You are on page 1of 37

DIRECTED STUDIES (V/I)

Open Performance Space

Submitted by
Name : Richa Adhikari
Roll :70033
Date : (23/01/2018)

Kathmandu Engineering College


Department of Architecture
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Abstract

Open performance Spaces are those performance spaces which are conducted outside.
These type of spaces are generally used as high activity public spaces and thoroughfares.
These performance space create urban spaces that are multifunctional and a better fit for
variety of experiences and uses.
Firstly, the research will study greater adaptability and permeability of the performance space
that encourages the use of diverse performance and provide an interactive and engaging
space for audiences. Performance spaces as we see them today have proliferated with
technological innovation. But somehow those spaces weren’t as we see them today. They
were merely open spaces with a stage where the artists were, surrounded by seating spaces
where public viewed the performances. Hence this paper focuses on how the concept of open
performance space evolved and discusses on Architectural development of them
chronologically.

Richa Adhikari 1
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Acknowledgements

The first note of appreciation goes to my Seminar and Directed Studies's Course Coordinators Asso.
Prof. Kailash Shrestha, Sr. Lec. Sweta Shrestha, Sr. Lec. Suchita Bajracharya, Sr. Lec. Subash Phuyal
and Ar. Sulav Nepal for those valuable suggestions during the consultation, all those fruitful
discussions, suggestions and motivation right from the beginning of the project.

It is a matter of pleasure for me to have opportunity to study and research and work on Open
Performance Space. After research phases on the topic that I have chosen, I have got confidence and
have felt that I have really understood something.

Each pages of this document present the ideas of different theoretical frame like circulation,
planning, etc was studied, analyzed andrecognized.

This document also contains case studies that I have made in international, regional and local con-
text to understand it.

I thank my friends and family for their support and encouragement and valuable discussions.

Richa Adhikari 2
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Table of contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................. 1
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................... 2
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................ 5
1. Background ............................................................................................................... 7
2. Statement of the purpose ........................................................................................... 8
3. Aim ............................................................................................................................ 8
4. Objectives .................................................................................................................. 8
5. Scope of Research .................................................................................................... 9
6. Description of Methodology........................................................................................ 9
7. Literature Review ..................................................................................................... 10
International Context ............................................................................................. 10
National Context .................................................................................................... 10
Outdoor theatre ..................................................................................................... 12
7.3.1. Introduction .................................................................................................... 12

7.3.2. Site................................................................................................................. 13

7.3.3. Site Design Principle ...................................................................................... 15

7.3.4. Facility ............................................................................................................ 16

7.3.5. Performance Equipment ................................................................................. 17

7.3.6. Types of Outdoor Theatre .............................................................................. 20

7.3.7. Working Mechanism ....................................................................................... 23

8. Case Study .............................................................................................................. 24


Jay Pritzker Pavilion .............................................................................................. 24
8.1.1. Spaces ........................................................................................................... 25

8.1.2. Sound Equipment ........................................................................................... 25

8.1.3. Structure and Materials .................................................................................. 26

Festival Park ......................................................................................................... 28


8.2.1. Spaces ........................................................................................................... 30

8.2.2. Structure and Materials .................................................................................. 31

Patan Durbar Square ............................................................................................ 32


8.3.1. Activities ......................................................................................................... 32

Richa Adhikari 3
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

8.3.2. Users ............................................................................................................. 33

8.3.3. Circulation ...................................................................................................... 34

References .......................................................................................................................... 35

Richa Adhikari 4
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

List of Figures

Figure 1-1 Regent's Park Open Air theatre, London .............................................................. 7

Figure 1-2 Millenium Park Free Concert ................................................................................ 8

Figure 7-1 Proscenium in Theatre ...................................................................................... 10

Figure 7-2 Performance in Dabali in Hanumandhoka Square .............................................. 11

Figure 7-3 The Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus in Athens ................................................. 12

Figure 7-4 The Roman Theatre at Bosra in Syria was built in the second century CE. ........ 13

Figure 7-5 The Scott Outdoor Ampitheatre, Swarthmore College ........................................ 14

Figure 7-6 Sigmund Stern Recreational Grove in San francisco, California ......................... 14

Figure 7-7 Cernil Topuzlu Open- Air Theatre in Instanbul, Turkey ....................................... 15

Figure 7-8 LED alternative to traditional theatre lights ......................................................... 18

Figure 7-9 Sound equipment under shelter.......................................................................... 19

Figure 7-10 Open Stage with Open Amphitheatre Plan ....................................................... 22

Figure 7-11 Open stage with Open Theatre Section ............................................................ 23

Figure 8-1 Plan of Millenium Park along with Pritzker Pavilion ............................................. 24

Figure 8-2 Fixed seating and the Stage ............................................................................... 25

Figure 8-3 Suspended Sound System ................................................................................. 26

Figure 8-4 Suspended Trelis ............................................................................................... 27

Figure 8-5 The trellis is supported by cylindrical concrete pylons ........................................ 27

Figure 8-6 Site Plan ............................................................................................................. 28

Figure 8-7 Plan of Pavilion .................................................................................................. 29

Figure 8-8 Festival park during Concert ............................................................................... 29

Figure 8-9 Backstage .......................................................................................................... 30

Figure 8-10 Access to the backstage................................................................................... 30

Figure 8-11 Butterfly steel canopy ....................................................................................... 31

Figure 8-12 Patan Durbar Square ....................................................................................... 32

Figure 8-13 Concert in Patan Durbar Square ...................................................................... 33

Figure 8-14 Section of Patan Durbar Square ....................................................................... 34

Richa Adhikari 5
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 8-15 Isometric View of Patan Durbar Square ............................................................ 34

Richa Adhikari 6
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

1. Background

Attending the theatre or a performance is a means of cultural engagement and a leisure activity
that people have experienced in multiple ways for centuries. As people and technology
develop and new styles of performance emerge. Performance, as a concept, connotes
movement and fl uidity; it is dynamic, and constantly changing. (Reid, 1998)
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context,
traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or
carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience
participation. The performance can be live or via media; the performer can be present or
absent. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, space, the performer's
body, or presence in a medium, and a relationship between performer and audience.
Performance art can happen anywhere, in any type of venue or setting and for any length of
time. The actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time
constitute the work.
The 21st century outdoor spaces are being increasingly utiised as potential venues and as
alternative performance areas. An outdoor performance space removes the spatial
boundaries of a theatre, and the barrier between the performer and the viewer, resulting in a
more fluid, flexible and dynamic environment. The use of outdoor performance spaces was
prevalent during the medieval times, and is still prevalent in the modern times.

Figure 1-1 Regent's Park Open Air theatre, London

Richa Adhikari 7
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 1-2 Millenium Park Free Concert


.

2. Statement of the purpose

Outdoor Performance Space design consideration with repect to planning and technology to
improve the overall Public Realm.

3. Aim

Open performance space provides people breathing space in a community and a break from
social media in the modern times. Research is required to identify the various innovative ideas
and plannning associated with performance spaces in order to determine how to benefit
performers and audiences alike. The primary aim of this paper is to develop a method of
research which defines the intersection between architecture and performance, in order to
increase the potential for innovation within both performance and architecture in the public
realm.

4. Objectives

The objectives of the research are as follows:


i. Identify the essential qualities of a performance space and translate them to the public
realm
ii. Establish, through the literature review and precedent analysis, a set of criteria that
will help generate ideas based on adaptability and innovation for the design of a
successful performance space in the public realm

Richa Adhikari 8
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

5. Scope of Research

The study will explore ways to create an adaptable and innovative performance space outside
the traditional parameters and explore the ways in which performances can be more
interactive with everyday life. The research will be limited to examining spaces that host live
performances such as dance, drama, music and singing.
There are a number of notable limitations of the research. They include:
i. The main priority is given to Open Air theatre, its planning and design requirements.
ii. The study of public Performance space is done strictly through Case studies.
iii. Acoustics have not been dealt with in any detail. There are strict requirement for
acoustics in theatre design and pursuing that element would have been too diffi cult to
achieve in the time frame available. Hence, only the technical aspect of sound and
communication installation has been studied.

6. Description of Methodology

The following methods will be used:


i. Background: Analyse the current scenario of Performance Space in our county.
ii. Literature analysis: Analyse literature on adaptive and innovative performance spaces,
and design in public realms
iii. Precedent analysis: Analyse precedents for their innovative audience/performer
boundaries and adaptability. Precedents in the public realm will also be analysed for
their capacity to be blended in form and function to create a hybrid, multi-functional
space.

Richa Adhikari 9
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

7. Literature Review

International Context
Greeks traditionally used outdoor performance space such as amphitheaters from around 1st
to the 5th C AD, before eventually moving to indoor theatres. Auditorium performance space
then became the only place that audience and performers would come together. Not only was
theatre a place for performance, it was also an institution of social and political interaction
where the internal hierarchy of the auditorium emulated the social order. Greek theatres
illustrate a direct relationship in the performance with the audience being an active participant.
The early development of theatre consists of tiered seating on a hillside with circular acting
platform. Due to this arrangement, the need to get a audience and performers closer together
was satisfied by placing seating in a semi-circle around the performance. Theatre performance
was a huge success from the development of the Globe Theatre in 1599. The Globe Theatre
was an open arena based on the Roman Coliseum, but built on a much smaller scale. It was
a thrust stage in an encircling courtyard which was surrounded by a 300 degree audience in
galleries and on the ground.
The growth of opera in the 17th century molded theatre buildings in the basic form that was
emerging everywhere; the proscenium framed scenic stage facing a galleried auditorium.
Development of the proscenium arch
occurred throughout the 18th, 19th and 20th
centuries and this design initiative is still
prominent today, especially in opera houses.
Opera houses and other traditional theatres
have inadvertently entombed the art they
celebrate by freezing it as a museum
specimen rather than encouraging it to
expand and contract as a living entity. Figure 7-1 Proscenium in Theatre

National Context
Malla Kings built huge open spaces around their palaces. These spaces were used as an
outdoor stage to host ritualistic events which were dramatized to project the king as the center
fugure thereby increasing his influence over masses. The two lions that stand in the western
side of Bhaktapur palace are the remains of one such stage.
Dabali or Dabu is most pronounced form of theatre in Kathmandu. It is a raised platform in a
courtyard or open place which is used for cultural and religious performances and other rituals.
It has been a cultural node for open air public performances in newarii community. Dabali’s
are usually attached to a built space (temple) and open in three remaining sides. These spaces

Richa Adhikari 10
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

incorporate public interaction and association factors in an open space composition making
the ambience more vibrant. Generally square or rectangular in shape these places were used
for cultural, political and social programs where large crowd could gather but recently Dabali
has been used for market place and gathering space as well.
The historian Satya Mohan Joshi says that the theatrical traditions in Nepal started with dabali,
a raised platform with performing area inside four portable sliding pillars that could be carried
around from place to place. In some cases, ropes were used for delineation in place of pillars.
“The dabali, in Nepal, was used as a mode for delivering orders and directives by the rulers to
their subjects, forging a channel of communication and educating the masses,” says Joshi.
“Use of theater in those forms, as historical evidences show, dates as long back as 5th century
AD, when the kings of Lichhvi dynasty ruled the country.” (Pokharel, 2010)
Religious and tantric customs, in the form of dance-dramas, took center stage of the evolving
theater traditions in Nepal after the Malla kings came to power in 1200 AD. The Mallas, who
ruled the kingdom for the next 500 years, were great lovers of art and, according to historians,
rather than sit back as spectators they took part in most of the performances, appearing either
in a role of king or as a representative of a god. It was however more self-focused i.e. they
limited these activities to themselves only. The regime was prevalent during 19th century AD.
The arts were performed in the palaces of the Ranas for private purpose only. The Ranas
maybe had sense of acoustics and the comfortability though their aristocracy didn’t last long.
The indoor halls served well during their time. However the sattalas, pati’s and dabalis were
available then too. Those architecture of performing arts sustained.

Figure 7-2 Performance in Dabali in Hanumandhoka Square

Richa Adhikari 11
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Outdoor theatre

7.3.1. Introduction

Theatre has been performed outdoors for thousands of years Indeed, the entire field of the
performing arts originated in ceremonies, rituals and re-enactments conducted under an open
sky. Over time, the performances became more specialized and complex with playwrights,
trained performers and designees. Outdoor theatre facilities have also existed for thousands
of years, with the most familiar types being Greek and Roman amphitheatre and the Spanish
corrales. The classic open stage and amphitheatre design, in particular, has continued to exert
a dominant influence on the arehitecture of many contemporary outdoor performance spaces
around the would.
Outdoor performances of all kinds continue to be produced today. These include religious and
historical plays, Shakespeare festivals, musical and dramatic plays, dance and musical
concerts of all kinds.

Figure 7-3 The Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus in Athens

Richa Adhikari 12
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 7-4 The Roman Theatre at Bosra in Syria was built in the second century CE.

7.3.2. Site

. As outdoor theatre performance evolved in the early 20th century, the design and context of
the site remained an integral part of any productions. Prior to the current era of public outdoor
theatres, outdoor theatre facilities were largely either informal (placed for convenience for their
productions) or formal private theatres (usually on set aside portions of estates). For many
years amphitheatre designers looked to classical inspiration for the facility and the grounds
The site specific character was embraced by the outdoor historical theatre movement, with
stories relying on features in the landscape and the history of the place to immerse patrons in
the experience. The historic plays enabled outdoor theatre and landscape design to break
from classicism, to express the periods of the plays' subjects. Today outdoor theatre facilities,
whether historic plays, rotating shows, public amphitheatres, or grounds for temporary
theatres, inherit this unique relationship to their sites that is rich and contrasts to indoor
theatres that shut out the world. The site for outdoor theatres helps tell the story, grounding
the tragedy and comedy to place, enriching community and local cultural identity.
The site and grounds of an outdoor theatre facility are a major influence on the quality of the
experience of a show. Because of being outdoor, the facility will have many uncontrolled
variables that can either be a detriment or boon to the experience. Weather, wildlife, insects,
wind, noise pollution, undesirable views and other factors can all break the attention of the
authence and distract from the story. Alternatively, directed views, real trees, larger bothes of

Richa Adhikari 13
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

water, fire and stars can all create an experience impossible in a theatre hall. Catcall site
design and proper maintenance can make the theatre experience comfortable, cultural and
unique.The site can also have major implications to the costs of building and maintaining a
facility.

Figure 7-5 The Scott Outdoor Ampitheatre, Swarthmore College

Figure 7-6 Sigmund Stern Recreational Grove in San francisco, California

Richa Adhikari 14
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

7.3.3. Site Design Principle

When considering the design and building of a new outdoor theatre facility, incorporating the
site characteristics into the design process can help take advantage of the natural assets and
liabilities of the site. A few specific ideas useful for having preliminary discussions with design
professionals regarding the site of an outdoor theatre:
 Genius loci: Literally the spirit of a place. What is it about this site that is special and
unique?
 Place-making: The craft of creating a distinctive, recognizable and memorable social
space. How will this place be memorable, and how will people inhabit the space?
 Character: The character of the landscape is often a sum of its components and
context. The character can also be guided by the design. Is this site to compliment the
surrounding mountains with an 'alpine meadow feel'? Is this site to be a green oasis in
an urban jungle?
 Topography & aspect: The shape of terrain & direction of the slopes Is there a hill with
a broad northern exposure? Is this a flat site that will require major grading or structure
to make a riser? Where is the sun in relation to the stage and authence viewpoint?
 Circulation: The movement of people and vehicles to and through the site. What is the
experience along this journey, how do people move from their ear oc bus to their seats?
 Experiential design: Designing to anticipate the full experience of the visitor. When do
we want the visitors to leave the world behind for this theatre experience? Is it after the
ticket booth? In the lobby? The parking lot? At the gate? How do we choreograph their
experience?

Figure 7-7 Cernil Topuzlu Open- Air Theatre in Instanbul, Turkey

Richa Adhikari 15
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

7.3.4. Facility

In outdoor theatre facility, the focus should be on the stage and seating areas There is much
beyond these basic elements that must be taken into account, though the needs may vary
from one instance to another. (Michael Hardy)

Front of House requirement

i. Arrival

Well-designed directional signage is an important element in the arrival sequence for outdoor
theatres and is equally important for all types of facilities. It is wise to plan the arrival sequence
to a theatre with the assumption that everyone coming to the theatre has never been there
before.
Once authence have reached the venue they should see a conspicuous and attractive
entrance welcoming them to the evening's event. Just as theatres for many centuries have
had marquees and large signs designating the entrance. Ideally, the entry should be attractive
though it need not be elaborate. Clarity of entry is the key and should go along the venue
particular purpose, for instance with a history play, there may be decor in keeping with the
nature of the work being presented.
The arrival sequence for outdoor theatres in urban areas may require a different type of
directional signage than for rural venues. Outdoor theatre facilities may be located in city parks
so large that it will be difficult to locate the facility In that case signage will be especially
important while also requiring careful planning so that the signs are not a nuisance to citizens
using the park for other purposes. Whether permanent or not, aids to finding the venue require
careful planning from the beginning.

ii. Parking

Parking In almost every case of an outdoor theatre venue, other than in more dense, urban
areas with access to public transportation, the authence will arrive either by car or by bus.
These vehicles must be accommodated in an attractive manner with relative convenience to
the performance area. A 1000-seat theatre should provide parking for at least 400 cars, based
on the industry standard of 2.5 patrons per car. It can be assumed that approximately an acre
will be needed for one hundred to one hundred fifty cars, depending on the layout. That
statistic, however, does not include the devices that will create an attractive parking area, such
as tree islands, designated pathways and helpful signage. Additional parking will be needed
for performers and staff.
The parking spaces must be located well away from the theatre to avoid distractions during a
performance from the sound and light of automobiles, but not so far as to be difficult for
authence to walk to the theatre itself. Pathways must be comfortable, easily negotiable and
well lit. It should be universally accesible as some authence may wish to get to the theatre in

Richa Adhikari 16
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

a wheelchair from the parking lot or they may wish to be dropped off closer to the entry to the
theatre. Similarly, buses may wish to drive to the entrance and drop their passengers before
heading back to the lot and a parking area well away from the theatre. The design of the site
should take into account these variables for circulation, and seek to maximize ease of access
while minimizing vehicular queues and idling time.
Once again, however, the urban site may offer different challenges for access. Study of
options other than individual automobile parking, such as public transit, bicycles, charter
buses, etc should be taken into account in order to provide the greatest convenience for all of
the authence.

iii. Option for Authence

In many cases authence will naturally flow from the parking area to the theatre and settle into
their seats. If however, the venue will regularly attract visitors from beyond the immediate
community, various options for giving them some `extras', so to speak, are worth considering.
An 'extra' may consist of a simple park-like area where families or groups might rest for a few
moments with exhibits of one kind or another related to the event they will soon see. This is
especially appropriate for historical plays but any sort of entertainment can evoke interesting
exhibits.
Many of the existing outdoor theatres offer a dining experience, providing dinner before the
show at a reasonable cost. This is especially attractive to authence from another community
who don't want to spend time searehing for a place to dine before the show. Whether food is
offered for purchase at the theatre or not, a few picnic tables may be in order for those who
wish to bring their own food.

7.3.5. Performance Equipment

The following is a description of the basic performance equipment systems that are
customarily used in outdoor production facilities, how to procure this equipment, and
recommendations for the maintenance and storage of the equipment.

i. Lighting

Performance lighting systems are composed of three primary elements: lighting fixtures,
dimming and control systems and circuit distribution devices. Most facilities maintain a variety
of instrument types to provide various lighting functions and effects. Incandescent light
sources have been the mainstay for theatrical lighting for nearly one-hundred years. requiring
theatre companies to maintain an inventory of light bulbs or "lamps" of various types arid
wattages in order to quickly replace burn-outs.
In recent years a new lamp, based on LED technology, has become an acceptable alternative
for many theatrical applications; fixtures utilizing these lamps are becoming more available
and are replacing existing incandescent fixtures. The choice of all LED units or a mix of LED

Richa Adhikari 17
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

and incandescent fixtures is something that will have to be considered as the technology
becomes more common. LED lamps are far more efficient in that they will burn for ten or more
years. In addition, the units contain an inherent dimming function as well as a virtually unlimited
selection of colors. Choosing LED fixtures will depend on their effectiveness at the time the
theatre is being equipped.

Figure 7-8 LED alternative to traditional theatre lights

The most significant downside to the use of LED-based lighting equipment is that the
instruments cost approximately three to four times as much as a conventional incandescent
instrument. The cost of these LED fixture; however, will decrease as demand for these
instruments increases. LED light sources have a published lifespan of approximately 20,000
hours. Reduced energy consumption and no longer having to maintain an inventory of
replacement lamps help to balance the difference in cost of LED versus incandescent. In
general, an incandescent lamp-based performance lighting system is not energy efficient,
requires the frequent replacement of lamps, a dimmer bank installation, disposable "gel"
media to provide various colors, and more electrical infrastructure.
The trade-off is between a higher cost for the LED lighting units and a reduced cost for the
electrical system. While the initial investment may be greater, the return in the long run is
considerable not just in cost but in convenience. With these considerations, it is possible that
a theatre might choose to start with a hybrid system employing both LED and incandescent
lighting fixtures. The decision in this regard will have a major impact on the choices for dimming
and control equipment as well as circuit distribution. A knowledgeable lighting designer or
consultant should be engaged to assist in this decision.

Richa Adhikari 18
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

A range of lighting positions may differe from traditional front-of-house lighting to roof locations
and side lighting towers, to proscenium wall side lighting and other unique positions.
Depending on the type of productions anticipated for the amphitheatre facility, motorized,
"intelligent" lights or moving lights, as well as color changers, might be required or desired by
the lighting designers It is important to locate these units so that they are less susceptible to
damage from rain, dust and salt.

ii. Sound and Communication

Sound devices have been used as an element of outdoor production at least since the advent
of the Greek Theatre when megaphones were built into the headdresses of the major
performers. Modern authences have an increasing expectation of the sound that they perceive
during a performance. The modern ear wants more information, both louder and clearer.
Sound systems are used in many cases to amplify voices, instruments, sound effects, public
address announcements, and for hearing-assist systems required by ADA.
Outdoor performance facilities have the added challenge of not having complete control over
the acoustical environment. Sound from the natural environment can include wind, water,
insects and thunder. Sound from the man-made environment can include traffic noise as well
as distracting noise of trains, airplanes, sirens and mechanical systems. When selecting a site
for a outdoor theatre, the level of acoustic interference from any or all of these sources is an
important consideration. Although the perfectly quiet environment will probably never be
possible, that aspect of a site should at least be evaluated.

Figure 7-9 Sound equipment under shelter

Richa Adhikari 19
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Sound systems have become essential elements of almost all performance facilities. Unlike
performance lighting systems that are often provided by a single provider, sound systems are
typically created from components that are assembled from a variety of manufacturers, based
on the design requirements that have been prescribed by the system designee This mix-and-
match approach is standard. Sound system equipment can cost more than any of the other
performance systems categories and is subject to a shorter life span as well. This requires a
more frequent financial investment to keep the system in optimum performance condition.
Outdoor theatre facility needs to be provide optimum locations for the placement of sound
system speakers. The trend toward partially-covered and 6.111y-covered stages and
auditoriums is driven to an extent by the enhanced ability to improve the quality of the
authence's experience via the sound environment. Sound system speakers are often
positioned at the sides of the proscenium opening and, if feasible, in a high center location.
As with the performance lighting instruments, sound equipment will last longer and perform
better if protected as much as is practical from the outdoor environment.
Other elements of the performance sound system include the production intercom system that
connects the various technical and production staff. The "show relay" system that supplies
sound from the stage to areas including the control booth, follow-spot platforms, dressing
rooms, Green Room, rehearsal room, and various public areas in the Front-of-House; the ADA
mandated hearing-assist system; and any projection and video monitor equipment that might
be provided.

7.3.6. Types of Outdoor Theatre

"Amphithcatron" is the ancient Greek word describing a semi-circular place for viewing
performances. Today the amphitheatre is still the most familiar type of outdoor theatre
structure. The Greek theatres were sited on a hillside, with stonc risers or stairs built into the
hill for access and seating. The slope of seating area provided good sightlines to the ground
level stage area below, and the bowl shape of the amphitheatre enhanced the acoustic
properties of the performance. A facade was located at the rear of the stage area to assist in
reflecting sound, provide a crossover for the actors, and hide the stage equipment and actor
dressing areas. Performances took place during daylight hours
The amphitheatre continued to evolve in ancient Rome with several arehitectural additions:
• A raised stage replaced the ground level performance area.
• The facade at the rear of the stage became more elaborate and was pierced with doors
and windows to provide entrances and balcony appearances.
• The semi-circular seating area was constructed rather than relying on a natural hill for
its slope.

Richa Adhikari 20
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

• All the theatre elements were integrated into a single connected structure. Later, during
the Renaissance, the earliest indoor theatres were created by adding a roof to this
Roman model and weatherproofing it.
Many outdoor theatres throughout the world today continue to follow the Greco-Roman model
with modern additions to address the requirements of contemporary authences and theatre
technology. A pavilion at the top of the theatre serves to welcome and shelter the authence
as well as housing toilet; management and ticket offices, concessions, front lighting of the
stage, and technical control booths. Lighting towers are frequently added on either side of the
seating area to provide additional locations for lighting instruments. The stage may be packed
soil or sand, or it may be built up as in the Roman model. Backstage spaces with loading
zones, dressing room; shops, rehearsal and/or storage areas are added and can be simple or
complex, depending on the needs of the theatre. Many modern amphitheatres, like their
ancient counterparts, are often sited on a natural slope, while others construct the seating
area with the necessary angle for sightlincs.
An open amphitheatre is a term applied to an amphitheatre without a roof structure. The cost
of building an open amphitheatre is almost always less than any other type of permanent
outdoor theatre simply because there is less to build and maintain. Without protection from
the elements, however, events in an open amphitheatre are much more prone to cancellation
because of weather, and thc seasonal window in which events can be produced or presented
tends to be smaller.
Depending on the climate of a particular location, an open amphitheatre may not be an
effective venue for presenting a range of performance types: this is particularly true for musical
events that constitute the maionty of available touring programs. There are two basic
programming patterns for open amphitheatres:
1. Repeated performances of one or two -signature productions with a main production
that is repeated every year. This is typically the case with historical dramas and
religious pageants, a number of which have performed for well over 50 years.
2. A variety of performances that are either produced in a summer stock format or as a
mix of produced or presented events.
An amphitheatre that produces signature attractions has typically been designed and built with
a particular story in mind. It is often in a location that is related to the theme of the main play,
such as the site where the historical event depicted actually took place These productions
tend to be substantial in terms of scenery, costumes and lighting and often utilize large
numbers of performers, either paid or volunteer. Because the main attraction plays for all or
the major part of the season year after year, the production tends to grow and become more
elaborate over time as successive artistic directors and designers make their contribution to
its traditions. There is little need to "clear the stage" to make room for other productions and,
if a different show is occasionally scheduled, it often performs with the main production's
setting as a backdrop. With an historical or religious theme, the natural artistic impulse is to

Richa Adhikari 21
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

create an illusion of historical authenticity, so scenery and costumes tend to be realistic rather
than stylized.

Figure 7-10 Open Stage with Open Amphitheatre Plan

Richa Adhikari 22
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 7-11 Open stage with Open Theatre Section

7.3.7. Working Mechanism

 When the cavea of the theatre is modeled as sloped surfaces the theatre will resemble
the shape of an inverse cone. This shape will tend to direct most of the reflections
towards the open sky and therefore the energy will dissipate quickly leaving few late
reflections.
 The diffraction and scattering effect from the empty seats is not usually considered
important in computer simulations of roofed theatres.
 Many strong reflections from the roof and side walls mask the much lower energy
coming from scattering and diffraction.
 But in the case of the open-air theatres fewer strong reflections are present and the
gaps between strong reflections in the impulse response have to be filled in with
scattered energy in order to get a smoother decay curve.
 An abrupt decay curve with a few strong reflections makes it very difficult to estimate
any acoustic parameter and can be misleading .

Richa Adhikari 23
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

8. Case Study

Jay Pritzker Pavilion


The Jay Pritzker Pavilion designed by Canadian architect Frank Gehry is the new home of the
Grant Park Symphony in Chicago that has been offering outdoor concerts in the city during
the summer season for more than 70 years. The Millennium Park is located in the heart of
downtown Chicago.
The Jay Pritzker Pavilion is the centerpiece of Millennium Park, a monumental work of
recovery of thiat area of the city. The park is an example of architecture unrivaled which include
Jay Pritzker Pavilion, the AT & T Plaza and Clud Gate, the Crown Fountain, the Luri Garden,
McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink, the BP Pedestrian Bridge, Harrys Theater, the Wrigley
Square, the McDonald ‘s Cycle Center, the Exelon Pavilions Boeing Galleries, the Chase
Promenade and the Nichols Bridgeway.
The name that names the flag, well known in the world of architecture, is given in recognition
of the Pritzker family ( founder of the Pritzker prize in 1979 and originally from Chicago ) who
were among the major donors of capital for the realization of the work and were directly
involved in the design.
Land Area :99,000 m2
Capacity: 11,000

Figure 8-1 Plan of Millenium Park along with Pritzker Pavilion

Richa Adhikari 24
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

8.1.1. Spaces

Starting with the pre-existing pavilion sits on three floors underground párquines and a railway
line. In total there are three parks that lie beneath the flag, the Grant Park North, Grant Park
South and East Monroe Street garage.
The space can be divided into two areas, the stage and the spectator area, the latter being
able to turn subdivided into a fixed seating area and a more flexible esplanade.
In total the pavilion can accommodate 11,000 people at a single event, 4000 located in the
area of fixed seats immediately in front of the stage and slightly buried and 7,000 more in the
courtyard of 180 by 90 meters which is located behind this area of fixed seats which is elevated
above it allowing unobstructed view of the stage. (en +, n.d.)
As the stage is concerned, this is able to accommodate 120 musicians and a choir of 150
people. The back- stage areas are shared with the adjacent Music and Dance Theater.
The scenario has turn with large glass doors that allow close completely allowing it to be used
for other purposes during the winter season, such as banquets, receptions and presentations.

Figure 8-2 Fixed seating and the Stage

8.1.2. Sound Equipment

One of the most important aspects of the project was undoubtedly the acoustic quality of the
place where they worked with many acoustical engineers. The results according to the
members of the orchestra have been spectacular on their own.

Richa Adhikari 25
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 8-3 Suspended Sound System

The stage is equipped with a number of great speakers focused on the spectator area as in
virtually every major concert stages, but definitely the biggest challenge was to get the optimal
sound quality was not only facing the stage, but a hundred and two hundred meters away
where the grass esplanade which houses extends to more casual audience. The solution for
this effect was both architectural and technological. Architecturally the grassy esplanade
situated to the fixed seating area was covered with a mesh of steel tubes that extend the field
of influence without making a big solid block. This metal frame is used to suspend other
systems on public support traditional speaker speakers and LARES. LARES is an
electronic sound enhancement system that uses microprocessors to control multiple
loudspeakers and microphones placed around a performance space for the purpose of
providing active acoustic treatment.
The LARES technology emits waves that emulate surfaces, allowing us to create a sort of
invisible shield surrounding the tubular structure and getting the sound waves that travel
through inside behave as if they were spreading in a closed auditorium. This technology is
often used in concert halls around the world to correct imperfections in the surfaces of the
rooms, but has never before been used successfully in an outdoor space of this size.

8.1.3. Structure and Materials

As with most works of Gehry steel is undoubtedly the predominant material. The stage
structure is formed based soldiers steel profiles to achieve each generate enough media for

Richa Adhikari 26
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

later stainless steel plates cover them giving the project its final finish. Moreover, the mesh
covering the grassy esplanade is
formed based stainless steel curved
circular section that intersect
creating a kind of giant network
supported on a series of circular
pillars placed at intervals on the long
sides of the square tubes.
Being an outdoor space all flat
surfaces that needed to be paved,
as well as ramps, stairs and
entrances were made in concrete.
The project consists of fourteen
Figure 8-4 Suspended Trelis
distinct forms, which visually appear
as a cohesive whole. Each of these distinct forms is made using a straight stick steel primary
structure. A secondary structure attaches to the primary cylindrical concrete pylons clad in
stainless steel panels and is then clad in stainless steel.
Each of these fourteen shapes serve to form the bandshell, providing protection from the
elements while creating a focal point at the stage and orchestra pit of this dynamic outdoor
amphitheater. The structure reaches a height of one-hundred twenty feet. In several areas,
the structure curves back on itself, becoming nearly horizontal. The metal surface of this
project is clad in stainless steel with a custom flat seam panel for dual curvature. The near-flat
surface it creates, allowing the viewer to focus on the entirety of the shape rather than being
drawn to the individual lines.

Figure 8-5 The trellis is supported by cylindrical concrete pylons

Richa Adhikari 27
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Festival Park
A substantial community demand for an outdoor, multi-use performance space in Fayetteville,
NC resulted in the construction of this venue. Festival Park sits on 14 acres and has a seating
capacity of 15.000 people. The site was formerly a coal de-gasification operation.
Decontamination was completed in 2004. The site is bounded by a major thoroughfare, an
active rail line and a city street, and is subject to seasonal flooding from a creek that bisects
the site. These physical features greatly influenced the design process.
The impressive performance pavilion provides an outdoor, multi-use performance space and
is comprised of a raised covered stage: back-of-house functions in a simple, rectangular
extrusion. When not in use the pavilion appears more like public art, than an empty stage. The
back-of-house functions slide to one side, allowing an open view through to the backdrop of
trees.
In addition to the impact of a building on a decontaminated site, other existing physical features
greatly influenced the design process. The triangular site is bound by a major thoroughfare,
an active rail line and a two-lane city street. The site contains numerous specimen trees
warranting protection and is bisected by a creek that is subject to seasonal flooding.

Figure 8-6 Site Plan

Richa Adhikari 28
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 8-7 Plan of Pavilion

Figure 8-8 Festival park during Concert

Richa Adhikari 29
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

8.2.1. Spaces

The Performance Pavilion consists of two


components: a covered elevated stage, and
an enclosed rectangular volume housing
back-of-house functions such as dressing
rooms, toilets, electrical and sound
equipment rooms, and loading / storage. It is
intended that on a daily bases, the pavilion
appear more like a park folly than an empty
stage. To this end, the back of house building
is slid to one side allowing open views
through to the backdrop of existing trees.
Opaque panels on overhead tracks can be
retracted from behind the wood scrim wall to
serve as a backdrop and crossover when
performances are taking place.
Figure 8-9 Backstage

Figure 8-10 Access to the backstage

Richa Adhikari 30
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

8.2.2. Structure and Materials

The use of structural steel was critical to meeting the design objectives of this project. It was
important that sightlines to the stage be uninterrupted, and that the architecture of the pavilion
expresses a sense of excitement. The solution to these two objectives in the end became
mutually dependent ie: one informing and directly impacting the other. The front of the stage
is completely open to sightlines. This was achieved by suspending the butterfly formed stage
canopy with a system of steel masts and high strength steel cables. The canopy itself was
fabricated from tapered wide flanged sections and steel tube purlins. The canopy roof is
extruded polycarbonate. Water is channeled off the roof by a welded steel gutter discharging
into a stone filled tympluvium at stage right.The stage canopy was engineered to resist uplift
and high winds due to the threat of occasional hurricanes. Uplift is resisted by the counter
weight of steel plates, 5 feet wide x 15 feet long x 3 inches thick, located at the front edge of
the canopy. Great attention was given to the detailing and fabrication of this project. Whenever
possible, lighting and sound equipment conduit runs were coordinated and concealed within
the structure; plates for making connections were water jet cut. Bolt heads and nuts are
oriented in uniform directions. Welds are continuous. Painted finishes were carefully specified
for longevity and appearance. (Jeffrey S. Lee, 2009)

Figure 8-11 Butterfly steel canopy

Richa Adhikari 31
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Patan Durbar Square


Patan Durbar Square, the most charming urban ensemble of the Kathmandu Valley, is a
beautiful open space which was a palace square of the Malta Period. It is famously known as
Mangalbazaar or Manga in Newari (Mani-Gwala- meaning the central place in Newari). Also
in Sanskriti Mani means jewel and mangal means auspicious.
The central palace square was created in its present form in the 16th and 17th centuries in
Malta Period when the city reached its highest priority. Two famous kings, Siddhi Narasingh
Malla(1919-61) and Shri-Nivas Malla(1661-84), were especially responsible for development
of the palace and its surrounding.
It consists of two distinct sections arranged to form the squares of Patan are as follows:
i. the palace with its temples and courtyards;
ii. the group of temples built in front of the palace complex.
Both areas are enclosed by newar dwellings in which all temples are standing alkali of the
palace in the Durbar Square. .

Figure 8-12 Patan Durbar Square

8.3.1. Activities

Different activities with interpre-tation of today's context and past context can be observed
such as activities of Passive enjoymen such as meeting, gathering, hang-ing out, people
watching, rest and relaxation, sun and shade, etc

Richa Adhikari 32
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Special events such as concerts, speeches, rallies, cultural pro-grammes, art shows or
display, so-cial programmes, etc on dabali or floor of square. Different Jatras and festivals are,
passed throught these square since it is the main square of the Patan. Religious activities like
worship ping various temples Getting water from the hiti, satis-fying the thirsty, etc Different
shopping and vendors activities of people non these squares. different deities. Many
worshippers during festivals passed through these temples and Krishna tem-ple is the one of
the popular temple of this square. The styles of temples also range from the tiered temple to
shildiara temple to even domical form of the Bisheswor temple making than architecturally
significant as well.

Figure 8-13 Concert in Patan Durbar Square

8.3.2. Users

People of all ages and backgrounds can be seen in the square at any time. The number of
users de-pend upon the time of day and weather but the square is never empty (brought the
year. The square has something for everyone whether they are youngsters playing around,
students meeting with friends, adults, or old people reminiscing about old days. Taoists from
many different countries can also be seen taking photographs of the square.

Richa Adhikari 33
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Figure 8-14 Section of Patan Durbar Square

8.3.3. Circulation

There is no definite path to take when moving around the square. There are multiple paths
and ways around the square encouraging the movement of people through these paths. The
central path is a major pedestrian walkway used by people as a shortcut to get from one place
to another.

Figure 8-15 Isometric View of Patan Durbar Square

Richa Adhikari 34
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

References

en +. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/jay-pritzker-pavilion-at-the-


millenium-park/

Jeffrey S. Lee, F. (2009). Park life. Fayetteville, N.C.

Michael Hardy, D. W. (n.d.). Outdoor Theatre Facilities.

Pokharel, A. (2010, July 11). ECS Nepal. Retrieved from http://ecs.com.np/features/nepalese-theater

Reid, F. (1998). Stages for Tomorrow: Housing, Funding and Marketing Live Performances.

Richa Adhikari 35
OPEN PERFORMANCE SPACE

Richa Adhikari 36