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Polyvinyl Alcohol

Celvol™ Polyvinyl Alcohol for
Textile Warp Sizing

Celanese Chemicals
A business of Celanese AG

the yarns are subjected to • Strength shipments three basic physical stresses. the value of a warp with hot water. natural binders. ability. less shed will have favorable endure the load or strain. lower add-ons Overview ever. weaving efficiency of 100% cotton waste. These features have led to improved waste treatment ing proportions depending upon the warp sizing performance. Smooth to minimize is particularly true on spun polyester controls are adversely affected by friction and abrasion. Its tough film. Tough to blends where starch does not provide shed. polyvinyl alcohol will lead to on the slasher and in the weave elastic film which would adhere to reductions in warp stop levels. It can be effective the need for high relative humidity 1 . Features of polyvinyl alcohol warp sizing include superior: • Reduces size handling in the sizing material has been related to its slasher room effectiveness in protecting yarns • Abrasion resistance • More yards on each beam from breakage due to the forces of • Adhesion to synthetic fibers • Fewer slasher doffs weaving. other replacements. particularly on high sley filament yarn. During the weaving • Flexibility/elongation • Freight savings on greige cloth process. This room. strain and abrasion. is easily removed (desized) will lead to several other benefits: Historically. Elastic to the required protection. Since the electronic loom the yarn. These • User friendly slashing • Less size to remove at desizing. An additional benefit is The broad Celvol product line allows fabrics woven on high-speed looms. In addition. type of loom and the fabric styling. Less Shed all three are forces that must be con. Polyvinyl impact on loom operation. how- styles. reduction in labor required for us to select the optimum grade rather Low Add-On cleaning. Since the lower add on used textile warp sizing composition. It will allow flexibility and sufficient alcohol will also increase the also minimize amount of yarn lost as stretch. performance fewer chemicals to process in Although these forces exist in vary. Partially hydrolyzed grades are rapidly becoming the can run at lower add-ons because of Humidity the adhesion and strength advantage The inherent flexibility of films of most widely used polyvinyl alcohols polyvinyl alcohol provides over polyvinyl alcohol resins eliminates for warp sizing in the world. elasticity adhesion of polyvinyl alcohol to Therefore. tough. are stretch. Operating conditions in each the primary end use for PVOH in mill will control the degree of starch Polyvinyl alcohol is the most widely textiles is warp sizing. Improved Weavability The excellent abrasion resistance and sidered in all cases. While Warp Sizing starch. The abrasion resistance.Celvol™ Polyvinyl Alcohol for Textile Warp Sizing Textiles is a major end use market Advantages of PVOH in at levels as low as one-third that of for Celvol polyvinyl alcohol. It is an excellent film former provid- for fabric finishing and adhesives for it will contribute to improved weav- ing a protective coating for spun and screen printing. than a compromise grade for your Yarns sized with polyvinyl alcohol Lower Weave Room operation. applications include hand builders will take up less space on the yarn. the ideal sizing material and toughness of yarn sized with synthetic fibers means less shedding would produce a smooth.

--- These non-gelling grades have a 98..Equal .... since their high Resin Solubility 1 2 3 water resistance can result in Viscosity Stability .0 Weaving to 98. They also tend to gel when Ease of Split 1 2 3 their solutions are stored over long Low Temperature Sizing 1 2 3 Hard Size Elimination 1 2 3 periods.. It will Polyvinyl alcohols are widely eliminated. Desizability 1 2 3 Recoverability .... 2 = Better........ Polyvinyl alcohol solutions are plant can be reduced.....Equal .Equal .. and resistance done at a maximum rate of two maintained for longer periods of time of greige goods to rot and mildew is percentage points every five days to at elevated temperatures. Size waste due to Reduction in humidity should be thermally stable and can be spoilage is the weave room....... strength and abrasion Dusting . Rayon 1 2 3 Acrylic 1 2 3 Super Hydrolyzed Grades Polypropylene 1 2 3 All super hydrolyzed grades have Nylon-Cotton Blends 1 2 3 99...Equal ....... However..- 2 ....... provide more comfortable working reclaimed and reused for sizing...... Sizing cost TABLE 1 can be decreased via reduced Hydrolysis Effect on Performance consumption of virgin polyvinyl alcohol..- potential desize problems..... resistance.8% hydrolysis.. Rating Scale: 1 = Good.. they are Lumping Avoidance 3 2 1 generally not recommended for warp Slashing sizing.....Equal .. resulting Recoverability viscosity change on aging – is in a cleaner weave room.. 3 = Best Fully Intermediately Partially Choosing a Celvol Grade Hydrolyzed Hydrolyzed Hydrolyzed Grade selection is dependent on Yarn Type many variables including yarn type 100% Cotton 1 1 2 and requirements for size prepara- Cotton-Polyester Blends 1 2 3 tion..... leading to generally resistant to spoilage under improved compliance with local environmental standards.3% minimum hydrolysis....... Polyvinyl alcohol solutions are preparation areas.......... slashing.... This means increased.. acclimate loom parts and facilitate that a major problem with starch – shed removal via vacuum.. Humidities of Excellent Size Stability conditions in the slashing and 65-75% are recommended...... Ease of prepa- Abrasion Resistance 1 2 3 Shedding Resistance 1 2 3 ration is a primary benefit for fully hydrolyzed grades which exhibit Finishing minimal tendency to lump or foam. These Fiberglass 1 2 3 grades have the highest water Size Preparation resistance. Foaming 3 2 1 Fully Hydrolyzed Grades High Pressure Squeeze .. conditions and lengthen the life of Resistance to Spoilage Effluent levels from the finishing loom parts subject to corrosion.. weaving and finishing Wool 1 2 3 (Table 1).... Fully hydrolyzed grades are used for Environmental ...

and it gives outstanding other synthetic fibers. Celvol 425 95. is a preferred and desizability.5 Best overall balance of properties for warp sizing. added to promote adhesion. The acetate groups on the poly.0 Similar in performance to Celvol 523.0-98. % Viscosity.0-89. Intermediate Hydrolyzed Grades Celvol 418 These grades have a 95. TABLE 2 Celvol PVOH Grades for Warp Sizing Grade Hydrolysis. It is ties which lie in between fully and partially hydrolyzed significantly stronger than CMC and acrylic binders grades. Product contains a defoamer to control foaming. Celvol 418 is the newest grade of polyvinyl alcohol Celvol 425 polyvinyl alcohol offers a balance of proper. Celvol 523 polyvinyl alcohol is the product for ground and pile warps and toweling.5 13-24 Similar in performance to Celvol 418.5-96. Some of the greatest benefits of Celvol 418 come in the finishing area Partially Hydrolyzed Grades – the product is easily removed with hot water.8 28-32 Exhibits minimal tendency to foam and lump when cooked. mer chain provide superior adhesion to polyester and Typical properties of Celvol 418 polyvinyl alcohol are other synthetic fibers. Improved adhesion to polyester and other synthetic fibers versus Celvol 325. it is 100 percent biodegrad- 90.0 23-27 The acetate groups on the polymer chain provide superior adhesion to polyester and other synthetic fibers. Significantly stronger than CMC and acrylic binders. developed specifically for warp sizing (Table 2). However.5 27-31 Balance of properties which lie between fully and partially hydrolyzed grades. preparing fabrics containing 100% cotton yarns and hydrolyzed products. Used with starch for preparing fabrics containing 100% cotton yarns and reverse blend fabrics containing high levels of cotton.5 cps (4% solution promote adhesion. Celvol WS53NF 86. Conversion to a partially reverse blend fabrics containing high levels of cotton. hydrolyzed grade generally leads to optimum weavability Celvol 325 polyvinyl alcohol. Preferred product for ground and pile warps and toweling.0-93.5 to 97. in particular. 3 . Celvol WS724 91. and like Partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohols have an 87. Celvol 523 87. must add a defoamer to the size formulation to control foaming.5-29.0 to all polyvinyl alcohol grades. cps Comment Celvol 325 98. Product contains a defoamer to control foaming.5-19. Easily removed with hot water in the desize process. adhesion to natural and synthetic fibers.5% hydrolysis range. Costly liquid binders. It provides improved adhesion to polyester and to typically used in warp size. are not required with Celvol 523. Celvol 418 91.5-19. “workhorse” product of the Celvol product line. are unnecessary with partially viscosity).0 18. Costly liquid binders. added to 91-93% hydrolysis and 14.0-95.0 14. with outstanding adhesion to both natural and synthetic fibers. Provides best weaving and desizing performance.0% hydrolysis range. able.0-90.

0 INTERMEDIATE! Acrylic 9. are preferred for sizing of yarns containing rayon. Compared with fully hydrolyzed result in less shed on the slasher.0 4.Yarn Type readily wash off in warm water (80.0 8000 FULLY! HYDROLYZED Nylon 6 11. Reference: C. Partially grades are used for sizing of filament the number of ends out of lease. partially hydrolyzed grades Solutions of partially hydrolyzed These products are also the favored exhibit weaker tensile strength grades can be run at lower tempera- size for 100% wool or woolen blend (Figure 1). since.. 20 °C. addition.0 HYDROLIZED TENSILE STRENGTH. the type of wax and its melt point).0 2. consequently. they geous as it leads to an easier yarn thus saving energy as well as TABLE 3 FIGURE 1 Adhesion to Synthetic Films*(g/mm2) Polyvinyl Alcohol Film Tensile as a Function of Hydrolysis* Film Partially Hydrolyzed Fully Hydrolyzed Acetate 10. split which minimizes disruption to All grades are commonly used to 120 °F).0 6. Finch 6000 5000 0 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 * Tensiles determined on Instron Tester:! 1. the size film and. due to their yarn. A./in2 Polyester 7. lb. including fiberglass. tures (130 °F-170 °F. with the use of a water A weaker tensile strength is advanta. In hydrolyzed grades. acrylic and polypropylene fibers.0 7000 PARTIALLY! HYDROLYZED *Medium viscosity polyvinyl alcohol. the easier split in combina- increased adhesion to synthetic fibers tion with the improved adhesion of Slashing partially hydrolyzed grades will (Table 3).0 1. nylon.7 mil dry film thickness equilibrated to 73 ºF at 50% RH 4 . depending on fabrics. films conditioned at 65° R. grades. soluble synthetic lubricant. size spun yarns of 100% cotton and Lower viscosity partially hydrolyzed reduces yarn hairiness and decreases cotton-polyester blends. H.

• Lower loom stop levels able work environment for the slash. Other advan. it can be controlled via addi. ºF 5 . Squeeze roll laps can be local Celanese representative if • Lower add-ons cut properly without fear of being assistance is needed in this area.creating a safer and more comfort. This advantage in combi- Partially hydrolyzed grades may nation with their adhesion advantage those of fully hydrolyzed grades. foam more than fully hydrolyzed will enhance weavability via: even when exposed to heat set products. • Fewer warp related filling stops scalded by hot size. due to less hairy yarn tages of low temperature sizing Weaving Finishing includes: All polyvinyl alcohols can enhance the weavability of yarns by providing a) Desize – In the production of • Fewer slasher breakouts woven cloth. occur.5% Add-On) 1000 16000 NUMBER OF CYCLES TO BREAK YARN SECONDS FOR FILM TO DISSOLVE 12000 PARTIALLY! 100 HYDROLYZED INTERMEDIATE! HYDROLYZED 8000 FULLY! 10 HYDROLYZED 4000 FULLY! HYDROLYZED PARTIALLY! 0 HYDROLYZED LOW! MEDIUM! HIGH! 1 VISCOSITY VISCOSITY VISCOSITY 130 150 170 190 WATER TEMPERATURE. Fully FIGURE 3 Film Solubility Rate for Films FIGURE 2 Heat Set at 400 °F for 30 Seconds Abrasion Resistance of Polyvinyl Alcohol Sized Yarn (8. If increased foaming does conditions (Figure 3). Films of marks hydrolyzed products is superior to that of the fully hydrolyzed products partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl • Reduction of stretch on yarns alcohols dissolve more readily than (Figure 2). The abrasion resistance of the partially finishing is equally as important as • Elimination of hard size and stop in slashing and weaving. tion of a defoamer. Contact your • Less shedding er operator. ease of size removal in • Alleviation of skin formation an excellent protective coating.

However. it polyvinyl alcohol.hydrolyzed grades will crystalize with 180 °F water. Improved fabric quality can also be ! FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 Hydrogen Bonding of Polyvinyl Alcohol ! Removal of Polyvinyl Alcohol from PE/C Cloth Heat Set at 400 °F for 60 Seconds OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH FULLY! 100 PARTIALLY HYDROLYZED HO HO HO HO HO HO HO HO HYDROLYZED 80 AFTER 5 MINUTES IN WATER PERCENT SIZE REMOVED! O OH OH O OH OH O OH C=O C=O C=O CH3 CH3 CH3 ! 60 PARTIALLY! CH3 CH3 CH3 HYDROLYZED C=O C=O C=O O HO HO O HO HO O HO 40 20 FULLY HYDROLYZED 0 120 140 160 180 200 WATER TEMPERATURE. as the expected with partially hydrolyzed (“line up”) under heat set conditions. usage of par. This is a tightly bound fully hydrolyzed product. ºF 6 . The later bene. The temperature desizing. as there is less causing increased hydrogen bonding becomes more difficult to remove the risk of residual size in fabric and its (Figure 4). removal of partially hydrolyzed ty. Complete resulting adverse impact on dyeabili- structure which will resist penetra. concentrate solids level. Thus. partially minimize crystalization and conse. products from cloth has been demon. for reuse in the greige mill. there is a reduction in fully hydrolyzed grades are readily fit will translate into decreased cost time required to reach the desired removed from polyester/cotton cloth for effluent disposal and water usage. removed from the fabric and higher improved film solubility advantage is tially hydrolyzed grades can lead to solids are attainable in the desize readily translated to advantages in reductions by as much as 50% in feed solution to the ultra-filtration cloth (Figure 5). desizing temperature is decreased. tion of water. unit. b) Recovery – Although all polyvinyl The bulky acetate groups present on strated in laboratory tests at tempera. alcohol products can be reclaimed partially hydrolyzed products will tures as low as 80 °F (without wax). Both partially and water overflow rates. In addition to energy savings via low hydrolyzed grades are more easily quent hydrogen bonding forces.

H-116FG Chemical etc. predominantly to improve adhesion alcohol. They are not required for • Roughness partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl • Decreased abrasion resistance alcohols which possess superior adhesion to synthetic fibers. improve final product properties.g. foam are desirable to prevent skin- the inclusion of wax in a size Compared to polyvinyl alcohol. Your Celanese Recommended level is 3-7% based most common modifiers are waxes. Two 7 . additives are provided below. Antistats function as polyvinyl alcohol and wax will efficient desizing. consequently. in determining your requirements for Brief overviews of some of these Defoamers type and level of wax. Although the latter Ultra 123E Ultra Additives The recommended level is 5-10%.. To ensure alcohol sizes. helping to retain provide the optimal sizing perform- select a wax that contains an moisture in the film while ance. it is important to humectants. less tendency to shed. spin finishes.) for wax in size formulations. are preferred for blending with polyvinyl alcohol.g. static on warp yarns. they and 123F based on the weight of the film for- mer (e. antisticking. Generally.25-1. starch: ning in the size box. carboxy- methylated.Size Formulation In addition. Hence. it is used to weaken size film. etc. representative will be happy to assist on weight of the film former. removal. ingredients are added to reduce will act to prevent the wax from Commonly used antistats include costs. The • Minimize clinging on looms at higher temperatures recommended level is 0. ranging from the low Product Manufacturer are also available which enhance Foamblast 338 Ross Chemical specific performance attributes (e. other effective emulsifier. polyvinyl alcohol). • Reduce dryer can sticking synthetic fibers additional defoamer is sometimes • Weaken film for easier split • Requires a longer cooking cycle required to control the level. They exhibit Binders Excessive use of waxes can Liquid binders have been used greater compatibility with polyvinyl adversely affect the size film.00% • Improve lubrication for the size • Exhibits more shedding on based on weight of the film former. residual Antistats are needed with starch- wax in desized fabric can lead to containing formulations to minimize “Simpler is better” is a good general significant quality problems. starches. For many applications..g. Low levels of Several reasons are often cited for ally. waxes can be difficult to Antistats Additives remove and. products are more expensive. The during desizing. chemical Waxes extender for polyvinyl alcohol to additives. cost pearl (unmodified) starch to the highly modified starch ethers Harcross Harcross dispersibility. and causing: of formulations based on starch increased viscosity stability. The emulsifier simultaneously plasticizing the film. coating slasher and loom The most commonly used waxes are • Requires higher add-on levels unmodified hydrogenated tallow Recommended Defoamers glycerides (HTG). including Starch is primarily used as an water quality. • Poor adhesion and/or fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl • Brittleness alcohol. contact your Starch Size solutions can exhibit foam due Celanese representative. However. Occasion. ethylene glycol and glycerol.. antistats and defoamers. to a variety of reasons. (e. and type of polyvinyl reduce formulation cost. hydroxyethylated. In some formulations. choosing a wax level. facilitate processing or redepositing back on the fabric urea. For additional information.). Modified waxes Many types of starch are used for warp sizing. particularly formulation: • Demonstrates poorer adhesion to during creep speed. they rule of thumb for selecting a size caution is recommended when are not needed with 100% polyvinyl formulation. alcohol and starch.

recom- most slashing operations. Slashing Although specific slashing equip. resulting in Maximum Ends/Inch in Size Box Yarn Count Ring Spun Open End continuous liquid contact between adjacent ends during the drying 10 35 31 20 50 45 process. a tough adhesive 25 56 50 film forms across the entire sheet of 30 62 56 warp yarns. Yarn Count circulation. Binder films are somewhat Suggested Starting Formulations tacky and care should be taken to Toweling minimize sticking on the slasher. For open end yarn. multiply the recommended slashed warps. To avoid overcrowding in the size yarn of comparable count. For air.major types of binders are polyester and polyacrylic solutions (~25% TABLE 4 solids). 10% less than that for ring spun section for your reference. formation of “fuzz-balls.5 times the yarn guidelines which are applicable to and production of seconds. there may be insufficient space between ends to TABLE 5 allow adequate size liquid Maximum Warp Density Vs. R = Rayon specific requirements. Oxford Sportswear Percale (Ground Shirting Sheeting Warp) Size Formulations Fiber 40:60 P/ C 50:50 P/R 50:50 P/C 100% Cotton Several starting formulations are Yarn Count 42/1 20/1 35/1 10/1 shown in Table 4. spacing should mill to mill. spacing should not exceed the Maximum warp density for recommended maximum warp individual yarn counts is shown Overcrowding of yarns in the size density. Warp Density/Sley box. weaving problems for should not be less than the diameter size box. apart. spacing between adjacent ends To determine maximum ends per consequently. pounds 24 23 27 35 can be adjusted to increase or Solids (%) 14 6 10-13 10 decrease add-on. *Starting water volume depends on cooking set-up. Contact your Add-On (%) 12-15 7-9 10-15 13-16 Celanese representative for a size formulation designed to meet your P = Polyester. starting gal. When the dry size film 35 66 60 splits.” not be less than 1. As a result. pounds 300 150 300 350 The solids in the base formulation Wax. Only the top and bottom of the yarns will be wet. C = Cotton. Several jet weaving this will cause warp mended number of ends per inch is “rules of thumb” are present in this related filling spots. If warp ends are too closely packed. For ring spun 100% cotton in Table 5. yarn. Water. box is a major source of quality and.* 200 220 215-285 325 Celvol. The resultant shedding and of the yarn. Finished gallons should be measured to achieve desired solids level. any tangled fibers will be torn 40 71 64 50 80 72 8 . there are some basic breaks. For ring spun polyester- ment and conditions will vary from clinging in the loom causes end cotton blend yarn. diameter.

maximum ends/inch by actual Size Box Temperature ridges and other imperfections. A properly sized weight of roll and the composition of sticking. The size of the cup 280 138 35 380 193 181 should be chosen to allow for the 290 143 43 390 199 206 entire liquid to flow from the cup in 300 150 52 400 204 233 7-15 seconds. conditions. the size formulation will eliminate High temperatures may cause sticking. Because of 212 100 0 310 154 63 considerable differences between 220 104 3 320 160 75 slashing operations. Temperature also affects the of a small amount of release agent to excessively hairy yarns. The Add-on can be easily increased or In Table 6 a conversion chart is recommended temperature range is decreased by adjusting the solids in provided for determining drying can 160-185 °F. Internal Drying fiber drying characteristics. 9 . the 250 121 15 350 177 120 importance of maintaining con- 260 127 21 360 182 138 sistency in viscosity cannot be over- emphasized. the low a temperature can also lead to sizing is viscosity. In penetration must be sufficient general. As a cautionary note. Drying temperatures are limited by encapsulating (360°) the yarn surface to hold down loose fibers. Squeeze roll pressure can be adjusted be operated at a relatively low solids should be continually moni. warp will have size completely roll will affect WPU. WPU is to change the solution film formation on the drying cylinders. the range for 230 110 6 330 166 88 viscosity is too broad for a definitive 240 116 10 340 171 103 recommendation. the addition calculated from this formula for solution. The first drying can should particularly in creep speed operation. distance between the flanges on the The size box temperature is important Sticking sometimes occurs on worn section beam. to change size wet pick up (WPU) temperature (250-270 °F. Too high a viscosity will not allow TABLE 6 sufficient penetration to anchor the Saturated Steam Pressure/Temperature Conversion Table size. their use is not polyvinyl alcohol to form skin. size box. too One of the most critical variables in pressure. viscosity should be lowered °F °C PSIG °F °C PSIG to improve penetration. is stopped or is in creep speed. ability of the size to wet the fibers. causing The concentration of size is a critical recommended except in emergency hard size formation when the slasher determinant of size add-on for yarn. the size formulation. Viscosity concentration. In addition to the yarn. Roll pressure can vary This film could damage the sizing on from 10-50 psi. Squeeze Roll reading. Since evaporation temperature from steam pressure losses may occur during slashing. drying can temperatures Slasher cans should be coated with (15-25%) to anchor the size film to should be set at the minimum fluorinated resin and be free of burrs. Temp. If ends are tightly packed in the Temp. Too low a required to dry the yarn to the size viscosity allows liquid to penetrate too deeply into the yarn. Viscosity can be checked 270 132 27 370 188 159 with a Zahn cup. If this happens. Solids can be but the preferred method of adjusting to avoid sticking with the resultant measured with the refractometer. the hardness of roll. However. the surface of the yarn. 121-132 °C) tored in the size box. Use more spacing than for controlling viscosity of the size coatings. Since most release agents Concentration ( % Solids) act as humectants.

the to obtain a single end sample while frequently is called “desize” or recommended stretch is 1-1. The quality of the unsized tion from side-to-side on the slasher. Stretch necessary to avoid having to unwrap Yarn stretch can vary from 1-6%.5 sample taken may have come through the slasher at full speed. Sampling typical evaluations compare the The desize test results can be used to Yarn testing results are only as good as the sample taken. Probably the FIGURE 6 most common source of erroneous Illustration of Side-to-Side Add-on Variation yarn analysis data is inconsistent or irrelevant sampling techniques. measurement would allow constant temperature and humidity calculations of the deceleration environments. Testing yarn weighs heavily in the perform.0 creep speed or anywhere in between. the -0. Nicks. sufficient sample length. The single end sampling ensure adequate performance on the technique makes yarn hairiness loom and the other to use as little Leasing size as possible in order to minimize testing more convenient by Good leasing requires separation of eliminating the need for tying costs. While the removal of size from the yarn to The recommended stretch is higher full-width sample is necessary to determine the amount applied or (3-5%) for rayon and acrylic yarns. elongation and 5-8%.0 size box to the sample point. the normal speed.0 most convenient place to obtain a 1. This prevents cementing when sheets distance the yarn travels from the To ensure consistency in yarn test join.5 The only way to be certain that the sample is representative of the trial is -2.0 slasher. The mark could also obtain an unsized sample that is ends from each box should be dried be used in conjunction with the most representative of the sized yarn separately before coming together. Depending upon the rate of 0.5 yarn sample for testing is at the end of the warp as it comes from the 1. LEFT TO RIGHT running speed. This results. A critical part of sampling that is often overlooked is the unsized yarn and the uniformity of size applica- Size Yarn Analysis and sample. Automatic control is spray bottle to mark the warp just as hairiness of sized yarns to the recommended. This can easily be VARIATION FROM MEAN 10 .5%. one to apply enough size to must be maintained. It is very important to When using multiple size boxes. it comes out of the size box at unsized yarns. affect split.desired moisture content. Figure 6 displays an example of ance of sized yarn. variable. side-to-side variation in size add-on. compensate for yarn variability in “add-on” based on weight percent. it has been found that The major considerations naturally to section beam throughout the warp yarn hairiness measurements are less conflict. A uniform stretch from section beam most tests. adjacent ends without damaging the successive ends together to obtain The desize test is also a useful tool size coating or the yarn. in measuring the consistency from scratches and burrs on lease rods can shift to shift of slashing operations. normally done by using a fugitive tint in a breaking strength. -1. The 2. For this reason. -1. For An alternative method of sampling is By far the test performed most polyester-cotton fiber blends. insuring an easy yarn break at size box to the sample point.0 to assure that it is taken at normal SAMPLES. the slasher is running. Desize Testing depending on loom and yarn. yardage clock to measure the sample being taken. the warp beam for proper sampling. yarn testing is conducted in the bust-rods.5 deceleration of the slasher and the distance the yarn travels from the 0.

In the performed and analyzed following machinery and styling on size usage.6%. much as 1% difference in results.CA x 100 A TABLE 7 U = Unsized Yarn. size formulations. % Extractables = B . limit should be in place to require yarn. The CA. Waxes  Hydroxide =S-U Hydrochloric Acid Enzymes Starch Starch % Size Content  % Size Add-On Solvents Oils. “% add-on” calculation. since most procedures FIGURE 7 were handed down from individual Percent Add-On Calculation Steps mills where tests were developed to meet specific needs or to simulate actual mill desize operations.S Peroxide PVOH 11 . A = Weight of Sized Sample Table 7 lists various desizing chemi. Figure 7 contains a flow chart Depending on the test method used. measure the effects of changes in sizing material used.B After Extraction severity of the desizing conditions S = Sized Yarn.detect changes in running conditions needed in the laboratory will depend comparing results. we use a control limit This should be considered when of 0. in order to verify initial results. Running duplicate and mechanical problems.U x 100 = S . the type of tests on all samples is good practice. Specific laboratory procedures for desizing vary greatly between laboratories.CB x 100 Common Laboratory B Desize Chemicals Chemicals Water Applications Partially Hydrolyzed PVOH  % Added Size Sodium Oils.U 100 . repeat testing if the difference in illustrating the steps leading to the error within the method can cause as duplicate results is above that limit. To percent by weight of dry sizing construction of the woven fabric is assure the quality of results. Waxes = S . and to on the origin of the fiber. B = Weight of Unsized Sample cals used and their applications. cases where methods were developed mechanical or formulation changes Size add-on is expressed as the to simulate actual mill conditions. At Celanese. a control material added to the dry unsized also a factor. desizing equipment used. % Extractables = A . and the type of and a series of tests should be raw yarn.U x 100 Wetting Agents Speed Desize 100 .B = Weight of Sample A.

This -0.5 minimizes test error.5 Once the amount of size applied has -2. ADD-ON INDEX FOR! running speed sample from each box SIZE BOX #2 AFTER CORRECTION on the slasher. The advantage of mechanical bonding.0 Using the Near-Infrared technique.0 been quantified. it is important to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 determine the location of the size in SAMPLES.5 be tested at three-inch intervals over the width of the sample. instead of three data 0.Near Infrared Analysis FIGURE 8 Once a desize analysis history is Before and After Add-on Index Comparison developed for a customer.0 desize analysis. 1. Therefore. the Add-on Index would provide 40 data points -0. This can be done by selectively staining VARIATION FROM MEAN the sizing material on a cross- sectional cut taken from the sized the same time. The test requires a full-width.5 points from a typical side-center-side 0. Near Infrared Reflectance Analysis can be ADD-ON INDEX FOR! ! used to generate a calibration model SIZE BOX #2 BEFORE CORRECTION to convert testing from the typical 2.0 wet desize analysis.5 detection using standard nip impression or side-center-side wet -2.0 wet desize method to a Near-Infrared scanning test. LEFT TO RIGHT Add-on Index results before and VARIATION FROM MEAN after correction of a problem. Because of the speed 2. An alternative but more practicality. -1.5 per size box on 120-inch warps.0 of the Near-Infrared scanning technique. The advantage of the smooth coating around the yarn Size encapsulation is a measure of electron microscope is that a large surface and penetrate the yarn the degree of encirclement of the number of yarns can be evaluated at bundle enough to achieve good size around the yarn bundle.0 roll imperfections which may escape -1. size yarn and using a standard the standard microscope is its application quality is a combination microscope. Figure 8 shows SAMPLES. When 12 .0 variability in the size box.0 Size Application Quality -1. 1. the full-width sample can 1. 0.0 For example.5 Celanese developed the “Add-On Index” to measure actual add-on 0. of two parameters: size encapsula- expensive method is electron The sizing material should provide a tion and size penetration. LEFT TO RIGHT and around the yarn structure.5 method can detect several mechanical problems and squeeze -1. microscopy. This speeds results and 1.

care must also be taken result in yarns that are too brittle or illustration of the determination of to avoid premature stress on the stiff to weave on the loom. which is believed to be the ideal condition for optimum DEGREES OF ! ENCAPSULATION abrasion resistance and weaving PERCENT! performance. stained sizing material. and the cross-sections are mined on a random sampling of 40 selectively stained using boric acid ends each from the unsized and sized and iodine.the sizing material completely surrounds the yarn. the measurement FIGURE 9 would be 360 degrees or complete Illustration of Size Penetration and Encapsulation encapsulation. The quad. A good general range for YARN! 100 270º! 90º! CROSS-SECTION optimum size penetration would be 15-25%. which would increase breaking To make a cross-section. Conversely. Several unsized yarn sample. divided into the four quadrants of a Care must be taken in handling the circle. unsized measurement software. 360º! PENETRATION Size penetration is evaluated by 0 measuring the distance the sizing 50 material has penetrated into the yarn bundle as a proportion of the yarn radius. Figure 10 is an actual cross. Instron tensile ends from each yarn sample are strength and elongation are deter- tested. The poor mechanical bonding resulting from low size penetration could lead to poor abrasion resistance and excessive 180º! shedding on the loom. will normally decrease the coefficient The embedded sample is then of variability (COV) of the yarn. which would affect encapsulation utilizing computer test results. For both the sized and the 13 . strength and decrease elongation. The yarn cross-section is samples. yarn sample is first embedded in a sectional photograph showing the The application of sizing to raw yarn polyamide resin using a bullet mold. size penetration and encapsulation yarn. Sample yarn sample are normally compared Actual Cross-Section Photograph thicknesses vary from 15 to 30 with respective data from a matching Showing Stained Size microns depending on the coarseness and fiber content of the yarn. Each cross-section quadrant is unsized yarn to avoid loss of twist evaluated for size penetration and prior to testing. Figure 9 gives an unsized yarn. yarns are taped in place at each end rants from all cross-sections for a of the appropriate test length prior to given sample are then averaged for testing. excessive penetration of sizing could the test results. breaking strength and elongation at break for a sized FIGURE 10 a stainless steel blade. For this reason. placed on the cutting stage of an Single End Tensile Tests OR/Reichert microtome and cut with As stated earlier. the sized values.

electronic sensor “counting” hairs 14 .704 30% of the original elongation may N 20. length. 5 396. Warp yarn hairiness reduction The preceding discussions involved generated. open-spun-yarns and air. and calculates the elongation.Table 8 shows an example of the TABLE 8 Instron output after 20 ends are tested.081 better stretch control on the slasher.7 7.620 BK 6 374.9 7.2 7. 20. Based on general test data loom. the fall below 4.7 7.8 5. First.834 BK one standard deviation unit outside 13 374. Since the yarn requires residual rods.465 BK due to stretching while the yarn is wet.081 BK sized yarn breaking strength is 11%.7 8.3 7. the measures the hairiness level of elongation is negligible and may greater the tendency to form a size unsized and sized yarn.6 7. If not. it quality. factors affecting weaving perform- Yarn Hairiness Testing ance. In Table 8.1100 . resulting in another indicator of size application successfully. 7 461.296 BK repeated. elongation loss should excessive end breakage. be monitored and controlled as is expected that sized yarns with less necessary through slasher condi.656 BK If the unsized sample were tested. elongation loss MIN 336.535 BK Second. Generally.9 8. knock down the pick on an air-jet tests give measurements of critical loom. However. 17 360. hairs would weave better on the Summary tions. the maximum and minimum 9 454. not one of which alone the absolute minimum size yarn weaving.8 9.872 BK yarn. STD 43.3 7.8576 be lost during normal sizing opera- COV .588 BK elongation during the sizing operation 20 421. with an to coat the yarn surface well enough can therefore be valuable. actual result.6 7.385 BK generally expected for yarns to lose 19 419.375 BK the rest of the sample population.8 9. the COV for 4 482.0 6.434 BK lower than the COV for the unsized 2 360. leading to a harder break at the lease percent reduction in hairiness.2 7.7 7. Therefore.592 BK acceptable.674 BK we would expect a COV above 11%.4 5.5%.599 BK be disregarded if it lies more than 12 361.5 7.375 BK 15 355.502 BK the case of Table 8. Hairy warp yarns will cling can be conclusively related to elongation should not be allowed to during the shedding process and weaving performance.5 8.502 exceeding 30% usually warrants MAX 482. the Sample Number Peak Load GF Peak Strain % SP COV for the sized yarn should be 1 394. the data is 16 358. 8 336. A general 10 376. Typical Strength and Elongation Results This data should be reviewed and qualified in two ways. it is recommended that is especially critical for air-jet several tests.7 8.196 BK It is important to note that it is 18 402.6 8.756 BK values should be reviewed. The Celanese test procedure effect whereby the change in The greater number of hairs. as much as Mean 396. In 14 361.8 6. For ring-spun yarns. to slick down the “hairs” or fibers that exceed three millimeters in jet-spun yarns undergo a compacting protruding from the yarn bundle. reports the even appear to be an increase in bridge between ends on the slasher.61 . the test should be 3 397. However. and the greater the amount of Percent reduction in hairiness is elongation in order to weave friction on the loom.153 BK rule of thumb is that a result should 11 478.1113 tions. and an overall evaluation A Shirley hairiness meter is used to It is important for the sizing material considering all of the test results measure yarn hairiness.3 8.

slasher. preconditioning – Dry can. Filling yarn – Yarn which is inserted air to “spin” fibers together into tion beams for combination into across the width of a weaving yarn. formula to the warp yarn. or the shuttle or projectile. material. measurements by the average of that composed of acrylonitrile units. section beam creel – A struc- turing process which uses currents of ture designed to hold multiple sec. stretched before breaking. metal parts of the which allows pressure to be evenly loom. 15 . an acrylic resin. adhesion is the the density of the fabric. warp sheds on the slasher. one can obtain images at high Count. weaving machine. amount of static build-up on the slasher or weaving machine. usually expressed as a percent Treatment of samples prior to testing containing pressurized steam upon of the weight of the bone-dry yarn requiring equilibration of the which yarn is threaded for the before sizing. drying cylinder – Cylinder yarn. scopy. Near standard environment of 68-72 °F Electron microscopy – The use of Infrared Reflectance Analysis is used and 63-67% relative humidity. generally caused by sizing formulations to prevent foam ture of a rubber squeeze roll. of sizing material applied to warp Conditioning. an electron microscope to study to obtain individual data points for materials. the Add-on Index. CV. crowned roll – The curva- the loom. yarn – See Yarn count. Using electron micro- Count. standard deviation of a series of made from a polymer primarily sections. End – A single yarn. time. Elongation. usually jets of air to propel and support if a percale sheet has 110 ends per expressed as a percentage increase filling yarn across the width of the inch and 70 picks per inch. count would be 110 + 70. Antistat – As a sizing additive. COV. Air-jet spun yarn – A yarn manufac. Coefficient of Variation – Acetate fiber – A manufactured fiber Bullet mold – An aluminum mold A relative measurement of precision made from cellulose acetate. Caustic – Sodium hydroxide. Creel. or 180. It is usually Bust rods – Metal rods in the leasing multiplied by 100 and expressed as a Acrylic binder – A liquid solution of section of the slashing machine percentage (CV%). formed contact of the yarn with adjacent from occurring. sizing from yarn or fabric. samples in a maintained standard purpose of drying the yarn after Add-on Index – A measure of the atmosphere for a specified period of application of sizing material on the variation in size add-on at con. a sizing additive which separate the yarns after normally used to increase adhesion application and drying of the sizing Defoamer – An additive used in to synthetic fibers. any distributed across the roll at a given Sizing materials are generally chemical which would enhance the pressure loading at the ends of the formulated to protect the yarn from adhesive properties of the sizing roll. yarns on the loom. series of measurements. elongation at break – the number of picks per inch to The distance which a yarn can be Air-jet loom – A process which uses obtain the fabric count. For most textile testing. tinuous intervals spanning the width conditioning is performed in a of the warp shed or size box. used to embed yarn samples in resin which is obtained by dividing the Acrylic fiber – A manufactured fiber for subsequent cutting of cross. the fabric over its original length. where the phenomena on yarn or fabric. usually from acrylic acid derivatives. fabric – A measurement of magnifications of surface Adhesion – In sizing. Binder – As a sizing additive. used in dilute solutions to remove Desizing – Process for removal of Add-on – A measure of the amount sizing from yarn. any Cross-section – A section of yarn cut chemical which would reduce the at a right angle to its length. sizing formulations to reduce Acrylic resin – A resin produced generated foam. these forces of abrasion. For example. attractive force between the sizing number of ends per inch is added to material and the warp yarn.Glossary of Textile Industry Terms Abrasion – Rubbing of the yarn on Antifoam – An additive used in Crown. machine. during manufacturing of the roll.

near infrared technology. heatsetting – The Microtome – A device used to hold composed of an ester of a substituted application of heat to fabrics. the slasher. while the on the yarn. evaluating yarn hairiness. finishing or printing. Polyester fiber – A manufactured fiber made from a polymer primarily Heatset. scouring and Oxford shirting – A soft. sample specimens for cutting with a carboxylic acid. formulation which enhances the Polyester resin – A resin produced by absorption of moisture. Open-end spinning – A yarn Preparation – A process performed manufacturing process whereby on textile goods to ready them for Lease – The separation of yarns so sliver is spun directly into yarn. After Instron – An instrument used to Analysis. finish. such as terry.. formulation which enhances the Hairiness. to enhance the of yarn cross-sections. which is now ready for The ground warp forms the weaving. pre-drying is polymer chain of polyvinyl alcohol. the sheds of yarn come measure breaking strength and elon. after sizing. hence the name “kettle wax”. a sizing additive Muslin sheeting – A plain weave dye variation. Pile warp – The warp yarn which is foundation of the fabric. surface are counted as “hairs” when loom. greige cloth typically include all of the yarns travelling through singeing. The near infrared and a dicarboxylic acid. usually made from a polymer primarily from different sheds from sticking derived from animal fats. Loom – An automated weaving direction of the woven fabric. as percent add-on. added to the sizing cook kettle. such as terry. together for final drying on a sepa- gation of yarns and fabrics. Hydrolysis – A measurement of the region of the spectrum is outside the Pre-drying – In the case of a number of hydroxyl units along the visible region and comprises multiple-box slasher. such product between a dihydroxy alcohol amount of moisture in the air. that they may be properly tied in on eliminating carding and roving Processes included in preparation of a loom. the Ground warp – The warp yarn machine.Greige cloth (pronounced “gray” Leasing section – A series of bust Percale sheeting – A plain weave cloth) – Cloth which has not been rods at the front of a slasher which fabric with a count of at least 180 treated by any other textile process accomplishes separation of yarns yarns per square inch. and avoiding clinging of yarn to Polyamide – A synthetic polymer trude 3mm or more from the yarn machine parts and other yarns on the consisting of a chain of amides. etc. cans above the size boxes for the NIRA – Near Infrared Reflectance individual warp sheds. sticking during the drying process yarn. rate set of drying cans. dyeing. which is one application of pre-drying. insertion of one filling yarn between which is combined with pile warp to the sheds of a weaving machine Loom beam – A beam of yarn from produce a pile fabric. Adequate Nylon fiber – A manufactured fiber pre-drying is required to keep yarns Kettle wax – A solid wax. Polyester binder – A liquid solution dyeability of the fabric and minimize of a polyester resin. nanometers. such as mercerization. Typically. while the combined with a ground warp to pile warp forms the pile. depending on the yarns are incorporated in the warp to greige fabric and its end use. Humectant – An additive in a sizing yarns per square inch. porous one dent in the comb at the front of bleaching. (such as desizing. Near infrared – An instrument used polymerizing a hydroxy-carboxylic to scan samples for the purpose of acid or by forming a condensation Humidity – A measure of the quantifying a given parameter. which is composed of amide linkages. Frequently dyed may be included. Other preparation fabric made using a modified plain the slasher. bleaching. or basket weave. normally used to increase adhesion fabric with a count of at least 128 to synthetic fibers. together while drying is completed. yarn hairiness – A The ground warp forms the lubricity of the dried sizing material measurement of the number of hairs foundation of the fabric. processes. 500 “picks” per minute). such as the preparation synthetic materials. Lubricant – An additive in a sizing produce a pile fabric.). (e. produce stripes. wavelengths from 660 to 2500 accomplished by locating drying expressed as percent. 16 . desizing. particularly those composed of sharp knife. thereby reducing per unit length on a sized or unsized pile warp forms the pile. Pick – A piece of yarn in the weft ing. Proper leasing will separate operations.g. fibers which pro.

depending on the Weft – Yarn in the width direction of Staple – A mass of fibers having the sley of the fabric to be produced. which is used to Viscosity – A measure of thickness materials in one package. to the other tape. equals one 840-yard length of yarn. but without Zahn cup – A steel cup of standard instrument designed to measure yarn consistent lengthwise curvature. and in which the filling yarn package is and pile warps. of a shuttle. Liquids are protruding a given length from the pressure loading at the ends of the timed as they flow through a hole in surface of the yarn. tapered roll – A simulation of cotton count is a numbering system a crowned roll where the diameter of Shedding – The separation of size which indicates the number of hanks the squeeze roll increases from the film or broken fibers from the main in one pound of yarn. Brookfield viscometer – Sizing – Material applied to warp Rayon fiber – A manufactured fiber An instrument which measures the yarn to protect it from breakage and made from regenerated cellulose. a fabric as it is woven. The instrument Slasher – Machine used to apply flow or resistance to shear. where it is refracted by the liquid Warp. Typical starches strength. number of ends per graduated “window”. One The unit of Tex expresses the mass the sizing solution and applicator tape carries the yarn to the middle of in number of grams of 1 kilometer assembly (squeeze rolls) on the the machine where it is transferred of yarn. viscosity of a liquid by quantifying abrasion during weaving. Spin finish – Material composed of antistats and/or lubricants which is Wax – See Kettle wax. volume which is used to measure the hairiness by using an electric “eye” squeeze pressure is not evenly viscosity of a liquid by quantifying to count the number of hairs distributed across the roll at a given its resistance to flow. slasher. where a hank sides to the center at a standard body of the yarn. Taper. indirectly measure the amount of of a liquid. such as in bath ness of the liquid being tested. of refraction to percent solids. 17 . Refractometer – An instrument. roll. The instrument inch in a fabric construction. Tex – A measurement of yarn size which uses two flexible steel tapes using a direct numbering system. Sizing blend – A blend of sizing typically hand-held. usually the sides of the loom as the fabric is Starch – A complex carbohydrate twisted or entangled together for woven. same physical characteristic. Warp density – The number of ends is calibrated to convert the amount per inch in the size box. the bottom of the cup. slope. its resistance to shear. Waxless size – A sizing material improve processing in spinning. channels light through a chamber sizing material to warp yarns. Yarn – A strand of fibers. each warp beam. Shed. which Weaving – The process of making the purpose of sizing. where the pile is in cup selection depends on the thick- transported back and forth through the form of loops. typically to replace typical kettle wax. warp shed – The opening used in textile sizing are corn and Yarn count – A measurement of formed when warp yarns are potato starches and their derivatives. Viscometer. Several squeezes the yarn on the slasher to fabric from yarn. section beams are required to make remove excess sizing solution. derived from plants. the shed during weaving by means towels and bath mats. weaving machine. Size box – The vessel which holds to guide yarn through the sheds. yarn size using an indirect yarn separated to insert filling yarn on a numbering system. either by resistance to solids in a solution. formulated with synthetic lubricants Section beam – A beam of yarn Squeeze roll – Rubber roll. A variety of Shuttle loom – A weaving machine Terry – A fabric made from ground standard hole sizes are available. For example. warp beam – A beam of yarn Sley – Moving part on a loom which being tested and then reflected to a produced on the slasher. Tapering is a short-cut attempt Shirley hairiness monitor – An to crown the roll. carries the reed. Ring spinning – A system of applied to synthetic fibers to spinning yarn from roving sliver. Selvedge – The edge of the fabric at typically length. loaded on the creel of the slasher for made of acrylonitrile.Rapier loom – A weaving machine Size add-on – See Add-on.

Ex-Hacienda de Guadelupe Chimalistac 01050 Mexico. Texas 75234-6034 state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their www.celanesechemicals.International Offices Europe: Celanese Chemicals Europe GmbH Lurgiallee 14 D-60439 Frankfurt am Main Germany Tel +49 (0)69-305-1 33 00 Fax +49 (0)69-30-91 79 Mexico/Latin America: Celanese Mexicana S. Tecoyotitla 412 Col. D. Tel +1-866-284-0927 It should not therefore be construed as guar- Fax +1-972-443-4945 anteeing specific properties of the products described or their suitability for a particular © Celanese Ltd. 501 Orchard Road #11-01 Wheelock Place Singapore 238880 Tel +65-733-17 67 Fax +65-733-12 67 North America: Celanese Chemicals 1601 West LBJ Freeway This information is based on our present Dallas. Celanese Chemicals 1601 West LBJ Freeway Dallas. Tel +52-55-5480-9100 Fax +52-55-5480-9145 Asia: Celanese Pte Ltd. Texas 75234-6034 Tel 1-972-443-4000 www.celvol. 2002 Pub 2002-PVOH-1050 . de C. The quality of our products is guaranteed under our General Conditions of Sale. Any existing industrial property rights much be observed.