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ME730A – Modal Analysis: Theory and Practice

HW Assignment 1

Date assigned: 19th Jan. 2018

Due: 1st and 2nd Feb. 2018

Please read the following instructions carefully:

1. This assignment has five questions.


2. Assignment is worth 10% of the final grade.
3. You will need to use MATLAB to solve all the questions. Codes used to solve questions will
have to be submitted online, and hard copies of the final solutions are to be submitted in class.
4. Submit your codes (MATLAB files only) by 5 pm on 1st Feb. 2018 using the following Google
form: https://goo.gl/forms/HxjoaPSFcvNmzXtu2
a. You can submit your code ONCE only. You do not have to attach your codes with the
report.
b. File MUST be formatted as shown in the example MATLAB file at the end of this
assignment. File name has to be in the following format: Roll#_Q#_file#. For example,
roll number: 13807115, 2nd file for question 2 must be named as ‘13807115_2_2.m’
5. Hard copy of the solution to be submitted on 2nd Feb. – in class
6. State all assumptions made in your analyses.
7. Please provide your insights when asked for commenting to be considered for a full grade.
8. Late submission will call for a 10% penalty (of the total worth of the assignment) per hour that
the assignment is late. Anything submitted online after 5 pm on 1st Feb. will be considered to
be late.
9. There is a zero tolerance for copying of codes and/or solutions. If any of your code(s) for any
of the questions are found to be suspiciously similar to any other students’, all those suspected
of copying will be awarded a zero for the complete assignment. You may appeal against being
awarded a zero if you have reasonable grounds to prove that you have not copied.
10. If you have borrowed code from or shared code with any other student(s) for solving any/all
of the five questions, and if you declare this in the hard copy of your solution, you and those
whom you may have borrowed from and/or shared with will be graded out of a maximum of
50% of the question(s) for which the code(s) is(are) borrowed/shared.
11. For any clarifications, feel free to reach out to the Teaching Assistants, or to the Instructor

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Problem 1 [1.5]

A single degree of freedom lumped parameter system has the following mass and stiffness values:
𝑚 = 1 kg, 𝑘 = 100 N/m. Assume damping, i.e. 𝜁 lies somewhere between 1% and 10%. Select a value
for 𝜁 from within this range and state your selected value.

Generate the following plots. Use log-log scales or dB-log scales as and where appropriate.

a. Magnitude (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz) and phase (deg) vs. frequency (Hz) for the receptance
frequency response function (FRF)
b. Real part (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz) and imaginary part (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz), again for the
receptance FRF
c. Nyquist plot, i.e. Real part (m/N) vs. imaginary part (m/N) for the receptance, mobility and
accelerance FRFs. Comment on the nature of Nyquist plots of the mobility and accelerance
FRF in relation to the receptance FRF. Discuss the differences, if any.
d. For the same system, generate mobility and accelerance FRFs only in terms of its Real part
(m/N) vs. frequency (Hz) and imaginary part (m/N) vs. frequency (Hz). Comment on the
nature of the real and imaginary parts in relation to the real and imaginary parts of the
receptance FRF. Discuss the differences, if any.
e. Comment on if the modal parameters and physical parameters are the same for this single
degree of freedom system.

Problem 2 [1.5]

A single degree of freedom (DOF) lumped parameter system under free vibration can be modelled
with a given mass, stiffness and damping.

a. Select random values for the system parameters in the following range:
𝑚 = 1 - 1.5 kg, 𝑘 = 2 x 104 – 3 x 104 N/m, 𝑐 = 10 - 30 Ns/m
b. Determine the natural frequency, the damping ratio, 𝜁, and the damped natural frequency.
c. Assume an initial displacement somewhere between 0-25 mm and an initial velocity of 0-
1,000 mm/s (both can be randomly generated). Find an expression for the time response of
the damped free vibration, x(t), of the form:
𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑒 −𝜁𝜔𝑛 𝑡 (𝑋1 cos(𝜔𝑑 𝑡) + 𝑋2 sin(𝜔𝑑 𝑡))
Where 𝑥(𝑡) is expressed in mm. Determine 𝑋1 and 𝑋2
d. Plot the first ten cycles of motion, and use the logarithmic decrement method to estimate the
damping ratio, 𝜁, and verify if it is the same as in part (a) i.e. calculate the error percentage.
e. Report your input physical parameters as well as 𝜔𝑛 , 𝜁 and error from part (d) on the plot
attached with your report.

Note:
Use rand() function to generate random numbers using MATLAB.
% Example 1: If r is the response output of interval [a, b]
r = a + (b-a).*rand;

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Problem 3 [1.5]

Consider the free vibration response for any spring-mass-damper system with an initial displacement
of 𝑥(0) = 𝑥0 and zero initial velocity for the three cases of damping ratio: (1) 𝜁 = 2 (overdamped); (2)
𝜁 = 0.02 (underdamped), and (3) 𝜁 = 1 (critically damped).

a. Write the expression for response 𝑥(𝑡) for each case in the exponent form, and determine
the unknown coefficients 𝑋1 and 𝑋2 of 𝑥(𝑡) for each case in the terms of 𝑥0. (Take care to note
that the response for each case will take a different form. The usual form of the response for
the underdamped case is familiar to you, and is also given below)
𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑒 −ζωn t (𝑋1eiωd t + 𝑋2e−iωdt ).

b. Now you may assume any realistic values (except zeroes) for initial displacement(s) and for
the natural frequency (using rand ( ) function in MATLAB – see the note in Problem 2). State
your assumed values, and for each case (under, over and critically damped case) plot the
response using those values on the same figure, and use different line types as necessary for
each response. Comment on your observations.

Problem 4 [2.5]

Consider the two degree of freedom system, lumped parameter system as shown below:

(a) Obtain the equations of motion in matrix form and transform them into modal coordinates
𝑞1 and 𝑞2 . Normalize the eigenvectors to coordinate 𝑥2 . Verify that proportional damping
exists. What are 𝛼 and 𝛽?
(b) Choose any one random value for the amplitude of forcing function (𝐹) from (1 -1000) N
and for forcing frequency from (20-100) Hz. Determine the time responses 𝑞1 (𝑡) and 𝑞2 (𝑡)
in mm. Express solutions in the form of:
𝑞1,2 (𝑡) = [𝑒 −𝜁𝑞1,2 𝜔𝑛1,2 𝑡 (𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑑1,2 𝑡) + 𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑑1,2 𝑡))] + [𝑞1,2 (𝑡)]𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑑
𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑒
(c) Transform the modal coordinate solutions 𝑞1 (𝑡) and 𝑞2 (𝑡), back into local coordinate 𝑥1 (𝑡)
and 𝑥2 (𝑡).
(d) Plot 𝑥1 (𝑡) and 𝑥2 (𝑡) in mm vs. time (secs).

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Problem 5 [3]

Shown below is a multi-degree of freedom lumped parameter system.

a. Obtain the equation of motion in matrix form (symbolically).


b. Solve the undamped eigenvalue problem form of the equation of motion to obtain the natural
frequencies and mode shapes. Mass-normalize the eigenvectors. Plot the receptance FRF
between DOFs 2 and 4, i.e. obtain |𝐻24 |. For this, assume a uniform damping ratio, 𝜁 of all
vibration modes, and that this damping, i.e. 𝜁 lies somewhere between 1% and 3%. Select a
value for 𝜁 from within this range and state your selected value. Also plot the receptance FRF
at location 1, i.e. obtain |𝐻11 |. How many degrees of freedom does the model have, how many
modes do you see in the two different FRFs? Are the magnitudes of all modes you see in the
two different FRFs the same? If not, why? Comment on all these questions. (Hint: Use log-log
scales or dB-log scales as and where appropriate)
c. Now assume a proportional damping model of the form [𝐶] = 𝛼[𝑀] + 𝛽[𝐾]. For your
selected value of 𝜁, what are one set of candidate values for 𝛼 and 𝛽, such that the receptance
|𝐻11 | obtained using the complex matrix inversion method is similar to that obtained in (b)?
(You will have to compute |𝐻11 | using the complex matrix inversion method.) If you find any
differences between |𝐻11 | obtained in (b) and that obtained here, what could be the reasons
for that? (Hint: use the hold on command in MATLAB to overlay figures on each other).
Note:
1. For (b) use [V,D] = eig(K,M) to solve the eigenvalue problem in MATLAB, wherein V are
the eigenvectors and D the eigenvalues. Take care to sort V and D in ascending order. Also
note that D = 𝜔𝑟 2 .
Use this to mass normalize the eigenvectors:
% Mass normalize the eigenvector
for mode = 1:length(omega)
u = V(:,mode);
phi(:,mode) = u/sqrt(u'*M*u);
end
2. For (c), use either the inv or pinv (if necessary) function in MATLAB for complex matrix
inversion.

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Example MATLAB program

% file_name.m
% Author
% Date
% Problem #

% 2-3 line instructions to understand the code


% Your code has to be properly indented

% Define your variable with their usual symbols


% e.g. mass should be m; stiffness is k; damping is zeta/eta
% omega, Omega, w, omega_n/wn... etc as suited.

% Put comments wherever required

% clc; clear all; close all;

% Parameters given in question


m = 1; % mass (kg)
parameter2; % physical significance (if any)

%% part-a of question

% your solution

t = [0:1000]; % time (units)


x = 10*t + 1; % disp (mm)
x = x/1000; % convert to meters

%% part-b of question

% your solution

% example of indentation
sum = 0;
for i=1:10
sum = sum + i;
end

%% part-c

% your solution
.
.
.

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