Modal Analysis Assignment

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Modal Analysis Assignment

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 5

HW Assignment 1

2. Assignment is worth 10% of the final grade.

3. You will need to use MATLAB to solve all the questions. Codes used to solve questions will

have to be submitted online, and hard copies of the final solutions are to be submitted in class.

4. Submit your codes (MATLAB files only) by 5 pm on 1st Feb. 2018 using the following Google

form: https://goo.gl/forms/HxjoaPSFcvNmzXtu2

a. You can submit your code ONCE only. You do not have to attach your codes with the

report.

b. File MUST be formatted as shown in the example MATLAB file at the end of this

assignment. File name has to be in the following format: Roll#_Q#_file#. For example,

roll number: 13807115, 2nd file for question 2 must be named as ‘13807115_2_2.m’

5. Hard copy of the solution to be submitted on 2nd Feb. – in class

6. State all assumptions made in your analyses.

7. Please provide your insights when asked for commenting to be considered for a full grade.

8. Late submission will call for a 10% penalty (of the total worth of the assignment) per hour that

the assignment is late. Anything submitted online after 5 pm on 1st Feb. will be considered to

be late.

9. There is a zero tolerance for copying of codes and/or solutions. If any of your code(s) for any

of the questions are found to be suspiciously similar to any other students’, all those suspected

of copying will be awarded a zero for the complete assignment. You may appeal against being

awarded a zero if you have reasonable grounds to prove that you have not copied.

10. If you have borrowed code from or shared code with any other student(s) for solving any/all

of the five questions, and if you declare this in the hard copy of your solution, you and those

whom you may have borrowed from and/or shared with will be graded out of a maximum of

50% of the question(s) for which the code(s) is(are) borrowed/shared.

11. For any clarifications, feel free to reach out to the Teaching Assistants, or to the Instructor

1/5

Problem 1 [1.5]

A single degree of freedom lumped parameter system has the following mass and stiffness values:

𝑚 = 1 kg, 𝑘 = 100 N/m. Assume damping, i.e. 𝜁 lies somewhere between 1% and 10%. Select a value

for 𝜁 from within this range and state your selected value.

Generate the following plots. Use log-log scales or dB-log scales as and where appropriate.

a. Magnitude (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz) and phase (deg) vs. frequency (Hz) for the receptance

frequency response function (FRF)

b. Real part (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz) and imaginary part (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz), again for the

receptance FRF

c. Nyquist plot, i.e. Real part (m/N) vs. imaginary part (m/N) for the receptance, mobility and

accelerance FRFs. Comment on the nature of Nyquist plots of the mobility and accelerance

FRF in relation to the receptance FRF. Discuss the differences, if any.

d. For the same system, generate mobility and accelerance FRFs only in terms of its Real part

(m/N) vs. frequency (Hz) and imaginary part (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz). Comment on the

nature of the real and imaginary parts in relation to the real and imaginary parts of the

receptance FRF. Discuss the differences, if any.

e. Comment on if the modal parameters and physical parameters are the same for this single

degree of freedom system.

Problem 2 [1.5]

A single degree of freedom (DOF) lumped parameter system under free vibration can be modelled

with a given mass, stiffness and damping.

a. Select random values for the system parameters in the following range:

𝑚 = 1 - 1.5 kg, 𝑘 = 2 x 104 – 3 x 104 N/m, 𝑐 = 10 - 30 Ns/m

b. Determine the natural frequency, the damping ratio, 𝜁, and the damped natural frequency.

c. Assume an initial displacement somewhere between 0-25 mm and an initial velocity of 0-

1,000 mm/s (both can be randomly generated). Find an expression for the time response of

the damped free vibration, x(t), of the form:

𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑒 −𝜁𝜔𝑛 𝑡 (𝑋1 cos(𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝑋2 sin(𝜔𝑑 𝑡))

Where 𝑥(𝑡) is expressed in mm. Determine 𝑋1 and 𝑋2

d. Plot the first ten cycles of motion, and use the logarithmic decrement method to estimate the

damping ratio, 𝜁, and verify if it is the same as in part (a) i.e. calculate the error percentage.

e. Report your input physical parameters as well as 𝜔𝑛 , 𝜁 and error from part (d) on the plot

attached with your report.

Note:

Use rand() function to generate random numbers using MATLAB.

% Example 1: If r is the response output of interval [a, b]

r = a + (b-a).*rand;

2/5

Problem 3 [1.5]

Consider the free vibration response for any spring-mass-damper system with an initial displacement

of 𝑥(0) = 𝑥0 and zero initial velocity for the three cases of damping ratio: (1) 𝜁 = 2 (overdamped); (2)

𝜁 = 0.02 (underdamped), and (3) 𝜁 = 1 (critically damped).

a. Write the expression for response 𝑥(𝑡) for each case in the exponent form, and determine

the unknown coefficients 𝑋1 and 𝑋2 of 𝑥(𝑡) for each case in the terms of 𝑥0. (Take care to note

that the response for each case will take a different form. The usual form of the response for

the underdamped case is familiar to you, and is also given below)

𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑒 −ζωn t (𝑋1eiωd t + 𝑋2e−iωdt ).

b. Now you may assume any realistic values (except zeroes) for initial displacement(s) and for

the natural frequency (using rand ( ) function in MATLAB – see the note in Problem 2). State

your assumed values, and for each case (under, over and critically damped case) plot the

response using those values on the same figure, and use different line types as necessary for

each response. Comment on your observations.

Problem 4 [2.5]

Consider the two degree of freedom system, lumped parameter system as shown below:

(a) Obtain the equations of motion in matrix form and transform them into modal coordinates

𝑞1 and 𝑞2 . Normalize the eigenvectors to coordinate 𝑥2 . Verify that proportional damping

exists. What are 𝛼 and 𝛽?

(b) Choose any one random value for the amplitude of forcing function (𝐹) from (1 -1000) N

and for forcing frequency from (20-100) Hz. Determine the time responses 𝑞1 (𝑡) and 𝑞2 (𝑡)

in mm. Express solutions in the form of:

𝑞1,2 (𝑡) = [𝑒 −𝜁𝑞1,2 𝜔𝑛1,2 𝑡 (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑑1,2 𝑡) + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑑1,2 𝑡))] + [𝑞1,2 (𝑡)]𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑑

𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑒

(c) Transform the modal coordinate solutions 𝑞1 (𝑡) and 𝑞2 (𝑡), back into local coordinate 𝑥1 (𝑡)

and 𝑥2 (𝑡).

(d) Plot 𝑥1 (𝑡) and 𝑥2 (𝑡) in mm vs. time (secs).

3/5

Problem 5 [3]

b. Solve the undamped eigenvalue problem form of the equation of motion to obtain the natural

frequencies and mode shapes. Mass-normalize the eigenvectors. Plot the receptance FRF

between DOFs 2 and 4, i.e. obtain |𝐻24 |. For this, assume a uniform damping ratio, 𝜁 of all

vibration modes, and that this damping, i.e. 𝜁 lies somewhere between 1% and 3%. Select a

value for 𝜁 from within this range and state your selected value. Also plot the receptance FRF

at location 1, i.e. obtain |𝐻11 |. How many degrees of freedom does the model have, how many

modes do you see in the two different FRFs? Are the magnitudes of all modes you see in the

two different FRFs the same? If not, why? Comment on all these questions. (Hint: Use log-log

scales or dB-log scales as and where appropriate)

c. Now assume a proportional damping model of the form [𝐶] = 𝛼[𝑀] + 𝛽[𝐾]. For your

selected value of 𝜁, what are one set of candidate values for 𝛼 and 𝛽, such that the receptance

|𝐻11 | obtained using the complex matrix inversion method is similar to that obtained in (b)?

(You will have to compute |𝐻11 | using the complex matrix inversion method.) If you find any

differences between |𝐻11 | obtained in (b) and that obtained here, what could be the reasons

for that? (Hint: use the hold on command in MATLAB to overlay figures on each other).

Note:

1. For (b) use [V,D] = eig(K,M) to solve the eigenvalue problem in MATLAB, wherein V are

the eigenvectors and D the eigenvalues. Take care to sort V and D in ascending order. Also

note that D = 𝜔𝑟 2 .

Use this to mass normalize the eigenvectors:

% Mass normalize the eigenvector

for mode = 1:length(omega)

u = V(:,mode);

phi(:,mode) = u/sqrt(u'*M*u);

end

2. For (c), use either the inv or pinv (if necessary) function in MATLAB for complex matrix

inversion.

4/5

Example MATLAB program

% file_name.m

% Author

% Date

% Problem #

% Your code has to be properly indented

% e.g. mass should be m; stiffness is k; damping is zeta/eta

% omega, Omega, w, omega_n/wn... etc as suited.

m = 1; % mass (kg)

parameter2; % physical significance (if any)

%% part-a of question

% your solution

x = 10*t + 1; % disp (mm)

x = x/1000; % convert to meters

%% part-b of question

% your solution

% example of indentation

sum = 0;

for i=1:10

sum = sum + i;

end

%% part-c

% your solution

.

.

.

5/5

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