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17-03-21

EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Week 10 – Laplace Transform Part 2

(Textbook: Ch. 6)

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Outline
•  Characteristic equation, zeros, and poles
•  Properties of ROC
•  Stable and causal LTIC systems
•  Inverse Laplace transform
•  LTIC systems analysis using Laplace transform
•  Solution of differential equations

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Laplace transform

− st
X (s ) = ∫ x(t )e dt
−∞

•  Bilateral Laplace transform is used to analyze both causal


and non-causal systems. Most physical systems and
signals are causal.
•  The Laplace transform for causal systems and signals is
referred to as unilateral or just Laplace transform:

X (s ) = ∫ x(t )e − st dt
0−

We will use this equation often for Laplace 3transform.


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Characteristic equation, zeros, and poles

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Characteristic equation
•  Given a transfer function in the following form:
N ( s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0
H ( s) = = n
D ( s) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0

The characteristic equation is defined as follow:

D(s) = sn + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0 = 0

It determines the behavior of the system, including its


stability and possible mode of the output response.
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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Zeros
•  Given a transfer function in the following form:
N ( s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0
H ( s) = = n
D ( s) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0

The zeros are the finite locations in the complex s-plane,


where |H(s)|=0. The zeros can be obtained by solving the
following equation:

N(s) = bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0 = 0


There will be m roots leading to m zeros.
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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Poles
•  Given a transfer function in the following form:
N ( s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0
H ( s) = = n
D ( s) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0

The poles are the finite locations in the complex s-plane,


where |H(s)| has an infinite value. The poles can be
obtained by solving the characteristic equation:

D(s) = sn + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n−2 ... + a1s + a0 = 0


There will be n roots leading to n poles.
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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Poles

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Poles and zeros


•  To determine the poles and zeros, the transfer function is
factorized:

N (s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0


H (s ) = = n
D(s ) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n −2 ... + a1s + a0

N (s ) bm (s − z1 )(s − z2 )...(s − z m )
H (s ) = =
D(s ) (s − p1 )(s − p2 )...(s − pn )

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Poles and zeros


•  Poles and zeros can be shown on a complex plane (or
called the s-plane).
•  The pole is usually represented by a cross “ X”
•  The zero is usually represented by a circle “o”.
•  For example, the poles and zeros of the following H(s) can
be shown on a complex-plane:
H (s ) =
(s − 2)
(s + 3)(s − 1)
Im(s)

0 Re(s)
-3 1 2

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Properties of the ROC

EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Properties of ROC
•  Property 1: The ROC consists of 2D strips that are parallel
to the imaginary jω-aixs.
•  Property 2: For a right-sided function, the ROC takes the
form Re{s} > σ0 and consists of the right side of the complex
s-plane.
•  Property 3: For a left-sided function, the ROC takes the form
Re{s} < σ0 and consists of most of the left side of the
complex s-plane.
•  Property 4: For a finite duration function, the ROC consists
of the entire s-plane except for the possible deletion of the
point s=0.

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Properties of ROC
•  Property 5: For a double-sided function, the ROC takes
the form σ1<Re{s} < σ2 and is a confined strip within the
complex s-plane.
•  Property 6: The ROC of a rational transfer function does
not contain any pole.
•  Property 7: The ROC R for a right-sided LTIC system with
the rational transfer function H(s) is given by R: Re{s}
>Re{pr}, where pr is the location of the rightmost pole
among the n poles.
•  Property 8: The ROC R for a left-sided function with the
rational transfer function H(s) is given by R: Re{s}<Re{pl}
where pl is the leftmost pole among the n poles.

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Activity 1
Calculate the impulse response of the following transfer
function if the specified LTIC system is causal.

(s + 4)(s + 5)
H (s) =
s(s + 2)(s − 2)

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Stable and causal LTIC systems

EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Stable and Causal LTIC Systems


•  A causal LTIC system with n poles {pr}, 1 ≤ r ≤ n, will be
absolutely BIBO stable if and only if the real part of all poles
are non-zero negative numbers, i.e. if

Re{pr } < 0 for all r.

•  In other words, a causal LTIC system will be absolutely


BIBO stable if and only if all of its poles lie in the left half of
the s-plane.
•  It also implies that a LTIC system will be absolutely stable if
the ROC occupies the entire right half of the complex plane
including the jω-axis

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

All-pass System
•  An all-pass system allows all frequencies presented in the
input signal to pass through the system without attenuation.
s − a − jb
H ap (s) = Zero at (a+jb), pole at (-a+jb)
s + a − jb
jω − a − jb −a + j(ω − b)
H ap ( jω ) = =
jω + a − jb a + j(ω − b)
(−a)2 + (ω − b)2
H ap ( jω ) = =1
(a)2 + (ω − b)2
⎛ω − b ⎞ ⎛ω − b ⎞
∠H ap ( jω ) = arctan ⎜ ⎟ − arctan ⎜ ⎟
⎝ −a ⎠ ⎝ a 17⎠ 17

EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Improve Stability Using Zeros


•  Assume a system has a pole at s=a+jb, i.e.

H1 (s) where H1(s) has all poles in the left


H(s) =
s − a − jb half of the s-plane

This system is not stable because of the pole at (a+jb).


•  Improve the stability using an all-pass system:
H1 (s) H1 (s) s − a − jb
H stabel (s) = H ap (s) = ×
s − a − jb s − a − jb s + a − jb
H1 (s)
= → stable
⎯⎯
s + a − jb 18
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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Improve Stability Using Zeros (2)


•  The magnitude response of stabilized system is:
H1 (s)
H stabel (s) = H ap (s)
s − a − jb
H1 ( jω ) H ( jω )
H stable ( jω ) = H ap ( jω ) = 1 ×1
s − a − jb s − a − jb
H1 ( jω )
H stable ( jω ) =
s − a − jb
No change in the magnitude response.

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Inverse Laplace transform

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Inverse Laplace transform


•  Laplace synthesis equation:
σ + j∞
1
x(t ) = ∫ X (s )e st ds
2πj σ − j∞

•  Laplace transform in rational form:

N (s ) bm s m + bm−1s m−1 + bm−2 s m−2 ... + b1s + b0


H (s ) = = n
D(s ) s + an−1s n−1 + an−2 s n −2 ... + a1s + a0

we can apply partial fraction expansion to find the inverse.


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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Steps in finding the inverse


1. Calculate the roots of the characteristic equation, D(s), of
the rational fraction.
Assume that the roots are real-valued and do not repeat,
then

N ( s) N(s)
H ( s) = =
D ( s ) (s − p1 )(s − p2 )... + (s − pn−1 )(s − pn )

2. Use partial fraction expansion formula, we get the following


if no roots are repeated.
k1 k2 kn−1 kn
H ( s) = + +!+ +
(s − p1 ) (s − p2 ) (s − pn−1 ) (s − pn )
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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Steps in finding the inverse


2. (con’t) calculate kr

⎡ N(s) ⎤
kr = ⎢(s − pr ) ⎥
⎣ D(s) ⎦s=pr

3. Apply Laplace transform pair below to get the inverse.

1
e prt u(t) ←⎯
L
→ Re{s} > pr
(s − pr )

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Activity 2
Calculate the inverse Laplace transform of a right-sided
sequence with transfer function:

7s − 6
G(s) = 2
s −s−6

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Analysis of LTIC systems using Laplace transform

EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

LTIC system analysis using Laplace transform


1.  Calculate the Laplace transform X(s) of the input signal
x(t). If input signal and impulse response are both causal
functions, then unilateral Laplace transform is used.
2.  Calculate the Laplace transform H(s) of the impulse
response h(t) of the LTIC system.
3.  Based on the convolution property, the Laplace transform
Y(s) of the output response y(t) is given by:
Y (s) = X(s)H (s)
4.  Calculate the output response y(t) by taking the inverse
Laplace transform of Y(s).

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Activity 3
Determine the overall and steady state values of the output
of the RC series circuit below. Assume that R = 1Ω and C =
0.5F, the capacitor is uncharged at t=0, and the input signal
x(t) is:
x(t) = sin(3t)u(t)
R

+ +
x(t) C y(t)
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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Activity 4
An LTI system has an impulse response h(t) with the
Laplace transfer function H(s) satisfies the following
properties:

a) the Laplace transfer function has 2 poles but no zeros;


b) the area enclosed by the impulse response is 5,
that is: ∞

∫ h(t )dt = 5
−∞

c) A pole is located at s = -1 +2j

Determine the transfer function H(s) and its ROC.


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Solution to differential equations

EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Solution to differential equation


1.  Find Y(s). To compute the overall response, take the
Laplace transform of each term of both sides.
2.  Apply partial fraction expansion to obtain the partial
fraction coefficients.
3.  Take inverse the Laplace transform to get y(t).

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EECE 2602 -- Signals and Systems in Continuous Time

Activity 5
Given the following differential equation:

d2y dy
2
+ 7 +12y(t) = 12x(t)
dt dt

Determine the zero-input, zero-state, and overall response


of the system produced by the input: x(t) = 2e−t u(t)

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