dark matter fluid was sampled in a dynamical system where all possible states of the system are represented.4 × 10 3. Each of these macro-particles represents a large set of authentic. by using as many macro-particles as possible. Table 1. Douglas Potter and Romain Teyssier.230.

Based on the output of the run. The project’s set of large-scale simulations tracks the growth of the Universe.3. Figure 3. which displays the distribution of dark matter (Joachim Stadel. that will take place on the Euclid satellite were made. and last for six years. Its mission to research the nature of dark energy and matter by collecting data will begin in 2020. They also claim that in the future. the gravitational pull which 323 . such as minimizing the sources of error. the overall observational strategy was optimized. Illustris The Illustris model [15] – created by researchers from several institutions including MIT and Harvard. they also expect similar simulations to run in less than 8 hours within the following decade. 2. Due to the fact that the time-to-solution will continue to decrease as computational speed increases. simulations will be required to pull fundamental physical parameters from data which will be gathered by surveying. Given this. The initial conditions of the model are the parameters of the Universe 12 million years after the Big Bang. as opposed to using them only for making predictions or understanding effects. after the satellite will be launched in space. UZH) The authors mention that in order to further improve the code. A one billion light years across section of the virtual universe. represents a cube-shaped piece of the universe that is 350 million light-years long on each side and it produces features as small as 1.000 light years. which involves treating algorithmic and computer hardware developments as one design process.8 billion years are simulated by Illustris. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The purpose of the simulation was to model galaxies as little as 1/ 10 of the Milky Way. as well as several adjustments for the experiments. tools that analyze data might be attached to the code directly and just change the “instrument” every run. inside a volume as large the observable Universe. and the following 13. instead of storing raw data and post-process it. co-designing is required.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT matter applies towards itself. Figure 4 describes this evolution over the past decade. stars. hydrodynamic cosmological simulations were used to study specific problems. uses an unstructured Voronoi tessellation of the simulation volume. These aspects contribute to achieve a simulated Universe having its modeled galaxies realistically distributed. In the past. Texas Advanced Computing Center’s Stampede and Ranger and also Oak Rridge National Laboratory’s Kraken. For the past years. Ilustris’s set of modeled physical processes is comprised. supermassive black holes.) as well as gravity. Figure 4.192 cores. these simulations managed to get enhanced either by increasing volume size and element count. improving the complexity and physical fidelity or by evolving the numerical methods used. Evolution of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations [15] Illustris was run across multiple supercomputers such as CURIE at the Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission in France and at the Leibniz Computing Center in Germany. due to being very expensive computationally speaking. Such features include the distribution of the different galaxy shapes and preponderance of specific elements in the Universe.5 Mpc) 3 which contains 41. 416 galaxies and generated a new degree of fidelity for certain observed features of the universe. The largest run took 19 million CPU hours over 8. among others. Establishing a link between the distribution of galaxies made up of normal matter and the observations was achieved by directly accounting for the baryonic component (gas. by galactic winds driven by star-formation and thermal energy injection of black holes. but the list includes Harvard’s Odyssey. AREPO [16]. etc. the code behind the simulation. the motion of cosmic gas and the emergence of black holes and stars. as a result of hardware development. The simulation tracks the evolution of more than 12 billion resolution elements in a volume of (106. where the mesh-generating points of this tessellation are moved 324 . on the SuperMUC computer.

• precisely measuring the gas content of the universe. The adaptive mesh is used to solve the equations of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach using a second-order unsplit Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. The authors mention several achievements obtained when comparing the output of the simulation against observations: • successfully reproducing a wide range of observable properties of galaxies and the relationships between these properties. their properties. and where it resides • investigating the number of "satellite" galaxies. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT with the gas flow. Mock images of the simulated galaxy population [16] 325 . and their connection to cosmology • study changes in internal structure as galaxy populations evolve in time • the impact of gas on the structure of dark matter • “mock” observations Figure 5.

nasa.int/ Our_Activities/ Space_Science/ Planck [8] Lambda-CDM model .https:// en.Simulations." [18] In the future.Alexander Knebe. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES Simulations such as Bolshoi.springeropen.com/ [3] The largest virtual Universe ever simulated . another player might join the scene and contribute to explaining the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy. Also.org/ wiki/ N-body_simulation 326 . The quantum computer was used to simulate virtual particles in vacuum. http:// www.sciencedaily. Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing. several experimental physicists working for the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences built a quantum computer with four qubits.wikipedia. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 3.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Smoothed- particle_hydrodynamics [10] N-body simulation . we may be able to understand these experiments better one day.https:// en.org/ wiki/ Lambda-CDM_model [9] Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics . trapped electromagnetically.org/ wiki/ Physical_cosmology [5] “How to Simulate the Universe in a Computer” . However.https:// www. REFERENCES [1] Computational astrophysics . As projects similar to these 3 will “inevitably” scale up along with hardware developments.com/ releases/ 2017/ 06/ 170609102251. hard to generate on Earth."We cannot replace the experiments that are done with particle colliders.gsfc. showing that quantum computers can simulate the way particles may behave at extremely high energy levels. quantum simulations might aid researchers. In their latest work [17].esa.https:// comp-astrophys-cosmol. for example. to mimic the dynamics inside neutron stars. Swinburne University of Technology [6] Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe . researcher and co-author Peter Zoller mentions that . by developing quantum simulators. and produce larger volumes of higher quality data.https:// map. The qubits are in fact calcium ions.wikipedia.wikipedia. Even though a quantum computer of such small scale might be enough to tackle problems which are otherwise impossible using classical approaches. Data Analysis and Algorithms .scholarpedia. PKDGRAV3 and Illustris.https:// en.http:// www.org/ article/ Computational_astrophysics [2] Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology .https:// en. make a solid statement regarding the “bright future” of computational astrophysics.htm [4] Physical Cosmology . this particular problem researched could be computed by classical computers as well. controlled by laser pulses.gov/ [7] Plank (ESA) .

Steinmetz. D. V.org 327 . Turchanino . Primack. M. http:// www. G.html [18] The Illustris project. D. Riebe. A. J.livescience. Enke.3660.Potter. S. Nelson. Torrey. J. Primack .https:// arxiv. Hernquist [16] “Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer” . J.Nature 534. Sijacki. G. D. V. S. Kyplin. Vogelsberger. 516–519 (23 June 2016) [17] https:// www.illustris-project. H. Teyssier. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [11] “Dark matter halos in the standard cosmological model: results from the Bolshoi simulation” A.pdf [12] “The MultiDark Database: Release of the Bolshoi and MultiDark Cosmological Simulations” . J. V. Klypin. S. Prada. L. Forero-Romero.M. F. A. Gottlober.0003. Lemson. Bird. Stadel. Springel. Trujillo-Gomez. Greengard. Partl.org/ pdf/ 1109. 1987 [15] “Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation” M.pdf [13] “PKDGRAV3: beyond trillion particle cosmological simulations for the next era of galaxy surveys“ .https:// arxiv. R [14] “A Fast Algorithm for Particle Simulations” L. R. P. Snyder.org/ pdf/ 1002. Rokhlin. D. S.K. Xu.com/ 55196-quantum-computers-simulate-beginning-of- universe. Genel.

KEYWORDS: smart class. Developing a strategy which relies on the innovative and meaningful use of technology will cater for diverse student needs.ro 328 . are essential for a transformational learning experience. experiment and conceptualization (Cerghit apud Kolb. reflection. specific to the student predisposed to engage in learning tasks based on intrinsic motivation (curiosity. Ph. pedagogy. Unlike the cognitive style. knowledge. Bucharest. in the next sections we focus on the presentation of the most popular mobile apps which. his learning style is formed (in fact. with pauses or sustained) (Woolfolk. Romanian-American University. Learning style is the expression of a strategic learning specific to learning. the individual preferences for the specific learning environment. experiences.rau. the learning style identifies the concrete ways in which the individual reaches changes in behavior through experience. foreign languages. INTRODUCTION Any teaching process has as a general purpose the exploration and optimal exploitation of students' learning resources. which involves extrinsic motivation which is linked to hope for success (this student will make special efforts to acquire new and new knowledge in the hope of the rewards it brings). which refers to the organization and control of cognitive processes. values. coanca. Romania. for the rhythm of learning. m-learning.D. 1998:128). for a more efficient use of m-learning opportunities to enhance language skills. Lecturer. attitudes. One of the most important such resources is the learning style. 2002: 208).. The paper points out the fact that both teachers and learners have realized the importance of communicational competence in exchanging information. Closely related to the overall structure of the student's personality. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT FEATURES OF SMART LEARNING Mariana Coanca 1* ABSTRACT The first section of our paper deals with an insight into pedagogy and how technology can contribute to successful teaching and learning. the preference for structured versus unstructured situations for teamwork versus self-learning. a style focused on acquisitions. 1.mariana@profesor. pleasure). Therefore. the preferred learning and study pathways. which describes the student who is predisposed to engage in learning tasks and makes special efforts for fear of failure (extrinsic motivation). the learning style refers to the organization and control of learning and acquiring knowledge strategies. According to Kolb. Other authors prefer the phrase “approach” instead of learning task. Research on learning style has attempted to identify not only the variables that define the learning style but also their 1* corresponding author. reproductive style. etc. More recent studies have identified three categories of learning style: style centered on meaning.

Reflective observation (learning by observing others or by reflecting on one’s own experiences or others). . productivity and creativity in the target language. in line with the training requirements at university level and socio-cognitive maturity of educators. In the twenty-first century the textbook is no longer the norm. multi-media laboratories. stimulating receptivity. explaining and understanding their own observations). to place the learner at the center of the learning process. Abstract conceptualization (learning by building concepts and theories for describing. such as wireless technology. m-learning and e-mail dialogue.Adjusting the syllabi to meet the needs of learners and introduce digital pedagogy. .Modernizing the study conditions (specialized content manuals. and specialized content according to the learners’ needs and the dynamics of their knowledge. in the sense of mutually beneficial cooperation for the high efficiency of the instructive-educational process. 2009. procedures. It has become incidental and took on different forms.Selecting didactic methods. technological and economic changes that have determined people to prepare for second or third careers and to keep themselves updated on new developments that affect their personal and social goals (Ornstein & Levine. Active experimentation (learning by using available theories and concepts to solve problems and make decisions). . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT influence on learning. maintaining and capitalizing on motivational tensions in activities which target text and the context of specialization.) that facilitate the activities and operations for the amplification of general and communicative skills in favor of the specialist language in foreign language. 329 . M-LEARNING UPTAKE The following mandatory aspects for a responsible educational attitude towards all the actors involved are highlighted in many studies (see Bradea. and a participative stage in which the learner is able to create new media as a result of the investigations.Stimulating. These are part of the lifelong learning paradigm which was driven by the rapid social. hand-held devices. Marimescu. an interactive stage where there are opportunities to explore.Enhancing the foreign language teacher-student relationship. Kolb’s Inventory (1981) (Kolb Learning Styles Delineator) analyzes students’ preferences for: Concrete Experience (Learning by Direct Involvement). optimized by training. etc. . 2009): . as well as those variables that can be controlled. . Heppell (1993) pinpointed three learning stages that are noticeable in student’s use of technology: a narrative stage characterized by observing and listening to things on the technology. The technological knowledge and skills will be essential components in training programs for teaching staff. 2. .Organizing professional situations/contexts in which the interaction of learning prevails.Indicating the need for a possible (optional) orientation in psycho-pedagogical training and methodologies of future modern language teachers. 2008: 438).

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT . instructions and applications. evaluation of the results of that action. active-participatory methods are based on the idea of the operational constructivism of learning (Cerghit. Marinescu apud Blândul.). The consciousness is imprinted by the fact that self-education is a process that is done voluntarily when the person has reached a degree of maturity that allows him to realize the importance of self-education in his personal and professional development. at the planetary scale. a premise (because of) an education of genuine quality. creative exercises. 2005) are the following: understanding the need for change as self-education starts from a reality that needs to be changed. It is a learning situation that integrates mobile connection tools that create the premise of an area of spread of messages. proceed in line with the proposed objectives. anywhere. a learning that is based on one's own activity. which is in line with the initial objectives and the requirements in which they were achieved. attitudes. experiences.Developing programs of continuous training for teachers of foreign language (seminars. in other words the intrinsic motivation of the desire for change is an essential condition in the realization of self-education. M-learning is a new paradigm that creates a new educational environment where learners have access to course syllables. etc. appeals to the mental and cognitive structures that the student has and which is used in producing the new learning. 2009). practically global. research. Modern education is based on an action-oriented methodology. should be aware of the importance of communicational competence in exchanging information. 2009: 85-87). learning by doing. (Marinescu. These are the methods that lead to the active forms of learning. . etc. these are methods that train students to carry out independent study. which can be designed and pursued in educational approaches (effect) and at the same time. existence of the desire for change. anytime. which implies a voluntary effort to overcome external and internal barriers. the person being aware of this need. practical things. Self-education can be considered “a conscious. values. creative learning. establishment of the proposed objectives – which are realistic objectives and in accordance with the person's possibilities of identification. self-analysis of own resources and possibilities when there is a need for self-knowledge for the identification of the strong and vulnerable points. 330 . 2009. knowledge. conferences. The active participatory methods include all those methods that trigger an active learning state.Signaling the need for a (optional) orientation in psycho-pedagogical training and methodology of future modern language teachers. From this point of view. oriented towards a goal that each individual deliberately proposes and for which it is necessary to make a personal effort” (Marinescu apud Barna. Promoting self-education can be a formative objective. explorative learning. psycho-pedagogical and applied didactics studies. Both teachers and learners. systematic activity. work with books. for an efficient use of m-learning opportunities. The main stages of self-education (Marinescu apud Barna. M-learning is different from traditional training in the sense that all components of traditional learning change functionality in mobile learning. problem-solving. thinking and imagination. etc. in accordance with the training requirements at university level and socio-cognitive maturity of educators. 2006). respectively for capitalizing the bonuses and correcting the latter. Active learning engages productive-creative capacities.

visual and animated sequences. Lingoes It is a dictionary and multi-language translation software providing results in over 80 languages. We noticed that a plenty of dictionaries and thesauruses are listed for free download. Learning takes place in mobile locations. . . translate selected text and pronouncing text and abundant free dictionaries as a new generation dictionary and translation software. . Russian. Rich communication. with subjective inflexions. Arabic. capture word on screen. Flexibility. 24 hours / 7 days. Immediate feedback. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Several novelties induced by m-learning compared to e-learning are outlined below (Marinescu apud Sharma & Kitchens. Japanese. spontaneous. . Notification of the arrival of an email is done instantly. Lingoes offers users the instantest way to look up dictionaries and translation among English.lingoes. . Korean. Chinese. . German. . (http://www. Spanish. It owns full features of current popular commercial software.html) With the creative cursor translator. without inhibitions. . . Lingoes automatically recognizes the word and its definition as soon as one moves the cursor and point to any text then press the key. Audio and video conferencing. Swedish. It is one of the best tools for learning all kinds of languages. . Unlimited connection space. Polish. and creatively develop cross language design and open dictionaries management. .lingoes. spread anywhere. Time interval is variable. Interlocutor time is used to support and individualize training. . Placement and testing is in any place. Thai. It offers full text translation. French. as much as each student needs. Examination is done when the learner is available. Tests are based on text. Marking and notifying the results is done electronically. . Greek. . . Group is made up of virtual connectivity. Vietnamese. (http://www. POPULAR TOOLS a. Communication is direct. 3. synchronous. . 2004): . Turkish. . but they are also based on audio and video interventions . Connection is done without waste of time. Instruction based on several audio. . .net/en/translator/index.net/en/translator/index. Italian. Flexibility in terms of difficulty and number of problems to solve. Individualized tests. Hebrew and more over 80 languages.html) 331 . instant connections. Rich feedback.

Yahoo. which makes text translation very easy. Once a selection of a word or sentence is made on screen by cursor.net/en/translator/index. Lingoes integrates cursor translator. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. Lingoes interface We have listed its features below (http://www. . Lingoes provides the function of words and texts pronunciation based on the newest Test to Speech (TTS) engine. By simply pressing Shift key. One can freely choose these engines for translation and compare the different results generated by different engines to help understand the texts in languages which he/she is not familiar with. . .lingoes. the system will automatically recognize the words selected by the cursor and display results. it will translate as many as 23 languages of text into a native language. etc. The online translation service offered by Lingoes integrates the most advanced text translation engines in the world.html): . Promt. . . 332 . One can translate words in any places of the screen by using the cursor translation function of Lingoes. Cross. which can help one quickly learn the pronunciations of the words and is very convenient for study and memorizing. looking-up in dictionaries and intelligent translation by creative “translate selected text”. Lingoes offers text translation and dictionaries in over 60 languages in the world and supports cross translation between different languages. including Systran. Google and Altavista. The open management allows an easy download and install dictionaries according to own needs.

There are provided thousands of dictionaries in all kinds of languages and fields for users to free download and use. one can make use of online dictionary service and get more results. Scores from the Duolingo English Test were found to be substantially correlated with the TOEFL iBT total scores. iOS.mainly because it is not aimed solely at an English native speaker. Equipercentile linking was used to establish concordance between TOEFL scores and the Duolingo test scores. In addition. which present strong criterion-related evidence for validity. Duolingo interface Since launching in 2012. Without local dictionaries. Feifei Ye assesses some of the evidence for validity and reliability of the Duolingo English Test for non-native English learners. In order to establish its efficacy. the Duolingo test scores were linked to TOEFL iBT scores to establish concordance. either via the website or mobile apps for Android. and moderately correlated with the individual TOEFL iBT section scores. b. Many Duolingo courses are created by native speakers themselves which empowers communities and language passionates to get involved and gave rise to perhaps less expected courses such as Guarani or Klingon. Duolingo English Test scores are on a scale of 0–100 and TOEFL iBT total scores are on a scale of 0–120. For international students to apply for studying in US 333 . For each language there are specific courses that aim at those with different first languages. The Duolingo test scores presented high test-retest reliability over a two-week interval. more than 150 million students from all over the world have enrolled in a Duolingo course. which to date produces 81 courses. Duolingo This app has become a very popular example of mobile language learning. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT .lingualift.com/blog/best-language- learning-apps/) Figure 2. . (https://www.

by demonstrating that relatively simple mixture models can deliver these benefits.e. 2015:48). the author expressed his hope that further work will focus on more sophisticated approaches that use mixture models as a building block (Streeter. 334 . Introduction The spacing effect is the observation that people tend to remember things more effectively if they use spaced repetition practice (short study periods spread out over time) as opposed to massed practice (i. unlike challenges which involve translating a sentence. which simplifies error attribution. For example. “cramming”). reducing error by 45% compared to several baselines at predicting student recall rates. Another study makes several contributions to student modeling.. improving upon the population-level learning curve analysis that is typically used for this purpose. Listen challenges are attractive because. The Duolingo dataset consists of a collection of log data from Duolingo. There is one KC for each word in the correct answer. Finally. 2014). Students who use Duolingo progressed through a sequence of lessons. or to determine which of several possible translations of an English sentence into Spanish is correct. the author focused on listening challenges. the minimum cut-off score of TOEFL iBT is 80 and a more selective cut-off score is 100. This approach is not perfect because it ignores word order as well as the effects of context (students may be able to infer which word is being said from context clues. For these experiments the author used a simple bag-of-words knowledge component (KC) model. HLR was able to improve Duolingo daily student engagement by 12% in an operational user study. HLR model weights also shed light on which linguistic concepts are systematically challenging for second language learners. The author presents models of student learning that generalize several prominent existing models and outperform them on real-world datasets from Duolingo. if a student learning English hears the spoken sentence “I have a business card” and types “I have a business car”. 2015:1). he shows how these models can be used to visualize student performance in a way that gives insights into how well an intelligent tutoring system “works”. in which the student listens to a recording of a sentence spoken in the language they are learning. For these experiments. then the author would mark the KC card as incorrect. there is only one correct answer. suggesting that it performs reasonably well (Streeter. A worth-mentioning study by Settles & Meeder uses data from Duolingo to fit HLR models. and a KC is marked correct if it appears among the words the student typed. the student was asked to solve a sequence of self-contained challenges. each of which took a few minutes to complete and taught certain words and grammatical concepts. corresponding to scores 50 and 72 respectively on the Duolingo English Test (Ye. For example. while marking the KCs for the other four words correct. then types what they hear. of various types. Finally. a student learning Spanish may be asked to translate a Spanish sentence into English. Second. However. even if they cannot in general recognize the word when spoken). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT universities. Within each lesson. the learning curves generated by this KC model were smooth and monotonically decreasing.

Memrise The fun of Memrise lies in two things: memes and gamification. (https://www. Busuu learners contribute their native speaking skills to the platform by correcting texts created by those who study their language. The special aspect of Busuu is that learners can engage native speakers in their personal learning process. The desktop version even allows learners to chat to native speakers in real time (https://www. The app takes the learner through learning individual words to simple dialogues and questions about the dialogues all of which include audio where the learner can listen to native pronunciation. Babbel The free version comes with 40 classes. Then the words are being used in related phrases and short dialogues adjusted to the student’s level to help quickly build conversation skills.lingualift. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT c. Handy pop-ups with the app explain most important grammatical points related to the learned material and the desktop version includes short cultural notes. Hello Talk An app aimed to facilitate speaking practice and eliminate the potential stress of real time conversation.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/) f. The app follows a learning method that relies on creating funny or bizarre associations with the studied words. Users can correct each other’s messages with an in-built correction tool. (https://www.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/) e. The power of Memrise also lies in two things: spaced repetition and mnemonics. Each class starts from step-by-step teaching of vocabulary with the aid of pictures.lingualift. Courses are often coupled with memes designed to playfully help remember the vocabulary. Apart from the general beginner’s courses.lingualift. The app also has an integrated translation system to help one avoid those moments when he/she really wants to communicate something but just lacks the one word that gives the sentence its proper meaning. The memes are created by the community and everyone can add their own.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/) 335 . so even without investing money the app allows students to learn a fair amount of phrases in one of the 13 languages it teaches. Busuu Busuu offers full courses in 12 languages. The lessons are organised in topical themes where we learn skills and expressions connected to tasks. Learners can find native speakers and converse with them using a whatsapp-like chat with voice and text messages. The app is free but to unlock most of the features and course materials one has to invest $17 a month.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/) d. The spaced repetition algorithm calculates when and how often one should review each word and the app will send the learner reminders when it’s time to review.lingualift. Babbel also has separate packages devoted to improving specific skills such as grammar or vocabulary. (https://www. which transforms the language exchanges into tiny tutoring sessions.

Each teaches you a specific practical skill and can be read in a couple of minutes. Lingua. 336 . A feature called the slang slider displays different levels of formal or casualty of each phrase so one can adjust it to the specific context he/she is in. collaborative learning. It can predict what contexts will enhance learners’ experience and suggest contexts to suit the needs of the moment. (https://www. due to technological advancements. The study is based on texts pulled from the internet. As one learns he/she will be shown a text. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT g. (https://www. (https://www. The lessons are short and written in simple English.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/) h. developing cooperation skills.ly At first the app will asses the level of the learner. The lessons are divided into handy sections such as “safety phrases” or “business phrases”.lingualift. and when one is really at a loss of words he/she can even call a real translator. In order to develop this potential. reconsider traditional methods and capitalize on them in a digital environment to create diverse learning situations with regard to the acquisition of a foreign language.lingualift. Teaching methods used in foreign language acquisition are those centered on learning. by asking whether he/she knows specific words it will estimate the learners’ level and the range of learners’vocabulary. CONCLUSIONS The implemented interactive technology is used below its technical and pedagogical potential. we need to develop new strategies for the mobile age and conceptualize learning. Based on this feedback the app will be able to match future texts to one’s level more accurately. fast access.lingualift.com/blog/best- language-learning-apps/) i. It has an inbuilt voice translator rendering English in the foreign language. flexibility and adaptability. compatibility and independence of certain technologies. Leaf Based on one’s location and phone usage the app suggests most relevant lessons.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/) 4. close collaboration is needed between technology developers and teachers in different education segments. communication and relationship. The app is aimed to get one to speak and be understood so that he/she should not feel lost in a foreign environment. The main needs identified in the learning environment in the studies conducted so far on interactive teaching resources are: interactivity. TripLingo As the name suggests the app is aimed at travellers who need to improve their language skills before their dream holiday. therefore learners will never complain for the lack of material. hear it pronounced aloud and have it added to a learner’s database of words. TripLingo is also an emergency resource. Clicking on a word he/she does not know one will see its translation. interculturality issues and knowledge of an international language.

duolingo. University of Pittsburgh. Aramis.lingoes. Structuri.. 2. (2015). Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves. Reliability. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM). Claudia.videoconferenceinterpreting. ISSN 1844-2048. (2009). Levine. Sisteme de instruire alternative şi complementare. and Taylor J.net/en/translator/index.com/resources [8] Heppell. [3] Braun S. The Proceedings of the “European Integration – Between Tradition and Modernity” Congress. A Trainable Spaced Repetition Model for Language Learning. (2011): „Rezultatele AVIDICUS partea I: Perspectivele serviciilor juridice şi a interpreţilor juridici asupra interpretării tip videoconferinţă sau la distanţă – rezultatele a două sondaje europene”.com/blog/best-language-learning-apps/ http://www. A. (coord.. Tîrgu Mureş. Educational psychology. Foundations of Education. stiluri şi strategii. 45-52. Editura Universităţii Petru Maior. Iaşi. Houghton Mifflin Company.net/files/AVIDICUS_symposium_abstracts. Boston Allyn & Bacon. (2008). [9] Margaritoiu A. Ed.2782/765472 [2] Bradea O. Tendinţe şi orientări în didactica modernă Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Proceedings of the Association of Computational Linguistics (ACL). Bucureşti. (2002). (2015). suport de curs. D. 1848-1858. pp. [5] Cerghit. Metode de învăţământ. [6] Cerghit. Principii şi criterii în activitatea de predare-învăţare şi evaluare a limbilor străine moderne la nivel universitar. [7] Feifei Ye. Validity. Teacher Education. Bucureşti. Studies on Translation and Multilingualiasm. [11] Ornstein.. ISBN 978-92-79-47163-6 doi: 10. A. 229-237.lingualift. I. S. Learning and the Information Generation: The Progression and Evolution of Educational Computing Against a Background of Change. I.html 337 . 1215-1226. Final Report for the European Commission Directorate-General for Translation Reference: DGT/2014/TPSLuxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. pp. Editura Polirom. May 2014 englishtest. [13] Woolfolk. 3. no. (2016). B. and Concordance of the Duolingo English Test Technical Report. vol. http://www. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT REFERENCES [1] Angelelli V. (2014).2. Boston. [10] Marinescu M.pdf [4] Settles. Brezoi A. (2009). Meeder. Public Service Translation in Cross-Border Healthcare.) Metode Interactive de Predare- Învăţare. B. Suditu M. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education.L. pp. [12] Streeter Matthew. Online sources: https://www. (2008). (1998). E. pp.

convenient and also secure solution. Thus. very often. Romania. creates major inconveniences for mobile devices.ro 338 . most online applications have an online mobile version. Department of Economic Informatics and Cybernetics. The National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics Bucharest. mobile devices are increasingly used and popular. The key concept is the identification of the subject involved in the interaction. INTRODUCTION According to [1]. where authentication is password based. we can achieve recognition models based on user behavior. carmen. It also facilitates interactions between software systems located at great distances. Based on these features. university assistant. By adding a second factor as part of the authentication process. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS OF MOBILE WEB APPLICATIONS AUTHENTICATED USERS Alin Zamfiroiu 1* Carmen Rotună 2 ABSTRACT The Internet facilitates nowadays interaction and collaboration between persons located at very long distances from each other. while using observations on user behavior within the application. More and more software developers began to create applications dedicated to these devices. users. Therefore. Password-based authentication represents. Traditional authentication model. in various online applications. online applications. behavior. a solution vulnerable to attacks. zamfiroiu@ici. KEYWORDS: characteristics. It is necessary to validate whether the person performing certain activities on a software system is the person entitled and not an unauthorized one. specific profiles can be created for each user. the purpose of this document is to provide stakeholders (software developers) the characteristics on users conduct within online mobile applications. Romania.ro 2 Scientific Researcher. In this paper we propose a study of the actual context in user authentication domain. this paper proposes the implicit authentication. By using the completed profiles. The National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics Bucharest. Senior Researcher. Bucharest University of Economic Studies. where devices limitations and consumers behaviour require an integrated. 1 * corresponding author. mobile applications 1.rotuna@rotld. increased security is achieved. Thus.

it appears that a transparent authentication experience is recommended. depending on the intended security level. auxiliary. According to studies on authentication process perception for mobile devices. The device usage pattern varies from one person to another. not the rightful user. For example. which enhances security. The threshold that will require explicit authentication may vary for different applications. when behavior analysis determines a level below a certain threshold. but these identify the device. • provides additional security for financial transactions such as purchases by credit card. SSO does not defend well against theft or exchanging devices. Therefore. replacing password authentication entirely. • biometric style measurements. the accelerometers of some devices have been used for user identification and profiling. In this case. The method for determining the score from previous authentications is based on the identification and analysis of user behavior characteristics. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Considering the above mentioned reasons. Users were receptive to biometric authentication and behavioral indicators.SSO). • acts as a primary authentication method. Also. This type of information can be useful to create a more detailed profile for each user. Implicit authentication forms are for example location-based access control. • accelerometer measurements. Implicit Authentication: • acts as a second factor and supplements password authentication. The mobile device itself can take the authentication decisions to determine if a password is required to unlock the device or a given application. such as entering text and voice data. where the devices are shared voluntarily. dynamic typing model and keyboard shortcuts. user information could be another source of data for implicit authentication. biometric methods. acting as a barrier against fraud. Implicit authentication uses a variety of data sources for authentication decisions. There are solutions to reduce the authentication concerns (Single Sign-On . Recently. data can be stored 339 . • WiFi. such as: • location and co-location. Bluetooth or USB connections. the user is required to authenticate explicitly by entering a passcode. the implicit authentication is particularly suitable for mobile devices and laptops. But this authentication method may be implemented for any type of device. In the proposed model. modern mobile devices offer rich data collections on user behavior. • contextual data such as calendar entries content.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT locally. It must be considered. An alternative to password-based authentication method is biometric data based method. that although this approach protects user privacy.the most common example of authentication is based on a single factor password authentication. One of the main issues about setting a password is that most users either do not understand how to create strong memorable passwords. It is also possible to use local authentication to access remote services. Additional policies. User behavior usually depends on the time of the day and the day of the week. ONLINE PLATFORMS AUTHENTICATION METHODS The most common authentication types available for online applications. Therefore. how frequently he makes phone calls to numbers from phonebook or the order of placing calls to certain phone numbers. In general. The security of the password depends on the diligence of the person who sets up an account: the system administrator or user. the face. All approaches. using the SIM card. Best practices include creating a strong password and ensuring that no one can access it. 2. safety measures are needed to 340 . etc. it does not protect against devices theft. These passwords can be cracked within a few minutes. however. The security level of an application varies depending on the category of the authentication factors: • User and password-based authentication . but their location varies during weekends. for example. differ in the level of security provided by combining the factors involved in the process. offering facilities to their users based on username and password only. especially for sensitive platforms. iris) or behavioral traits (ie. for example. mouse dynamics. According to [2] standard password-based authentication is vulnerable immediately after login. Biometric identification methods address users identification by using their physical characteristics (eg. the user model may also take into account combinations of indicators. that increase complexity. an attacker can obtain the information stored in memory and find information about the user. If the device is stolen. as there is no mechanism to verify continuously the user's identity. even those where data is held locally have the potential for confidentiality breaches. a method that allows user continuous authentication is extremely helpful. making them almost as ineffective as if no password is used or if a password is written on a paper and discovered by a malicious person. dynamic keyboard shortcuts. and as a result. fingerprint. which is beneficial for privacy. reduced length and complexity passwords tend to be used most frequently. This problem can result in the use of simplistic rules for creating passwords. This can be a serious problem. Therefore. the user can sign and send an authentication decision to the service provider. People are generally at work in the same location on working days. lead to high volumes of requests for passwords related issues in the enterprise environment. or underestimate the need for security.). Modeling user profile should contain all his behavior patterns.

for example. 341 . an organization must involve everyone and spread awareness. For example. Biometric authentication is based on the use of a proof of identity as part in a process of authorizing a user to access a system. such as creating less predictable passwords. All employees must be aware of phishing tactics. from management to their employees. Many biometric authentication methods. Password testing predicts the ease with which it could be broken by: guessing it. DNA or signatures. Biometric technologies involved. • Biometric Authentication . password authentication is one of the easiest methods to hack. As a conclusion. can be received also in e-mail messages. in which fake e-mails and websites can be used to acquire sensitive information from one recipient. a smartphone user might connect with his personal identification code. However. "brute force" attacks pose a real threat to passwords. including enterprise security. stored by the system.biometric verification is considered a sub-group of biometric authentication. even using low-performing hardware. Biometric security technologies are used for a wide range of electronic communications. Given the increasing speed in machine processing. This process is sometimes a part of a multifactor authentication system. This is done by comparing the password database with a table of all possible encryption keys. Even IT personnel. are strong when implemented properly. if not properly trained. general purpose parallel graphic processing (GPGPU) hackers can produce more than 500 million passwords per second. dynamic keyboard usage. voice. constraints should be applied to protect them. the authentication is confirmed and the access is granted. trade and online banking. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT prevent these situations. but even in these cases. "rainbow tables" are useful to reverse the cryptographic algorithms and can be used to crack 14 characters alphanumeric passwords in about 160 seconds. the structure of the retina or iris. given the fact that the complexity of the password has no importance. Strong authentication is sometimes considered synonymous with multifactor authentication. verified data. Password-based security may be appropriate to protect systems that do not require a high level of security. For any system that needs increased security. If they are identical. such as Trojans. Biometric authentication systems compare biometric data from user with the authentic. for example. To reduce the likelihood of such an attack. "brute force" attacks. such as fingerprints. "dictionary" attacks or other common methods. hand geometry. Using. and then provide a retina scan to complete the authentication process. single factor authentication is not necessarily week in all cases. rely on how individuals can be uniquely identified by one or more biological distinctive features. Social engineering methods are also a major threat to password-based authentication systems. if an attacker tricks a user to divulge it. Depending on the particular software. can be exploited through invalid passwords related requests. stronger authentication methods should be used. Other threats.

voice analysis. Figure 1. facial recognition. Any of the biometric identification methods has certain characteristics that make it suitable for use in an authentication process. f. such as an identity card. confirming that the entity that wants to access the account is indeed the rightful user. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Nowadays there are several methods for collecting and reading biometric data to ensure strong authentication. 2FA security system reinforces the fact that the rightful user must provide two items for identification from different categories. Two-factor Authentication [4] Using this system to validate a person's identity. in an attempt to log in. the user’s identity is not established with certainty and therefore the access request is rejected. at least one component is missing or incorrectly provided. Typically. something the user has. Two-factor authentication requires two types of credentials before an user can connect to an account or system. • Two-factor Authentication (2FA) "Two-factor" Authentication (also known as 2FA) is a type of multi-factor authentication based on unambiguous identification of users by combining two different components. proof of identity is composed of two items: something memorable a security code or password and a physical evidence. hand geometry. retina scan. c. The second factor authentication increases 342 . or something that is inseparable from the user. b. digital signature. e. others can be used without the subject’s knowledge and others are very difficult to forge. is based on the assumption that it is unlikely for an unauthorized entity to provide the two factors required for access. These components can be something the user knows. Some are fast. Biometric authentication methods examples: a. g. fingerprint. d. If. iris scan.

a password sent as text. 343 . 3. for example. 2. A person on average takes about 10 seconds to solve a typical CAPTCHA. a PIN number. Some devices can also store other information. b. is based on two fundamental things: a shared secret and a moving factor (counter). 2. Examples of factors involved in two-factor authentication are: a. which means that every time a password is generated. Tokens are used to validate user’s identity (as in the case of a client attempting to access the bank account). to prove that the person is who claims to be. it should also access the physical device to enter the user’s account. fingerprints: 1. Two-factor authentication by implementing HOTP or TOTP: 1. in an authentication process: something a user knows (knowledge factor).RFC6238) is an algorithm that calculates a unique password from a shared secret key and current time using a cryptographic hash function to generate a one-time password. which consists of reading and reproduction of text. several separate items from the following categories. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT security because even if an intruder steals a password. CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) is a type of challenge-response test. Smart card. This algorithm is based on events. 4. One Time Password. the moving factor will be increased based on the events. several factors are used to enhance the security of transactions compared to two-factor authentication. Captcha usage. This user identification procedure has a shortcoming for those whose daily work is slowed down by the distorted words. c. USB Device. A token is similar to an electronic key accessing a system. TOTP (Time-based One-Time Password Algorithm . which are difficult to read. In multi-factor authentication use case. It is used in addition to or instead of a password. • Multi-factor Authentication Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a method of access control where a user is granted access only after providing.One Time Password algorithm) described in RFC4226 standard. HOTP (HMAC . so subsequently generated passwords should be different every time. such as a digital signature. something a user has (factor possession) and something the user is (factor inherence). or biometric data like. Digital Certificate. used to determine whether or not the user is human.

In such a system. Typically. with restrictions concerning hardware resources and software resources. Multi-factor Authentication • Three-factor authentication (3FA) Adds another security factor and prevents counterfeiting authentication. and to match the rightful account owner retina scan and fingerprint. • Five-factor authentication (5FA) A five factors based authentication system is based on the three factors frequently used (knowledge. Mobile devices provide users the benefits of connecting to the internet anywhere and anytime. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 2. • Four-factor authentication (4FA) 4FA authentication increases security through the use of four unique factors for authentication. while connected to a USB token cloned. Such a system checks. a biometric feature measurement is added. plus location and time. and all this in a timeframe accepted and verified in order to gain access to the system. a user must reproduce something he knows or remembers. possesses the identity card and if fingerprint match the stored records. possession and inherence). for example if the person intending to login knows the password. MOBILE WEB APPLICATIONS Web applications for mobile devices are software applications developed to run in browsers for mobile devices. It turns the intent to compromise an account into an impossible mission. provide a biometric sample. his location must be correct. 3. prove that it possesses an item with authentication capabilities. since a hacker should be using a portable device to break a password. 344 .

web applications must coordinate this action and not require a permanent connection.a usual web application is developed for a classical computer. for mobile devices. which has a larger monitor size. therefore.when mobile devices are connected to the Internet via wireless. so that it may be rearranged according device's screen size Highlighting the important content The user must not press more than 2-3 times to get the desired information Links Assign shortcut keys for each link on a page If a link used within the web application is not usable on a mobile device. Recommendations for mobile devices web applications Hierarchy The division of displayed information. Use only alphanumeric characters and URL Page content Highlighting the important content The most important topics are positioned at the top of the web application’s main page Page Do not use frames or tables arrangement Do not use absolute sizes Forms Use the dropdown lists. where possible Images and Use reduced dimension pictures colors For spacing do not use graphics or animation. An image should not exceed 80% of the device screen width Screen size Two sites with different sizes for mobile and desktop devices are recommended 345 . presented in Table 1: Table 1. Following an empirical analysis. the user should know about this situation Ability to automatically dial a phone number that is written in the web application content Navigation Minimizing scrolling process through web pages of mobile applications Positioning the most used sections at the top of the page to be readily accessible for mobile users Include navigation buttons at the top of each page Include navigation buttons at the bottom of each page Footnote Include a link to the desktop version of web application information Include a link to the feedback page Page titles. • connecting to the Internet . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The specific characteristics of web applications for mobile devices are designed in accordance to mobile devices limitations: • the size of the display screen . text within the web application must be readable also from mobile devices. radio buttons and checkboxes to minimize user interaction with the application Use default values. so internet connection is lost. Page title and links must not exceed 15 characters navigation links. a list of recommendations for designing mobile web applications was developed. • resolution is very important for images and text displaying. the user is likely to move out of network range. web applications must be adjusted to the display size of the device used.

in this case the virtual keyboard. • how the keyboard display is closed when no longer necessary. the user can achieve this through touch action. • Save page option. • the amount of time a key is pressed. alike the case of a computer keyboard. • return button to previous page of the web application. • the area covered when typing. but also other mobile-specific features such as: • text typing speed. • touch screen area to run (scroll) a page. saving the sector used to run the page content within the app. for users who want larger text content or want to view more content in a single page. this feature depends also on the user's physical appearance. the speed is significantly different on mobile devices compared to typing on a computer keyboard and varies from one user to another. • increase or decrease content font size. similar to the area where a user holds the cursor. saving the last web page browsed on that drive. • History. • web page full screen mode so that web page content can be displayed on a larger area of the mobile device. depending on the size of the user's fingers. ANALYSIS OF USERS BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS In web applications for mobile devices case. mobile device screen is divided into several sectors. used to save web application pages in device memory so the user can access these pages even when the device cannot connect to the Internet. Figure 3 and Figure 4. can be determined the interaction characteristics which will help create user profiles. Dividing the screen into two sectors to run the page 346 . we can take into account specific characteristics of traditional web applications. 4. • based on the web applications characteristics and user interaction mode. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT All mobile devices browsers share the following characteristics: • Bookmarks to save important user pages. it should be measured how much time a specific button is pressed on the virtual keyboard. just outside the keyboard area or by using the device’s botton for leaving the current activity. or a text. each user has a push pattern on the mobile device. 1 2 Figure 3.

so that it reads comfortable the text displayed in the application. These characteristics must be measured for all online application users and. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 123 Figure 4. Table 2. • how the user holds the mobile device when writing (landscape or portrait). Measurements realized for a t number of sessions Session TS CK ZRT RM WM S1u TS1u CK1u ZRT1u RM1u WM 1u S 2u TS u2 CK u2 ZRT2u RM u2 WM u2 … … … … … … u u u u u S i TS i CK i ZRT i RM i WM iu … … … … … … S tu TS ut CK ut ZRT tu RM ut WM ut Where: S1u – is the session 1 for the user U< TS – text typing speed. 347 . or use multiple fingers to write text using the virtual keyboard. For each property in the set. ZRT – zooming required to read text. two fingers from different hands. each user prefers a certain degree of text magnification. CK – how the keyboard display is closed. a series of measurements will be conducted after the user is authenticated and a working session is created. Dividing the screen into three sectors to run the page • zooming required to read text. for other devices with physical keyboard it may not apply. The results are then saved in a database as presented in table II. • how the user holds the mobile device when reading (landscape or portrait). achieve a profile for each user. RM – how the user holds the mobile device when reading. this characteristic applies only to users who use devices with virtual keyboard. WM – how the user holds the mobile device when writing. the user can use a single finger. • editing mode. based on these measurements.

These characteristics are measurable. July 28. J.com/2012/01/11/fbi-biometric-database/ [8] NIST Authentication Guideline.nist.com/4278-2/ [6] IBTimes. No. Yampolskiy.co. 3. Chow. Int. Action-based user authentication. [2] J. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was been carried out as part of the Nucleu project: PN 16 09 01 02 – Cercetări privind autentificarea online în cadrul aplicaţiilor software bazată pe comportamentul utilizatorilor (Research on online authentication in software applications based on users behavior). [3] V. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 5. Vol. Implicit Authetication through Learning User Behavior. [4] FTC seeks public comments on facial recognition. IEEE Transactions On Image Processing. REFERENCES [1] E. In the end of the study it was performed an analysis on the user behavior characteristics. models concerning the user profile based on the identified characteristics will be developed.donseed. 1. R.com/2012/01/10/ftc-seeks-public-comments-on-facial- recognition/ [5] Fingerprint sensors. http://www. Further. https://crisisboom. 2012.html#sec4 348 .uk/un-biometric-iris- scanners-transforming-syrian-refugee-programme-by-preventing-fraud-1527362 [7] 5 Things You Should Know About the FBI’s Massive New Biometric Database. A research was conducted on how users interact within web applications for mobile devices. 2014. Niu. 99-113. were determined characteristics of user interaction in online applications. 2016. Information Security.ibtimes. Shi. Jakobsson. In a future research. Roth. https://crisisboom. 2015. On Continuous User Authentication via Typing Behavior. The models will vary depending on the metering model and the capabilities of the web platforms developed using different programming languages. R. facial recognition and biometric surveillance to propel biometrics market. https://pages. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. http://www. and optional to be included in user behavior analysis module. 2012. UN: Biometric iris scanners transforming Syrian refugee programme by preventing fraud.gov/800-63-3/sp800-63- 3. Y. M. 2008. Electronic Security and Digital Forensics. CONCLUSIONS In this study an analysis of the current state of authentication domain within online applications was conducted. 2011.

aspx [12] Retina scan.asp?ArtNum=16 [11] Understanding Digital Certificates.com/en- us/library/bb123848(v=exchg. https://technet.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology-Article.com/multi-factor- authentication/strong-authentication-best-practices/ [10] Biometric authentication: what method works best?. http://www. https://safenet.com/definition/retina-scan 349 . http://whatis.microsoft.techtarget.65). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [9] Strong Authentication Best Practices.gemalto.

ispas. Romania. Burt and Edward H. The data of each pyramid is stored in a custom file format and is compressed using BZ2. Compression is achieved by quantizing the pixel values in the error images. After finding the optimal split point. generalized pyramid 1. Each error image resulting out of this difference is a level in the Laplacian pyramid. KEYWORDS: image compression. such as static images or videos and with the advent of mobile devices and video streaming.catalin@ymail. the image is split into four sub-images repeatedly.. . ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. bzip2. First. The original image can be recovered by upsampling and summing all the levels of the Laplacian pyramid [4]. summed area tables. costin. image resampling. Lanczos filter. with the increase of content that can be found on websites or on the Internet.boiangiu@cs. 060042 Bucharest. Laplacian pyramid. The split point slides between a starting point and ending point and it’s stored at every step. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT AN IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME BASED ON LAPLACIAN PYRAMIDS Catalin Ispas1* Costin-Anton Boiangiu 2 ABSTRACT In this paper. 060042 Bucharest. Romania.com 2 Professor PhD Eng. A Gaussian pyramid (figure 1) is built by repeatedly downsampling the original image. INTRODUCTION Image compression has become an important subject nowadays. The desire to make an eye- catching website also brings the problem of transmitting that content in a timely manner. Laplacian pyramids as means of image compression were introduced by Peter J. then the Laplacian pyramid is constructed by calculating the difference between the image on level L of the Gaussian pyramid and the upsampled version of the one at level L+1 [1]. Engineer.pub.ro 350 . we propose an image compression scheme based on the Laplacian image pyramids. ”Politehnica” University of Bucharest. the four sections determined by it are used to build four image pyramids. Adelson. since users don’t like to wait for it to be delivered most of the times or expect the content to be delivered in an imperceptible timeframe. in the paper “The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code” [4]. one for each sub-image. 1* corresponding author. in order to find an optimal split position based on their variance.

Graphical representation of a Gaussian pyramid For image compression. in the paper “A Pyramidal Scheme of Residue Hypercubes for Adaptive Video Streaming” [5]. by Adrian Enache and Costin Boiangiu. in the paper “A Generalized Laplacian Pyramid Aimed at Image Compression” [6]. where w is the width and h is the height of the image: 351 . a similar scheme was proposed by Costin Anton Boiangiu et al. The start point and end point are defined as in (1) and (2). which might help to obtain better compression. which will be utilized to construct four Laplacian pyramids. in order to split it into 4 sub-images. when a residual encoding algorithm such as Run-Length Encoding is used. in order to group similar pixels. Splitting the image serves the purpose of separating the “negative spaces”. Then a cross point is sought. in order to obtain better compression. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. THE PROPOSED METHOD The first step of this proposed method is to search for an optimal point inside the input image. The search process starts off in the upper left corner of the image and ends in the lower right corner. 2. The concept of using Laplacian pyramids for image compression is further expanded for video data. where „hypercubes are built as residues between successive downsampling and upsampling operations over chunks of video data”. each encoded into its corresponding Laplacian pyramid. where a scanning pattern is used to traverse the input image during the processing phase. to create four sections of the input image. This paper proposes an image compression scheme based on splitting the original image into four sub-images.

the input image is traversed from left to right. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (1) (2) to avoid special cases in which a sub-image is too small to make any additional operations on it or its size is zero. Due to performance reasons. by using the values in the summed area table T. For 352 . Once these points are obtained. a summed area table (integral image) was used to compute the four variance values (it’s also worth noting that the input image is treated as a 1D array). B. an integral image contains values which are the “the sum of the intensities of all pixels contained in the rectangle defined by the pixel of interest and the lower left corner of the texture image” [2].x and s1.h are the width and height of the sub-image s1. At each step. four sub-images are formed and the variance value for each is calculated using the formula: (3) (4) where and are the mean value and number of pixels of sub-image “j”. C and D (where w and h are the width and height of the input image. Figure 2. y) coordinates of the top left corner of sub-image s1 and T is the summed area table) Two tables are pre-computed from the input image: an integral image for simple sums and one for squared sum values. recovered from the indices A.w and s1.y are the (x. Calculating the sum (represented as S) for a sub-image s1. top to bottom. s1. The product of these four values is calculated and stored for later use. s1. Instead of pixel intensity values.

After the traversal has finished. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT example. Sub-images resulting from splitting the input image at the optimal split point The next step. 353 . the lowest variance product from the ones that were stored is utilized to pick the optimal split point (see Figure 3). Figure 3. is to generate four Laplacian pyramids. In the case of one pyramid. the sub-image is first downsampled (and then upsampled) and the difference between the original image and the resampled one is computed (figure 4). one for each sub-image. This procedure is repeated until the size of the sub- image has reached 1 pixel (or the compression scheme has become too inefficient. once the optimal split point has been found. only a sum and two differences of values from the summed area table are necessary (see Figure 2). due to the fixed data overhead added on every stored level) then the process stops. to determine the sum from relation (4) for a particular sub-image.

BZ2 [8] was chosen to compress the error images which resulted after this step. most of the sample values “tend to be near zero. because one of the compression techniques it uses is the Burrows-Wheeler transform [9]. and therefore can represented with a small number of bits” [3]. The residue dimensions are kept in the following manner: odd index values contain the heights and even index values the widths of the residues (Figure 5). an array with the widths and heights of the residues found at each level. The PIFF (Pyramid Image File Format) contains information such as: the number of pyramid levels. an array containing the pixel data of all the residues and the array’s number of elements. Custom file formats Two custom file formats were used: one for the image pyramid and one for storing all the resulting four image pyramids. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 4. each row of an individual error image is stored in the order described by a raster scanning pattern. this represents one level of the Laplacian pyramid The motivation behind this step is that. Because the error images resulted during the pyramid construction phase can contain negative values. although more sample elements that in the input image are produced. 354 . which might exist in this case. their pixel data is stored as short integers. Obtaining a residue image R from the images I and J (produced by downsampling and upsampling I). No further processing is done on the residues. which further improves compression when it comes to repeating sequences of values.

OBTAINED RESULTS During the testing phase. a scaling factor of 4 was used and 3 types of filters were tested: Nearest Neighbour. Figure 6. The compression algorithm used is BZ2. The structure of the Pyramid Image File Format (up) and the Multi-Pyramid Image File Format (down) 4. Baboon. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 5. four grayscale versions of the following images were used: Lena. For decimating the images. Cubic and Lanczos. Peppers and Jellybeans [7]. all in uncompressed format (figure 7). 355 . during the image pyramid construction phase. Graphical representation of the array in which the residues dimensions are stored The MPIFF (Multi-Pyramid Image File Format) contains the original width and height of the input image and four pyramid structures like the one described earlier (Figure 6).

7975825 neighbour Jellybeans 256x256 65.0450303 neighbour Baboon 512x512 257 kb Cubic 238 876 1. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Table 1.1002415 Nearest 210 266 1.3910021 Lanczos 191 396 1.2563514 neighbour Peppers 512x512 257 kb Cubic 189 912 1.0323398 Lanczos 33 868 1.7 kb Cubic 33 148 2.2703132 neighbour Lena 512x512 257 kb Cubic 183 140 1.3802169 Nearest 37 477 1. Performance of the proposed image compression scheme Image Compression Compression Resolution Raw size Filter name (bytes) factor Nearest 207 955 1.9891342 356 .4330942 Nearest 252 785 1.1058792 Lanczos 240 100 1.4424374 Lanczos 184 334 1.

CONCLUSION In this research paper. The algorithm could be further improved by introducing space filling curves. Computer Graphics. The four images used to test our compression scheme (left to right. Also worth trying is finding a better way of encoding negative values. Crow. rather than using short integers to store negative values. which could help attain better compression. 1997. such as the image “Jellybeans”. 357 . number 3. July 1984. pp. Lena. pp. Dec. and Jellybeans (Source: The USC-SIPI Image Database) 5. C/C++ Users Journal. Summed area tables for texture mapping. by grouping similar pixels [6]. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 7. 207-212. volume 18. Image compression using Laplacian pyramid encoding. issue 12. The best results were obtained on images that contain negative spaces. [2] Franklin C. top to bottom): Baboon. REFERENCES [1] Jeff Perry. Peppers. 35-47. an image compression scheme based on Laplacian pyramids was proposed. volume 15.

USC University of California. H. Pyramid methods in image processing. Adelson. Burrows. IEEE Transactions on Communications. volume 8.usc. Costin Boiangiu. A Generalized Laplacian Pyramid Aimed at Image Compression. 2014.J. Bergen. R. RCA Engineer. pp.html. Marius Vlad Cotofana. International Journal of Computers and Communications. pp.Wheeler. C. A Pyramidal Scheme of Residue Hypercubes for Adaptive Video Streaming.php? volume=misc. J. A Block-sorting Lossless Data Compression Algorithm. May 1994. Available online. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [3] E. Anderson. Digital Systems Research Center. Burt. [9] M. Cristian Lambru. Retrieved from: http:// www.bzip. Accessed at: 30 May 2017. December 2016. [5] Adrian Enache. Volume 29-6. H. Accessed at: 30 May 2017. J. Burt . April 1983. volume 31.327- 335. P. J. 532-540. retrieved from: http:// sipi.org/ index.edu/ database/ database. 358 . Alexandru Naiman. [4] Peter J. Ogden. Adelson. volume 10. pp. [6] Costin Anton Boiangiu. issue 4. The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code. [8] BZIP2 Homepage. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management. [7] The USC-SIPI Image Database. 34-41 Nov/Dec 1984. number 2. Edward H. Research Report 124. pp. 128-133. M. D.

Lecturer. camellia_slave@yahoo. University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. relative speeds (RS) and relative displacements (RD). focusing on the role of geometry in preventing seismic damages and how the program ROBOT Millenium can be used to analyze a masonry structure. INTRODUCTION The fundamental concepts developed by UNDRO-1979 (United Nation Disaster Relief Coordinator) applied in seismic risk assessment systems developed by EAEE (European Association on Earthquake Engineering) are based on specific mathematical concepts and provide the necessary conditions for thorough analyzes of seismic hazard and seismic vulnerability associated with the seismic risk. The paper presents the construction planning of trilobite churches and the evolution of the vulnerability concept regarding the Romanian cultural heritage buildings.rau. software package. the link between seismic risk (SR). seismic hazard (SH) and seismic vulnerability (SV) can be expressed by means of formal relationship: SR=SH × SV From the interpretation of the above relationship it results that the associated seismic risk (SR) of both the locations and the exposed objectives is based on the combination of seismic hazard (SH) and seismic vulnerability (SV). Ph. expressed in terms of maximum acceleration (PGA) (PGV). The examples provided in the paper reveal the fact that geometry is a measure of induced intelligence and it plays an essential role in preventing rotation. and maximum spectral values of absolute accelerations (SA).mariana@profesor. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT USING SOFTWARE PACKAGES TO ANALYZE THE VULNERABILITY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE BUILDINGS Camelia Slave 1* Mariana Coanca 2 ABSTRACT The seismic protection of buildings and masterpieces which have ecclesiastical and monumental architecture calls for further actions.D. KEYWORDS: churches. Ph. hazard. Unanimously accepted. seismic risk. Romania. Romania. 1.. Bucharest. the ground motion from the site (local 1 * corresponding author.. Bucharest.D. Romanian-American University. coanca. Vulnerability can be expressed through specific source parameters (focal mechanism). vulnerability.com 2 Lecturer. maximum displacement (PGD) of ground area. The Seismic Vulnerability (SV) means the destructive effects caused by a strong seismic action on exposed elements or systems built.ro 359 .

A recent study proposes a new and effective type of composite bonding as a temporary seismic intervention for quickly protecting masonry structures against aftershocks.. .It represents the degree of expected loss. we can say that the seismic vulnerability has a random nature as the action of a particular earthquake can cause structural damage to all buildings in the same location. . Therefore..1.Estimating the vulnerability of a structure means linking the seismic risk and intensity of the expected earthquake to the level of structural damage if the earthquake occurs (Slave. caused by a natural phenomenon. Therefore. 2010). and the structural feature of exposed elements (conditions for seismic protection of buildings). Kwiecie´n et ali. and expressed in terms of probabilistic or statistical terms.It shows the degree of loss of a given element at risk. . the seismic vulnerability can be defined as a relationship between the intensity of the action and the level of seismic damage that is expected to occur. 2. . loss of life due to the degree of intensity of a place or an area. or a system built exposed to suffer damage or certain specific losses due to the incidence of an earthquake. in a probabilistic sense.In order to assess the seismic vulnerability.It is based on the susceptibility of exposed elements. degree and duration of exposure. therefore. etc. There is a practically generalized inconsistency regarding the definition of the seismic risk concept in most specialized papers published in Romania and abroad as shown below:. This innovative composite strengthening system is based on highly deformable adhesives made of special polyurethane that can be applied very quickly and is mechanically removable. 2016). 360 .2. specific details are needed for statistical- probabilistic analyses and/or approaches of structural engineering. . 2.It is the damage that will be faced by a building or its exposure to the action of an earthquake. Seismic Vulnerability (SV) Defining seismic vulnerability displays a variety of aspects: . giving time to authorities for making decisions on a proper permanent repair intervention of the heritage structure. expressed in relation to a certain scale.It is defined as the sum of damages. economic analyses. SEISMIC PHENOMENA 2. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT conditions). due to the occurrence of a natural phenomenon of a given magnitude. depending on the natural hazard. or a group of such elements. Seismic Risk (SR) The notion of seismic risk is complex. . it could play an important role during interventions on historical structures (A.

injured persons. the seismic hazard can be defined as a relation between the degree of seismic damage and the probability of manifestation of an intensive seismic movement. (b) degradation of a system of exposed elements that are object of analysis and (c) a current situation regarding the seismic vulnerability of various elements and their exposure.3.It represents the expectation of a series of seismic events which. . at a given place and within a given time.It characterizes the likelihood of an earthquake with destructive potential in the site chosen for a building. throughout its lifetime. enacting the rules and regulations of construction. various losses). and by imposing measures regarding spatial planning. Seismic Hazard (SH) Several definitions of the seismic hazard from the existing literature in the field of Engineering Seismology and Geophysics are presented below: . according to the methodological needs.The seismic risk is proportional to both the frequency of occurrence of the disastrous phenomenon considered and the extent of its consequences for the population. .It consists in the probability of producing a disastrous event. as a result.It provides a synthetic characterization of the expected sequence of seismic events with different levels of severity by using probabilistic concepts. . . the environment and the technological infrastructure.It is the expected number of lost lives. . disruption of economic activities due to a natural phenomenon being. . property destruction. assessed on the basis of existing consequences. can be considered in relation to the sources or the locations which correspond to a Poisson process.Risk is considered as an anticipation of losses and other negative events.The seismic risk is the synthetic characterization of the expected sequence of occurrence cases: (a) effects of different degrees of gravity (damage cases.It is defined as the probability of occurrence of expected adverse effects due to earthquakes over the lifetime of a construction. starting from the premise of the probabilistic independence of different earthquakes.It is likely that the social or economic effects expressed in money or victims exceed the expected values in a given place and time. and damage to the physical state of construction. economic and social disturbance.It represents the possibility of incidence of a negative social impact. .The seismic risk that is accepted by society is regulated at government level. . of a certain magnitude. In this regard. The expected adverse effects include loss of life. the consequence of a specific risk. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT . . . 2. .It is the probability of occurrence of a potentially destructive natural phenomenon within a specified time frame in a specified area. 361 . by establishing the hazard areas.

cultural receptiveness and artistic refinement achieved during their time (Sofronie. three or four towers were added to decorate the ecclesiastical monuments. in the fourteenth century. The trilobite shape is far from being the most suitable for churches to face the earthquakes. UNESCO s Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) which has defined cultural heritage by the following classifications (Harun. it is necessary to specify for each case study whether there are considered several types of events. However.25. However. For centuries. surface earthquakes or medium depth earthquakes. these Orthodox churches still reflect the foreign influences on the native art of buildings. Moreover. Popa. inscriptions. trilobite churches were made of stone and brick. like that of a two or three-storey building (Sofronie. CASE STUDY –THE ARGES MONASTERY Harun emphasizes the fact that the concept of heritage is invariably. 1999). two.It represents the natural physical degree of exposure of a particular geographical area. Originally made of wood.It is the likelihood of occurrence when a certain level of maximum acceleration is exceeded within a certain timeframe. the Byzantine model was based on the standard Greek system. 2011: 42-43): . The two geometrical characteristics of the turrets are the outer diameter D and the height H from the base to the top of the masonry dome. 362 . 3. while all other peoples of Latin origin are Catholic. 1999). while their slenderness is defined by the D / H aspect ratio. art or science. These have always been Orthodox churches. At the beginning. The size of the trilobite churches is quite small.Monuments: architectural works. cave dwellings and combinations of features. they were creatively adapted to the regional traditions of secular architecture. called Pantokrator. As a general rule. . with the right-cross type. Later.4. . Popa. which is usually between 1/2 and 1/3. these churches were provided with a unique bell tower. Being erected in stone and brick. 2. these Eastern Balkan- Byzantine-style Churches have always been the proof of the level of technical knowledge. because Romanians are the only Latin nation of Orthodox religion. they have been the most representative masterpieces which boast ecclesiastical and monumental architecture. Under seismic phenomena.It is defined as the probability of an earthquake of a certain magnitude at a specific place and time. which are outstanding universal value from the point of view of history. The construction planning of trilobite churches The oldest monumental buildings preserved in the Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic region are churches. . elements or structure of an archeological nature. works of monumental sculpture and painting. some of these churches were dramatically damaged or even destroyed.In order to characterize the seismic hazard. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT . rectangle inlaid and dome supported on pendants or pillars. they have been faithfully preserved over the centuries. Sometimes one of the rear turrets is used as a bell tower and /or as an oriel.

to carry out structural analysis. are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history. between 1512 and 1518. and designing the structure easier.Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and of man. viewers and tables that are used to perform specific defined operations. Basic options available within the modules are accessible both from the text menu and the toolbar. ROBOT Millennium Software Package For the determination of gravity centers (GC) and rotation centers (RC). The menu consists of two parts: a text menu and toolbars with appropriate icons. calculating. The most important features are: number units and formats (dimensions. Layouts available in ROBOT Millennium were created to make consecutive operations leading to defining.1. under the reign of Neagoe Basarab. the structure was analyzed using ROBOT Millennium. another toolbar with most frequently used icons is displayed on the right side of the screen). It was built in six years. where the prince and his family were buried. many other churches were modeled in a similar way. One of the most representative trilobite churches in Romania is The Argeş Monastery. according to the users’ needs and preferences. to verify obtained results. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT . a monastery was built around the church. their homogeneity or their place in the landscape. aesthetic. Due to its special beauty and fame. analyzing and designing various types of structures. art or science. and areas including archeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical. selection of analysis types. forces. according to the country and the possibility of creating user-defined material) section database (selection of the appropriate database with member sections) structure analysis parameters (selection of the static analysis method and definition of basic parameters for dynamic and non-linear analysis. The program allows users to create structures.as a horizontal bar at the top of the screen (additionally. Today it is an Episcopal Church and a heritage monument 3. The layouts in ROBOT Millennium are specially designed systems of dialog boxes. They can be used interchangeably. possibility of saving results for seismic analysis – combination of seismic cases). It is a single integrated program used for modeling. because of their architecture.Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which. possibility of unit edition) materials (selection of material set. Later. 363 . ethnological or anthropological points of view. . to perform code check calculations of structural members and to prepare documentation for a calculated and designed structure. ROBOT Millennium has been equipped with a layout mechanism that simplifies the design process. Both are displayed in the same way . as a church mausoleum. (Figure 1) The second method of work with ROBOT Millennium is by using the special layout system. for some layouts in the ROBOT Millennium system.

1943).ytimg.com/vi/m1cf4hv_EMQ/maxresdefault. related to the need for balance. The Robot Millennium interface (Source: https://i. The beauty of the church charmed the Prince. Therefore.2. Both centers. if the ideas presented above are carefully analyzed. the former center of mass or gravity. The mysterious forces that cause the destruction of the church walls overnight can only be those caused by earthquakes. To prevent masonry from building more beautiful churches. surprisingly. The work was carefully organized and well-structured until the walls began to rise. the ancient concept of durability can be expressed as follows: a. Then. when a location with a lower seismic intensity was chosen for The Palace of Parliament (Sofronie. This rule was applied in Bucharest. 1999). Popa. but only to clever people who could understand their true meaning. The Sacrifice Myth and Further Analysis According to the famous legend of Negru Voda. Only after the sacrifice of the head mason’s wife was the church built entirely. Each church has two intrinsic centers. That depends mainly on the seismic hazard of the site and the seismic risk as well. GC and RC. a Romanian prince ordered a masonry team to build a church on the upper course of the Arges River at the foot of the Carpathians. in seismic areas the construction site should be carefully chosen. he decided to sacrifice the head mason and his masonry team (Eliade. It is a long tradition to build churches and monuments on the hills or local heights where the seismic intensity is somewhat smaller. everything that was built daily. The idea of centering the church from the very beginning is. Inertial forces induced by earthquakes 364 . b.jpg) 3. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. The legend is meant to convey certain professional standards. Indeed. in principle. collapsed overnight. and the latter center of rotation or rigidity. lie on the longitudinal axis of symmetry. The most important source of information comes from the location history.

736 = 0.000 m Y_M = 5. Going up.00-8. which is. Figure 2.500 m X_R = 8. Indeed. Positions of centers of gravity and rotation in areas with fullness rotation in areas with voids The shape highlights the geometry of the church towards the building materials.7% <5% <10%. but also plays an essential role in preventing the rotation. the eccentricity of seismic forces. In the case of The Argeş Monastery. Geometry means not just creating a balance. The seismic vulnerability of churches depends on the relative position of the two centers. in fact. 2004): In the areas of fullness: X_M = 9. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT are applied in the CG and in compliance with the RC of torsion as a whole. the seismic action reaches the turrets and its own inertial forces produce shearing. it was found the following (Sofronie.2% <5% <10% In the areas with voids: X_M = 9. the distance between the two centers. It is also a measure of induced intelligence. Positions of centers of gravity and Figure 3.4 m (between the axes of the walls). In the case of the Arges Monastery.736 m Y_R = 5.500 m X_R = 8.500 m The difference between 〖X〗 _M and X_R is 9. should be reduced to less than 10% of the length of the church. for seismic protection. so the eccentricity between X_Msi X_Resse of 2.25 = 0.4 m (between the axes of the walls). ENV 1998-1-2 Part 1-2.184-8.250 m Y_R = 5. so the eccentricity between XM and XR is 3.184 m Y_M = 5.500 m The difference between X_Msi X_R is 9. According to the Eurocode 8. in order to create space for the sacrificed person’s body.448 m The length of the church is 20. the sacrifice myth had geometric consequences. the head mason was forced to change the original 365 .75 m The length of the church is 20.

while the shear forces decrease. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT form of the church by extending the narthex. but remains less than 5-10%. both parts of the church were changed identically. things change essentially. given the distance between them. The two centers almost overlap (the difference between them is 45 or 75 cm (depending on the section . the extent of shear forces is reduced by about 32%. in accordance with the durability requirements. Balance is the main condition of aesthetics and beauty (Sofronie. The same cannot be said about their turrets. That explains why the apses of the trilobite designed churches were without exception so well-preserved. is 5% of the total length. the distances from the RC to the apex of the walls increase substantially. Oriental churches which comply with the Trilobite Plan were sanctified during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when religion played a decisive role in all European societies. This typical form was developed for structural reasons.2-3. The general torsion phenomenon has been modified accordingly. That explains why so many trilobite churches have cracks on their apses and measures for their restoration must be taken. namely at the beginning of the arches. The original planning is shown in Figure 4. The extended trilobite planning Indeed. Figure 4.27% of the total length of the church. Most of them are cracked on the circumference. they are below 1. Trilobite churches are spatially balanced buildings as they are able to safely handle gravitational and side effects. Since the distance from RC to B is smaller than RC to A. The original trilobite planning Figure 5. for the same moment of torsion. For reasons of symmetry. In the particular case of The Argeş Monastery. RC passes on the other side of the GC on the symmetry axis. curved walls would be more exposed to seismic actions. always in the same place. The shape allowed physical connections between curved and straight surfaces. from horizontal to vertical planes. as recommended by the EC8 and P100-1/06. the result is far from being as favorable as it appears. 366 . It is even smaller than the accidental eccentricity which. In this way. At the same time. 2004). By expanding the narthex as in the case of The Argeş Monastery. the relative position of the two centers changed. as well as by the use of plastic behavior of masonry as a building material.full or void). The two intrinsic centers of GC and RC are behind the central axis. However. What happens in this case is that the eccentricity increases by 2. according to the same provision of Eurocode 8.7% of the total church length. and as dimensions. the shear forces are inversely proportional to the distances from the RC to the extreme points.

Peter in Rome. both had technical problems. Reduced or limited seismic vulnerability can contribute substantially to reduce seismic risk. to the phenomena of instability of the geological masses (landslides. The seismic hazard (SH) is independent of man’s interventions and. By coincidence. and numerical models are used to develop accurate and realistic methods for assessing the structural performance during earthquakes. The seismic hazard (SH) refers to the potential causes that can lead to disasters. while the church of The Argeş Monastery with those mysterious forces occurring only during the night. are being developed to cope with major and exceptional events. In the former case. Prior to consecration. By applying the most advanced theories of that era. The antiseismic design of masonry and monument buildings is a top priority because human lives must be protected and the cultural heritage buildings must be carefully preserved. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 4. huge water accumulations by large dams). therefore it cannot be modified or diminished while the seismic hazard (SH). it can be said that the seismic vulnerability is of a random nature. A high seismic vulnerability indicates a low level of resistance to seismic actions or low antiseismic protection. The legend is intended to convey certain professional gold standards. with the gravity. That is why he admits that the myth of the sacrifice has an esoteric character. while the seismic risk (RS) is specific to the negative effects of the earthquake. Mircea Eliade mentions that in antiquity it was a tradition that some professional rules should be kept secret. On this basis. seismic risk scenarios. Site data collection. mainly due to the seismic action (generated by the natural tectonic or volcanic activity). can be substantially reduced by competent interventions on the seismic vulnerability of the exposed elements or built systems. The Arges Monastery in Wallachia was built in the form of a trilobite Greek cross. At the end of the commentary on Manole’s legend. and structural feature of exposed elements (conditions for antiseismic protection of structures). because the action of a certain earthquake can cause substantially different structural degradations on identical constructions situated in the same location. The devastating effects of earthquakes can be reduced by correctly estimating the seismic hazard and the seismic vulnerability of the built environment through statistical and probabilistic analyses. It is the proof of what today is called seismic protection. CONCLUSIONS The seismic hazard (SH) can be defined as a potential threat. in the early years of building the Basilica of St. collapses in karst areas or mining) or surface geomorphologic phenomena (liquefaction of sands. Therefore. St. The Argeş Monastery has resisted for almost five centuries. but only to people who could understand their true meaning. The notion of seismic risk is a probabilistic concept that includes material damage and loss of life. as well as defensive measures designed to reduce human and material losses. The above example highlights the role of geometry in preventing seismic 367 . Peter’s Church. The seismic vulnerability (SV) refers to the destructive effects of strong seismic actions on exposed elements or built systems. Vulnerability can be expressed through source-specific parameters (focal mechanism). the problem was solved scientifically. test results. which is the consequence of hazard. site movement (local conditions). after more than two centuries the cracks of the dome were repaired.

Bucureşti. ( 1943).R. [6] Sofronie.C. Proceedings of the IASS 40th Anniversary Congress. Madrid. pp. Italy. R.N. The message attributed to the myth of the sacrifice seems to consist in the idea that trilobite churches are paraseismic masterpieces.II. M. S. Prague.H. Workshops. UTCB. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT damage. (Eds). (1999). Verstrynge. 123-130. [8] Sofronie. [5] Harun. Controls. pp. 379-387.I. Online source: https://i. [7] Sofronie. A. Assisi. In Procedia Engineering 20. pp. pp 19-23. Geometrical approach of restoring the monuments. Zaja˛c. Long term behaviour of three-lobed churches. REFERENCES [1] A. (2016). Comentarii la legenda Meşterului Manole. Diagnosis.. C. Van Balen. R. Popa. E. pp.com/vi/m1cf4hv_EMQ/maxresdefault. [9] Slave Camelia September (2010). Seismic risk assessment of existing structures. [4] ENV 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistence..ytimg. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Seismic Performance of Built Heritage in Small Historic Centres. pp. A. 41-53. Temporary and removable quick seismic protection of weak masonry structures using highly deformable adhesives. [2] Cod de proiectare seismică – partea A III-A – Prevederi pentru evaluarea seismică a clădirilor existente indicativ P 100-3/2008 (Seismic Design Code. Vol. (1999).P. K. R.jpg 368 . and Nappi. Kwiecie´n.. 1528-1535. Heritage Building Conservation in Malaysia: Experience and Challenges. (2004) Vulnerability of Romanian Cultural Heritage to Hazards and Prevention Measures. (2011). PhD Thesis. Spain. Proceedings of the A. Therapy. Popa. In. M. Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions: Anamnesis. Part III-A- Provisions for seismic evaluation of existing buildings indicative P 100-3/2008) [3] Eliade.C. London: CRC Press. and Nappi A. G. Gams.525-540. Publicom. Viskovic & B. (2016).

mihai. Politehnica University of Bucharest. Romanian-American University. academia and civil society organizations [1]. Knowledge society and e-Governance are closely connected. 1* corresponding author.” The approach for implementing e-Governance is always top-down. Lecturer PhD. This paper is structured in six chapters: introduction. Due to the increase of online interactions compared with the offline ones. from state to citizen.state organizations. case study and conclusions. Its result is formalized by the extension of e-democracy implementation.pyr@gmail. Digital development offers a new perspective on the future directions of the Knowledge Society development. a process whose ultimate goal is to increase the degree of political participation of citizens and the efficiency of the administrative apparatus. botezatu.alexandru@profesor. the pressure for greater openness and accountability intensified. the use of Power BI in the analysis of e- Governance implementation at regional level.rau. e- Governance and cybersecurity. Power BI. (Figure 1). Knowledge Society. The connection between services and security involves the development and introduction of internal governance reforms designed to offer a more citizen-oriented approach through better integration and coordination between involved organizations/institutions. KEYWORDS: e-Governance. Cybersecurity. as the latter is one of the major pillars of the knowledge-based society. claude. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN E-GOVERNANCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY SPECIFIC FACTORS Mihai Alexandru Botezatu 1* Claudiu Pirnau 2 Radu Mircea Carp Ciocardia 3 ABSTRACT The fast expansion of Internet has prompted the introduction of e-Governance at all levels. e-Governance development with Microsoft Power BI. Politehnica University of Bucharest.ro 2 PhD Engineer. This can only happen in the case of interaction between e- Governance and the major components of society . Big Data 1.com 369 . e-Governance and e-reputation. radumirceacarp@gmail. The main issue with the services introduced through e-Governance (as well as m- Governance) is represented by the lack of a technically safe infrastructure. private enterprises.com 3 Associate Professor. INTRODUCTION E-Governance is “the process of reinvigorating the public sector through digitization and new information management techniques.

it is obvious that government support is provided by private enterprises for endowment with hi-tech technologies. To this end. small businesses and industry to fully benefit from the digital single market. knowledge society and citizens of smart cities. the factors that influence the development of e- Governance. • Percentage of persons who use electronic services to return the completed forms to the competent public authorities [3]. including the digital healthcare development and the uniform implementation of telemedicine service in Europe. The Digital Single Market Strategy was adopted on 6 May 2015. Web presence . The sense of e-Governance The Digital Single Market is one of the top 10 European Commission priorities. Knowledge transfer and assessment processes are responsible for the typical association and relationship between e-Governance. the benefits and impact of e-Governance for the knowledge based economy [2]. setting out 16 initiatives to help consumers. as well as between countries with different development levels. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. the government can initiate effective actions through the virtual environment. In this context. This type of evaluation allows differentiation of e-Governance and m-Governance development between rural and urban. The growth intervals of e-Governance in the knowledge-based economy are assessed through specific elements such as: the channels needed to transmit the knowledge flows.citizens need to find all the necessary information on the site. 370 . Thus. The “adoption of e-Governance” variable is composed of the following indicators: • Percentage of individuals using the Internet in relation to public authorities in order to get information. the maturity levels of e-Governance are: • Level 1. • Percentage of persons who download forms. the regional development of knowledge-based society using “its own capital”. the specific knowledge regarding processes that require e-Governance.

It is important to note that security policies create a cycle consisting of the following steps: implementation. E-Governance levels have to transform the existing processes into integrated.6].citizens must be able to contact their own government through its site. Figure 2. • Secure loans. • Management of exceptional situations. Cycle of Security Policies (Source: Vasiu. testing.7]: 371 . Interaction . 2011) The main security policies are: • Treating information as an asset. Public interest items must be available for download by taxpayers. L. and they have to be respected by all user categories of computer system. procedures and policies are required. for example by using the e-mail service. & Vasiu. To prevent cybercrime (more profitable than drug trafficking) and to ensure the security of information systems. online payment facilities. • Level 4. • Protection of intellectual property. • Individual responsibility. • Prohibition of unauthorized IT programs.e. • Functional responsibilities (implementation of security controls and procedures). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT • Level 2. • Controlled access to IT networks. • Controlled access to information. Transaction – i. unified and personalized services. efficient. • Access to external systems. • Authorization by login. Transformation (at local. • Contingency plans. regional and national level) [4]. Factors contributing to the security efficiency are (Figure 3) [5. • Level 3. This level requires the development of internal and external communication processes with the business environment and non-governmental organizations. I. monitoring and evaluation (Figure 2) [5.

which contribute to money laundering and hide crime financing). JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT • The size of the organization. L. & Vasiu. Figure 3. • Category of the organization's activity. Figure 4. I. Specific Risks 372 . According to the theory of possibility. Model of security activity of a computer system (Source: Vasiu. Significant changes took place during that period in terms of political and military strategies. • Collaborative management. 2011) A study concerning the systemic risk of the Bank of England was published in mid-2014 and showed that 57% of respondents in multinational enterprises assessed geopolitical risk as the main challenge. • Dissuasive and preventive efforts (administration can play an important role in identifying and targeting organized crime groups. every regional power tests what we can call “the extension freedom for the limits of maneuver” [9]. • Risk management. The main risks identified in the various activities of the e-Governance process (or related to it) are presented in Figure 4 [8].

Usually. in very few circumstances. There are also high-risk situations and critical moments that require the intervention of the army. The way governments respond to these challenges can have implications both at national and international level. This type of actions is better sourced and documented than other governmental activities. as it is structured in a way that it would create and develop the needed staff – exactly what would be desirable in order to create an effective cyber defense unit. E-GOVERNANCE AND CYBERSECURITY Increasing the complexity of IT systems has transformed the world. In other words. a military response. The vast majority of these crimes lie below the threshold of “act of war”. “spying”. The enforcement of specific legislation has evolved. They provide information and warning signals at national and international level. such threats rarely amount to the level that would justify a military response. 2. that has to manage not only the issue of the different types of strategies but also the new issue related to the expansion of refugee resettlement and integration phenomenon (depending on their origin. In this context. cloud. Given the “proliferation” of IT systems (IoT. both legally and politically. In the context of the increasing number of military conflicts. Generally. such as “threat”. or even a legal one. Specialists in this field use different names to describe the range of cyber attacks. is often not the best answer. “sabotage” “cybercrime” and. making it difficult to enforce the law to diminish or punish them. but they prove to be important. that usually underpin the most sophisticated cyber operations. cyber threats come from outside the borders. the first challenge is to “understand the nature of the threat. “cyber-war”. Differences between these categories may be minimal. The first is the practical risk of creating a crowding-out effect. depending on the nature of the threat. in the case of a cyber attack. including protecting citizens from what we call “harmful content” and other states that focus on “cyber-security” as subset of information security policies [11]. The military personnel specialized in this area has the cybernetic ability to support combat in theatres of operations as well as to safeguard their own systems during peace time.). which in turn require solving an extremely complex problem: cyber security [10]. etc. Moreover. However.). generating ways to protect against internal threats. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Continued geopolitical uncertainty could lead to an increase in the complexity of the transition phenomenon from simultaneous crisis management to the implementation of sustainable knowledge based strategies.” This includes recognition of the fact that there is a major difference in perspective within the international community among those states that prefer to talk about “information security”. religion. qualification. This does not mean that cyber-threats below the “war” level should not be taken seriously [12]. The main steps in ensuring cyber security are shown in Figure 5. while military structures have evolved primarily to provide support against external threats (admitting that the extent to which the army is involved in domestic affairs varies from one state to another). etc. overloading the army generates challenges for at least two reasons. gender. number. the military is mission-oriented. becoming a major challenge for e-Governance. “subversion”. cyber security will have to be a discipline 373 . Implementation of specific programs can only be achieved through new technologies and IT systems. an important role is played by e-Governance. Acknowledgement of the fact that not all cyber attacks are motivated in a similar way is also essential to see how a government could address these threats.

there must be other cyber-security institutions made up of various competent bodies: the police. Figure 5. Another potential approach for any government is the role of the private sector in securing its own security. Few private sector companies are in a position to receive military assistance in cyber security. technical centers to respond to cyber security incidents. is the risk of domestic security militarization. etc. Romania is an integral part of the initiation of the “civil state of cybernetics”. mainly based on the Strategy of Cybernetics Security in Romania. 2015) Second. Seven Steps to Cybersecurity for Control Systems (Source: Shrader Engineering Inc. Naturally and necessarily. For example. These institutions regularly participate in NATO or EU template cyber exercises. national associations to ensure information security. such as the European Council on Cybercrime in 2001 (with 50 signing parties on all continents). but no less worrying. it is necessary to operate permanently on the defended systems. not just one thing that citizens and private companies can expect to outsource to the military. To achieve true cyber-efficiency. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT that everybody in a country takes seriously. The central issue of the role of the army in “defending the nation” against cyber threats is related to the role and capacity of each government. Any country that depends too much on the army to ensure cyber security will probably find it in an undesirable situation to reduce incentives that are needed to develop long- term solutions for the private sector. This can be implemented by creating an appropriate incentive structure for sharing information between companies 374 . Microsoft and the US Federal Investigation Office are working with international partners to detect and annihilate criminal networks in cyber security. which in many countries would be considered a very bad thing. To this end. have simplified international legislation on cybercrime. technical centers for computer operations. Innovative agreements.

• Threats concerning cybercrime. etc. although it is classified as a less immediate threat than the theft of information concerning national security. 375 . in most countries. However. although they are not a direct threat. At present. 3. e-Governance and cyber security. especially where advanced state-of-the-art threat techniques are used. given the potential economic impact. so-called “hacking back”. who can easily express satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the quality of online services and safety in their exploitation. as a result. counteracting commercial or industrial espionage represent another area where military approaches may not be appropriate. or various organizational categories. as no country wants to take on the risk of rising conflicts for this reason. it would fully justify governmental involvement in solving the problem. the application of specific legislation is very important for this purpose. This reputation (positive or negative) comes not only from information produced by a particular entity. each country faces different approaches and points of view. but also from stakeholders and customers. The best government approach in this area could be to use economic incentives. transport. licensing the private sector to respond to intrusions. In general. This indicates the trust and perception Internet users have of online services offered by government. E-GOVERNANCE AND E-REPUTATION E-reputation is a fairly recent phenomenon. communications. In these situations. hence making military approaches less practical or acceptable. Although the army has competencies in this area. sanctions against certain countries are imposed. finance. at national level. This could involve the following categories of activities: the exchange of intelligence information between private sector companies (users and Internet service providers) in order to improve defense systems and procedures against cyber attacks. this type of activity has the potential to seriously destabilize international relations. • Counteracting a potential attack on the critical infrastructure for a nation’s existence (energy. a part of the critical infrastructure is under the administration of private sector.) is another serious concern. most of the time. including regulations to improve security levels. based on the influence of three elements: Internet services. In practice. creating additional emergency training teams to coordinate feedback on the private sector request. public administration. The motivation of such intrusion may be commercial or strictly military (depending if the intruder is a potential opponent who is willing or not to sell the stolen information). they could turn into one (in the absence of effective control) because of the potential of terrorists or certain states to mobilize criminal networks. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT and raising the standards for cyber security (including through governmental regulations). legislation does not allow hacking-back. the results of which can take various forms depending on the level and type of cyber attack: • Defense information theft is probably classified as the most serious threat to national security and. • Actions to protect intellectual property.

Q & A. and data sets. one needs to make a clear distinction between the public and private areas on the web (blogs. namely finding. regions or even countries.). they allow the use of all categories of tools. must include in their future strategies the implementation of e-reputation monitoring systems which are as necessary as cybercrime prevention systems. every individual interested in one’s image must build a digital strategy for professional development. should hire a community manager whose primary duty would be to maintain the digital reputation of an organization or brand. If you think about it. Because they are part of Power BI. social networks etc. Microsoft Power BI is a self-service analysis solution (to optimize decision-making). Being similar to the SaaS packages. building a professional reputation must be based on a positive digital reputation. According to a poll conducted by the FIPO (French Institute of Public Opinion) . Government institutions. 376 . 85% of consumers make purchases and 80% ask before buying based on the digital reputation. integration with other data sources. DEVELOPING E-GOVERNANCE WITH MICROSOFT POWER BI One of the important goals of Power BI projects was also to visualize and monitor the models on the front end for example: Power BI serves this function by displaying data sets drawn directly from cloud sources. an unfavorable online review led to abandoning the purchase process. reports. cyber reputation or web reputation) is not limited only to the individual (employee or client) level but to the image of the entire organization. These are easy to find . 66% of consumers got recommendations before buying. In this sense. 4. refresh data. visualizations. 96% of Internet users are influenced by a brand’s e-reputation during a purchase. now considered a “democratization” of ERP and CRM solutions. and implementing creative solutions. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT There is a quote from a famous American businessman.for VIP reputation on the internet. In 30% of cases. Warren Buffet: “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to destroy it.present in Europe and Asia . following the pattern of a large number of companies. you will act differently. All organizations. Also.being managed in one location. When a person has leading positions. the content gallery. According to the survey. including governmental organizations. and more [14]. Official statistics indicate that every two years the number of employers conducting Internet surveys on the reputation of future employees has doubled. Thus. filtering.” The repercussions of the e-reputation phenomenon (also known as digital reputation. Azure HDInsight. Such a manager needs appropriate tools to help him/her in problem identification processes. Power BI allows organizing and sharing dashboards. or one is in a sensitive position (as is the case with politicians). Power BI reports can be published within organizational packages specific to each team. including interactive data exploration. and SQL Database on several large screens in Arvato’s monitoring center (Arvato Bertelsmann SE & Co – Improving fraud recognition with Microsoft Azure) [13].

allows live queries in SSAS tabular models. which creates a secure SSL channel between the Power BI service and local area data through an output port. The connector can be installed on any server that has access to the web and to the relevant instance for analysis services. integrated with Power BI. after which the data management process can continue using various other methods/models specific to the organization [13. The connector then interrogates the local SSAS cube to return the data. Figure 6. Connectivity Services Analyzer is a client agent that enables Power BI to connect to local SQL Analysis Services instances.14]. Before users can access data from an SSAS database. SQL Server. Cloud data move or scheduling of previous data updates is not needed. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT A unique feature of Power BI is the ability to connect directly to on-premise data sources. activation of authentication is possible via an additional configuration. based on roles. This process does not require the opening of an entry port in the local protection system.reports and data can be viewed in real-time through dashboards. 377 . The connector transmits the name of the new user to an authorized user through the Azure Active Directory service and applies the existing SSAS security permissions. Power BI issues queries about data expression analysis (DAX) to the connector. When a company’s Active Directory is federated with Azure the authentication process works automatically. and the cached connection optimizes the performance of the query [15]. and so on. Example of Live Connection to Power BI When a user browses a Power BI based on SSAS data. which acts as a proxy between Power BI and SSAS. Communication between the connector and Power BI is achieved through the Azure Service Bus. The Analysis Services Connector function. Figure 6 shows an example of a live SSAS connection. If there is no federation with Azure. the Analysis Services Connector must be installed in that location. including SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS).

Power BI can automatically create columns of the month and year type to facilitate reporting based on these elements. 378 . after which they can be exported to Power BI. Power BI supports files with advanced data models. In the EU. when using Power BI to explore data from Facebook. and Azure Stream Analytics. conducted on November 11. Power BI loads the entire data model to increase the level of complexity of the applications. such as Power BI Desktop files and Excel files with Power Pivot data models.ro. By expanding Azure-specific capabilities in Power BI. However. When uploading a file. citizens’ interest in online income tax forms and job search is lower than interest in other categories of e-services [17. 5. Excel and Power BI Desktop files can be published directly into Power BI.18]. Institutions fully financed by the state budget. business analysts can import data from a wide range of localized data sources. filling in and submitting income tax returns. including Azure SQL Database. Institutions fully funded by social security budgets. For example. The positions occupied in public institutions and authorities are classified as follows: I. Power BI Desktop allows you to connect to data from multiple sources.gov. integrated BI solutions can be created without interruption. Azure SQL Database Auditing. For example. USING POWER BI TO ANALYZE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF E- GOVERNANCE AT REGIONAL LEVEL. we can use Azure Stream Analytics to process streaming data. CASE STUDY. looking for job vacancies and online visits to public libraries are the services with the highest percentage of users. The same is true for Power BI Desktop files [16]. Uploading Excel files can be done from a computer or by connecting them to OneDrive for Business or OneDrive Personal. When an Excel workbook is loaded with a Power Pivot data model. data can be accessed through Power BI Desktop. and then publish them in Power BI. Power BI can automatically improve data by detecting key features. allowing the dashboard to be updated in real time. In this case study. simplifying the generation of dashboards and real-time reports. a SharePoint list or its own SAP system. 2. in general. we analyzed the issues related to job vacancy offered through www. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT With Microsoft Power BI.posturi. Central public administration. and then a report can be generated and published later in Power BI. according to Eurostat statistics. 2017. Microsoft Power BI Personal Gateway enables data management and synchronization so that reports and dashboards in Power BI could be always up to date. Desktop or Microsoft Excel. Power BI integrates with other cloud services. They are part of the category of jobs belonging to public institutions. out of which: 1. Similarly. The advantage of connecting to the OneDrive workbooks is that any changes to a workbook will automatically appear in the dashboard and reports connected to the Power BI workbook. if a table in a loaded Excel file includes a data field. For example. Uploading files from Power BI Desktop allows overlapping data from a variety of sources that do not connect directly to Power BI.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 3. Importing data into Power BI For the purpose of smart and sustainable development. we used the specific tools provided by Power BI as shown in Figure 8. demographic statistics (the age pyramid). To make various charts on vacancies status. flexibility in employment. 379 . 4. as shown in Figure 7. The existence of such diagrams can help us in the development and implementation of HR model strategies. Local public administration. Figure 7. human resource crisis. number of people able to work. Institutions fully or partially funded by their own income. file which contains the job vacancy status in each county. Using Microsoft Power BI. etc. Institutions fully financed by their own income. we imported a csv. out of which: 1. 2. Institutions fully funded by local budgets. the role of episodic memory (the link between memories and future plans). Institutions subsidized by the state budget and the unemployment insurance budget. II. job openings subject needs to be matched with elements such as human resource planning.

compared to the management positions (147). depending on the type of employer. followed by those in city halls (approximately 30%). the highest number of new employments happened in local institutions (representing about 60% of total new employments). Employment according to the required level of qualification (figure 10) shows an exponential increase in the technician positions (1046). Figure 9. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 8. As it can be seen. The main graphical representations in Power BI The diagram in Figure 9 shows the variation of job openings in public institutions. Variation in job positions by employer 380 .

11. in 2016. Figure 11. Bistrita- Nasaud and Timis counties.2017. Timis and Sibiu are the counties where the employees earned the highest net salaries in 2016. At the national level. Iasi. we can see that the counties with the most vacancies (in the public system) are: Constanta. Bucharest. In each development region there are statistics regaarding the correlations between number of jobs and income [19]. Variation in job positions by county The regional map of vacancies on 11. between 2. Cluj. Brasov. while the employment in the private sector (dominated by the auto and food industry) is lead by Ilfov. is presented in Figure 12. Mures -1. the top leaders are Bucharest. Sibiu County was number one in the top of the highest salary earners .373 RON and Covasna -1.708 RON.1. according to www. Ilfov. followed by Brasov .posturi.gov.138 and 2. 381 .1. For example. Timis and Constanta. Thus. Alba -1.827 RON. Employment by qualification When considering variation in the number of job openings in the public system by county (Figure 11). in the Center Region.ro. Cluj and Alba.997 RON.689 RON.857 RON net per month. Harghita -1.420 RON. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 10.

posturi. Effective implementation of e-Governance contributes to increasing the level of cooperation and the number of interactions between policy decision-makers.gov. thus increasing the chances of diplomatic settlement of conflicts. salary 382 . schemes. how involved should be a government official to define cover cyber security at national level? Given the involved factors (the rule of the game). etc. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 12. where the number of Internet users is reduced. transmitted and implemented.2017 (Source: www.11. the increase in public sector employment has enhanced the level of taxpayers’ satisfaction in their interaction with civil servants. CONCLUSIONS E-Governance tasks and decisions are generated. in the case of urban localities. The increasing or decreasing number of employees in the public sector may generate fluctuations depending on: the variation in the number of institutions (management of change may lead to the establishment or termination of some public bodies).ro) 6. which implicitly leads to a decrease in the number of interactions at the counter between the two parties involved. first and foremost. customer satisfaction increases with the emergence of new e-services. Regional map of vacancies on 11. depending on the efficiency (models. procedures. customer satisfaction increases as long as the number of interactions at the counter increases between the taxpayer and the civil servant. Currently we are witnessing a paradox of e-Governance: in rural localities. the degree of implementation of e-Governance.) with which governments use their own leadership to develop national cyber security strategies. The main approaches to this end must answer the following questions: Given the number and complexity of the variables. how should governments balance their investment in cyber security and law enforcement both in the state and the private sector? What would be the most effective methods of involving military specialists in supporting the private sector in the event of cyber attacks (when required)? What would be the most effective ways of facilitating international civil society cooperation in the field of cyber security? How can diplomatic initiatives reduce the need to use the army to ensure internal cyber security? What are the methods that can be used by a government to avoid international disputes over cyber issues that would undermine IT security cooperation? The political dimension of a conflict (military or not military) is an unremitting challenge for all the institutions involved. At local level.

B.V. Stephen. Octombrie 2001. S. Bucureşti 2011. M. political life. O. Strategy Process Instruments. E-Government. 2011. German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer. Luc. Colecţia Cercetare avansată postdoctorală în ştiinţe economice. I. A. South Korea. and Development. Ontario. 2010. IGI Global. Gilles. [8] Wirtz. S. M. [9] Didraga. Editura Universul Juridic. E-Governance & Government Online in Canada: Partnerships. Seoul. N. Jeffrey. ISSN 1843-4711. E-Government in Digital Era: Concept. Z. substitutes and inflation. velocity. [7] Fang. R. [10] Ailioaie. [6] Kelvin. P. [4] Finger. L.B.5. [3] *** E-Government and E-Democracy in Switzerland and Canada. 2011. society and spirit) is the determining factor of digital transformation through e-Governance. Canada. information. G. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management. Ed. ISBN 978-3-00-050445-7.2. Practice. visualization and veracity) in the context of the seven dimensions of sustainable development (human being. J. [2] Khanh. April 8.T. Daiser. Universitară. 2014. O. [5] Vasiu. 2015. nature. USA. Summary report of a roundtable discussion.A. variability. People & Prospects. School of Public Administration. 383 . Lausanne.net (consulted in November 2017). Established Ways to Attack Even the Best Encryption Algorithm. Vol. Centre on Governance. 2001. culture. 2015.1/2011. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Pécoud. University of Ottawa. September 2015. Ottawa. Kertesz. security. economy. volume. Criminalitatea în cyberspaţiu. Hera. P. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT increases or decreases generated by changes in the five factors that govern the economy: ownership. Thailand. Ghid realizat pentru Parlamentul României. REFERENCES [1] Barbara. Using online tools to improve civic participation. Communications and Technology Systems for critical infrastructure projects” http://www. School of IT Business. From e-Government to e-Governance? Towards a model of e-Governance. SOOGSIL University. Switzerland. National Institute of Development Administration. J. The implementation of the seven dimensions of Big Data (variety. Managementul riscurilor în proiectele de e-guvernare din România. Digital transformation involves the interaction of four dimensions: service. value. No.W. [12] “Electrical. [11] Tăbuşcă.shrader. 1st edition. Ghidul de e-Democraţie şi Guvernare Electronică. 2002. The critical factors affecting E-Government adoption: A Conceptual Framework in Vietnam. A. Vasiu. Digital Solutions for Contemporary Democracy and Government. Editura ASE Bucureşti. transparency and trust. demand law.

explained/ index.php /Archive:E- government_ statistics#Use_ of_e-government_services_by_employment_situation. 2015 384 . T.com/en-us/documentation/powerbi-desktop-getting- started. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management. 2017. Vol. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT [13] Lachev.insse. [17] http://ec.powerbi.microsoft. [14] https://powerbi. [18] http://statistici. Bucureşti. 11 Issue 1. pp. [19] Botezatu Mihai Alexandru.eu/eurostat/ statistics.jsp?page=tempo3&lang=ro&ind=FOM104B. May 2017.2017-On/Take-Power- BI-Visualization-to-the-Next-Level/m-p/197936. G.europa. [15] https://community. Editura Pro Universitaria. Applied Microsoft Power BI (2nd Edition): Bring your data to life! Microsoft Data Analytics. [16] Căruţaşu. Pirnau. ISBN 978-606-26-0308-3. Facilities and changes in the educational process when using Office365. “Modele de analiză în studiul forţei de muncă din România“.ro/shop/index.Insights-Summit. M.com /t5/ Data. 29-41.

andreea@profesor. Today. Romanian-American University. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT AGE DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSES TO MARKETING COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES USED IN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS Alexandra Perju-Mitran 1* Andreea-Elisabeta Budacia 2 ABSTRACT In order to demonstrate that there are age differences in the way online consumers react to online marketing communication techniques. and direct and positive links between users’ attitudes towards online communication and their intentions vary in strength with different age groups. The study addresses the manner in which potential consumers of different ages react to and examine online social media marketing communication efforts.[2] Studies focused on how different people use the 1 * corresponding author. alexandraperju@gmail. the study builds on a previously tested and validated empirical model showing the influence of online marketing communication via social networks on behavioral intentions.point bump among users ages 30-49. The results demonstrate that direct and positive links between the user perceptions of online marketing communication. Conclusions also feature strategic communication proposals. KEYWORDS: consumer behavior.com 2 Associate Professor PhD. to 77% today. promotional techniques. There has also been a 69. Significant differences between users of different age categories are found and implications for online communication practitioners are discussed. Romanian-American University. Romania. 90% of young adults use social media. By drawing from theories of consumer behavior. a 78-percentage point increase since 2005. since then there has been a surge in use among seniors. Faculty of Management-Marketing. While usage among young adults leveled off as early as 2010. and how their perceptions influence various intentions. with strategic proposals stemming from these results. budacia. based on the findings. given the interactive character of the social media environment. structural equation modeling.ro 385 . by continuing in a structural equation modeling approach. Bucharest. Faculty of European Economic Studies.rau. a previously confirmed model for online user behavior in response to online marketing messages is tested for each age group.[1] Online media tools now allow practitioners to maintain an open dialogue with consumers and influence their intentions. generational cohorts INTRODUCTION New marketing communication efforts must focus on dialogue. online social networks. online communication. at over 35%. Bucharest. Assistant Professor PhD. Age as a variable is strongly correlated with the level of social media platforms usage.

The structural model was based on the Partial Least Squared (PLS) regression algorithm and includes the standardized β coefficients and R squared for each endogenous variable used in quantifying the variation of the variables which can be explained by variation in other variables. [7] All the scales used exhibited high internal consistency in our previous research. thus providing a better understanding of age-based preferences and likely responses to marketing communication messages via social networking sites. to share it or to become loyal to a brand or company are all volitional behaviors. By adding to our own work on a previously tested and validated model [1]. 386 . and examining the effects of age as a variable in complementing the research for our previously confirmed model on a relevant sample of 1097 Romanian social networking site users. TPB has also been widely used in the exploration of variables influencing behavior of Internet users. used to examine relationships between variables and the individual's intention to exhibit a certain behavior [6]. 1. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Internet have found systematic differences across user types among their online pursuits. Model results are shown in both Figure 1. CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND OBJECTIVES In order to show the influences on user intent. results that may aid researchers in explaining the inconsistencies of prior online social media communication research. and the large sample size allowed for a generational cohort comparison of Romanian social networking site users. [8-10]). [3][4][5].g. as participation in online communication and the intentions of social networking site members to assimilate marketing information conveyed by companies. thus it is worth considering whether social networking site users may also react differently towards various marketing communication stimuli. variables and links were formulated in accordance with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). otherwise researchers and practitioners risk unintentionally excluding entire age groups in the suggestion of online communication strategies. In the online environment. multiple studies have established the mediating role of attitude in the relationship between stimuli and online purchase intention and word of mouth generation (e.

251) The present study has two main objectives: O1: To prove that previously hypothesized variable connections are valid regardless of age category. Regarding the distribution of social media users by age. In order to accomplish objective no. O2: To show the effect sizes in model relations in accordance with age categories. 387 . the respondents were grouped as can be seen in Fig.al. 2. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 1. 2014. p.. 2. Structural Equation Model Results (Source: Perju-Mitran et. a restricted PLS regression algorithm (structural equation modeling by means of the partial least squares method) model analysis was performed for each studied age group.

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 2. Respondents were asked to pick their age category. 36 to 50. In digital marketing research and in consumer behavior modeling in particular. Respondents by age groups 2. and creating causal relationships between “Age” and each latent variable of the model. 3. Since a structural model has been previously validated in this. RESULTS As per our first objective. and Table 1. To find out whether there are differences in the intensity of causal links according to the respondent's age. indicating the characteristics of respondents (such as demographic variables). the effects of “Age” as a control variable on the proposed model will be studied. METHODOLOGY Basic demographic information was measured using standard modes of operationalization. the results of introducing the “Age” variable into the model are presented in Fig. 20 to 35. restricted to: under 20 years old. 3. we started from the premise that all causal relationships defined in the model remain significant regardless of age and redefined our model by introducing the “Age” variable. 388 . the study of control variables is imperative. and over 50.

668 Idistr p<0.001 p<0.339 0.001 0.665 Iloyal p<0.001 0. Model with “Age” Variable Table 1. the hypotheses underlying the previous model [1] are rechecked 389 . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Figure 3.001 Based on the new β and p values for the control variables.423 0.494 0.001 0.668 Intinf p<0. Path coefficients and p values for the "Age" control variable Trust Useful Inf Relev Atit Intinf Idistr Iloyal Trust 0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001 Inf Relev 0.804 Useful p<0.424 Atit p<0.

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Table 2. Testing hypotheses for the "Age" control variable

Nr. Hypotheses β (P) Valid
Ip.
H1 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Informative character” (Inf) of the promotional messages sent 0.804
by companies through the online social platform and the
“Perceived usefulness” (Useful) of the promotional messages (<0.001)
sent regardless of the age of the user.
H2 There is a direct and positive relationship between the user's yes
“Trust” in the messages sent by companies via the online 0.494
social platform and the “Attitude” (Atit) towards the messages
sent by companies through the online social platform, (<0.001)
regardless of the user's age.
H3 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Perceived usefulness” of promotional messages sent by 0.423
companies through the online social platform and the
“Attitude” towards the messages sent by companies through (<0.001)
the online social platform, regardless of the age of the user..
H4 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Informative character” of the promotional messages sent by 0.339
companies through the online social platform and the
“Attitude” towards the messages sent by companies through (<0.001)
the online social platform, regardless of the age of the user.
H5 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Relevance” of the promotional messages sent by companies 0.424
through the online social platform and the “Attitude” towards
the messages sent by companies through the online social (<0.001)
platform, regardless of the age of the user.
H6 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Attitude” towards the messages sent by companies through 0.668
the online social networking platform and the “Intention to
use” (Intinf) the information provided by companies through (<0.001)
online social platforms, regardless of the user’s age.
H7 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Attitude” towards the messages sent by companies through the 0.668
online social platform and the “Intention to distribute” (Idistr) (<0.001)
the information within the social platform, regardless of age.
H8 There is a direct and positive relationship between the yes
“Attitude” towards messages sent by companies through the 0.665
online social platform and the “Intention to become loyal” (<0.001)
(Iloyal) to the company, regardless of the user’s age.

390

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From testing hypotheses for the age control variable, it can be noticed that the causal
relationships in the analysis are maintained irrespective of the user’s age. We can say with
certainty that a positive attitude influences the intentions (to acquire supplementary
information, to distribute the information, to become loyal to the company or brand)
directly and positively, regardless of age, thus competing our first objective.
In order to test relationships in control groups, each relationship will be analyzed for 3
age groups (under 20 years and 20-35 years, 36-50 years, over 50 years), as the "under
20" group does not has representativeness by itself. We take into consideration the
significance threshold p and the magnitude of the effect, represented by Cohen's f-squared
coefficients (0.02-0.14 small, 0.15-0.34 medium, 0.35> high).[11]
Table 3. Path coefficients, p values and effect sizes for the “under 20-35” group

Variable Trust Useful Inf Relev Atit Intinf Idistr Iloyal

Trust
0.843
Useful p<0.001
0.711
Inf

Relev
0.246 0.349 0.062 0.492
Atit p<0.001 p<0.001 p=0.249 p<0.001
0.155 0.242 0.043 0.370
0.691
Intinf p<0.001
0.478
0.662
Idistr p<0.001
0.438
0.709
Iloyal p<0.001
0.503
From the start, we notice the invalidation of the Information-Attitude link for this group,
due to the non-observance of the significance threshold p <0.05, which means that
regardless of the intensity difference signaled, the effect has no statistical validity.
Differences in effect sizes will be discussed in detail following the presentation of p
values and effect sizes in the case of the age variable presented for each age group, where
there is a significant difference between groups.

391

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Table 4. Path coefficients, p values and effect sizes for the “36-50” group
Variable Trust Useful Inf Relev Atit Intinf Idistr Iloyal
Trust
0.588
Useful P=0.002
0.345
Inf
Relev
0.433 0.164 0.096 0.470
Atit p<0.001 P=0.002 P=0.021 p<0.001
0.329 0.104 0.043 0.363
0.678
Intinf p<0.001
0.460
0.716
Idistr p<0.001
0.413
0.632
Iloyal p<0.001
0.399

Table 5. Path coefficients, p values and effect sizes for the “over 50” group

Variabila Trust Useful Inf Relev Atit Intinf Idistr Iloyal
Trust
0.813
Useful p<0.001
0.833
Inf
Relev
0.363 0.673 -0.028 -0.013
Atit P=0.012 p<0.001 P=0.401 P=0.038
0.361 0.671 0.028 0.009
0.689
Intinf p<0.001
0.475
0.564
Idistr p<0.001
0.318
0.797
Iloyal p<0.001
0.635

392

6. with a significant difference intensity between the three groups. in the tables of the path coefficients and the p values. with a significant difference in intensity between groups. The direct and positive relationship between the attitude towards the messages sent by companies through the online social platform and the intention to distribute the information within the social platform is more intense in the case of the "below 20-35" and "36-50" groups high). In the direct and positive relationship between the attitude towards the messages sent by companies via the online social platform and the intention to become loyal to the company or brad. 393 . JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Based on the new p values and effect sizes in the case of the age variable. with a significant difference in intensity between the three groups at a significance threshold p <0. 3. with a significant difference in intensity from the" over 50 "(low effect) group. In the direct and positive relationship between the attitude towards the messages sent by companies through the online social platform and the intention to use the information (further inform oneself). 7. 4.05 2. with an existing significant difference in intensity between groups. The direct and positive relationship between the informative character of the promotional messages sent by companies through the online social platform and the perceived usefulness of the promotional messages sent is more intense for the "under 20-35" group and the "over 50" group (high effect) . we note the following: 1. 8. The direct and positive relationship between the perceived usefulness of promotional messages sent by companies through the online social platform and the attitude towards the messages sent by companies through the online social platform is higher in the case of the "over 50" group. the difference between the groups is insignificant. 5. The direct and positive relationship between the user's trust in the messages sent by companies through the online social platform and the attitude towards the messages sent by companies through the online social platform is higher in the case of the "over 50" group. the significance threshold exceeding the value of 0. The direct relationship between the informative character of the promotional messages sent by companies via the online social platform and the attitude cannot be validated in case of differences between groups. the difference between the effects is insignificant.50 "(high effect).05. The direct and positive relationship between the relevance of promotional messages sent by companies through the online social platform and the attitude towards the messages is stronger in the case of the "under 20-35" (high effect) and "36.

Modelling The Influence Of Online Marketing Communication On Behavioural Intentions. Negricea. in the case of users up to 35 years old (young consumers) we suggest marketing communication approaches highlighting the messages’ informative character and relevance. with welcome interventions undertaken at the cognitive and symbolic levels. Edu. Social Networking Usage: 2005-2015.pewinternet. Network Intelligence Studies Volume 2. strategies that underline the usefulness factor to stimulate communication and participation. Future research may also explore hidden mediating variables that may hinder the formation of intentions for different age groups. Perju-Mitran. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS With reference to the study objectives and our findings supported by the SEM analysis results. T. Perrin. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 4. we suggest trust-building communicational strategies. with the objective and an affective and/or symbolic positioning. 245-253. by differentiating age groups and highlighting generational cohort behavior. This group is prone to sharing the information received as long as the source is trustworthy and relevant to their interests. in the case of the over 50 group. pp.org/2015/10/08/2015/Social- Networking-Usage-2005-2015/ 394 . I. [2] A. Second. The present study brings insights for corporate communication. that engage them in conversation. October 2015. the current study adds contributions to the previous findings on consumer stereotypes [12]. brand perception. Third. driven by perceptions of company’s perceived relevance in the online social media space. REFERENCES [1] A. in the case of users 36 to 50 years old. and WOM propensity. as in the present case we lacked representativeness for users under the age of 20. C. First. 2014. we are able to formulate a series of strategic proposals. in accordance with the social media consumers’ age group. Explaining connections between perceptions of promotional messages. Pew Research Center. making it easier to achieve word-of-mouth when the attitude towards communication effort is favorable. applied to consumer-company interactions. Interventions at the affective and conative level will generate more favorable responses. Future research is encouraged to investigate the “under 20” and “20-35” groups separately. as long as emphasis is placed on affective and symbolic positioning. and offering options that highlight the usefulness and informative characters. in which cognitive interventions will preferably be undertaken through objective positioning. we recommend trust building strategies and highlighting relevance. showing that potential consumers under the age of 35 are prone to advocate on behalf of new brands or companies. Available at: http://www. This group will respond favorably to strategic approaches that stimulate communication and participation.

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