© All Rights Reserved

0 views

week10.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

- Dynamic Response of Complex Processes
- Laplace Transform
- ExamB Midterm EEE 353
- network functions and s-domain analysis
- Livro PCM_ASoftwareLaboratory ForControlDesign
- Biquad1 - Lab Report
- Matlab and the Control System Toolbox
- JAABE-200911
- Chap03 Laplace n Fourier
- 8481_6079__3446_syllabus
- Vibration Chapter05
- Seismic Structure-soil-structure Interaction in Nuclear Power Plant Structures
- HW3_2003
- Notes-LT1
- Single Server Retrial Queuing System With Two Different Vacation Policies
- Basic electrical engineering 2
- Curs Electrotehnica
- QFT Control of a Two-Link Rigid-Flexible Manipulator
- ctrgg123456.pdf
- ME2142C2

You are on page 1of 16

(Textbook: Ch. 6)

1

1

Outline

• Characteristic equation, zeros, and poles

• Properties of ROC

• Stable and causal LTIC systems

• Inverse Laplace transform

• LTIC systems analysis using Laplace transform

• Solution of differential equations

1

17-03-21

Laplace transform

∞

− st

X (s ) = ∫ x(t )e dt

−∞

and non-causal systems. Most physical systems and

signals are causal.

• The Laplace transform for causal systems and signals is

referred to as unilateral or just Laplace transform:

∞

X (s ) = ∫ x(t )e − st dt

0−

3

2

17-03-21

Characteristic equation

• Given a transfer function in the following form:

N ( s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0

H ( s) = = n

D ( s) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0

stability and possible mode of the output response.

5

5

Zeros

• Given a transfer function in the following form:

N ( s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0

H ( s) = = n

D ( s) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0

where |H(s)|=0. The zeros can be obtained by solving the

following equation:

There will be m roots leading to m zeros.

6

6

3

17-03-21

Poles

• Given a transfer function in the following form:

N ( s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0

H ( s) = = n

D ( s) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0

where |H(s)| has an infinite value. The poles can be

obtained by solving the characteristic equation:

There will be n roots leading to n poles.

7

7

Poles

8

8

4

17-03-21

• To determine the poles and zeros, the transfer function is

factorized:

H (s ) = = n

D(s ) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n −2 ... + a1s + a0

N (s ) bm (s − z1 )(s − z2 )...(s − z m )

H (s ) = =

D(s ) (s − p1 )(s − p2 )...(s − pn )

9

9

• Poles and zeros can be shown on a complex plane (or

called the s-plane).

• The pole is usually represented by a cross “ X”

• The zero is usually represented by a circle “o”.

• For example, the poles and zeros of the following H(s) can

be shown on a complex-plane:

H (s ) =

(s − 2)

(s + 3)(s − 1)

Im(s)

0 Re(s)

-3 1 2

10

10

5

17-03-21

11

Properties of ROC

• Property 1: The ROC consists of 2D strips that are parallel

to the imaginary jω-aixs.

• Property 2: For a right-sided function, the ROC takes the

form Re{s} > σ0 and consists of the right side of the complex

s-plane.

• Property 3: For a left-sided function, the ROC takes the form

Re{s} < σ0 and consists of most of the left side of the

complex s-plane.

• Property 4: For a finite duration function, the ROC consists

of the entire s-plane except for the possible deletion of the

point s=0.

12

12

6

17-03-21

Properties of ROC

• Property 5: For a double-sided function, the ROC takes

the form σ1<Re{s} < σ2 and is a confined strip within the

complex s-plane.

• Property 6: The ROC of a rational transfer function does

not contain any pole.

• Property 7: The ROC R for a right-sided LTIC system with

the rational transfer function H(s) is given by R: Re{s}

>Re{pr}, where pr is the location of the rightmost pole

among the n poles.

• Property 8: The ROC R for a left-sided function with the

rational transfer function H(s) is given by R: Re{s}<Re{pl}

where pl is the leftmost pole among the n poles.

13

13

14

Activity 1

Calculate the impulse response of the following transfer

function if the specified LTIC system is causal.

(s + 4)(s + 5)

H (s) =

s(s + 2)(s − 2)

7

17-03-21

15

• A causal LTIC system with n poles {pr}, 1 ≤ r ≤ n, will be

absolutely BIBO stable if and only if the real part of all poles

are non-zero negative numbers, i.e. if

BIBO stable if and only if all of its poles lie in the left half of

the s-plane.

• It also implies that a LTIC system will be absolutely stable if

the ROC occupies the entire right half of the complex plane

including the jω-axis

16

16

8

17-03-21

All-pass System

• An all-pass system allows all frequencies presented in the

input signal to pass through the system without attenuation.

s − a − jb

H ap (s) = Zero at (a+jb), pole at (-a+jb)

s + a − jb

jω − a − jb −a + j(ω − b)

H ap ( jω ) = =

jω + a − jb a + j(ω − b)

(−a)2 + (ω − b)2

H ap ( jω ) = =1

(a)2 + (ω − b)2

⎛ω − b ⎞ ⎛ω − b ⎞

∠H ap ( jω ) = arctan ⎜ ⎟ − arctan ⎜ ⎟

⎝ −a ⎠ ⎝ a 17⎠ 17

• Assume a system has a pole at s=a+jb, i.e.

H(s) =

s − a − jb half of the s-plane

• Improve the stability using an all-pass system:

H1 (s) H1 (s) s − a − jb

H stabel (s) = H ap (s) = ×

s − a − jb s − a − jb s + a − jb

H1 (s)

= → stable

⎯⎯

s + a − jb 18

18

9

17-03-21

• The magnitude response of stabilized system is:

H1 (s)

H stabel (s) = H ap (s)

s − a − jb

H1 ( jω ) H ( jω )

H stable ( jω ) = H ap ( jω ) = 1 ×1

s − a − jb s − a − jb

H1 ( jω )

H stable ( jω ) =

s − a − jb

No change in the magnitude response.

19

19

20

10

17-03-21

• Laplace synthesis equation:

σ + j∞

1

x(t ) = ∫ X (s )e st ds

2πj σ − j∞

H (s ) = = n

D(s ) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n −2 ... + a1s + a0

21

21

1. Calculate the roots of the characteristic equation, D(s), of

the rational fraction.

Assume that the roots are real-valued and do not repeat,

then

N ( s) N(s)

H ( s) = =

D ( s ) (s − p1 )(s − p2 )... + (s − pn−1 )(s − pn )

if no roots are repeated.

k1 k2 kn−1 kn

H ( s) = + +!+ +

(s − p1 ) (s − p2 ) (s − pn−1 ) (s − pn )

22

22

11

17-03-21

2. (con’t) calculate kr

⎡ N(s) ⎤

kr = ⎢(s − pr ) ⎥

⎣ D(s) ⎦s=pr

1

e prt u(t) ←⎯

L

→ Re{s} > pr

(s − pr )

23

23

24

Activity 2

Calculate the inverse Laplace transform of a right-sided

sequence with transfer function:

7s − 6

G(s) = 2

s −s−6

12

17-03-21

25

1. Calculate the Laplace transform X(s) of the input signal

x(t). If input signal and impulse response are both causal

functions, then unilateral Laplace transform is used.

2. Calculate the Laplace transform H(s) of the impulse

response h(t) of the LTIC system.

3. Based on the convolution property, the Laplace transform

Y(s) of the output response y(t) is given by:

Y (s) = X(s)H (s)

4. Calculate the output response y(t) by taking the inverse

Laplace transform of Y(s).

26

26

13

17-03-21

27

Activity 3

Determine the overall and steady state values of the output

of the RC series circuit below. Assume that R = 1Ω and C =

0.5F, the capacitor is uncharged at t=0, and the input signal

x(t) is:

x(t) = sin(3t)u(t)

R

+ +

x(t) C y(t)

_ _

Activity 4

An LTI system has an impulse response h(t) with the

Laplace transfer function H(s) satisfies the following

properties:

b) the area enclosed by the impulse response is 5,

that is: ∞

∫ h(t )dt = 5

−∞

28

28

14

17-03-21

29

1. Find Y(s). To compute the overall response, take the

Laplace transform of each term of both sides.

2. Apply partial fraction expansion to obtain the partial

fraction coefficients.

3. Take inverse the Laplace transform to get y(t).

30

30

15

17-03-21

Activity 5

Given the following differential equation:

d2y dy

2

+ 7 +12y(t) = 12x(t)

dt dt

of the system produced by the input: x(t) = 2e−t u(t)

31

31

16

- Dynamic Response of Complex ProcessesUploaded byGiancarloErrigo
- Laplace TransformUploaded byKavithaD
- ExamB Midterm EEE 353Uploaded byaequveritas
- network functions and s-domain analysisUploaded bypowerdeadlifter
- Livro PCM_ASoftwareLaboratory ForControlDesignUploaded byssuthaa
- Biquad1 - Lab ReportUploaded byGavin Zhang
- Matlab and the Control System ToolboxUploaded bychungk52
- JAABE-200911Uploaded bySeongsoo Lee
- Chap03 Laplace n FourierUploaded byXion1988
- 8481_6079__3446_syllabusUploaded byBindhu Subramanyam
- Vibration Chapter05Uploaded byVC Chua Yee Leong
- Seismic Structure-soil-structure Interaction in Nuclear Power Plant StructuresUploaded byAhmed Arafa
- HW3_2003Uploaded bygirithik14
- Notes-LT1Uploaded bydeathes
- Single Server Retrial Queuing System With Two Different Vacation PoliciesUploaded byebenesarb
- Basic electrical engineering 2Uploaded byamrit323
- Curs ElectrotehnicaUploaded byPlanea Daniela
- QFT Control of a Two-Link Rigid-Flexible ManipulatorUploaded byInternational Journal of Robotics, Theory and Applications
- ctrgg123456.pdfUploaded bymakroum
- ME2142C2Uploaded byUn Yong Kim
- Chapter 6Uploaded byDilu
- B.Tech_1st_&_2nd_SemUploaded byAarav Choudhary
- Sweep Frequency Response AnalysisUploaded byBash Mat
- Freq RespUploaded byİbrahim Kayğan
- ESIC_2Uploaded byDvb Ref
- Chapter 2 (0)Uploaded byMelanie
- Mor Ched 1999Uploaded byaramirezbenites
- The origin of Laplace TransformUploaded byMarcelo Eduardo Benencase
- 8-Advanced-Mathematics.pdfUploaded byHanna Marine
- Matlab TutorialUploaded byGökhan Turhan

- quiz-eecs2602.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week11_review.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week8.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week6.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- review_midterm.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- electrical engineering week 1 slidesUploaded byNoor Elahi
- week3.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week10_activities.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week9_part2.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week4.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week2-20.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week5_activities_part2.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week7.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week7_activities.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week6_activities.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week5.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week5_part2.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week5_activities_part1.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- week9_part1.pdfUploaded bysiarwafa
- MATH2930 Quiz1 Solution F2017Uploaded bysiarwafa
- Constructive AnatomyUploaded bygazorninplotz

- 96212_09Uploaded byKarthik Koneru
- AddMath DoneUploaded byHarithZulfaizal
- VIT maths syllabusUploaded byAnudeex Shetty
- polsarpro_tutorialUploaded byapi-3854701
- Fundamental Theorem of AlgebraUploaded byRicardo Miranda Martins
- Fitzpatrick, Differential Forms and Vector CalculusUploaded byΣωτήρης Ντελής
- 2010WOOT CatalanUploaded byaem
- Mathematical Background for Mathematical EpidemiologyUploaded byANKUR BARUA
- 04 - the law of sinesUploaded byapi-262277495
- ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IIUploaded byKattykeyan Katty
- CalcI DiffFormulas SolutionsUploaded byAlyssa Gervacio
- Quest HW1 SolutionsUploaded byellie<3
- 2nd Periodical Test in Math 6 LuisaUploaded byRejaneReGalendez
- MapsUploaded bymjesuele
- Revision 4 EngUploaded byAngus
- Differential Calculus RefreshUploaded byKevin Pontillas
- Warming, R.F.; Beam, R.M.; Hyett, B.J. - Diagonalization and Simultaneous Symmetrization of the Gas-Dynamic Matrices.pdfUploaded byEron Dauricio
- MIT18_01SC_pset3solUploaded byFatima Ahsan
- Complex analysis summaryUploaded byJohn Chessant
- NURBS-based isogeometric vibration analysis of generally laminated deep curved beams with variable curvature.pdfUploaded byHamid M Sedighi
- How to solve a differential equationUploaded bymenonharsh
- Ec119 NotesUploaded byMADHAVI BARIYA
- B10_34_1972_Jun_Fortran IV Program to Calculate z-Transfer Funtions for the Calculation of Transient Heat Transfer through Walls and Roofs_National Research Council Canada.pdfUploaded byLahcen Akerkouch
- Ap12 Calculus Ab q32014Uploaded byEnrique David José Incio Chapilliquen
- z TransformUploaded byKiran Googly Jadhav
- Signals and Systems K-Notes (EE).pdfUploaded bygunjan bharadwaj
- Bessel EquationUploaded byptoo777
- Lect 2AUploaded bysanjaykumarsindhi
- AQA-MPC3-W-QP-JUN06Uploaded byfakeusername01
- Optimal hole shape for minimum stress concentration using parameterized geometryUploaded byHako Khechai

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.