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Directional Drilling

Training Manual
January 1997 ATM-610100 Version 1.2

Holder:

Confidential
This information is confidential and is trade secret property of Anadrill. It must not be
copied in whole or in part, and should be filed accordingly by the holder. It must not
be shown to or discussed with anyone outside the Schlumberger organization and must
be returned to Anadrill upon request or when the holder leaves the employ of Anadrill.
© 1997 Anadrill - unpublished work
All rights reserved under copyright law.

Schlumberger
Anadrill
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January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


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January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


Preface

Thomas R. Bates, Jr.


President

The key values which are the underpinnings of the success of Schlumberger are people,
technology and profit. Of these values, it is clear that people are most important because
with good people we can develop new technology and make a decent profit. Without
good people, there is no possibility for success. The commitment of Schlumberger to its
employees begins with recruitment of the best people available. It continues with training
to enhance career development opportunities for all employees, which is an essential part
of each employee’s life within Schlumberger.
At Anadrill, we share the commitment to people like all Schlumberger companies. We
have, however, a unique corporate structure and unique corporate goals. We have clearly
stated that we want to attain a 25% market share in Directional Drilling by 1997. We
also recognize that Directional Drilling is a key ingredient in our continued success in
the MWD and LWD businesses. It is therefore essential that we develop a cadre of
highly skilled directional drillers which will allow us to grow.
Training is an important element in your personal development and this new Anadrill
Directional Drilling Manual is evidence of the commitment we have made to this part of
our business. Whether you are relatively new to the DD business or a seasoned veteran, I
am certain you will find this manual informative and useful.
Your success in this program is critical to Anadrill’s future in directional drilling.
Good Luck.

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


Preface

Single Standard Philosophy

The ongoing integration of Health, Safety & Environment (HSE) into all our activities
aims at attaining recognized leadership in HSE among the oil service industry.
We Believe:

♦ Nothing is more important than HSE...not production, not sales, not profit.

♦ Nothing is acceptable in one part of the world if, for HSE reasons, it is
unacceptable elsewhere.

♦ All accidents and injuries are preventable...they are not inevitable.

♦ HSE excellence is achieved through people development...and people


development is the foremost management responsibility.

♦ Behavior depends on attitude...and is an individual responsibility.

♦ HSE concern and sensitivity is a way of life...around the clock.

♦ Every task must be performed with a genuine effort to eliminate substandard


practices and conditions which could effect ourselves, our fellow employees, our
customers, our contractors, our community or our environment.

A commitment to a single standard process in HSE is a commitment to doing things


right. Ultimately, this results in elimination of injuries and optimization of all activities.

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


Table of Contents

1 Introduction Page
1.1 HISTORY AND APPLICATIONS OF DIRECTIONAL DRILLING .......................................... 1-1

2 Fundamentals Page
2.1 PETROLEUM GEOLOGY ............................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY ................................................................................ 2-15

3 Directional Well Planning Page


3.1 POSITIONING AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS .................................................................. 3-1
3.2 SURVEY CALCULATION METHODS ............................................................................ 3-15
3.3 BASIC WELL PLANNING ............................................................................................ 3-24
3.4 ANTICOLLISION AND ADVANCED WELL PLANNING .................................................. 3-34

4 Surveying Page
4.1 MAGNETIC & NON-MAGNETIC REQUIREMENTS ......................................................... 4-1
4.2 MAGNETIC SINGLE SHOTS & MULTISHOTS ............................................................... 4-15
4.3 GYROSCOPES ............................................................................................................ 4-19
4.4 MEASUREMENTS WHILE DRILLING ........................................................................... 4-40

5 Drilling Tools & Deflection Methods Page


5.1 DRILLING TOOLS......................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 DEFLECTION METHODS ............................................................................................. 5-18

6 Drilling Jars Page


6.1 USING DRILLING JARS ................................................................................................ 6-1

7 Downhole Motors Page


7.1 DOWNHOLE MUD MOTORS ......................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 STEERABLE MUD MOTORS........................................................................................ 7-14
7.3 DRILLING FLUID REQUIREMENTS WITH ALL PDMS................................................... 7-20

8 Drilling Bits Page


8.1 BITS ............................................................................................................................ 8-1

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


Table of Contents

9 Drilling Fluids and Hydraulics Page


9.1 DRILLING FLUIDS ........................................................................................................ 9-2
9.2 RHEOLOGY.................................................................................................................. 9-5
9.3 DRILLING FLUIDS PRODUCTS ...................................................................................... 9-8
9.4 DRILL STRING HYDRAULICS ..................................................................................... 9-13
9.5 HAND-CALCULATION OF HYDRAULICS ..................................................................... 9-17
9.6 HYDRAULIC OPTIMIZATION ...................................................................................... 9-20

10 Bottom Hole Assemblies Page


10.1 ROTARY BHA......................................................................................................... 10-2
10.2 COMMON BHA PROBLEMS ................................................................................... 10-20
10.3 BHA EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS .............................................................................. 10-22
10.4 RECAP ................................................................................................................... 10-22

11 Drilling Operations Page


11.1 BHA WEIGHT ......................................................................................................... 11-2
11.2 TOOL HANDLING..................................................................................................... 11-6
11.3 NUDGING ................................................................................................................ 11-7
11.4 ORIENTATION.......................................................................................................... 11-8
11.5 CORRECTION RUNS ............................................................................................... 11-16
11.6 THE OUIJA BOARD ................................................................................................ 11-18
11.7 CONSTANT RATE OF TURN TO TARGET ................................................................. 11-23
11.8 CONSTANT RATE OF DROP/BUILD TO TARGET ........................................................ 11-27
11.9 OPEN HOLE SIDETRACKING ................................................................................... 11-28
11.10 CASED HOLE SIDETRACKING ............................................................................... 11-32

12 DD at the Rigsite Page


12.1 ON ARRIVAL AT THE RIG ........................................................................................ 12-3
12.2 GENERAL DD DUTIES AS THE WELL PROGRESSES.................................................... 12-5
12.3 LOCATION POLITICS ................................................................................................ 12-6

13 Drilling Problems Page


13.1 AN OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 13-1

14 Glossary Page
14.1 DRILLING FLUIDS .................................................................................................... 14-1
14.2 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING ....................................................................................... 14-29

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

1 Introduction Page
Figure 1-1 Side tracking............................................................................................... 1-3
Figure 1-2 Inaccessible locations................................................................................. 1-3
Figure 1-3 Salt dome drilling....................................................................................... 1-4
Figure 1-4 Fault controlling ......................................................................................... 1-4
Figure 1-5 Multiple exploration wells from a single well bore ................................... 1-4
Figure 1-6 Onshore drilling ......................................................................................... 1-5
Figure 1-7 Offshore multiwell drilling ........................................................................ 1-5
Figure 1-8 Multiple sands from a single well bore ...................................................... 1-5
Figure 1-9 Intercepting a high pressure zone............................................................... 1-6
Figure 1-10 Horizontal wells ....................................................................................... 1-6

2 Fundamentals Page
Figure 2-1 Cross section of earth with crust, mantle, core and inner core................... 2-2
Figure 2-2 Uplifted horst and down dropped graben................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-3 Weight of overlying unconsolidated sediments (B) compacts layer (A) into
sedimentary rocks...................................................................................... 2-4
Figure 2-4 Simple faults - normal (a), reverse (b), thrust (c) and lateral (d) ............... 2-9
Figure 2-5 Reverse fault............................................................................................... 2-9
Figure 2-6 Folding and cleavage................................................................................ 2-10
Figure 2-7 Unconformities......................................................................................... 2-11
Figure 2-8 In map view, fault traps may be simple (a) or compound (b) .................. 2-12
Figure 2-9 Discontinuous peripheral traps around piercement salt dome ................. 2-12
Figure 2-10 Common types of stratigraphic traps ..................................................... 2-13
Figure 2-11 Artesian well .......................................................................................... 2-14
Figure 2-12 The first order (straight line) equation ................................................... 2-17
Figure 2-13 Angles a and b are supplementary.......................................................... 2-17
Figure 2-14 The sum of all angles around one point is 360° ..................................... 2-18
Figure 2-15 This figure shows the relationship of angles.......................................... 2-18
Figure 2-16 In this figure, angle a is equal to angle a' ............................................... 2-19
Figure 2-17 The sum of internal angles of a triangle is 180°..................................... 2-19
Figure 2-18 ln this figure, angle a + c = angle e ........................................................ 2-20
Figure 2-19 This figure can be solved as above......................................................... 2-20
Figure 2-20 lf angle c = 29°17’, what are angles a and b .......................................... 2-21
Figure 2-21 Projections from a right-angle triangle................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-22 Similiar triangles .................................................................................... 2-22
Figure 2-23 Right angle triangle ................................................................................ 2-22
Figure 2-24 Right angle triangle ................................................................................ 2-23
Figure 2-25 Example of right angle triangle.............................................................. 2-24
Figure 2-26 Right-angle triangle example ................................................................. 2-25
Figure 2-27 Equality of segments .............................................................................. 2-25
Figure 2-28 Circle and chord ..................................................................................... 2-26

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

2 (cont) Fundamentals Page


Figure 2-29 Circle and tangent .................................................................................. 2-26
Figure 2-30 Circle and arc ......................................................................................... 2-27
Figure 2-31 Unit circle............................................................................................... 2-28
Figure 2-32 Sign of sine, cosine and tangent in a circle ............................................ 2-29
Figure 2-33 Projections of lines................................................................................. 2-29
Figure 2-34 Projection of lines - example................................................................. 2-29
Figure 2-35 Projection of lines - perpendicular direction.......................................... 2-30
Figure 2-36 Projection of lines onto planes ............................................................... 2-30
Figure 2-37 Radius of curvature definitions .............................................................. 2-31

3 Directional Well Planning Page


Figure 3-1 Location on the earth’s surface by geographic coordinates........................ 3-2
Figure 3-2 The UTM system of location on the earth’s surface................................... 3-5
Figure 3-3 Convergence............................................................................................... 3-6
Figure 3-4 Lambert conformal projection, USA.......................................................... 3-7
Figure 3-5 Corrections to survey azimuth ................................................................. 3-12
Figure 3-6 Lease definitions ...................................................................................... 3-12
Figure 3-7 Old style lease definitions. ....................................................................... 3-13
Figure 3-8 Definitions of terms used in survey calculation methods ........................ 3-15
Figure 3-9 Tangential method definitions.................................................................. 3-17
Figure 3-10 Average angle method............................................................................ 3-18
Figure 3-11 Radius of curvature method ................................................................... 3-19
Figure 3-12 Radius of curvature method - vertical projection................................... 3-20
Figure 3-13 Radius of curvature - horizontal projection............................................ 3-20
Figure 3-14 Minimum curvature - dog leg ................................................................ 3-21
Figure 3-15 Slant type well; R < total target displacement. ...................................... 3-26
Figure 3-16 Slant type well; R > total target displacement. ...................................... 3-27
Figure 3-17 "S" type well; (R1 + R2) < total target displacement................................ 3-28
Figure 3-18 "S" type well; (R1 + R2) > total target displacement............................... 3-29
Figure 3-19 Worksheet, Slant well, R < total displacement of target........................ 3-30
Figure 3-20 Worksheet, Slant well, R > total displacement of target........................ 3-31
Figure 3-21 Worksheet, S type well, R1+R2 < total displacement of target ............... 3-32
Figure 3-22 Worksheet, S type well, R1+R2 > total displacement of target ............... 3-33
Figure 3-23 Spider plot, small scale .......................................................................... 3-34
Figure 3-24 Spider plot, large scale ........................................................................... 3-34
Figure 3-25 Traveling Cylinder analysis and display. ............................................... 3-35
Figure 3-26 Ellipsoid of certainty .............................................................................. 3-36
Figure 3-27 Determining lead angle. ......................................................................... 3-37
Figure 3-28 Example of a basic well plan map.......................................................... 3-37

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

4 Surveying Page
Figure 4-1 Earth’s magnetic field - rotation of liquid core.......................................... 4-2
Figure 4-2 Earth's magnetic field - dynamo theory ..................................................... 4-2
Figure 4-3 Earth’s magnetic field ................................................................................ 4-3
Figure 4-4 Fluctuation's in the earth's magnetic field .................................................. 4-3
Figure 4-5 Magnetic field strength .............................................................................. 4-4
Figure 4-6 Magnetic dip angle..................................................................................... 4-5
Figure 4-7 Magnetic dip angles at poles and equator .................................................. 4-6
Figure 4-8 Magnetic declination angle ........................................................................ 4-7
Figure 4-9 Drill string magnetism................................................................................ 4-8
Figure 4-10 Effect of hole angle on drillstring magnetic interference......................... 4-8
Figure 4-11 Effect of azimuth on drillstring magnetic interference ............................ 4-9
Figure 4-12 Drillstring magnetic interference at different latitudes .......................... 4-10
Figure 4-13 Magnetic lines of force in the drillstring................................................ 4-11
Figure 4-14 Effect of magnetic hot spot in MWD collar........................................... 4-12
Figure 4-15 NMDC requirements.............................................................................. 4-13
Figure 4-16 Deviation of Universal Gravitation Constant......................................... 4-14
Figure 4-17 Simplified diagram of a typical gyroscope ............................................ 4-20
Figure 4-18 Realistic view of the configuration of a typical gyroscope.................... 4-21
Figure 4-19 Gyro rotation around outer gimbal axis ................................................. 4-22
Figure 4-20 Gyro rotation around inner gimbal axis ................................................. 4-22
Figure 4-21 Single degree of freedom gyro............................................................... 4-24
Figure 4-22 Two degree of freedom gyro.................................................................. 4-24
Figure 4-23 Representation of nutation ..................................................................... 4-26
Figure 4-24 Relationship of celestial and ecliptic poles ............................................ 4-27
Figure 4-25 Origin of precession ............................................................................... 4-27
Figure 4-26 Free gyro ................................................................................................ 4-28
Figure 4-27 Two degree gyro..................................................................................... 4-29
Figure 4-28 Rate gyro ................................................................................................ 4-31
Figure 4-29 Rate gyro accelerometer operation......................................................... 4-32
Figure 4-30 Rate gyro accelerometer principle of operation ..................................... 4-32
Figure 4-31 Three step process to calculate survey from rate gyro........................... 4-33
Figure 4-32 Rate gyro survey axes ............................................................................ 4-34
Figure 4-33 Mud pulse telemetry............................................................................... 4-40
Figure 4-34 MWD signal transducer ......................................................................... 4-41
Figure 4-35 Positive pulse telemetry ......................................................................... 4-41
Figure 4-36 Negative pulse telemetry........................................................................ 4-42
Figure 4-37 Continuous carrier wave telemetry ........................................................ 4-42
Figure 4-38 Slim 1 pulser in collar ............................................................................ 4-43
Figure 4-39 Slim 1 pulser principle of operation....................................................... 4-44
Figure 4-32 Rate gyro survey axes ............................................................................ 4-34

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

5 Drilling Tools & Deflection Methods Page


Figure 5-1 Flush and spiral drill collars....................................................................... 5-2
Figure 5-2 Junk sub...................................................................................................... 5-3
Figure 5-3 Dimensional data range of heavy weight drill pipe.................................... 5-4
Figure 5-4 Various types of hardfacings...................................................................... 5-5
Figure 5-5 Welded blade stabilizers............................................................................. 5-6
Figure 5-6 Integral blade stabilizers............................................................................ 5-6
Figure 5-7 Sleeve-type stabilizers................................................................................ 5-7
Figure 5-8 Clamp-on stabilizers................................................................................... 5-8
Figure 5-9 Rubber sleeve stabilizer ............................................................................. 5-8
Figure 5-10 RWP stabilizer ......................................................................................... 5-9
Figure 5-11 ANDERGAUGE stabilizer ...................................................................... 5-9
Figure 5-12 Roller reamers ........................................................................................ 5-10
Figure 5-13 Under-reamer ......................................................................................... 5-11
Figure 5-14 String reamer.......................................................................................... 5-11
Figure 5-15 Key seat wiper........................................................................................ 5-12
Figure 5-16 Bent sub.................................................................................................. 5-13
Figure 5-17 UBHO .................................................................................................... 5-14
Figure 5-18 Hole opener ............................................................................................ 5-14
Figure 5-19 Bullnose.................................................................................................. 5-15
Figure 5-20 Section mill ............................................................................................ 5-15
Figure 5-21 Shock sub ............................................................................................... 5-16
Figure 5-22 Rebel tool ............................................................................................... 5-17
Figure 5-23 Whipstock deflection method ................................................................ 5-18
Figure 5-24 Jetting deflection method ....................................................................... 5-19
Figure 5-25 Typical PDM BHA ................................................................................ 5-21
Figure 5-26 Steerable motor ...................................................................................... 5-22
Figure 5-27 Steerable motor bit offset ....................................................................... 5-23

6 Drilling Jars Page


Figure 6-1 Basic jar schematic..................................................................................... 6-2
Figure 6-2 Anadrill HYDRAQUAKER hydraulic drilling jar..................................... 6-4
Figure 6-3 EQ jar components..................................................................................... 6-5
Figure 6-4 EQ jar tripping mechanism ........................................................................ 6-6
Figure 6-5 EQ jar "positions" ...................................................................................... 6-7
Figure 6-6 EQ jar - jarring ‘‘up’’ schematic................................................................. 6-7
Figure 6-7 Typical fishing BHA incorporating jars................................................... 6-18

7 Downhole Motors Page


Figure 7-1 Principles of operation of turbine and PDM .............................................. 7-2
Figure 7-2 Typical Dump Valve Assembly ................................................................. 7-3
Figure 7-3 Positive displacement motor ...................................................................... 7-3
Figure 7-4 PDM lobe configurations ........................................................................... 7-4

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

7 (cont) Downhole Motors Page


Figure 7-5 lllustrations of various motor profiles ........................................................ 7-5
Figure 7-6 Typical PDM connecting rod assembly ..................................................... 7-5
Figure 7-7 Typical PDM bearing loading.................................................................... 7-6
Figure 7-8 Typical 1:2 lobe PDM................................................................................ 7-7
Figure 7-9 Typical PDM power output curve.............................................................. 7-8
Figure 7-10 PDM bearing ‘‘play’’.............................................................................. 7-13
Figure 7-11 Typical adjustable bend housing steerable motor .................................. 7-15
Figure 7-12 Nortrak DTU .......................................................................................... 7-16
Figure 7-13 Distance L used to calculate angle-build characteristics........................ 7-17
Figure 7-14 Estimated build rates with PowerPak motor .......................................... 7-18
Figure 7-15 Typical steerable mud motor assembly.................................................. 7-19

8 Drilling Bits Page


Figure 8-1 Fixed cutter bit components (PDC, TSP, & natural diamonds)................. 8-1
Figure 8-2 Roller Cone Bit Components ..................................................................... 8-2
Figure 8-3 Roller cone (a) and PDC (b) bits................................................................ 8-3
Figure 8-4 TSP diamond (a) and natural diamond (b) bits .......................................... 8-3
Figure 8-5 IADC dull bit grading system .................................................................... 8-6
Figure 8-6 Two thirds rule and how to measure gauge................................................ 8-7
Figure 8-7 Broken cone ............................................................................................... 8-8
Figure 8-8 Bond failure................................................................................................ 8-9
Figure 8-9 Broken teeth ............................................................................................... 8-9
Figure 8-10 Balled up bit ........................................................................................... 8-10
Figure 8-11 Cracked cone........................................................................................... 8-10
Figure 8-12 Cone dragged .......................................................................................... 8-11
Figure 8-13 Cone interference .................................................................................... 8-11
Figure 8-14 Cored bit................................................................................................. 8-12
Figure 8-15 Chipped teeth/cutters.............................................................................. 8-12
Figure 8-16 Erosion ................................................................................................... 8-13
Figure 8-17 Flat crested wear..................................................................................... 8-13
Figure 8-18 Heat checking......................................................................................... 8-14
Figure 8-19 Junk damage........................................................................................... 8-14
Figure 8-20 Lost cone ................................................................................................ 8-15
Figure 8-21 Lost nozzle ............................................................................................. 8-15
Figure 8-22 Lost teeth/cutters .................................................................................... 8-16
Figure 8-23 Off center wear....................................................................................... 8-16
Figure 8-24 Pinched bit.............................................................................................. 8-17
Figure 8-25 Plugged nozzle ....................................................................................... 8-17
Figure 8-26 Rounded gauge....................................................................................... 8-18
Figure 8-27 Shirttail damage ..................................................................................... 8-19
Figure 8-28 Self sharpening wear .............................................................................. 8-19
Figure 8-29 Tracking ................................................................................................. 8-19
Figure 8-30 Washed out bit........................................................................................ 8-20
Figure 8-31 Worn teeth or cutters.............................................................................. 8-20

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

9 Drilling Fluids and Hydraulics Page


Figure 9-1 Components of viscosity ............................................................................ 9-6
Figure 9-2 Laminar flow............................................................................................ 9-13
Figure 9-3 Turbulent flow.......................................................................................... 9-14
Figure 9-4 Slip velocity and mud velocity................................................................. 9-14
Figure 9-5 Hydraulics worksheet............................................................................... 9-17

10 Bottom Hole Assemblies Page


Figure 10-1 Slick and packed hole BHAs.................................................................. 10-3
Figure 10-2 BHA side forces ..................................................................................... 10-4
Figure 10-3 BHA as a hollow cylinder ...................................................................... 10-4
Figure 10-4 Pendulum force and weight on bit ......................................................... 10-6
Figure 10-5 Single stabilizer BHA ............................................................................ 10-7
Figure 10-6 Two stabilizer BHA ............................................................................... 10-8
Figure 10-7 Negative side force................................................................................. 10-8
Figure 10-8 Comparison of sideforces on single and two stabilizer BHAs............... 10-9
Figure 10-9 Buildup BHA using two stabilizers........................................................ 10-9
Figure 10-10 Effect of WOB increase on sideforce................................................. 10-10
Figure 10-11 Inclination v sideforce for 3 BHAs .................................................... 10-10
Figure 10-12 Increase of side force with addition of one stabilizer......................... 10-11
Figure 10-13 Undergauge near bit stabilizer............................................................ 10-12
Figure 10-14 Undergauge second stabilizer............................................................. 10-12
Figure 10-15 Effect of hole washout on side force.................................................. 10-13
Figure 10-16 BHAs for building inclination............................................................ 10-14
Figure 10-17 BHAs for maintaining inclination...................................................... 10-15
Figure 10-18 Typical locked up BHA for 12-1/4 in. hole ....................................... 10-15
Figure 10-19 BHAs for dropping inclination........................................................... 10-16
Figure 10-20 Semidrop BHA................................................................................... 10-17
Figure 10-21 Typical jetting BHA........................................................................... 10-18
Figure 10-22 Example of a Gilligan BHA............................................................... 10-19

11 Drilling Operations Page


Figure 11-1 Neutral point in the DC’s ....................................................................... 11-3
Figure 11-2 Concept of available WOB .................................................................... 11-3
Figure 11-3 Muleshoe orientation method................................................................. 11-8
Figure 11-4 Gravity tool face................................................................................... 11-10
Figure 11-5 Relationships between GTF and hole direction. .................................. 11-10
Figure 11-6 Relative of reactive torque and gravity. ............................................... 11-11
Figure 11-7 Vector diagram showing dogleg required to change hole direction..... 11-19
Figure 11-8 The OUIJA board................................................................................. 11-20
Figure 11-9 Ragland diagram .................................................................................. 11-23
Figure 11-10 Calculating total turn to bit target ...................................................... 11-24
Figure 11-11 Rate of drop/build to target ................................................................ 11-27

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Figures

13 Drilling Problems Page


Figure 13-1 Differential sticking ............................................................................... 13-3
Figure 13-2 Development of filter cake..................................................................... 13-3
Figure 13-3 Effect of drill solids on filter cake.......................................................... 13-4
Figure 13-4 Filter cake bridging ................................................................................ 13-4
Figure 13-5 Erosion of filter cake.............................................................................. 13-5
Figure 13-6 Effect of hole deviation & mud weight on borehole stability................ 13-7
Figure 13-7 Development of key seats .................................................................... 13-10
Figure 13-8 Key seat wiper and string reamer......................................................... 13-11

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


List of Tables

2 Fundamentals Page
Table 2-1 Geologic time scale ..................................................................................... 2-3
Table 2-2 Common evaporites..................................................................................... 2-8

3 Directional Well Planning Page


Table 3-1 Rectangular coordinates of a target position. ............................................ 3-14
Table 3-2 Relative accuracy of the different methods ............................................... 3-22

4 Surveying Page
Table 4-1 Common relative values of total magnetic field strength............................ 4-5
Table 4-2 Common relative values for dip angle......................................................... 4-5

6 Drilling Jars Page


Table 6-1 Seal areas, EQ Jars....................................................................................... 6-9
Table 6-2 EQ Jar maximum settings.......................................................................... 6-16

7 Downhole Motors Page


Table 7-1 Comparison of 1:2 vs multilobe PDMs ..................................................... 7-10
Table 7-2 Specifications for two typical 7 3/4 in. motors.......................................... 7-10
Table 7-3 Oil categories based on aniline point......................................................... 7-20

9 Drilling Fluids and Hydraulics Page


Table 9-1 Description of surface equipment types .................................................... 9-15

10 Bottom Hole Assemblies Page


Table 10-1 Modulus of elasticity ............................................................................... 10-5

11 Drilling Operations Page


Table 11-1 1:2 Lobe PDM Reactive Torque Estimates ............................................ 11-12
Table 11-2 Deflection angle (Dog Leg Severity) in º/100 ft.................................... 11-17
Table 11-3 Sidetracking suggested BHAs to match downhole conditions............ 11-31

January 1997 Confidential Directional Drilling


Directional Drilling
Training Manual
January 1997 ATM-610100 Version 1.2

Confidential
This information is confidential and is trade secret property of Anadrill. It must not be
copied in whole or in part, and should be filed accordingly by the holder. It must not
be shown to or discussed with anyone outside the Schlumberger organization and must
be returned to Anadrill upon request or when the holder leaves the employ of Anadrill.
© 1997 Anadrill - unpublished work
All rights reserved under copyright law.

Schlumberger
Anadrill