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T F 1. The four forms of information used by modern information

systems are voice, data, image, and video.
T F 2. The number of computers and terminals at work in the world
today is over 100 million.
T F 3. Communications technologies using data networks have essentially
replaced telephone networks in today’s business settings.
T F 4. Computerization has enhanced the range of features available to
businesses for voice communication.
T F 5. The need to store and transmit images has been a driving force in
the development of networking technology.
T F 6. Video networks in business are used primarily to deliver
T F 7. Data compression is used to minimize the amount of information
that must be transmitted in networks.
T F 8. The major cost component for communications is the resource
needed to transmit data across distance.
T F 9. Wireless networks have the advantage of mobility, but the
disadvantage of difficult implementation.
T F 10. The basic building block of any communications facility is the
transmission line.
T F 11. The two media technologies currently driving the evolution of
data communications networks are local area networks and cable
television networks.
T F 12. The most common example of packet switched technology is the
modern telephone network.
T F 13. Mobility is the newest frontier for ICT managers.
T F 14. Cloud computing is being embraced by all major business
software vendors with the exception of Oracle.
T F 15. Convergence refers to the merger of previously distinct
telephony and information technologies and markets.

1. The three forces that have driven the architecture and evolution of data
communications and networking facilities are:
A. Traffic growth, advances in technology, and legal considerations
B. Traffic growth, development of services, and advances in
C. Development of services, advances in technology, and legal
D. Advances in technology, lower costs, and greater capacities
2. Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of information found on
A. data B. control
C. video D. voice

3. Which of the following is NOT one of the stated trends in technology identified
as contributing to increasing traffic and services in networks?

A. The emergence of the Internet

B. More and more people are discovering the World Wide Web as a
valuable resource
C. The ever-increasing use of mobile devices and applications
D. Increasing quality and variety of services in both voice and data

4. Among the application services lists given below, which lists the services in
order such that the desired throughput rates are increasing?

A. Still image transfers, large file transfers, transaction processing, and

B. Voice, transaction processing, still image transfers, and large file
C. Large file transfers, voice, transaction processing, and still image
D. Transaction processing, voice, still image transfers, and large file

5. Commonly referred to as cell relay, _________ is a culmination of advancements

in both circuit switching and packet switching

A. asynchronous transfer mode B. frame relay

C. convergence D. MAN

6. Which of the following is NOT one of the main application areas that serve as
one of the drivers in determining the design and makeup of enterprise

A. Transaction processing B. IP telephony

C. Multimedia messaging D. E-business

7. The concept that describes the merger of previously distinct telephony and
information technologies and markets is called ___________.

A. unification B. outsourcing
C. merger D. convergence

8. Which of the following is NOT one of the four layers in the model of business-
driven convergence?

A. Networks B. Infrastructure
C. Management D. Services

9. The types of networks commonly used in businesses today include:

A. local area networks, wide-area networks, and telephone networks
B. Local area networks, telephone networks, and voice mail networks
C. Wide area networks, voice mail networks, and email networks
D. Voice mail networks, email networks, and local area networks

10. Which of the following is the most commonly used standard for computer

11. In the past, the data processing function was organized around a single
computer. Today, it is much more common to find many computers linked by
networks. This approach to data processing is called:
A. decentralized computing B. client computing
C. distributed computing D. connected computing

12. Which of the following are emerging enterprise network applications?

A. video broadcasting and smart objects

B. cloud computing and telepresence
C. video enriched collaboration and cloud computing
D. all of the above

13. At the ________ level the manager deals with the information network in terms
of the services that must be available to ensure that users can take full
advantage of the applications that they use.

A. enterprise services B. communications infrastructure

C. network infrastructure D. application

14. __________ is similar to online chat because it is text-based and exchanged

bidirectionally in real time.

A. Audio conferencing B. Instant messaging

C. Presence D. Web conferencing

15. __________ allows users in two or more locations to interact simultaneously via
two-way video and audio transmission.
A. Web conferencing B. Unified messaging

C. Videoconferencing D. Audio conferencing

1. Two types of transmission media recently gaining in popularity in business

communications are _WIRELESS_________ connections and fiber optic cables.

2. The type of network commonly used at business premises is called a ____LOCAL


3. The type of network commonly used with multiple premises in businesses is

called a __WIDE ARE NETWORK (WAN)__________.

4. An architecture where multiple computers provide database functions, file

services, printing services, and other specialized functions on a shared basis for
many users is called a ___CLINET/SERVER__________ architecture.
5. Convergence can be thought of in terms of a three-layer model of enterprixe
communications: applications, enterprise services, and _INFASTRUCTURE________.

6. Three key benefits of IP network convergence are: cost savings, transformation,

and __EFFECTIVENESS_______.

7. A ___RTC (REAL TIME COMMUNICATIONS) DASHBOARD_______ is the element

that provides UC users with a unified user interface
across communication devices.

8. __PRESENCE_______ is the ability to determine, in real time, where someone is, how
he or she
prefers to be reached, and what he or she is currently doing.

9. __WEB CONFERANCING________ refers to live meetings or presentations in which

participants access the
meeting or presentation via a mobile device or the Web, either over the Internet
or corporate intranet.

10. ___UNIFIED MESSAGING_______ systems provide a common repository for

messages from multiple

11. A classic example of __CIRCUIT SWITCHING________ is the telephone network.

12. In a _PACKET SWITCHING_________ network data are transmitted in a sequence of

small chunks that
are passed through the network from switching node to switching node along
some path leading from source to destination.


nongovernmental organization that promotes the development of
standardization and related activities with a view to facilitating the
international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in
the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic activity.


international organization within the United Nations System
in which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom
networks and services.


U.S. federal agency that deals with measurement science,
standards, and technology related to U.S. government use and to the promotion
of U.S. private sector innovation.


T F 1. Today, all networked information is sent using digital formats.

T F 2. A single bit of information represents two states or values.

T F 3. The terms byte and octet describe the same amount of information.

T F 4. Voice communication can only be done using an analog signal.

T F 5. PBX and Centrex systems provide similar functionality from the

users point-of-view.

T F 6. Services transmitting video information use a series of vector

images to represent moving images.

T F 7. System response time and system cost are closely related to each

T F 8. Response time is extremely important when implementing email


T F 9. When transmitting video information, compression ratios can

range as high as 100:1 with little loss of perceived quality.

T F 10. Interlacing is a method of reducing the bandwidth requirements

for video transmissions.

T F 11. When using analog communications, channel capacity is measured

in hertz (Hz) where 1 Hz equals 1000 oscillations per second.

T F 12. The United States national version of IRA is referred to as the

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).

T F 13. Common examples of data include text and numerical

T F 14. Raster graphics involves the use of binary codes to represent
object type, size, and orientation.

T F 15. The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a collaborative

standards-making effort between ISO and ITU-T.


1. Which of the following represents a digital form of information?

A. a gas gauge

B. a fax transmission

C. a watch that displays time as HH:MM

D. a page filled with English prose

2. Which of the following represents the most basic unit of digital information?

A. byte B. nibble

C. pixel D. bit

3. Standard voice telephone lines, such as those found in residences, limit

bandwidth to:

A. 300 Hz B. 3,400 Hz

C. 20,000 Hz D. 1,410,000 Hz

4. A stereo compact disc typically requires the bandwidth for each

channel to be:

A. 300 Hz B. 3,400 Hz

C. 8,000 Hz D. 20,000 Hz

5. When using data communications with 8-bit codes, the number of

alphabetic symbols

A. must be exactly 256 B. must be exactly 512

C. can be greater than 1024 bytes D. must be less than 256

6. The time interval between when a user presses a key and when the
result of that action arrives at his or her workstation is called the:

A. response time B. turn-around time

C. think time D. delay time

7. In digital systems, the information rate and the capacity of a digital channel
are measured in:

A. mhz B. dps

C. bps D. ghz

8. Analog information sources include:

A. sounds B. music

C. video D. all of the above

9. Historically, the most commonly used text code is the , in which

each character in this code is represented by a unique 7-bit pattern.


C. Morse code D. none of the above

10. The number of different characters that can be represented in the

International Reference Alphabet text code is:

A. 512 B. 256

C. 128 D. 64

11. is capable of representing symbols and characters used in all

the major languages spoken around the world.



12. A is the smallest single component of a digital image.

A. RGB B. megapixel

C. pixel D. none of the above

13. images are the most common type of image being transmitted
over today’s enterprise networks.

A. Color B. Black and white

C. Pixilated D. Grayscale

14. The most widely used format for raster-scan images is referred to as .



15. screens use thin sandwiches of glass containing a liquid-

crystal material to display images.


C. CRT D. all of the above


1. A DIGITAL system uses a sequence of discrete, discontinuous values or

symbols to represent information.

2. Nondigital ANALOG systems use a continuous range of values to represent


3. With LOSSLESS compression receivers can reproduce an exact digital

duplicate of the original audio stream transmitted by the sender by
expanding/decompressing the file that is received.

4. When LOSSY compression is used, irreversible changes are made to the

original file that diminish the quality of the original audio stream when
the receiver decompresses the file.
5. A PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX) is an on-premise telephone
switch, owned or leased by an organization that interconnects the
telephones at that location and provides outside access to the public
telephone systems and other voice services.

6. TEXT files contain very little formatting and do not support formatting such
as boldface, italics, or underline.

7. DATA consists of information that can be represented by a finite alphabet of

symbols, such as the numbers 0 through 9 or the symbols represented on a
computer keyboard.

8. Some of the International Reference Alphabet text code patterns

represent invisible, nonprintable characters called CONTROL

9. The ASCII (IRA) character set is the most common format for English
language text files.

10. UNICODE is a 16-bit code that is backward compatible with IRA/ASCII.

11. The IMAGE service supports the communication of individual pictures,

charts, or drawings.

12. A representation of images that uses straight and curved line segments is

13. A representation of images that uses an array of pixels is called RASTER


14. POSTSCRIPT is a page-description language that is built into many desktop

printers and virtually all high-end printing systems.

15. QUALITY OF EXPERICE (QoE) is a subjective measure of the user’s

perception of the overall value of the network application or service.


T F 1. Traditionally, data processing has been organized in a distributed


T F 2. Centralized data processing typically involves terminals connected

to large computers in a central data processing facility.

T F 3. Intranets use the same communication protocols and applications

as the Internet.

T F 4. Like the Internet, intranets are difficult to manage.

T F 5. Extranets use different protocols and applications than are used in


T F 6. Retail point-of-sale systems are an example of horizontal

partitioning of data processing.

T F 7. Database applications are always distributed applications.

T F 8. Replicated databases involve copying all or part of the database to

additional computers.

T F 9. A partitioned database is by definition not a replicated database.

T F 10. The three types of requirements for networking resulting from

DDP are connectivity, availability, and performance.

T F 11. Big data and the evolution of data processing and

communications technologies continue to reshape the balance of
centralized and distributed processing within enterprise

T F 12. In a centralized architecture, the data processing for an

application takes place on the user’s computing device.

T F 13. A data processing facility may depart in varying degrees from the
centralized data processing organization by implementing a DDP

T F 14. There has been a decreasing trend toward distributed data


T F 15. Accessibility refers to the percentage of time that a particular

function or application is available for users.


1. Which of the following is NOT a feature of an Intranet?

A. uses Internet based standards, such as HTML and SMTP

B. is used to connect both local and remote sites into one network

C. is used to distribute content to the general Internet

D. can be effectively managed

2. Which of the following does distributed processing typically not support?

A. applications B. device controllers

C. data D. mainframes

3. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of distributed data processing?

A. increased responsiveness to organizational needs

B. better correspondence to organizational patterns

C. greater user involvement and control

D. enhanced centralization of data definitions

4. Which of the following is not a function provided by servers in client/server


A. printing services B. data entry

C. database services D. gateways

5. The three ways of organizing data for use by an organization are:

A. centralized, replicated, and partitioned

B. centralized, structured, and partitioned

C. structured, replicated, and partitioned

D. centralized, replicated, and structured

6. A data center can occupy:

A. a single room in a building B. one or more floors

C. an entire building D. all of the above

7. A DDP facility may include:

A. a central data center B. satellite data centers

C. a community of peer computing facilities D. all of the above

8. Which of the following is NOT a requirement for the Corporate Computing


A. provide computing services in a reliable, professional, and

technically competent manner

B. deploying technology in ways that make the work productive and not
be concerned about whether or not the technology makes work
enjoyable for employees

C. provide computing capabilities to all organizational units that need them

D. assist in satisfying the special computing needs of user departments

9. Which of the following is common in today’s data centers?

A. redundant/backup power supplies

B. environmental controls

C. data communication connections

D. all of the above

10. No redundancy guarantees for servers, storage systems, network equipment,
and communication connections to Internet or other networks; single path
for power and cooling distribution; no redundant components; and
availability: 99.671% are _________ characteristics of data centers.
A. Tier 1 B. Tier 2

C. Tier 3 D. Tier 4

11. With __________ virtualization software is used to allow a piece of computer

hardware to simultaneously run multiple operating system images.

A. network B. server

C. operating system D. storage

12. _________ virtualization disguises the complexity of the underlying

communications network.

A. Server B. Network

C. Storage D. Operating system

13. Which of the following is a category of ASP business?

A. functional/specialist B. vertical market

C. enterprise D. all of the above

14. ___________ encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that

extends an organization’s existing IT capabilities over the Internet in real time.

A. Cloud computing B. ISP

C. DDP D. Client/server architecture

15. A _________ is a dedicated network that provides access to various types of

storage devices including tape libraries, optical jukeboxes, and disk arrays.




T F 1. The loudness of a signal is measured by its amplitude.

T F 2. In the telephone system, conversions are reproduced using the

range from 300 – 3400 Hz in order to limit the required capacity of
transmission lines.

T F 3. Digital signaling usually means that the information being

conveyed is binary.

T F 4. Attenuation is the reduction in signal strength as the signal

propagates down the transmission path.

T F 5. Attenuation is greater at lower frequencies.

T F 6. In order to completely compensate for attenuation, the signal

generated must be at least as high in strength than the noise of the

T F 7. Multipath problems are particularly problematic in line of sight


T F 8. Refraction refers to the bending of the signal.

T F 9. Referring to Shannon’s equation, in order to increase the data rate

of a signal, we need only increase the bandwidth.

T F 10. Nearly all signals used for communications are part of the
electromagnetic spectrum.

T F 11. Typically, crosstalk does not have a debilitating effect on signal


T F 12. Impulse noise is the primary source of error in digital data


T F 13. An antenna with a fixed area receives more signal power.

T F 14. For wireless facilities, there is a relatively free choice of where

antennas are to be located.
T F 15. The various forms of noise include thermal noise, intermodulation
noise, crosstalk, and impulse noise.


1. Electromagnetic signals:

A. are used only for optics

B. are used for analog and digital signals

C. are used for digital signals only

D. are used for analog signals only

2. Analog signals differ from digital signals in that:

A. analog signals are represented versus time while digital signals are
measured versus frequency

B. analog signals are periodic, digital signals are not

C. analog signals are continuous while digital signals remain at one

constant level and then move to another constant level

D. analog signals operate at higher frequencies than digital signals

3. Given a frequency of 60 Hz ( cycles per second ), the period of the signal is:

A. 0.166667 sec. B. 0.166667 Hz.

C. one second D. 60 seconds

4. A sine wave is a periodic signal that:

A. has equal phase, frequency and amplitude

B. can be measured in terms of its amplitude, frequency and phase

C. has a maximum peak amplitude equal to its frequency

D. can be either digital or analog

5. The wavelength of an analog signal is:

A. the distance traveled by the wave in the time defined by its period

B. the distance traveled by the wave in one second

C. the period of the wave

D. the amplitude of the wave

6. The spectrum of a signal is:

A. the lowest frequency value subtracted from the highest

B. the range of frequencies in the signal

C. all of the frequencies from 0 to the highest frequency used

D. the average of the highest frequency and the lowest

7. The bandwidth of a signal is:

A. the width of the spectrum

B. the average of the frequencies

C. the range of frequencies in the signal

D. the minimum amplitude of the signal

8. The frequency of human speech is in the range of:

A. 20 – 1000 Hz. B. 20 – 3400

C. 300 – 3400 Hz. D. 10 – 25,000 Hz.

9. Given a resolution of 320 pixels x 240 pixels, 1 byte of color information per pixel and a
transmission rate of 30 frames per second, calculate the bandwidth necessary for this

A. 18.4 Mbps B. 2.3 Mbps

C. 18.4 Kbps D. 6 Mbps

10. Delay distortion is due to:

A. wait times between keyboard entry and actual transmission of data

B. portions of the signal arriving at the destination at different times

C. varying levels of signal strength

D. signals generated by internetworking equipment

11. In general, noise can be defined as:

A. loud, high amplitude signals

B. errors in transmission

C. unwanted energy or signals on the transmission path

D. analog signals instead of digital

12. Signals produced on a line that is the sum or difference of the signals that
created it is:

A. thermal noise B. intermodulation noise

C. crosstalk D. impulse noise

13. Because of its characteristics, free space loss is a particular problem in:

A. microwave tower transmissions B. WANS

C. dial up or modem transmissions D. satellite transmissions

14. Atmospheric absorption occurs because of:

A. the distance traversed in atmospheric transmission

B. the water and oxygen content

C. pollution and carbon content

D. nitrogen content
15. _________ is the unwanted coupling between signal paths.

A. Thermal noise B. Intermodulation noise

C. Crosstalk D. Impulse noise



T F 1. Analog signals are less susceptible to noise interference and are

more prone to attenuation than digital signals.

T F 2. Except for digital cellular telephones, copper wire is required for

digital transmission.

T F 3. Analog encoding of digital information modulates a wave known as

the carrier in terms of its phase, frequency or amplitude.

T F 4. For amplitude, frequency or phase shift keying, that respective

characteristic of the carrier wave is change to indicate the next binary
digit; these binary digits can be represented by this signal change or a lack
of signal change.

T F 5. In order to compensate for synchronization problems, another type

of encoding method called biphase can be employed; these methods place
a clock pulse within the data stream.

T F 6. It is difficult to use low frequencies for unguided radio

transmission of data because the antenna dishes would have to be
extremely large.

T F 7. Synchronous serial transmissions are frame based, require the use

of a preamble and are more efficient than asynchronous serial

T F 8. Error detection requires that extra bits be introduced into the data

T F 9. Parity checking for error detection is most reliable for checking

communications using high data rates.

T F 10. Both analog and digital information can be encoded as either

analog or digital signals.

T F 11. One of the least common error-detecting codes is the cyclic

redundancy check.

T F 12. The simplest approach to error detection is to append a parity bit

to the end of a block of data.

T F 13. Undetected and uncorrected errors can degrade performance and

response times in any system that handles large volumes of data.

T F 14. For sizable blocks of data, asynchronous transmission is far more

efficient than synchronous.

T F 15. When no character is being transmitted, the line between

transmitter and receiver is in an idle state.

1. Analog signals are:

A. continuous B. discrete

C. discontinuous D. all of the above

2. Digital signals are:

A. continuous B. discrete

C. discontinuous D. none of the above

3. In modern communication systems, data is sent from one point to another via:

A. input data B. alternating current (A/C)

C. pressure changes D. electromagnetic signals

4. One of the main differences between amplifiers and repeaters is that:

A. amplifiers forward noise as well as data

B. amplifiers clean the signal and then forward it

C. amplifiers increase the amount of attenuation

D. amplifiers focus primarily on digital signals

5. An encoding scheme is used:

A. in digital transmission to map binary digits to signal elements

B. in analog transmission to clean up the quality of the transmission

C. to help minimize errors

D. all of the above

6. Each signal change or element is called a:

A. bit B. byte

C. baud D. signal

7. If a carrier wave is modulated with 4 amplitudes and 4 phase changes, how many
possible signal combinations are there?

A. 4 B. 8

C. 16 D. 32

8. A carrier wave is modulated with 4 amplitudes and 4 phase changes; how many
bits can be represented with each signal change?

A. 1 B. 2

C. 3 D. 4
9. In Non Return to Zero encoding schemes, the signal or voltage level does not
return to 0v (zero volts); one of the problems with this type of encoding is that:

A. it is sometimes difficult to synchronize the timing of the transmitter and

the receiver

B. it does not work well with serial communications

C. the signal ground of the transmitter is often different from that of the

D. it works only for analog signals

10. Asynchronous transmission includes a start and stop bit with each character
transmitted to ensure:

A. that the total number of bits is a factor of 10

B. to allow a continuous stream of data

C. to prevent single bit errors from occurring

D. to allow the receiver to maintain synchronization with the sender

11. The efficiency of an asynchronous transmission using 1 stop bit, 1 start bit, and
1 parity bit is:

A. 20% B. 30%

C. 50% D. 70%

12. Standards are important when devices must communicate together; the four
characteristics governed by these standards are:

A. mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural

B. electrical, physical, functional, and signaling

C. fundamental, mechanical, procedural, and protocol

D. protocol, fundamental, physical, and signaling

13. An error-detecting scheme that employs a unique prime number is called:

A. parity checking B. frame sequence checking

C. error checking and error correcting D. cyclic redundancy check

14. In _________ the phase of the carrier signal is shifted to encode data.


15. ________ is concerned with the content of the signal.

A. Digital transmission B. Analog transmission

C. Digital signaling D. Analog signaling



T F 1. Stop-and-wait is the simplest form of flow control.

T F 2. Sliding window is one form of error control.

T F 3. The two commonly used forms of ARQ are “stop-and-wait” and “go
back N”.

T F 4. A major source of expense in any business distributed data

processing environment is transmission cost.

T F 5. A data link control protocol includes techniques for regulating the

flow of data over a communications link and for compensating for
transmission errors.

T F 6. Data link control protocols are only used in private WANs.

T F 7. In early business computer networks, communication lines were

primarily provided by CLECs.

T F 8. In order to achieve the greatest return on their data

communication investments, it is important for businesses to maximize
the amount of information carried over their transmission lines.

T F 9. The organization sacrifices efficiency when it wastes money on

communication lines with capacities that are much higher than it needs.

T F 10. Physical interface standards include all of the required functions

for data communication.

T F 11. It is common for a printer to be equipped with a higher data rate

capability than its printing capability.

T F 12. Flow control is one of the primary functions performed at the data
link layer of the OSI reference model for network communication.

T F 13. A disadvantage of sliding window flow control is that it is not

supported by many data link control protocols.

T F 14. Data link control protocols provide mechanisms by which the two
sides cooperate in the retransmission of frames that are detected to
include errors.

T F 15. Sharing capacity with other communication devices is



1. Which of the following is NOT a common component of an error control process?

A. damaged frame B. error detection

C. positive acknowledgement D. retransmission after timeout

2. Which of the following is a generic term that describes sharing of a communications

channel by multiple communicating stations?

A. multiprogramming B. multiplexing

C. multi-access channels D. digital channels

3. A multiplexing technique where multiple users use distinct carrier frequencies

separated such that the modulated signals do not overlap is called ___________.

A. frequency division multiplexing B. time division multiplexing

C. separate channel multiplexing D. common channel multiplexing

4. A multiplexing technique where multiple users use distinct time slots such
that the transmitted bits are shared by all users is called ___________.

A. frequency division multiplexing B. time division multiplexing

C. separate channel multiplexing D. common channel multiplexing

5. Present-day television, both broadcast and cable, employ:

A. frequency division multiplexing B. separate channel multiplexing

C. separate frequency multiplexing D. common channel multiplexing

6. Which of the following is NOT one of the example applications of T-1 leased
transmission facilities?

A. cable television systems B. private data networks

C. video teleconferencing D. high-speed digital facsimile

7. The term “SONET” corresponds to:

A. special operations networking environment testing

B. synchronous optical networking environment testing

C. synchronous optical network

D. synchronous operational networking

8. SONET/SDH signal payload speeds range:

A. from 902 Mbps to 1.53 Gbps B. from 1.8 Mbps to 2.4 Gbps

C. from 50 Mbps to 1.53 Gbps D. from 1.80 Mbps to 153 Gbps

9. ________ is popular for constructing private networks within geographically

dispersed organizations and is increasingly used to provide business-user
access to public telephone networks


C. FDM D. T-1

10. ________ is used on SONET to support long-haul voice, data, and video
applications over fiber-optic circuits.



11. Most cordless digital telephone systems used in homes employ ________ or
time division duplexing along with FDM.


12. Which of the following is a common technique for error control?

A. error detection B. retransmission after timeout

C. positive acknowledgement D. all of the above

13. _______ is the most heavily used multiplexing technique and is familiar to
anyone who has ever used a radio or television set.



14. With ________ the light steaming through the fiber consists of many colors, or
wavelengths, each carrying a separate channel of data.



15. ________ uses multiple carrier signals at different frequencies, sending some of
the bits on each channel.