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New Perspectives on

Essential Computer Concepts

Fundamentals of Computer Applications


Course Objectives
At the end of the course, you will understand:
• The components of a • Hardware and
computer system software used to
• The different types establish a network
of computers connection
• Microcomputer • Internet, e-mail, and
hardware and its World Wide Web
functions • System software
• Data representation • Popular application
and the ASCII code software
• Peripheral devices


What is a Computer?

A computer is a
device that:
• Accepts input
• Processes data
• Stores data
• Produces output


What is a Computer?
A Computer System is
made up of:
• Hardware - the physical
• Software - the programs or
lists of instructions
• Peripherals - the additional
• Peopleware - the person
who uses the computers


what does the computer consist of? Specification is the technical detail about each component. As in. As in.What is a Computer? Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. how big is the monitor? 5 .

How a Computer Works The hardware. 6 . and you work together to complete assigned tasks. software.

How a Computer Works The data you type into the computer is called input. 7 . The result of the computer processing your input is called output.

Types of Computers The categories of computers are: • Personal or microcomputers – Desktop – Notebook or Laptop • Hand-help or PDAs • Mainframes • Supercomputers 8 .

Types of Computers Personal computers are used for general computing tasks and fit the needs of most users 9 .

Types of Computers Hand-held computers fit in the palm of your hand and run on batteries. 10 .

and management for large amounts of data. processing. 11 . Types of Computers Mainframes are used by companies to provide centralized storage.

12 . and can process an enormous volume of data. Types of Computers Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers.

Computer Hardware Computer hardware includes: • Input devices • Output devices • Processing hardware • Storage devices and media • Network Devices 13 .

Computer Hardware Some input devices A w are: i r • Keyboard e l • Mouse e s • Wireless pointer s m • Touch pad o u • Track ball s e 14 .

CRT monitors and LCD (or flat panel display) monitors are two types of monitors. 15 . Computer Hardware Output devices are: Monitors and Printers are common output devices.

Computer Hardware Factors that influence a monitor’s quality are: • Screen Size • Resolution • Dot Pitch 16 .

Ink Jet A type of printer that works by spraying ionized ink at a sheet of paper. One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution –(how many dots per inch .200 dpi at the high end.Types of Printers include: Laser A printer that produces very high-quality print. 17 . The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to 1. Magnetized plates in the ink's path direct the ink onto the paper in the desired shapes.dpi) they lay down.

Dot-matrix printers are relatively expensive and do not produce high-quality output Multifunction- All in One A multifunction printer that prints.Types of Printers include: Dot Matrix A type of printer that produces characters and illustrations by striking pins against an ink ribbon to print closely spaced dots in the appropriate shape. 18 . copies and scans. faxes.

Computer Hardware • Multimedia devices are peripheral devices that include text. graphics. • Speakers and sound cards are common multimedia output devices 19 . animation. and video. sound.

• Processing hardware is used to process data. 20 . Computer Hardware • The most important computer function is data processing.

Processing Hardware • Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off. 21 . Each byte represents a unique character.” • 1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits. • Eight bits is a byte.

• Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes • Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes 22 . Data Representation Storage and memory capacity is the amount of data the storage device can handle.

• These two factors directly affect the computer’s price and performance. 23 . Processing Hardware • The two most important components of personal computers hardware are the microprocessor and memory.

• Its speed is determined by: – Clock speed – Word size – Cache size 24 . The Microprocessor • The microprocessor is an integrated circuit or chip on the main circuit board inside the computer.

Memory Computer memory is a set of storage locations of the main circuit board. There are four types of memory: • Random access memory (RAM) • Virtual memory • Read-only memory • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS) 25 .

Memory RAM is temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on. 26 . Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed.

27 . CMOS memory is semi- permanent information about where essential software is stored. Memory Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses.

Memory A storage device receives data from RAM and writes it on a storage medium. 28 . it can be read and sent back to RAM. Later.

Executable files tell computers how to perform specific tasks. Storage Devices Data is stored as files. Data files are created by the user. 29 . usually with software.

Storage Devices Files are kept on storage devices. • Optical storage devices . A common modern technique used by computers involves a tiny beam of laser light precisely focused on a spinning disc. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a magnetizable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile memory. These are: • Magnetic storage devices .referring to the storage of data on an optically readable medium. The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads.referring to the storage of data on a magnetized medium. 30 . Data is recorded by making marks in a pattern that can be read back with the aid of light.

Storage Devices Some common magnetic storage A floppy disk devices are: • Floppy disks • Hard disk drives • Tape drives • Zip drives 31 .

Storage Devices Some common optical storage devices are: • CD-ROM drives • DVD drives • CD-R drives • CD-RW drives 32 .

CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk. CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data. 33 . Storage Devices CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access.

or video data from one computer to another. Data Communications Data Communications is the transmission of text. numeric. 34 . voice.

Data Communications The four essential components of data communi- cations are: – Sender – Channel – Receiver – Protocols 35 .

The message is sent over a channel.Data Communications A sender is the computer that originates the message. 36 . such as a telephone.

Data Communications The receiver is the computer at the message’s destination. Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver. 37 .

and the peripherals. 38 . RAM. Data Bus The data bus is the communication between microprocessor.

Each port connects to a controller card. which plugs into expansion slots. Data Bus An external peripheral device has a port or cable that connects it to the computer. The transmission protocol is handled by a device driver. 39 .

Data Bus Microcomputers have several types of ports: • Parallel • Serial • Small computer system interface (SCSI) • Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) • Universal serial bus (USB) 40 .

and is often used to connect a nearby printer. Data Bus A parallel port transmits data eight bits at a time. 41 .

Data Bus A serial port transmits data one bit at a time. or modem. and often connects a mouse. keyboard. 42 .

43 . Data Bus A SCSI connection can allow many devices to use the same port. and are popular on Macs and notebooks. MIDI cards are used to record and play back musical data.

Data Bus Computer expansion ports 44 .

Data Bus USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports replace numerous connectors with one plug and port combination. 45 . The device you install must have a USB connector.