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# Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

## 1. There are two or more spans

2. Spans are approximately equal, with the longer of two adjacent spans not greater than the
shorter by more than 20%
3. Loads are uniformly distributed
4. The unit live load does not exceed 3 times the unit dead load
5. Members are prismatic

Question:

## fy = 60,000 psi LL = 100 psf

Note: Beam sizes mentioned here are designed in the coming steps.

## One Way Slab Page 1

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Calculations:

Since, we have a symmetric slab system. So we have to design only two panels (one exterior and one
interior).

## 1. EXTERIOR PANEL NO: 01

For this panel, one end is continuous and remaining three ends are discontinuous.

Minimum Thickness:

  ×
hmin = = = 7.5” (using table 13.1,from Nilson 13th edition)
 

.
Weight of slab = × 150 = 93.75 psf


## Live = 1.6 x 100 = 160 psf

wu = 296.5 psf

For this case the design moments at critical sections may be found using the ACI moment coefficients
(Using table 12.1, from Nilson 13th edition)

Note:

wn = total factored load per unit length of beam or per area of slab

ln = clear span for +ive moment and shear & the average of the two adjacent clear spans for the –ive
moment.

Assuming the column dimensions: Each column of 18” x 18”, thus clear span = 13.5’

 
At interior support: -M = wuln2 = x (0.2965) x (13.5)2 = 5.04 k-ft



 
At mid span: +M = wuln2 = x (0.2965) x (13.5)2 = 3.859 k-ft
 

 
At exterior support: -M = wuln2 = x (0.2965) x (13.5)2 = 2.251 k-ft
 

## One Way Slab Page 2

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If that maximum value of ρ was used actually, the minimum required effective depth, controlled by the
negative moment at the interior support, would be found from equation 3.38 (Nilson 13th edition):

ØMn = Øρfybd2(1 − 0.59 )
 

 5.04×12
Or d2 =  = = 5.38
Ø (
.   ) 0.90×0.0214×60×12(1−0.590.0214×60
4
)


d = 2.319 in

This is less than the effective depth of 7.5 – 1.00 = 6.5 in. At the interior support, if the stress-block
depth a = 1.00 in., the area of steel required per foot of width in the top of the slab:

 .
 × 
#\$ = ' = *.++ = 0.186 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(). )
( (

-. 
./)×)

,= = = 0.273 in

./ 
./××

## A second trail will be made with a = 0.273 in, then

 .
 × 
#\$ = ' = +.(01 = 0.176 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(). )
( (

.)
For which a = 0.273 × = 0.25 in. No further revision is necessary.

./)

At the other critical sections it will be satisfactory to use the same lever arm to determine steel areas
and,

At Mid span:

 2./ × 
#\$ = ' = +.(01 = 0.134 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(). )
( (

At Exterior support:

 . × 
#\$ = ' = +.(01 = 0.08 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(). )
( (

The minimum reinforcement is that required for control of shrinkage and temperature cracking. This is:

## One Way Slab Page 3

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

per 12 in. strip. This requires a small increase in the amount of steel used at the exterior support and at
mid span.

## * From table 13.2, Nilson 13th edition

The factored shear force at a distance d from the face of the interior support is

56 7 8 296.5  13.5
34 = 1.15 × = 1.15 × = 2301 lb
2 2

## Vn = Vc = 2:;< ′ bd = 2√4000 × (12) × (6.5) = 9866 lb

Thus the design strength of the concrete slab, ØVc = 0.75 × 9866 = 7399 lb, is well above the required
strength on shear of Vu = 2301 lb

## Supports Exterior Panel Interior Panel

-ive Exterior Support # 3 @ 12” c/c # 3 @ 7” c/c
Mid span # 3 @ 9” c/c # 3 @ 10” c/c
-ive Interior Support # 3 @ 7” c/c # 3 @ 7” c/c

Figure:

The locations of bend and cutoff points shown in above figure were obtained using Figure 5.15 (From
Nilson 13th edition)

The required area of steel to be placed normal to the main reinforcement for the purpose of
temperature and shrinkage crack control is 0.162 in2. This will be provided by No. 3 bars at 8 in c/c
spacing (As = 0.17 in2), placed directly on the top of the main reinforcement in the positive moment
region and below the main steel in the negative-moment zone.

## One Way Slab Page 4

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## 2. INTERIOR PANEL NO: 02

For this panel, two ends are continuous and remaining two ends are discontinuous.

Minimum Thickness:

  ×
hmin = = = 6.4” (using table 13.1,from Nilson 13th edition)
/ /

## Use 6.5” as minimum thickness.

NOTE: Now as for interior panel we have calculated hmin = 6.5” but exterior panel has 7.5”.

So for sake of economy we must have to check for exterior panel by taking hmin = 6.5”, whether for such
condition all requirements are fulfilled or not. If all checks (like shear) satisfy then there is no need to
provide 7.5” thick slab throughout.

But here this time we will proceed by taking 7.5” slab thickness even for the interior panel.

## (Using table 12.1 from Nilson 13th edition), we have:

 
At interior support: -M = wuln2 = x (0.2965) x (13.5)2 = 5.40 k-ft
 

 
At mid span: +M = wuln2 = x (0.2965) x (13.5)2 = 3.37 k-ft
) )

## Now, from table A.8 we have 0.75ρb or ρmax = 0.0214

If that maximum value of ρ was used actually, the minimum required effective depth, controlled by the
negative moment at the interior support, would be found from equation 3.38 (Nilson 13th edition):

ØMn = Øρfybd2(1 − 0.59 )
 

 5.40×12
Or d2 =  = = 5.76
Ø (
.   ) 0.90×0.0214×60×12(1−0.590.0214×60
4
)


d = 2.4 in

This is less than the effective depth of 7.5 – 1.00 = 6.5 in.

At the interior support, if the stress-block depth a = 1.00 in., the area of steel required per foot of width
in the top of the slab:

 .
× 
#\$ = ' = *.++ = 0.2 in2
Ø(& ( )
.×)
(). )
(

## One Way Slab Page 5

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

-. 
.×)

,= = = 0.294 in

./ 
./××

## A second trail will be made with a = 0.294 in, then

 .
× 
#\$ = ' = +.(?@ = 0.188 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(). )
( (

.//
For which a = 0.294 × = 0.27 in. No further revision is necessary.

.

## Use # 3 @ 7” c/c (Table A.6)

At the other critical sections it will be satisfactory to use the same lever arm to determine steel areas
and,

At Mid span:

 2.2 × 
#\$ = ' = +.(?@ = 0.117 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(). )
( (

## Use # 3 @ 10” c/c

The minimum reinforcement is that required for control of shrinkage and temperature cracking. This is:

## As = *0.0018 × b × h = 0.0018 × 12 × 7.5 = 0.162 in2

Use # 3 @ 8” c/c

per 12 in. strip. This requires a small increase in the amount of steel used at mid span.

## * From table 13.2, Nilson 13th edition

The factored shear force at a distance d from the face of the interior support is

5 6 78 296.5 × 13.5
34 = 1.15 × = 1.15 × = 2301 lb
2 2

## Vn = Vc = 2:;< ′ bd = 2√4000 × (12) × (6.5) = 9866 lb

Thus the design strength of the concrete slab, ØVc = 0.75 × 9866 = 7399 lb, is well above the required
strength on shear of Vu = 2301 lb

## One Way Slab Page 6

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

## DESIGN OF CONTINUONS BEAM

Using the ACI moment coefficients, design a typical continuous beam. Consider the figure below:

Assumptions

Assume the width of beam as 8”. (Assumption will be on the basis of the column dimensions)

 
Minimum thickness of beam (from Mac Cormaic, table 3.1) = = = 9.729 in. Assume a total
/. /.
depth of 15 (So assumed d = 15 – 2.5 = 12.5”) in and the web depth of 15 – 7.5 = 7.5 in.

Since; we are dealing with one way slab system. And in actual the load distribution on one way slab
system is same as for the two way slab system (i.e., Triangular & trapezoidal distribution). But in field,
there is a practice for one way slab that load distribution is taken as rectangular.

But here, for the sake of practice we will take the load distribution for continuous beam as per two way
slab system load distribution.

## One Way Slab Page 7

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 .
Volume of triangular portion of slab = [2 × ( × 7.5 × 7.5)] × = 35.156 cft
 

## Load of triangular portion of slab = 35.156 × 150 = 5.27 k

.
UDL on beam (A) due to slab = = 0.35 k/ft


## Live Load on triangular portion = 100 × (Area of triangular portion)


= 100 × [2 × ( × 7.5 × 7.5)] = 5.625 k


.)
UDL on beam (A) due to live load = = 0.375 k/ft


## I.D.L on triangular portion = 20 × (Area of triangular portion)


= 20 × [2 × ( × 7.5 × 7.5)] = 1.125 k


.
UDL on beam (A) due to I.D.L = = 0.075 k/ft


Load due to self weight of beam (A) = (Volume of beam, exclusive of flange) × 150

/×.
=[( ) × 15] × 150 = 0.94 k
144

.
UDL on beam (A) due to Self-weight = = 0.062 k/ft


## Moment in the beam ABC:

The beam is continuous on five spans and symmetrical about the centerline at D. therefore it is
sufficient to design half of the beam ABCD, because the other half has similar dimensions and
reinforcement.

Note: If the adjacent spans are not equal and their span ratio is less than 1.2 then ACI moment
coefficients can be applied to the beam. Moreover, the average of the adjacent clear span is used to
calculate the negative moments at the supports.

## One Way Slab Page 8

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## Moments at critical sections are calculated as follows;

Mu = coefficient × wuln2

Location 1 2 3 4 5 6
Moment      
- +  - + - +
Coefficient  
)  )
Mu (K.ft) -8.96 +15.36 -21.51 +13.44 -19.55 +13.44

## DETERMINE THE BEAM DIMENSIONS AND REINFORCEMENT

Maximum negative moment is -21.51 k-ft. using ρmax = 0.0214, Ru = 936.72 psi (Table A.14)

 .×
d=A =A = 5.87 in ------- (A)
B 
.2)×/

*Since calculate is less than assumed, so we will take the assumed value being on the safer side.
Otherwise we will end up with very small cross-section.

## Here‘d’ is calculated on the bases of ρmax.

The section at the supports acts as rectangular sections with tension reinforcement placed in the flanges.
The reinforcement required at the supports is as follows:

## One Way Slab Page 9

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Figure:

## Effective Flange Width of L-beam

 
(a) 
× L =  × 15 = 15” Use
(b) 6 × hf = 45”

(c) 
× l= 324”

## One Way Slab Page 10

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Location 1 3 5
Mu (K.ft) -8.96 -21.51 -19.55

Ru = ( (psi) 86.02 206.49 187.680
&
ρ (%) 0.18 0.4 0.36
As (in2) 0.18 0.4 0.36
No. 4 bars 2 3 2
Note:

## • In Ru calculations‘d’ will be from equ. (A)

• For the calculation of ρ (%), divide the Ru with 0.9, then for that value of Rn see the value of ρ in
table A.14.
• While calculating As = ρ × b × d. And this d is actual d = 12.5, as mentioned above.

For the Mid span T-section, Mu = +15.36 k-ff. For a = 1.00 in. and flange width = 15”

 .2) × 
#\$ = ' = * = 0.28 in2
Ø(& )
.×)
(. ()
(

-. 
./ × )

Check a; ,= = = 0.329 in

./ 
./××

Revised ‘a’ gives As = 0.276 in2. Therefore use 2 # 4 bars (As = 0.39 in2) for all mid span sections.

## One Way Slab Page 11

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(a) T-Beam

## Design T-Beam for the negative moment zone:

Note: First of all we will assume the cross section of the T-beam and then considering that section, we’ll
calculate the Mu and on the behalf of Mu we will calculated the d, now using that calculated d again
calculation of load on the beam would be our next step. Finally on this selected cross section design will
be done.

## Load of slab on T-beam will come from both sides as;

.
Slab load = 150 × × 15 = 1.40 k/ft


## IDL = 20 psf × 15 ft = 0.3 k/ft

)
Self load of beam (only web portion) = Web depth × 150 × -------------- (i)


Web depth = [(d + cover) – hf]/12 = [(20.5 + 3.5) – 7.5]/12 = 1.375 ft --------------- (ii)

## Equation (i) gives:

)
Self load of beam = 1.375 × 150 × = 0.275 k/ft


## L.L = 100 × 15 = 1.5 k/ft

Now:

wu = 1.2 (1.40 + 0.3 + 0.275) + 1.6 (1.5) = 4.77 k/ft ---------- (iii)

C  ( (.)× (2)( th
Mu = = = 486.93 k-ft ------- (iv)
 
(From Hibbler 6 edition, Table FEMs)

We have relation:

 /).2×
d=A =A = 19.7 in
B 
.2)×)

&
Now check ratio, it should be between 1.5 -2.0:


## One Way Slab Page 12

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
.
= = 1.28 < 1.5 So need to revise the ‘d’
)

Assume d= 24.5 in, and re-solving the equ. (ii), (iii) & (iv) we get:

wu = 4.848 k/ft


Mu = 494.9 k-ft So, Mn = = 549.88 k-ft

.

&
d = 20 in, less than the assumed & check is also OK


## Effective Flange Width of T-beam

 
(a) × L = × 35 = 105” Use
 
(b) 12+ 2(8)hf = 12 + (2)(8)7.5 = 132”
(c) 35’ = 420”

## Where; L = Span Length

DE
Assume lever arm z Equal to the Larger of 0.9d or (d - )
F

## z = 0.9 × 24.5 = 22.05 in Use ----------------- (v)

.
z = 24.5 – = 20.75 in


## One Way Slab Page 13

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Asfyz = Mn

×/.//
As = = 4.97 in2
)
×.


## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 4.97 × 60

Ac = 87.85 in2

/./
a= = 0.836 in



## Therefore the neutral axis is in the flange.

./2)
z = 24.5 – = 24.08”


×/.//
As = = 4.5 in2
)
×.
/

## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 4.5 × 60

Ac = 79.41 in2

.
a= = 0.756 in



.)
z = 24.5 – = 24.12”


## Calculating As with this revised z

×/.//
As = = 4.55 in2 OK, close enough to previous value.
)
×.

## One Way Slab Page 14

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

## 2: G & 2 √

 )  .
As min = = = 1.239 in2
 )
,

G & 

 ) .
Or As min = = = 1.30 in2.
 )
,

Figure:

## C = 0.85 × 4 × 864 = 2940 k

2
Maximum T =  (2940) = 2205 k > (4.0)(60) = 240 k OK

moment area:

## One Way Slab Page 15

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## Therefore; moment for mid span is:

C  ( (.)× (2)(
Mu = = = 243.46 k-ft
 


Mn = = 270.5 k-ft

.

×
.
As = = 2.45 in2s
)
×.


## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 2.45 × 60

Ac = 43.23 in2

2.2
a= = 0.411 in



## Therefore the neutral axis is in the flange.

.
z = 24.5 – = 24.29”


×
.
As = = 2.23 in2
)
×.

## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 2.23 × 60

Ac = 39.35 in2

2.2
a= = 0.37 in



## One Way Slab Page 16

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.2
z = 24.5 – = 24.31”


## Calculating As with this revised z


.
As = = 2.22 in2 OK, close enough to previous value.
)
.2

So use 3 # 8 (As = 2.35 in2) bars, at –ive moment zone i.e, at supports

(b) L-Beam

## Design L-Beam for the negative moment zone:

The values of bw and d will be same as assumed for the T-beam. So bw = 10” and d = 15.5”

## Load of slab on L-beam will come from both sides as;

.
Slab load = 150 × × 7.5 = 0.70 k/ft


## IDL = 20 psf × 7.5 ft = 0.15 k/ft

Self load of beam (only web portion) = Web depth × 150 × -------------- (i-a)


Web depth = [(d + cover) – hf]/12 = [(15.5 + 2.5) – 7.5]/12 = 0.875 ft --------------- (ii-a)

## One Way Slab Page 17

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

## L.L = 100 × 7.5 = 0.75 k/ft

Now:

wu = 1.2 (0.7 + 0.15 + 0.109) + 1.6 (0.75) = 2.35 k/ft ---------- (iii-a)

C  ( (.2)× (2)( th
Mu = = = 239.89 k-ft ------- (iv-a)
 
(From Hibbler 6 edition, Table FEMs)

We have relation:

 2./×
d=A =A = 17.6 in
B 
.2)×

Since calculated‘d’ is more than assumed, so now take d = 17.6” and repeat the above steps, then equ
.(iii-a) and (iv-a) gives:

wu = 2.40 k/ft

C  ( (.
)× (2)(
Mu = = = 245.85 k-ft
 

We have relation:

 ./×
d=A =A = 17.7 in
B 
.2)×

So depth = 17.7 + 2.5 = 20.2 in, using 21” thus actual d = 18.5”


Mn = = 273.166 k-ft

.

## Effective Flange Width of L-beam

 
(d) ×L= × 35 = 35”
 
(e) 6 × hf = 6 × 7.5 = 45”
 
(f) × l = × 33.5 = 33.5” Use
 

## One Way Slab Page 18

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DE
Assume lever arm z Equal to the Larger of 0.9d or (d - )
F

## z = 0.9 × 18.5 = 16.65 in Use

.
z = 18.5 – = 14.75 in


Asfyz = Mn

×2.))
As = = 3.28 in2
)
×).)

## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 3.28 × 60

Ac = 58.00 in2

/.

a= = 1.73 in
22.

## Therefore the neutral axis is in the flange.

.2
z = 18.5 – = 17.63”


×2.))
As = = 3.10 in2
)
×.)2

## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 3.1 × 60

Ac = 54.70 in2

.

a= = 1.63 in
22.

.)2
z = 18.5 – = 17.68”


## One Way Slab Page 19

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## Calculating As with this revised z

×2.))
As = = 3.09 in2 OK, close enough to previous value.
)
.)/

## 2: G & 2 √

 
/.
As min = = = 0.58 in2
 )
,

G & 

 
/.
Or As min = = = 0.616 in2.
 )
,

## C = 0.85 × 4 × 269.45 = 916 k

2
Maximum T = (916) = 687 k > (3.0)(60) = 180 k OK


## One Way Slab Page 20

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## Design L-Beam for the positive moment zone:

The values of bw and d will be same as assumed for the T-beam. So bw = 10” and d = 18.5” (same, as
selected in above steps while designing L-beam for negative moment zone)

From Equ. (iii-a) wu = 1.2 (0.7 + 0.15 + 0.109) + 1.6 (0.75) = 2.35 k/ft

C  ( (.2 2(
Mu = = = 119.94 k-ft
 


Mn = = 133.26 k-ft

.

## Effective Flange Width of L-beam

 
(a) ×L= × 35 = 35”
 
(b) 6 × hf = 6 × 7.5 = 45”
 
(c) × l = × 33.5 = 33.5” Use
 

## l = Clear span length

DE
Assume lever arm z Equal to the Larger of 0.9d or (d - )
F

## z = 0.9 × 18.5 = 16.65 in Use

.
z = 18.5 – = 14.75 in


## One Way Slab Page 21

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Asfyz = Mn

×22.)
As = = 1.60 in2
)
×).)

## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 1.60 × 60

Ac = 28.23 in2

/.2
a= = 0.84 in
22.

## Therefore the neutral axis is in the flange.

./
z = 18.5 – = 18.0”


×22.)
As = = 1.48 in2
)
×/.

## Computing values of a and z:

0.85 fc’ Ac = As fy

0.85 × 4 × Ac = 1.48 × 60

Ac = 26.129 in2

).
a= = 0.77 in
22.

.
z = 18.5 – = 18.11”


## Calculating As with this revised z

×22.)
As = = 1.47 in2 OK, close enough to previous value.
)
×/.

## One Way Slab Page 22

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## 2: G & 2 √

 
/.
As min = = = 0.58 in2
 )
,

G & 

 
/.
Or As min = = = 0.616 in2.
 )
,

## C = 0.85 × 4 × 269.45 = 916 k

2
Maximum T = (916) = 687 k > (3.0)(60) = 180 k OK


## One Way Slab Page 23

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T-beam:

Thus;

## Vu at left end = 5.066 × 17.5 = 59.10 k

(. .
Vu at a distance d from the support = I J × 59.10


= 53.89 k


ØVc = 15.91 k


## One Way Slab Page 24

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

## From Similar triangles, location of ØVc is given by:

M .
= = 9.42 ft from right
2./ .


For  ØVc :

M .
= = 4.71 ft from right
. .

## Therefore; ØVs = 53.89 – 31.82 = 22.07 k < 4:;< ′KC L = 74.88 k

&
The max spacing should neither exceed, =9.25” nor 24”


-N 
Also; Smax= = 19.88” (Av = 2 × 0.11 for # 3 stirrups)
.: G

-N
Smax ≤ = 18.86”

G

∅-N  &
For Max Shear S = = 8.29” > 4” (Because stirrup spacing should not be less than 4”, according to code)
P ∅P

As we have max spacing 9.25” but at same time we have max shear S = 8.29”, this happened so because
in our case the loading is very small, so we don’t need to place shear reinforcement at different
locations in different ratio.


So in general we will place the shear reinforcement at a spacing of 9” c/c, up to ØVc


Figure:

## One Way Slab Page 25

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

L-beam:

Thus;

## Vu at left end = 2.84 × 17.5 = 49.7 k

(. .
Vu at a distance d from the support = I J × 49.7 = 43.90 k



ØVc = 14.61 k


## One Way Slab Page 26

Syed Saqib Mehboob 06-CE-50

## From Similar triangles, location of ØVc is given by:

M .
= = 10.29 ft from right
. .

For  ØVc :

M .
= = 5.14 ft from right
.) .

## Therefore; ØVs = 43.90 – 29.22 = 14.68 k < 4:;< ′KC L = 58.44 k

&
The max spacing should neither exceed, = 12.25” nor 24”


-N 
Also; Smax= = 19.88” (Av = 2 × 0.11 for # 3 stirups)
.: G

-N
Smax ≤ = 18.86”

G

∅-N  &
For Max Shear S = = 16.5” > 4” (Because stirrup spacing should not be less than 4”, according to code)
P ∅P

As we have max spacing 12.25” but at same time we have max shear S = 16.5”, this happened so
because in our case the loading is very small, so we don’t need to place shear reinforcement at different
locations in different ratio.


So in general we will place the shear reinforcement at a spacing of 12” c/c, up to ØVc


Figure: