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An atm with an eye

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Iris scan biometrics employs the unique characteristics and features of the human iris
in order to verify the identity of an individual. The iris is the area of the eye where the
pigmented or colored circle, usually brown or blue, rings the dark pupil of the eye.The
iris-scan process begins with a photograph. A specialized camera, typically very close
to the subject, no more than three feet, uses an infrared imager to illuminate the eye
and capture a very high-resolution photograph. This process takes only one to two
seconds and provides the details of the iris that are mapped, recorded and stored for
future matching/verification.Eyeglasses and contact lenses present no problems to the
quality of the image and the iris-scan systems test for a live eye by checking for the
normal continuous fluctuation in pupil size.The inner edge of the iris is located by an
iris-scan algorithm which maps the iris’ distinct patterns and characteristics. An
algorithm is a series of directives that tell a biometric system how to interpret a
specific problem. Algorithms have a number of steps and are used by the biometric
system to determine if a biometric sample and record is a match. Iris’ are composed
before birth and, except in the event of an injury to the eyeball, remain unchanged
throughout an individual’s lifetime. Iris patterns are extremely complex, carry an
astonishing amount of information and have over 200 unique spots. The fact that an
individual’s right and left eyes are different and that patterns are easy to capture,
establishes iris-scan technology as one of the biometrics that is very resistant to false
matching and fraud.

Figure 1.1 – A front view of the human

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The false acceptance rate for iris recognition systems is 1 in 1.2 million, statistically
better than the average fingerprint recognition system. The real benefit is in the false-
rejection rate, a measure of authenticated users who are rejected. Fingerprint scanners
have a 3 percent false-rejection rate, whereas iris scanning systems boast rates at the 0
percent level.A highly accurate technology such as iris-scan has vast appeal because
the inherent argument for any biometric is, of course, increased security

HISTORY

The first ATMs were off-line machines, meaning money was not automatically
withdrawn from an account. The bank accounts were not (at that time) connected by a
computer network to the ATM. Therefore, banks were at first very exclusive about
who they gave ATM privileges to. Giving them only to credit card holders (credit
cards were used before ATM cards) with good banking records. In modern ATMs,
customers authenticate themselves by using a plastic card with a magnetic stripe,
which encodes the customer's account number, and by entering a numeric passcode
called a PIN (personal identification number), which in some cases may be changed
using the machine. Typically, if the number is entered incorrectly several times in a
row, most ATMs will retain the card as a security precaution to prevent an
unauthorised user from working out the PIN by pure guesswork..

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CHAPTER -2

LITERATURE SURVE

II. BENEFITS OF USING IRIS TECHNOLOGY


The iris is a thin membrane on the interior of the eyeball. Iris patterns are extremely
complex.Patterns are individual (even in fraternal or identical twins).Patterns are
formed by six months after birth, stable after a year. They remain the same for
life.Imitation is almost impossible.Patterns are easy to capture and encode. Biometrics
is the automated recognition of individuals based on behavioural and biological
characteristics. The technology is designed to automatically take a picture from
person and match it to the digitized image stored in the biometric passport. In the field
of financial services, biometric technology has shown a great potential in offering
more comfort to customers while increasing their security. Applications due to
information protection issues, it is believed that the technology will find its way to be
widely used in many different applications. Biometrics such as signatures,
photographs, fingerprints, voiceprints, DNA and retinal blood vessel patterns all have
significant drawbacks. Face Recognition: Changes with Age, Expression, Viewing
angle, Illumination. Finger Print Recognition: Fingerprints or handprints require
physical contact, and they also can be counterfeited and marred by artifacts. IRIS
recognition is one among the biometric systems the tool used for this recognition is
MATLAB. To determine the uniqueness of iris patterns in terms of hamming distance
distribution by comparing template generated from different eyes. The iris consists of
a number of layers the lowest is the epithelium layer, which contains dense
pigmentation cells. The stromal layer lies above the epithelium layer, and contains
blood vessels, pigment cells and the two iris muscles. The density of stromal
pigmentation determines. The color of the iris. The externally visible surface of the
multi-layered iris contains two zones, which often differ in color. An outer ciliary
zone and an inner pupillary zone, and these two zones are divided by the collarets
which appears as a zigzag pattern. 2.1Success rate:Failure rate using IRIS technology
in just 1 in 1.2 million. When compared to other technology systems this was found as
very efficient. Hence we have chosen this technology.

III. ARCHITECTURE OF IRIS RECOGNITION

A complete iris recognition system can be split into four stages: Image acquisition,
segmentation, encoding and matching. The data acquisition step captures the iris
images. Infra-red illumination is used in most iris image acquisition. The iris
segmentation step localizes the iris region in the image. For most algorithms, and
assuming near-frontal presentation of the pupil, the iris boundaries are modelled as
two circles, which are not necessarily concentric. The inner circle is the papillary
boundary (between the pupil and the iris). The outer circle is the limbic boundary
(between the iris and the sclera). The noise processing is often included in the

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segmentation stage. The encoding stage encodes the iris image texture into a bit
vector code. In most algorithms, filters are utilized to obtain information about the iris
texture. Then the outputs of the filters are encoded into a bit vector code. The
corresponding matching stage calculates the distance between iris codes, and decides
whether it is an authorized match or unauthorized match.

3.1 Enrollment: The enrollment phase creates a user profile for subsequent
authentication activities.Typically, a new user provides multiple biometric reading
samples that are combined to form one stored record.

3.2 Authentication: Where a template is created for an individual and then a match is
searched for in the database of pre-enrolled templates.

Fig3.1 Architecture of iris recognition system

3.3 Image acquisition: One of the major challenges of automated iris recognition
is to capture a high-quality image of the iris while remaining non-invasive to the
human operator.
3.4 Image Segmentation: At this stage, the iris is extracted from the eye image.
The extracted iris region was then normalized into a rectangular block with constant
dimensions to account for imaging inconsistencies. The integro-differential operator
for locating the circular iris and pupil regions, and also the arcs of the upper and lower
eye lids. The integro-differential operator is defined as 𝑚𝑎𝑥(𝑟,𝑥𝑝,𝑦𝑜) 𝐺𝜎∗𝑑𝑑𝑥 𝐼(𝑥

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,𝑦)2𝜋𝑟(𝑟,𝑥0,𝑦𝑜)𝑑𝑠 Where I(x,y) is the eye image, r is the radius to search for, Gs(r) is
a Gaussian smoothing function, and s is the contour of the circle given by r, xo, yo,
The operator searches for the circular path where there is maximum change in pixel
values, by varying the radius and centre x and y position of the circular contour. The
operator is applied iteratively with the amount of smoothing progressively reduced in
order to attain precise localization. Eyelids are localized in a similar manner, with the
path of contour integration changed from circular to an arc. The segmented iris image
is normalized and converted from Cartesian image coordinates to polar image
coordinates.
3.5 Feature Extraction: The iris contains important unique features, such as
stripes, freckles, coronas, etc. These features are collectively referred to as the texture
of the iris. The 2D version of Gabor filters in order to encode iris pattern data. A 2D
Gabor filter over the an image domain (x, y) is represented as G x,y =e−π[ x−x0 2σ2+
y−y0 2β2]e−2π[u0 x−x0 +v0 y−y0 ] Where (x0, y0) specify position in the image, (α,
β) specify the effective width and length,and (u0,v0) specify modulation, which has
spatial frequency the odd symmetric and even symmetric 2D Gabor filters are
shownin figure. Daugmandemodulates the output of the Gabor filters in order to
compress the data. This is done by quantizing the phase information into four levels,
for each possible quadrant in the complex plane.

Figure 3.2 a quadrature pair of 2D Gabor filters

3.6 Matching: This phase consists of two steps, namely matching and
identification. In the matching process, the extracted features of the iris are compared
with the iris images in the database. If enough similarity is found, the subject is then
identified. The Hamming distance gives a measure of how many bits are the same
between two bit patterns. Using the Hamming distance of two bit patterns, a decision
can be made as to whether the two patterns were generated from different irises or
from the same one. In comparing the bit patterns X and Y, the Hamming distance,

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HD, is defined as the sum of disagreeing bits (sum of the exclusive-OR between X
and Y) over N, the total number of bits in the bit pattern

Fig 3.3 Flow chart for IRIS recognition technique

3.7 Hamming Distance: Hamming distance was originally conceived for detection
and correction of errors in digital communication. It is simply defined as the number
of bits that are different between two bit vectors.

IV. PROPOSED IRIS RECOGNITION ALGORITHM

A block diagram of the proposed iris recognition system is shown in figure 3. The iris
recognition system has seven modules: Eye image acquisition, challenge-response test
(CRT), iris segmentation, iris normalization, iris enrichment, and iris feature encoding
and iris discriminator design.

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Fig 4.1 Block diagram of the proposed approach

4.1 Eye image acquisition: An important and complex step of iris recognition
system is image acquisition. Especially for Indians, the iris is small in size and dark in
color. It is difficult to acquire clear images.

4.2 Challenge-response test: Biometric features may be counterfeited and


criminally used. This is a crucial weakness of the biometric system. This module aims
to ensure that an input image actually originates from a person instead of iris
photographs, phony eyes, or other artificial sources. This method verifies the response
of the pupil diameter by varying illumination levels at the same distance from the eye.
The algorithm of this method is elaborated as follows: Step 1: Capture the same
person’s eye images under different lighting levels Step 2: Measure the pupil diameter
from the captured eye images. If these values are divergent then the image is actually
from a real source (human), otherwise artificial sources may have been used. The
diameter of the pupil is calculated by satisfying (1). Equations (2) and (3) describe the
challenge-response process. (x - x1)(x - x2) + (y - y1) (y - y2) = 0, Td =n-1_i=0 |_i -
_i+1|, CRT = _True, if Td _= 0, False, otherwise

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Fig 4.2 Measurement of diameter of the pupil boundary.

Where Td is total diameter of the pupil in the capturing sequences, CRT is a


challenge-response test parameter, n is number of eye images, _i and _i+1 are
diameters of the pupil under different illuminations. This method assures that an input
is coming from a real sequence and not from photographs or other artificial sources.
The biometrics-capturing device needs to be capable of ensuring that they are
inspecting genuine user features (as opposed to a photograph or recording) and that
the output signal is not substituted. This is used to prevent replay attacks lifted from
video-signals, for instance by connecting a video recorder to the frame-grabber.

V. IRIS LOCALIZATION STEPS

5.1 Adjusted Gamma value: For this process we are taking the Edge strength
image. In that image we are goingto increase the gamma value. Gamma value must be
a positive. Values in the range 0-1 enhance contrast of bright regions, values > 1
enhance contrast in dark regions.
5.2 Non maximaSuppression: After the edge directions are known, non-
maximum suppression now has to be applied. Non-maximum suppression is used to
trace along the edge in the edge direction and suppress any pixel value (sets it equal to
0) that is not considered to be an edge. This will give a thin line in the output image.
5.3 Hysteresis Thresholds: Here we are going to compare non maxima
suppressed image pixels with two threshold levels. If current pixel value is greater
than two threshold levels means that current pixel & 8 neighbour pixels also marked
as edges. If that current pixel value is greater than only one threshold means that
current pixel only marked as an edge.
5.4 Hough Transform: The Hough transform is a standard computer vision
algorithm can be used to determine the parameters of simple geometric objects, such
as lines and circles, present in an image. The circular Hough transform can be

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employed to deduce the radius and centre coordinates of the pupil and iris regions.
From the edge map, votes are cast in Hough space for the parameters of circles
passing through each edge point. These parameters are the centre coordinates xc and
yc, and the radius r, which are able to define any circle according to the equation.
𝑥𝑐2+𝑦𝑐2−𝑟2=0 A maximum point in the Hough space will correspond to the radius
and centre coordinates of the circle best defined by the edge points. Wildes and Kong
also make use of the parabolic Hough transform to detect the eyelids, approximating
the upper and lower eyelids with parabolic arcs, which are represented as.
(−(𝑥−ℎ𝑗)sin𝜃𝑗+(𝑦−𝑘𝑗)cos𝜃𝑗)2=𝑎𝑗( 𝑥−ℎ𝑗 cos𝜃𝑗+ 𝑦−𝑘𝑗 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑗) Where aj controls the
curvature, (hj,kj) is the peak of the parabola and θjis the angle of rotation relative to
the x-axis. In performing the preceding edge detection step, Wilds et al. bias the
derivatives in the horizontal direction for detecting the eyelids, and in the vertical
direction for detecting the outer circular boundary of the iris
5.5 Iris Image Normalization: As the iris is captured under different conditions
like non-uniform illumination, eye blink, pupil radius change due to varying lighting
etc., it is possible for the output ofiris images to be in different sizes. These variations
may affect the results of iris matching. To overcome this issue, iris image has been
converted to standard size with width and height as 360 and 48 pixels respectively.
Iris dilation or erosion process is also carried out to extend or squeeze iris strip size
when fewer/higher amounts of data are obtained in the iris portion. This process is
called iris normalization.process ofradial scan module. x = _ xc + ri cos ((ð/180) è), y
= _ yc + risin((ð/180)è) (6)
5.6 Canny edge detection: Edges characterize boundaries and are therefore a
problem of fundamental importance in image processing. Edges in images are areas
with strong intensity contrasts a jump in intensity from one pixel to the next. Edge
detecting an image significantly reduces the amount of data and filters out useless
information, while preserving the important structural properties in an image. The
Canny edge detection algorithm is known to many as the optimal edge detector.
5.7 Iris Image Enrichment: Image enrichment process is based on spatial
domain approach. The original iris image has low contrast and may have non-uniform
illumination caused due to the irregular position of the light source. These problems
may affect subsequent feature extraction and iris matching process. In order to obtain
a well-distributed texture image, the iris image is enriched using local histogram
equalization. Figure 10a shows the effect of applying histogram equalization process.

VI. FEATURE ENCODING


The final process is the generation of the iris code. For this, the most discriminating
feature in the iris pattern is extracted. The resulting phasor lies using the wavelet. H
Re,Im sgn Re,Im I ρ,∅ ρ,∅e−iω θ0−∅ .e− r0−ρ 2α2e− θ0−∅ 2β2ρdρd∅ Where, h
Re,Im has the real and imaginary part, each having the value 1 or 0, depending on
which quadrant it lies in.The frequency response of a Log-Gabor filter is given as.
(f)= exp −(log(𝑓𝑓0))22(log(𝜎𝑓0))2 Where f0 represents the centre frequency, and σ
gives the bandwidth of the filter encoding process is illustrated in Figure

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Fig 6.1 An illustration of the feature encoding process.


6.1 Performance Evaluation: The performance evaluation of proposed method
was measured by the two error rates such as FRR (False Rejection Rate) and FAR
(False Acceptance Rate). The FAR and FRR was computed as FAR % No of false
acceptancesTotal no of imposter attempts FRR % No of false rejectionTotal no of
authentic attemptes

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CHAPTER 4
ATM SYSTEMS

Our ATM system would only attempt to match two (and later, a few) discrete
images, searching through a large database of possible matching candidates would be
unnecessary. The process would effectively become an exercise in pattern matching,
which would not require a great deal of time. With appropriate lighting and robust
learning software, slight variations could be accounted for in most cases. Further, a
positive visual match would cause the live image to be stored in the database so that
future transactions would have a broader base from which to compare if the original
account image fails to provide a match – thereby decreasing false negatives.
When a match is made with the PIN but not the images, the bank could limit
transactions in a manner agreed upon by the customer when the account was opened,
and could store the image of the user for later examination by bank officials. In
regards to bank employees gaining access to customer PINs for use in fraudulent
transactions, this system would likewise reduce that threat to exposure to the low limit
imposed by the bank and agreed to by the customer on visually unverifiable
transactions.

In the case of credit card use at ATMs, such a verification system would not
currently be feasible without creating an overhaul for the entire credit card issuing
industry, but it is possible that positive results (read: significant fraud reduction)
achieved by this system might motivate such an overhaul.

The last consideration is that consumers may be wary of the privacy concerns
raised by maintaining images of customers in a bank database, encrypted or
otherwise, due to possible hacking attempts or employee misuse. However, one could
argue that having the image compromised by a third party would have far less dire
consequences than the account information itself. Furthermore, since nearly all ATMs
videotape customers engaging in transactions, it is no broad leap to realize that banks
already build an archive of their customer images, even if they are not necessarily
grouped with account information.

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HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

ATMs contain secure cryptoprocessors, generally within an IBM PC compatible


host computer in a secure enclosure. The security of the machine relies mostly on the
integrity of the secure cryptoprocessor: the host software often runs on a commodity
operating system.In-store ATMs typically connect directly to their ATM Transaction
Processor via a modem over a dedicated telephone line, although the move towards
Internet connections is under way.

In addition, ATMs are moving away from custom circuit boards (most of
which are based on Intel 8086 architecture) and into full-fledged PCs with commodity
operating systems such as Windows 2000 and Linux. An example of this is Banrisul,
the largest bank in the South of Brazil, which has replaced the MS-DOS operating
systems in its automatic teller machines with Linux. Other platforms include RMX
86, OS/2 and Windows 98 bundled with Java. The newest ATMs use Windows XP or
Windows XP embedded.

RELIABILITY

ATMs are generally reliable, but if they do go wrong customers will be left
without cash until the following morning or whenever they can get to the bank during
opening hours. Of course, not all errors are to the detriment of customers; there have
been cases of machines giving out money without debiting the account, or giving out
higher value notes as a result of incorrect denomination of banknote being loaded in
the money cassettes. Errors that can occur may be mechanical (such as card transport
mechanisms; keypads; hard disk failures); software (such as operating system; device
driver; application); communications; or purely down to operator error.

SECURITY
Early ATM security focused on making the ATMs invulnerable to physical
attack; they were effectively safes with dispenser mechanisms. ATMs are placed not
only near banks, but also in locations such as malls, grocery stores, and restaurants.
The other side of this improvement is the enhancement of the culprit’s probability to
get his ‘unauthentic’ share.

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ATMs are a quick and convenient way to get cash. They are also public and
visible, so it pays to be careful when you're making transactions. Follow these general
tips for your personal safety.

Stay alert. If an ATM is housed in an enclosed area, shut the entry door completely
behind you. If you drive up to an ATM, keep your car doors locked and an eye on
your surroundings. If you feel uneasy or sense something may be wrong while you're
at an ATM, particularly at night or when you're alone, leave the area.

Keep you PIN confidential. Memorize your Personal Identification Number (PIN);
don't write it on your card or leave it in your wallet or purse. Keep your number to
yourself. Never provide your PIN over the telephone, even if a caller identifies
himself as a bank employee or police officer. Neither person would call you to obtain
your number.

Conduct transactions in private. Stay squarely in front of the ATM when


completing your transaction so people waiting behind you won't have an opportunity
to see your PIN being entered or to view any account information. Similarly, fill out
your deposit/withdrawal slips privately.

Don’t flash your cash. If you must count your money, do it at the ATM, and place your
cash into your wallet or purse before stepping away. Avoid making excessively large
withdrawals. If you think you're being followed as you leave the ATM, go to a public
area near other people and, if necessary, ask for help.

Save receipt. Your ATM receipts provide a record of your transactions that you can later
reconcile with your monthly bank statement. If you notice any discrepancies on your
statement, contact your bank as soon as possible. Leaving receipts at an ATM can also let
others know how much money you've withdrawn and how much you have in your account.

Guard your card. Don't lend your card or provide your PIN to others, or discuss your
bank account with friendly strangers. If your card is lost or stolen, contact your bank
immediately.

Immediately report any crime to the police. Contact the Department Of Public
Security or your local police station for more personal safety information.

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SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION

For most of the past ten years, the majority of ATMs used worldwide ran under
IBM’s now-defunct OS/2. However, IBM hasn’t issued a major update to the
operating system in over six years. Movement in the banking world is now going in
two directions: Windows and Linux. NCR, a leading world-wide ATM manufacturer,
recently announced an agreement to use Windows XP Embedded in its next
generation of personalized ATMs (crmdaily.com.) Windows XP Embedded allows
OEMs to pick and choose from the thousands of components that make up Windows
XP Professional, including integrated multimedia, networking and database
management functionality. This makes the use of off-the-shelf facial recognition code
more desirable because it could easily be compiled for the Windows XP environment
and the networking and database tools will already be in place.

Many financial institutions are relying on Windows NT, because of its stability
and maturity as a platform.The ATMs send database requests to bank servers which
do the bulk of transaction processing (linux.org.) This model would also work well
for the proposed system if the ATMs processors were not powerful enough to quickly
perform the facial recognition algorithms.

SECURITY
In terms of the improvement of security standards, MasterCard is spearheading an
effort to heighten the encryption used at ATMs. For the past few decades, many
machines have used the Data Encryption Standard developed by IBM in the mid
1970s that uses a 56-bit key. DES has been shown to be rather easily cracked,
however, given proper computing hardware. In recent years, a “Triple DES” scheme
has been put forth that uses three such keys, for an effective 168-bit key length. ATM
manufacturers are now developing newer models that support Triple DES natively;
such redesigns may make them more amenable to also including snapshot cameras
and facial recognition software, more so than they would be in regards to retrofitting
pre-existing machines .

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HOW THE SYSTEM WORKS.

When a customer puts in a bankcard, a stereo camera locates the face, finds
the eye and takes a digital image of the iris at a distance of up to three feet. The
resulting computerized "iris code" is compared with one the customer will initially
provide the bank. The ATM won't work if the two codes don't match. The entire
process takes less than two seconds.

The system works equally well with customers wearing glasses or contact
lenses and at night. No special lighting is needed. The camera also does not use any
kind of beam. Instead, a special lens has been developed that will not only blow up
the image of the iris, but provide more detail when it does. Iris scans are much more
accurate than other high-tech ID systems available that scan voices, faces and
fingerprints.

Scientists have identified 250 features unique to each person's iris -- compared
with about 40 for fingerprints -- and it remains constant through a person's life, unlike
a voice or a face. Fingerprint and hand patterns can be changed through alteration or
injury. The iris is the best part of the eye to use as a identifier because there are no
known diseases of the iris and eye surgery is not performed on the iris. Iris
identification is the most secure, robust and stable form of identification known to
man. It is far safer, faster, more secure and accurate than DNA testing. Even identical
twins do not have identical irises. The iris remains the same from 18 months after
birth until five minutes after death.

When the system is fully operational, a bank customer will have an iris record
made for comparison when an account is opened. The bank will have the option of
identifying either the left or right eye or both. It requires no intervention by the
customer. They will simply get a letter telling them they no longer have to use the
PIN number. And, scam artists beware, a picture of the card holder won't pass muster.
The first thing the camera will check is whether the eye is pulsating. If we don't see
blood flowing through your eye, you're either dead or it's a picture.

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CHAPTER-5
Advantages of Iris Recognition Technology. The physiological properties of
irises are major advantages to using them as a method of authentication. As discussed
earlier, the morphogenesis of the iris that occurs during the seventh month of
gestation results in the uniqueness of the iris even between multi-birth children. These
patterns remain stable throughout life and are protected by the body’s own
mechanisms. This randomness in irises makes them very difficult to forge and hence
imitate the actual person. In addition to the physiological benefits, iris-scanning
technology is not very intrusive as there is no direct contact between the subject and
the camera technology. It is non-invasive, as it does not use any laser technology, just
simple video technology. The camera does not record an image unless the user
actually engages it. It poses no difficulty in enrolling people that wear glasses or
contact lenses. The accurateness of the scanning technology is a major benefit with
error rates being very low, hence resulting in a highly reliable system for
authentication. Scalability and speed of the technology are a major advantage. The
technology is designed to be used with large-scale applications such as with ATMs.
The speed of the database iris records are stored in is very important. Users do not
like spending a lot of time being authenticated and the ability of the system to scan
and compare the iris within a matter of minutes is a major benefit.

1. The entire process will takes time less than 2 seconds as facial recognition code
more desirable because it could easily be compiled for the Windows XP environment
and the networking and database tools will already be in place.

2. The system works equally well with customers wearing glasses or contact lenses
and at night. No special lighting is needed. The camera also does not use any kind of
beam. Iris scans are much more accurate than other high-tech ID systems available
that scan voices, faces and fingerprints.

3. The iris is the best part of the eye to use as a identifier because there are no known
diseases of the iris and eye surgery is not performed on the iris.

4. It is far safer, faster, more secure and accurate than DNA testing. Even identical
twins do not have identical irises. The iris remains the same from 18 months after
birth until five minutes after death.

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Disadvantages of Iris Recognition Technology.As with any technology


there are challenges with iris recognition. The iris is a very small organ to scan from a
distance. It is a moving target and can be obscured by objects such as the eyelid and
eyelashes. Subjects who are blind or have cataracts can also pose a challenge to iris
recognition, as there is difficulty in reading the iris. The camera used in the process
needs to have the correct amount of illumination. Without this, it is very difficult to
capture an accurate image of the iris. Along with illumination comes the problem with
reflective surfaces within the range of the camera as well as any unusual lighting that
may occur. All of these impact the ability of the camera to capture an accurate image.
The system linked with the camera is currently only capturing images in a
monochrome format. This results in problems with the limitations of greyscale
making it difficult to distinguish the darker iris colourations from the pupil. Although
there is minimal intrusiveness with iris recognition, there is still the need for
cooperation from subjects to enrol in the system and undergo subsequent
authentication scans. Enrolling a non-cooperative subject would prove very difficult
indeed. Inadequate training of users at the initial enrolment period will cause
problems both at the initial enrolment time and subsequent authentications. Frustrated
users will not help make the system any easier to use and will not be accepted by
users as a convenient authentication method. Communication with users plays a major
part in introducing such a system successfully

As with all authentication methods it’s important to remember to have a backup plan.
Normal day-to-day problems such as system failures, power failures, network
problems, and software problems can all contribute to rendering a biometric system
unusable. Once users get accustomed to such a system it is unlikely that they will
remember to bring their other forms of identification with them to the office. System
administrators also have the additional pressure of ensuring the system that stores the
iris record database is properly secured to prevent tampering with the data stored.
Although these are not major hindrances to the actual iris recognition system it is
important to take these things into consideration and have a backup plan

1) Iris scanners are significantly more expensive than some other forms of biometrics,
password or proxy card security systems

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2) Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger than a few meters
and if the person to be identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and
looking into the camera.

3) In Fingerprinting technique there is chances of replacement or injury. Scientists


have identified 250 features unique to each person's iris -- compared with about 40 for
fingerprint

Applications of Iris Recognition Technology.

The most obvious use of iris recognition technology is within the computing
environment. There is a lot of valuable data stored on a company’s network and being
able to access the network with a username and password is the most common method
of authentication today. If a username and password is stolen then this gives the thief
all of that person’s access privileges and this can be detrimental to a company in
today’s competitive environment. Implementing an iris recognition system to
authenticate users on the network means that there are no passwords to steal and no
tokens to lose. Users are only able to access the systems they have privileges to access
and it’s very difficult for someone to replicate an iris for authentication. The
technology can not only be used for securing log on but also in areas such as file and
directory access, web site access and key access for file encryption and decryption. In
a network environment, a system may be configured to compare the live template to
the stored template and if a match is found then the user’s access privileges are passed
back to the client. In other implementations, after a match is found, the server returns
a username and password to the client, which then transmits this information to the
network server to allow access to the systems the user has privileges to. Enterprise
applications are also being worked on in the areas of e-commerce, healthcare
applications for medical records protection, insurance and brokerage transactions.
Another area iris recognition is useful with is physical security to data centres or
computer rooms. Mounting a scanner by the access door and authenticating people via
their iris is a good method of ensuring only those whose templates are in the database
for computer room access are actually allowed in. This helps to alleviate problems
associated with swipe card access where some systems have to be manually
programmed with specific card numbers and robust processes need to be in place to
ensure access lists are regularly reviewed. Swipe cards are also easily lost, stolen or

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borrowed. Iris recognition is also being utilised or considered in other areas of daily
life. ATMs are a major area where iris recognition is being trialled. The use of this
technology with ATMs means that customers can discard their plastic cards and PINs
thus eliminating the possibility of having cards and/or PINs stolen or lost. The
banking industry is also involved in looking at implementing the technology in over
the counter transactions with customers. This would reduce the requirement for
customers to produce identification, bank books, account numbers etc and would
result in faster transaction times that leaves the bank teller with more time to
concentrate on the level of service provided to the customer.

 § Security: · It provides better and efficient security.·


 In past decades many machine have used the Data Encryption Standard
developed by IBM in the mid 1970s that uses a 56-bit key. But in this
technique. “Triple DES” scheme has been put forth that uses three such keys,
for an effective 168-bit key length.
 Redesigns of DES may make them more amenable to also including cameras
and facial recognition software, more so than they would be in regards to
retrofitting pre-existing machines.
 It avoids fraudulent attempts through stolen cards, badly-chosen or
automatically assigned PINs, cards with little or no encryption schemes,
employees with access to non-encrypted customer account information and
other points of failure and also avoid the unauthentic share.

 Reliability:
· ATMs are generally reliable ATMs invulnerable to physical attack

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CHAPTER-6

FUTURE SCOPE & CONCLUSION

Finally, in this section gives features of the iris implementation encoded by


convolving the normalised iris region with 1D Log-Gabor filters and phase quantising
the output in order to produce a bit-wise biometric template. The Hamming distance
was chosen as a matching metric. The experimental results show that the proposed
approach has a faster operation and good recognition performance. All experimental
results have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has anencouraging
performance. This also confirms that effective iris segmentation is important for an
iris recognition system. However, efforts remain to be taken to further improve its
performance. In order to improve the automatic segmentation algorithm, a more
elaborate eyelid and eyelash detection system could be implemented. Thus the above
method can be efficiently implemented for the ATM transactions

Future Scope

 To make the study more useful and effective the following suggestion have
been proposed for further improvements in this area
 To develop improved algorithms and data capturing sensors to reduce the level
of failure to enrol and failure to acquire rate.
 To concern segmenting noisy irises when the lower or upper eyelids and
eyelashes cover the pupil of the iris, which is currently not handled?
 To work on optimization of the code, so that the segmentation software can
run in real time applications.
 To study additional type of noises like off-angle iris images may be more
useful. A low quality and degraded eye images have been considered here.
 To concern to security analysis of the proposed hybrid mechanism on noisy
irises when the lower or upper eyelids and eyelashes cover the pupil of the iris.

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REFERENCES

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[2]. J. Daugman. The importance of being random: Statistical principles of iris
recognition. Pattern Recognition, 36(2):279–291, 2003.
[3]. J. Daugman. Anatomy and physiology of the iris. [htlm-doc.], [retrieved
15.10.2003]. From: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/jgd1000/anatomy.html. [4]
R.Wildes. Iris recognition: An emerging biometric technology. Proceedings of the
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[5]. S. Lim, K. Lee, O. Byeon, and T. Kim. Efficient iris recognition through
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