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10 Mezclado y Agitacion de LIquidos


gitation is a means whereby mixing of phases can be and 6, employ the sarne kind of equipment; narnely, tanks in

A accomplished and by which mass and heat transfer

can be enhanced between phases or with externa/
surfaces. In its most general sense, the process of
mixing is concerned with al/ combinations of phases of which
the most frequently occurring ones are
which the liquid is circu/ated and subjected to a certain
amount of shear. This kind of equipment has been studied
rnost extensively. Although sorne unusual cases of liquid
mixing may require pilot plant testing, general rules have been
developed with which mixing equipment can be designed
somewhat satisfactorily. This tapie will be emphasized in this
1. gases with gases. The other mixing operations of the /ist require individua/
2. gases into /iquids: dispersion. kinds of equipment whose design in sorne cases is less
3. gases with granular so/ids: f/uidization, pneumatic
quantified and is based largely on experience and pilot plant
conveying, drying.
work. Typical equipment far such purposes will be illustrated
4. /iquids into gases: spraying and atomization. later in this chapter. Phase mixing equipment which
5. /iquids with liquids: dissolution, emulsification, dispersion.
accomplishes prirnarily mass transfer between phases, such
6. liquids with granular so/ids: suspension.
as distillation and extraction towers, a/so are covered
7. pastes with each other and with solids.
elsewhere. Stirred reactors are discussed in Chapter 17.
B. solids with solids: mixing of powders.
Circulation and shear of the liquid in a vessel can be
accomplished with externa/ pumps and appropriate location of
lnteraction of gases, liquids, and solids a/so may take place, suction and discharge nozz/es, but a satisfactory combination
as in hydrogenation of liquids in the presence of a slurried of vertical and lateral f/ows is obtained more economical/y by
so/id catalyst where the gas must be dispersed as bubbles interna/ impellers, baffles, and draft tubes. Sorne general
and the so/id particles must be kept in suspension. statements about dirnensions, proportions, and internals of a
Three of the processes invo/ving liquids, numbers 2, 5, liquid mixing vessel can be made.

10.1. A BASIC STIRRED TANK DESIGN one-half the tank radius), the resulting flow pattern has less swirl,
and baffles rnay not be needed, particularly at low viscosities.
The dirnensions of the liquid content of a vessel and the dirnensions
and arrangernent of irnpellers, baffles and other internals are factors
that influence the arnount of energy required far achieving a needed
arnount of agitation or quality of rnixing. The interna! arrangernents DRAFT TUBES
depend on the objectives of the operation: whether it is to rnaintain
A draft tube is a cylindrical housing around and slightly larger in
homogeneity of a reacting mixture or to keep a salid suspended or a
diarneter than the impeller. lts height may be little more than the
gas dispersed or to enhance heat ar mass transfer. A basic range of
diarneter of the impeller or it may extend the full depth of the
design factors, however, can be defined to cover the majority of
liquid, depending on the flow pattern that is required. Usually draft
cases, far example as in Figure 10.1.
tubes are used with axial irnpellers to direct suction and discharge
streams. An irnpeller-draft tube system behaves as an axial flow
THE VESSEL pump of somewhat low efficiency. lts top to bottorn circulation
behavior is of particular value in deep tanks far suspension of solids
A dished bottom requires less power than a flat one. When a single and far dispersion of gases. About a dozen applications are
impeller is to be used, a liquid leve! equal to the diarneter is illustrated by Sterbacek and Tausk (1965, pp. 283ff) and a chapter is
optimum, with the irnpeller located at the center far an all-liquid devoted to their use by Oldshue (1983, 469ff).
system. Econornic and manufacturing considerations, however,
often dictate higher ratios of depth to diarneter.
BAFFLES A basic classification is into those that circulate the liquid axially
Except at very high Reynolds numbers, baffles are needed to and those that achieve prirnarily radial circulation. Sorne of the
prevent vortexing and rotation of the liquid mass as a whole. A many shapes that are being used will be described shortly.
baffle width one-twelfth the tank diameter, w = D,/12; a length
extending frorn one half the irnpeller diameter, d /2, frorn the
tangent line at the bottom to the liquid leve!, but sometimes
terminated just above the leve! of the eye of the upperrnost This depends on the kind of impeller and operating conditions
impeller. When solids are present or when a heat transfer jacket is described by the Reynolds, Fraude, and Power numbers as well as
used, the baffles are offset from the wall a distance equal to one- individual characteristics whose effects have been correlated. Far
sixth the baffle width. Four radial baffles at equal spacing are the popular turbine impeller, the ratio of diameters of impeller and
standard; six are only slightly more effective, and three appreciably vessel falls in the range, d / D, = 0.3-0.6, the lower values at high
less so. When the mixer shaft is located off center (one-faurth to rprn, in gas dispersion, far exarnple.


Side entering propellors are placed 18-24 in. above a flat tank
Baffle width, floor with the shaft horizontal and at a 10º horizontal angle with the
centerline of the tank; such mixers are used only for viscosities
w = D,I 12
below 500 cP or so.
Offset = w / 6 Draft tube In dispersing gases, the gas should be fed directly below the
impeller or at the periphery of the impeller. Such arrangements also
are desirable for mixing liquids.
H/ 3

H/ 2

A rotating impeller in a fluid imparts flow and shear to it, the shear
resulting from the flow of one portion of the fluid past another.
Limiting cases of flow are in the axial or radial directions so that
impellers are classified conveniently according to which of these

flows is dominan!. By reason of reflections from vessel surfaces and
obstruction by baffies and other internals, however, flow patterns in
most cases are mixed. When a close approach to axial flow is
particularly desirable, as for suspension of the solids of a slurry, the
Offset impeller may be housed in a draft tube; and when radial flow is
needed, a shrouded turbine consisting of a rotor and a stator may
=d / 2
H/ 6
be employed.
Because the performance of a particular shape of impeller
usually cannot be predicted quantitatively, impeller design is largely
an exercise of judgment so a considerable variety has been put forth
.¡... . -------0, --------..i by various manufacturers. A few common types are illustrated on
Figure 10.2 and are described as follows:
Figure 10.1. A basic stirred tank design, not to scale, showing a
lower radial impeller and an upper axial impeller housed in a draft a. The three-bladed mixing propeller is modelled on the marine
tube. Four equally spaced baffies are standard. H = height of liquid propeller but has a pitch selected for maximum turbulence. They
leve!, D, = tank diameter, d = impeller diameter. For radial are used at relatively high speeds (up to 1800 rpm) with low
impellers, 0.3 ::s d / D,::s 0.6.
viscosity fluids, up to about 4000 cP. Many versions are avail-
able: with cutout or perforated blades for shredding and breaking
up lumps, with sawtooth edges as on Figure 10.2(g) for cutting
and tearing action, and with other than three blades. The
With commercially available motors and speed reducers, standard stabilizing ring shown in the illustration sometimes is included to
speeds are 37, 45, 56, 68, 84, 100, 125, 155, 190, and 320 rpm. minimize shaft flutter and vibration particularly at low liquid
Power requirements usually are not great enough to justify the use levels.
of continously adjustable steam turbine drives. Two-speed drives b. The turbine with flat vertical blades extending to the shaft is
may be required when starting torques are high, as with a settled suited to the vast majority of mixing duties up to 100,000 cP or
slurry. so at high pumping capacity. The simple geometry of this design
and of the turbines of Figures 10.2(c) and (d) has inspired
IMPELLER LOCATION extensive testing so that prediction of their performance is on a
more rational basis than that of any other kind of impeller.
Expert opinions differ somewhat on this factor. As a first c. The horizontal plate to which the impeller blades of this turbine
approximation, the impeller can be placed at 1/6 the liquid leve! off are attached has a stabilizing effect. Backward curved blades
the bottom. In sorne cases there is provision for changing the may be used for the same reason as for type e.
position of the impeller on the shaft. For off-bottom suspension of d. Turbine with blades are inclined 45º (usually). Constructions
solids, an impeller location of 1/3 the impeller diameter off the with two to eight blades are used, six being most common.
bottom may be satisfactory. Criteria developed by Dickey (1984) Combined axial and radial flow are achieved. Especially effective
are based on the viscosity of the liquid and the ratio of the liquid for heat exchange with vessel walls or interna! coils.
depth to the tank diameter, h/D,. Whether one or two impellers are e. Curved blade turbines effectively disperse fibrous materials
needed and their distances above the bottom of the tank are without fouling. The swept back blades have a lower starting
identified in this table: torque than straight ones, which is importan! when starting up
settled slurries.
Maximum lmpeller Clearance f. Shrouded turbines consisting of a rotor and a stator ensure a
Viscosity level Number of
[cP (Pa sec)) h/ D, lmpellers Lower Upper high degree of radial flow and shearing action, and are well
adapted to emulsification and dispersion.
<25,000 (<25) 1.4
g. Flat plate impellers with sawtooth edges- are suited to emul-
<25,000 (<25) 2.1 2 D,/3 (2/3)h sification and dispersion. Since the shearing action is localized,
>25,000 (>25) 0.8 1 h/3 baffies are not required. Propellers and turbines also are sometimes
>25,000 (>25) 1.6 2 D,/3 (2/3)h provided with sawtooth edges to improve shear.
h. Cage beaters impart a cutting and beating action. Usually they are
Another rule is that a second impeller is needed when the liquid mounted on the same shaft with a standard propeller. More violent
must travel more than 4 ft before deflection. action may be obtained with spined blades.

(a) (b)

(e) (f )


(g) (h)

(j) (k) (1)

Figure 10.2. Representative kinds of impellers (descriptions in the text).


i. Anchor paddles fit the contour of the container, prevent sticking of

pasty materials, and promote good heat transfer with the wall.
j. Gatepaddles are used inwide, shallow tanks and for materials of high
viscosity when low shear is adequate. Shaft speeds are low. Sorne §
designs include hinged scrapers to clean the sides and bottom of the 200Htttr-\-"d-+++f+itf---t-++-t+t+H---1'-+++++H+---I-...¡....¡
tank. \
k. Hollow shaft and hollow impeller assemblies are operated at high tip
speeds for recirculating gases. The gas enters the shaft above the
liquid leve! and is expelled centrifugally at the impeller. Circulation .e,
ñ 20Hittt-+-t-+tti-ttf+-t++H+lt+-t+ l +1+-I 11 1 -+-+.i+
rates are relatively low, but satisfactory for sorne hydrogenations for '- i-.. P1tched-blad· turbinas
l. This arrangement of a shrouded screw impeller and heat exchange
coi! for viscous liquids is perhaps representative of the many designs
that serve special applications in chemical processing.
¡ 150
1 "'
2 Sou"e Aef 12 1 11111
1 1 11 1
1 l 1 1 111
• •110 111
1 1 1 1111
· · !ll
1 11

J 11111

50 1()2 103 10' 10• 10•

Reynolds number. D 2 Nplµ
Figure 10.3. Dimensionless blend time as a function of Reynolds
Agitation and mixing may be performed with severa! objectives: number for pitched turbine impellers with six blades whose
WI D = 1/5.66 [Dickey and Fenic, Chem. Eng. 145, (5Jan. 1976)].
l. Blending of miscible liquids.
2. Dispersion of immiscible liquids.
3. Dispersion of gases in liquids. vessels of different sizes and liquids of various viscosities. A review
4. Suspension of solid particles in a s!urry. of the literature on blend times with turbine impellers has been
5. Enhancement of heat exchange between the fluid and the made by Brennan and Lehrer [Trans. lnst. Chem. Eng. 54, 139-152
boundary of a container. (1975)], who also did sorne work in the range 104 < NRe < 105 but
6. Enhancement of mass transfer between dispersed phases. did not achieve a particularly useable correlation.
An impeller in a tank functions as a pump that delivers a
When the ultimate objective of these operations is the carrying out certain volumetric rate at each rotational speed and corresponding
of a chemical reaction, the achieved specific rate is a suitable power input. The power input is infiuenced also by the geometry of
measure of the quality of the mixing. Similarly the achieved heat the equipment and the properties of the fluid. The flow pattern and
transfer or mass transfer coefficients are measures of their the degree of turbulence are key aspects of the quality of mixing.
respective operations. These aspects of the subject are covered in Basic impeller actions are either axial or radial, but, as Figure 10.4
other appropriate sections of this book. Here other criteria will be shows, radial action results in sorne axial movement by reason of
considered. deflection from the vessel walls and baffies. Baffies contribute to
The uniformity of a multiphase mixture can be measured by turbulence by preventing swirl of the contents as a whole and
sampling of severa! regions in the agitated mixture. The time to elimination of vortexes; offset location of the impeller has similar
bring composition or sorne property within a specified range (say effects but on a reduced scale.
within 95 or 99% of uniformity) or spread in values-which is the Power input and other factors are interrelated in terms of
blend time-may be taken as a measure of mixing performance. certain dimensionless groups. The most pertinent ones are, in
Various kinds of tracer techniques may be employed, for example: common units:
l. A dye is introduced and the time for attainment of uniform color NRe = 10.75Nd S / µ, Reynolds number, (10.1)
is noted. Np= l.523(1013)P/N d5S, Power number, (10.2)
2. A concentrated salt solution is added as tracer and the measured NQ = l.037( 105)Q / Nd 3, Flow number, (10.3)
electrical conductivity tells when the composition is uniform. tbN, Dimensionless blend time, (10.4)
3. The color change of an indicator when neutralization is complete
when injection of an acid or base tracer is employed.
4. The residence time distribution is measured by monitoring the
outlet concentration of an inert tracer that can be analyzed for
accuracy. The shape of response curve is compared with that of a TABLE 10.1. Blending Data for Four-Bladed 45º Turbines ª
thoroughly (ideally) mixed tank.
5000 gal 10.000 gal 20.000 gal

The last of these methods has been applíed particularly to 12 JO 12 JO 12 JO

chemical reaction vessels. It is covered in detail in Chapter 17. In
most cases, however, the RTDs have not been correlated with
impeller characteristics or other mixing parameters. Largely this I! 10 7!

also is true of most mixing investigations, but Figure 10.3 is an 7! 15 JO

uncommon example of correlation of blend time in terms of
I! , 15 7! 20 15 7j
Reynolds number for the popular pitched blade turbine impeller.
As expected, the blend time Ievels off beyond a certain mixing ªMotor horsepowers for various batch volumes, viscosities in cP,
intensity, in this case beyond Reynolds numbers of 30,000 or so. blend times in minutes.
The acid-base indicator technique was used. Other details of the •cenotes single four-bladed, 45º axial-flow impeller (unshaded
test work and the scatter of the data are not revealed in the t Denotes portable geardrive mixer with single 1.5-pitch propeller
published information. Another practica! solution of the problem is ("shaded" selections).
typified by Table 10.1 which relates blend time to power input to (Oldshue, 1983, p. 91).


a b d

Figure 10.4. Agitator flow patterns. (a) Axial or radial impellers without baffles produce vortexes. (b) Offcenter location reduces the vortex.
(c) Axial impeller with baffles. (d) Radial impeller with baffles.

Froude number, (10.5) 100.--r,<T""TT'T--r--r-rr-r--r-TT Tr-,----,--T7N pV7s' .-;N;-R-e-;F:nO.R !"-T+lTTl

d = impeller diameter (in.), A-4 IMPELLER ¡:::::¡:::¡
D = vessel diameter (in.),
N = rpm of impeller shaft,
P = horsepower input,
Q = volumetric pumping rate (cuft/sec),
S = specific gravity,
tb = blend time (min),
µ = viscosity (cP).

The Froude number is pertinent when gravitational effects are

significant, as in vortex farmation; in baffled tanks its influence is
hardly detectable. The power, flow, and blend time numbers change
with Reynolds numbers in the low range, but tend to level off above
NR. = 10,000 or so at values characteristic of the kind of impeller. 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Sometimes impellers are characterized by their limiting NP , as an REYNOLOS NUMBER
NP = 1.37 of a turbine, far instance. The dependencies on Reynolds (a)
number are shown on Figures 10.5 and 10.6 far power, in Figure 3 5
Figure 10.5. Power number, NP = Pgcf N D p, against Reynolds
10.3 far flow and in Figure 10.7 far blend time.
number, NRe = ND 2p /µ, far severa! kinds of impellers: (a) helical
Rough rules far mixing quality can be based on correlations of shape (Oldshue, 1983); (b) anchor shape (Oldshue, 1983); (c)
power input and pumping rate when the agitation system is severa! shapes: (1) propeller, pitch equalling diameter, without
otherwise properly designed with a suitable impeller (predominantly baffles; (2) propeller, s = d, faur baffles; (3) propeller, s = 2d,
either axial or radial depending on the process) in a correct without baffles; (4) propeller, s = 2d, faur baffles; (5) turbine
location, with appropriate baffling and the correct shape of vessel. impeller, six straight blades, without baffles; (6) turbine impeller,
The power input per unit volume or the superficial linear velocity six blades, faur baffles; (7) turbine impeller, six curved blades, faur
can be used as measures of mixing intensity. For continuous flow baffles; (8) arrowhead turbine, faur baffles; (9) turbine impeller,
reactors, far instance, a rule of thumb is that the contents of the inclined curved blades, faur baffles; (10) two-blade paddle, faur
baffles; (11) turbine impeller, six blades, faur baffles; (12) turbine
vessel should be turned over in 5-10% of the residence time.
impeller with stator ring; (13) paddle without baffles (data of Miller
Specifications of superficial linear velocities far different kinds of and Mann); (14) paddle without baffles (data of White and
operations are stated later in this chapter. For baffled turbine Summerfard). Ali baffles are of width O.lD [after Rushton, Costich,
agitation of reactors, power inputs and impeller tip speeds such as and Everett, Chem. Eng. Prog. 46(9), 467 ( 1950)].

..._.i -'-_,_-'-
1 1 1
i 1 1 1
1 1
0.01 '-'--1'--'-.W.... '--"'-'--'--'-'

1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

(b) (e)
Figure 10.5-(continued )
incorporation of TEL into gasoline where severa! hours may be
the following may serve as rough guides:
allowed for the operation.
Operation HP/1000 gal Tip Speed (ft/sec) Example 10.1 deals with the design and performance of an
agitation system to which the power input is specified. Sorne degree
Blending 0.2-0.5
of consistency is found between the severa! rules that have been
Homogeneous reaction 0.5-1.5 7.5-10
Reaction with heat transfer 1.5-5.0 10-15 cited.
Liquid-liquid mixtures 5 15-20
Liquid-gas mixtures 5-10 15-20 10.4. POWER CONSUMPTION ANO PUMPING RATE
Slurries 10
These basic characteristics of agitation systems are of paramount
The low figure shown for blending is for operations such as importance and have been investigated extensively. The literature is




, '"' 1

* * r:dfn
* 1
o sti a
1 1 1
w1ol 11a
w/0• 115 W/0 •1/8 W/0• 1/8
10 \;-.. t ! 11 1

n. J t. -,

1 ........... -- -- 1 1 ' 1 'X
2! '' 1

:za. 3
-- ........ 1
1 1
'j' 1 '

i """"C
I.._:::: ..,¡,,1 1 · 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 11
' 1

" 1

1 1
i TT ftttit
1 : 1 1 1 ¡1
1 1 1

1 1 1 1 I'1 1 ; i 1 1
1 10

Figure 10.6. Power number against Reynolds number of sorne turbine impellers [Bates, Fondy, and Corpstein, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process.
Des. Dev. 2(4) 311 (1963)].
1.0 1 1 1 11 11 1
Type No. baffles IV,, N.:i
0.9 DI T ' 025
Propeller o 0.3
08 Propeller 3-8 0.33-0.37 0.40-0.55
V 033
07 4 Tu rbine, vertical blade o 0.93-1.08 0.33-0.34
' ..... 0.5 Tu rbine, vertical blade 4 3-5 0.70-0.85
lf v- Pitched turbine, 45º o 0.7 0.3
z 0.6 Pitched turbine, 45º 4 1.30-1.40 0.60-0.87
o 05
)I Anchor o 0.28
z /1
D 04
/,'I A correlation of pumping rate of pitched turbines is shown as
E Vjf

0.3 - -"' lf
Figure 10.7.
Power input per unit volume as a measure of mixing intensity
or quality was cited in Section 10.3 and in Chapter 17. From the
_ .. correlations cited in this section, it is clear that power input and

Reynolds number together determine also the pumping rate of a
given design of impeller. This fact has been made the basis of a
0.2 method of agitator system design by the staff of Chemineer. The
10 20 50 100 200 500 1()().'.) 10,000 100,000
2 superficial linear velocity-the volumetric pumping rate per unit
Reynolds number, NR• 'D Np/fL
cross section of the tank-is adopted as a measure of quality of
mixing. Table 10.2 relates the velocity to performance of three main
Figure 10.7. Flow number as a function of impeller Reynolds categories of mixing: mixing of liquids, suspension of solids in
number for a pitched blade turbine with NP = 1.37. D / T is the ratio slurries, and dispersion of gases. A specification of a superficial
of impeller and tank diameters. [Dickey, 1984, 12, 7; Chem. Eng., velocity will enable selection of appropriate impeller size, rotation
102-110 ( 26 Apr. 1976)]. speed, and power input with the aid of charts such as Figures 10.6
and 10.7. Examples 10.1 and 10.2 are along these lines.
The combination of HP and rpm that corresponds to a
particular superficial velocity depends on the size of the tank, the
reviewed, for example, by Oldshue (1983, pp. 155-191), Uh! and size of the impeller, and certain characteristics of the system. Tables
Gray (1966, Vol. 1), and Nagata (1975). Among the effects studied 10.3, 10.4, and 10.5 are abbreviated combinations of horsepower
are those of type and dimensions and locations of impellers, and rpm that are suitable at particular pumping rates for the three
numbers and sizes of baffies, and dimensions of the vessel. A few of main categories of mixing. More complete data may be found in the
the data are summarized on Figures 10.5-10.7. Often it is literature cited with the tables.
convenient to characterize impeller performance by single numbers;
suitable ones are the limiting values of the power and fiow numbers l. For mixing of liquids, data are shown for a viscocity of 5000 cP,
at high Reynolds numbers, above 10,000-30,000 or so, for example: but data also have been developed for 25,000 cP, which allow for

EXAMPLE 10.1 Take N = 84 rpm.

Impeller Size and Speed at a Specified Power Input According to Figure 10.7 at d / D = 0.4,
For a vessel containing 5000 gal of liquid with specific gravity = 0.9
and viscosity of 100 cP, find size and speed of a pitched turbine
impeller to deliver 2 HP/1000 gal. Check also the superficial linear NQ = 0.61,
velocity and the blend time. Q = NQNd 3 = 0.61(84/60)(46/12) 3 = 48.1 cfs,
The dimensions of the liquid content are 9.5 ft high by
us = 48.1/[(n/4)(9.5}2] = 0.68 fps.
9.5 ft dia. Take

d = 0.4D = 0.4(9.5)(12) = 45.6 in., say 46 in., impeller, This value corresponds to moderate to high mixing intensity
according to Table 10.2.
P = 2V = 2(5) = lO HP,
From Figure 10.3, at NRe = 1720, blend time is given by
10.75SNd2 10.75(0.9)(46)2N
NRe µ 1000 20.47N,

N _ l.523(1013)P 1523(1013)(10) 821,600

P - N 3D 5 S 0.9(46) 5N3 N3

Solve for N by tria: with the aid of curve 6 of Figure 10.6. 17

l.67 min.
Trial N 114.. IV,, N (Eq. (2))
56 1146 1.3 85.8 According to Table 10.1, the blend time is less than 6 min,
84 1720 1.3 85.8 which agrees qualitatively.

TABLE 10.2. Agitation Results Corresponding to Specific Superficial Velocities

ft/sec Description ft/sec Description

Liquid Systems c. suspend all solids with the design settling velocity
0.1-0.2 low degree of agitation; a velocity of 0.2 ft/sec will completely off the bottom of the vessel
a. blend miscible liquids to unifarmity when specific d. provide slurry unifarmity to at least one-third of the
gravity differences are less than 0.1 liquid level
b. blend miscible liquids to unifarmity if the ratio of e. be suitable far slurry drawoff at low exit nozzle
viscosities is less than 100 locations
c. establish liquid movement throughout the vessel 0.6-0.8 when unifarm solids distribution must be approached; a
d. produce a flat but moving surface velocity of 0.6 ft/sec will
0.3-0.6 characteristic of most agitation used in chemical f. provide unifarm distribution to within 95% of liquid
processing; a velocity of 0.6 ft/sec will leve!
e. blend miscible liquids to unifarmity if the specific g. be suitable far slurry drawoff up to 80% of liquid
gravity differences are less than 0.6 level
f. blend miscible liquids to unifarmity if the ratio of 0.9-1.0 when the maximum feasible unifarmity is needed. A
viscosities is less than 10,000 velocity of 0.9 ft/sec will
g. suspend trace solids (less than 2%) with settling h. provide slurry unifarmity to 98% of the liquid level
rates of 2-4 ft/min i. be suitable far slurry drawoff by means of overflow
h. produce surface rippling at low viscosities
0.7-1.0 high degree of agitation; a velocity of 1.0 ft/sec will Gas Dispersion
i. blend miscible liquids to unifarmity if the specific 0.1-0.2 used when degree of dispersion is not critica! to the
gravity differences are less than 1.0 process; a velocity of 0.2 ft/sec will
j. blend miscible liquids to unifarmity if the ratio of a. provide nonflooded impeller conditions far coarse
viscosities is less than 100,000 dispersion
k. suspend trace solids (less than 2%) with settling b. be typical of situations that are not mass transfer
rates of 4-6 ft/min limitad
l. produce surging surface at low viscosities 0.3-0.5 used where moderate degree of dispersion is needed; a
velocity of 0.5 ft/sec will
Solids Suspension c. drive fine bubbles completely to the wall of the
0.1-0.2 minimal solids suspension; a velocity of 0.1 ft/sec will vessel
a. produce motion of all solids with the design settling d. provide recirculation of dispersad bubbles back into
velocity the impeller
b. move fillets of solids on the tank bottom and 0.6-1.0 used where rapid mass transfer is needed; a velocity of
suspend them intermittently 1.0 ft/sec will
0.3-0.5 characteristic of most applications of solids suspension e. maximiza interfacial area and recirculation of
and dissolution; a velocity of 0.3 ft/sec will dispersad bubbles through the impeller

[Chemineer, Ca. Staff, Chem. Eng.. 102-110 (26 April 1976); 144-150 (24 May 1976); 141-148 (19 July 1976)].

llb 114.. llb

EXAMPLE 10.2 d/D d N [Eq. (1)] [Eq.(2)] (Fig. 10.7) IV,, P (HP)
Eft'ects of the Ratios of Impeller and Tank Diameters 0.25
Power and rpm requirements will be investigated and compared 28.4 300 0.637 518 0.64 1.4 45.9
with the data of Table 10.3. The superficial velocity is 0.6 ft/sec, 37.5 145 0.573 436 0.57 1.45 21.5
0.50 56.8 52 0.460 359 0.45 1.5 8.2
V = 5000 gals, Sp Gr = 1.0. Viscosities of 100 cP and 5000 cP will be
considered. With µ = 100 cP, turbulence is fully developed.
With h/ D = 1, D = h = 9.47 ft, llb
d/D d N 114.. (Fig. 10.7) N,, P
pumping rate Q = 0.6(n/4)(9.47) 2 = 42.23 cfs, 0.25 28.4 228 0.839 18,990 0.84 1.3 18.7
3 3
NQ = l.037(105)Q/Nd = 4.3793/ Nd (1) 0.33 37.5 112 0.742 16,850 0.74 1.3 8.9
2 2
NRe = l0.7Nd S / µ = 0.00214Nd , µ = 5000, (2) 0.50 56.8 40 0.597 13,800 0.60 1.3 3.2

p = NP N 3d 5S / l.523( 1013 ), (3) Table 10.3 gives these combinations of HP/rpm as suitable: 25/125,
20/100, 10/56, 7.5/37. The combination 10/56 checks roughly the
NP from Figure 10.6. last entry at 5000 cP. Table 10.3 also has data for viscosities of
For severa) choices of di D, solve Eqs. (1) and (2) 25,000 cP, thus allowing for interpolation and possibly extra-
simultaneously with Figure 10.7. With µ = 5000 cP; polation.
TABLE 10.3. Mixing of Liquids; Power and lmpeller Speed (hp/rpm) for
Two Viscosities, as a Function of the Liquid Superficial
Velocity; Pitched Blade Turbine lmpeller

Volume (gal)

5000 cP 25,000 cP

ft/sec 1000 2000 5000 1000 2000 5000

0.1 2/280 2/190 2/100 2/125 2/84 7.5/125

1/190 1/100 1.5/84 1.5/56 5/100
0.2 2/190 2/125 5/125 3/84 5/125 10/84
1/100 2/84 3/84 2/84 3/84 7.5/68
1.5/84 3/68 1.5/56 3/68 5/45
2/45 2/45 3/37
0.3 2/125 3/84 7.5/125 5/125 15/155 20/100
1.5/84 1.5/56 5/100 5/84 7.5/68 15/68
5/84 3/68 5/45 10/45
3/56 2/45 3/37 7.5/37
0.4 2/84 5/125 10/84 7.5/84 10/84 30/100
1.5/56 3/68 7.5/68 5/56 7.5/45 25/84
3/56 5/45 20/68
2/45 3/37 10/37
0.5 5/125 7.5/125 15/100 15/155 25/125 75/190
3/84 5/84 10/68 10/100 20/100 60/155
7.5/45 10/84 15/84 40/100
7.5/68 10/56 15/45
0.6 5/100 15/155 25/125 20/155 25/100 40/84
3/68 10/100 20/100 15/125 15/68 30/68
3/56 7.5/84 10/56 15/56 25/56
2/45 3/37 7.5/37 10/45 20/37
0.7 7.5/125 10/84 15/68 25/155 40/155 75/125
5/84 7.5/68 15/56 15/84 30/100 50/84
5/45 10/45 25/84 30/45
10/37 20/68
0.8 10/125 10/68 30/100 30/155 50/155 75/100
7.5/100 7.5/56 25/84 25/125 40/125 60/84
20/68 20/100 50/68
15/45 40/56
0.9 15/155 15/84 60/155 40/155 75/190 75/84
10/100 10/56 40/100 30/125 60/155 60/68
7.5/84 7.5/45 25/100 40/100 50/56
1.0 10/84 30/155 50/100 40/125 60/125 125/125
7.5/68 25/125 40/84 30/100 50/100 100/100
20/100 30/68 50/84 75/68
15/68 25/56 40/84 60/56
[Hicks, Morton, and Fenic, Chem. Eng.. 102-110 (26April 1976)].

interpolation and possibly extrapolation. The impeller is a impeller and shaft must not rotate near their resonant frequency.
pitched-blade turbine. Such mechanical details are analyzed by Ramsey and Zoller [Chem.
2. For suspension of solids, the tables pertain to particles with Eng., 101-108 (30 Aug. 1976)].
settling velocities of 10 ft/min, but data are available for
25 ft/min. The impeller is a pitched-blade turbine. 10.5. SUSPENSION OF SOLIOS
3. For gas dispersion the performance depends on the gas rate.
Data are shown for a superficial inlet gas rate of 0.07 ft/sec, but Besides the dimensions of the vessel, the impeller, and bafftes,
data are available up to 0.2 ft/sec. Four bafftes are specified and certain physical data are needed for complete description of a slurry
the impeller is a vertical blade turbine. mixing problem, primarily:

Example 10.2 compares data of Table 10.4 with calculations 1. Specific gravities of the solid and liquid.
based on Figures 10.6 and 10.7 for all-liquid mixing. Power and rpm 2. Solids content of the slurry (wt %).
requirements at a given superficial liquid velocity are seen to be 3. Settling velocity of the partides (ft/min).
very sensitive to impeller diameter. When alternate combinations of
HP/rpm are shown in the table for a particular performance, the The last of these may be obtained from correlations when the
design of the agitator shaft may be a discriminant between them. mesh size or particle size distribution is known, or preferably
The shaft must allow for the torque and bending moment caused by experimentally. Taking into account these factors in their effect on
the hydraulic forces acting on the impeller and shaft. Also, the suspension quality is at present a highly empirical process. Tables

TABLE 10.4. Suspension of Solids; Power and lmpeller Speed (hp/rpm)

for Two Settling Velocities, as a Function of the Superficial
Velocity of the Liquid; Pitched Blade Turbine lmpeller

Volume (gal)

10 ft/min 25 ft/min
ft/sec 1000 2000 5000 1000 2000 5000

0.1 1/190 2/190 5/125 2/190 2/125 5/125

1/100 3/84 1/190 2/84 3/84
3/68 1/100 1.5/84 3/68
2/45 1.5/56 2/45
0.2 1/100 2/125 7.5/125 2/125 3/84 15/155
1.5/84 5/100 10/100
5/84 7.5/68
3/56 5/45
0.3 2/190 2/84 3/37 1.5/84 5/125 10/84
1.5/56 3/68
0.4 2/155 5/155 7.5/84 2/84 7.5/155 7.5/45
1.5/100 5/56 1.5/56 5/100
0.5 1.5/84 3/84 15/155 2/68 7.5/125 15/84
2/125 10/100 2/56 5/84 10/56
7.5/68 7.5/37
0.6 2/100 5/125 10/84 3/84 5/56 25/125
1.5/68 3/68 20/100
3/56 15/68
2/45 10/45
0.7 2/84 7.5/155 15/84 7.5/155 15/155 30/100
1.5/56 7.5/125 10/56 5/125 10/100 25/84
5/84 7.5/45 5/100 7.5/84 20/68
7.5/37 3/68 7.5/68 15/56
0.8 3/84 7.5/84 25/125 7.5/125 10/84 60/155
5/56 20/100 5/84 40/100
15/68 30/68
10/45 25/56
0.9 7.5/155 15/155 40/155 10/125 15/84 75/190
5/125 10/100 30/100 7.5/100 60/125
5/100 7.5/68 25/84 50/100
3/68 20/68 40/84
1.0 7.5/125 20/100 50/100 15/155 30/155 75/125
5/84 15/84 40/84 10/100 25/125 75/100
10/84 30/68 20/100 60/84
25/56 50/84
[Gates, Morton, and Fondy, Chem. Eng., 144-150 (24 May 1976)].

10.2-10.5 are one such process; the one developed by Oldshue of horsepower and ratio of impeller and vessel diameters will do the
(1983) will be examined shortly. required task. Example 10.3 employs this method, and makes a
Suspension of solids is maintained by upward movement of the comparison with the Chemineer method of Tables 10.2 and 10.3.
liquid. In principie, use of a draft tube and an axial flow impeller
will accomplish this flow pattern most readily. lt turns out,
however, that such arrangements are suitable only for low solids 10.6. GAS DISPERSION
contents and moderate power levels. In order to be effective, the
cross section of the draft tube must be appreciably smaller than that Gases are dispersed in liquids usually to facilitate mass transfer
of the vessel, so that the solids concentration in the draft tube may between the phases or mass transfer to be followed by chemical
become impractically high. The usually practical arrangement for reaction. In sorne situations gases are dispersed adequately with
solids suspension employs a pitched blade turbine which gives both spargers or porous distributors, but the main concern here is with
axial and radial flow. the more intense effects achievable with impeller driven agitators.
For a given tank size, the ultimate design objective is the
relation between power input and impeller size at a specified SPARGERS
uniformity. The factors governing such information are the slurry
volume, the slurry level, and the required uniformity. The method Mixing of liquids and suspension of solids may be accomplished by
of Oldshue has corrections for these factors, as Fv F2 , and Ej. bubbling with an inert gas introduced uniformly at the bottom of
When multiplied together, they make up the factor & which is the the tank. For mild agitation a superficial gas velocity of 1ft/min is
ordinate of Figure 10.8(d) and which determines what combinations used, and for severe, one of about 4 ft/min.

TABLE 10.5. Dispersion of Gases; Power and lmpeller Speed power input as a factor is given by Treybal ( Mass Transfer
(hr/rpm) for Two Gas lnlet Superficial Velocities, Operations, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980, 156); presumably this
as a Function of the Liquid Superficial Velocity; is applicable only below the mínimum power input here represented
Vertical Blade Turbine lmpeller
by Figure 10.11.
Volume (gal) When mass transfer coefficients are not determinable, agitator
design may be based on superficial liquid velocities with the criteria
0.07ft/sec 0.20ft/sec of Table 10.2.
ft/sec 1500 3000 5000 1500 3000 5000

0.1 2/56 5/84 7.5/68 3/56 7.5/68 10/45 SYSTEM DESIGN

15/155 10/100
0.2 2/45 7.5/125 10/84 3/45 15/155 15/68 The impeller commonly used for gas dispersion is a radial turbine
7.5/45 20/100 with six vertical blades. For a liquid height to diameter ratio
5/100 10/84 25/125 h/ D :5 l, a single impeller is adequate; in the range 1:5h /D :51.8
0.3 3/84 7.5/68 10/45 7.5/45 two are needed, and more than two are rarely used. The lower and
3/68 5/45 10/56 upper impellers are located at distances of 1/6 and 2/3 of the liquid
3/56 7.5/84 level above the bottom. Baffiing is essential, commonly with four
5/56 baffies of width 1/12 that of the tank diameter, offset from the wall
0.4 5/125 10/84 15/68 5/84 10/45 30/155 at 1/6 the width of the baffie and extending from the tangent line of
5/84 10/100 20/100 7.5/155 10/56 20/68
the wall to the liquid leve!. The best position for inlet of the gas is
5/100 10/45 15/84 5/56 15/45
5/45 10/56 20/68 15/56 below and at the center of the lower impeller; an open pipe is
0.5 7.5/125 15/155 25/125 7.5/125 15/68 25/84 commonly used, but a sparger often helps. Since ungassed power is
7.5/155 15/68 25/84 7.5/68 15/84 25/100 significantly larger than gassed, a two-speed motor is desirable to
7.5/68 15/84 25/100 7.5/84 15/45 25/56 prevent overloading, the lower speed to cut in automatically when
7.5/84 15/45 25/56 15/56 the gas supply is interrupted and rotation still is needed.
0.6 10/84 20/100 30/155 10/84 20/100 30/100
10/100 20/68 30/100 10/100 20/68 30/125
20/45 30/125 30/68 MINIMUM POWER
30/68 30/45 Below a critica! power input the gas bubbles are not affected
0.7 10/56 25/125 40/155 10/56 25/125 40/155
25/84 40/84 25/84 40/84
laterally but move upward with their natural buoyancy. This
25/100 40/100 25/100 40/100 condition is called gas flooding of the impeller. At higher power
25/56 40/56 25/56 40/56 inputs the gas is dispersed radially, bubbles impinge on the walls
0.8 15/155 30/155 50/100 15/155 30/155 50/100 and are broken up, consequently with improvement of mass
15/84 30/100 50/68 15/84 30/100 50/68 transfer. A correlation of the critical power input is shown as Figure
30/125 50/84 30/125 50/84 10.10.
50/45 50/56
0.9 15/68 30/68 60/125 15/68 30/68 60/125
60/84 60/84
60/56 60/56 At least partly because of its lower density and viscosity, the power
1.0 20/100 40/155 75/190 25/125 40/155 75/190 to drive a mixture of gas and liquid is Jess than that to drive a liquid.
20/68 40/84 75/100 25/84 40/84 75/100 Figure 10.ll(a) is a correlation of this effect, and other data at low
75/125 75/125 values of the flow number Q/ Nd 3 are on Figure 10.ll(b). The latter
[Hicks and Gates, Chem. Eng., 141-148 (19 July 1976)]. data for Newtonian fluids are correlated by the equation

where the last group of terms is the Weber number, PL is the
The starting point of agitator design is properly a mass transfer density of the liquid, and a is its surface tension.
coefficient known empirically or from sorne correlation in terms of
parameters such as impeller size and rotation, power input, and gas
flow rate. Few such correlations are in the open literature, but SUPERFICIAL LIQUID VELOCITY
sorne have come from two of the industries that employ aerated When mass transfer data are not known or are not strictly pertinent,
stirred tanks on a large scale, namely liquid waste treating a quality of mixing may be selected by an exercise of judgment in
and fermentation processes. A favored method of studying the terms of the superficial liquid velocity on the basis of the rules of
absorption of oxygen is to measure the rate of oxidation of aqueous Table 10.2. For gas dispersion, this quantity is related to the power
sodium sulfite solutions. Figure 10.9 summarizes one such input, HP/1000 gal, the superficial gas velocity and the ratio d / D in
investigation of the effects of power input and gas rate on the mass Figure 10.12.
transfer coefficients. A correlation for fermentation air is given by
Dickey (1984, 12-17):
kLa = rate/(concentration driving force) On the basis of the information gathered here, three methods are
07 2
= 0.064(Pg/V ) · u· , 1/sec, (10.6) possible for the design of agitated gas dispersion. In ali cases the
size of the tank, the ratio of impeller and tank diameters and the
with P8/V in HP/1000 gal and superficial gas velocity u8 in ft/sec. A gas feed rate are specified. The data are for radial turbine impellers
general correlation of mass transfer coefficient that does not have with six vertical blades.

SLURRY VOL • - m 3
4 s 7 10 1s 20 30 40 so 70 100
4 .0

40 3.0
30 so 1-

-1'5 o
1- 2 .0
1- 1 >-
(/) '
o 1.S
8 d

> 6 1-
u 1.0
4 ir
l JJ
a.. o.e
0 .7

O.S'---'----' -'--....1........1.... .1..---' -'

o.3 o.4 o.s o.6 0.1o.a 1.0 1.S 2.0
2000 4000 6000 10000 20000 30000 UT

40 0.6 1 .0 1.S 2.0 3.0 4 .0 6.0


6.0 ir
lJ._ 4 .0 u

3.0 z
(!) en
z 1 .0 e:::n>
l!l 0.6


2.0 3.o 4 .0 6.0 e.o 10.0 20.0

(c) (d)
Figure 10.8. Suspension of solids. Power and ratio of diameters of impeller and tank, with four-bladed 45º impeller,
width/diameter = 0.2. [method of Oldshue ( 1983)]. (a) The factor on power consumption for slurry volume, F1 • (b) The
factor on power requirement for single and dual impellers at various h / D ratios, F'z. (c) The effect of settling velocity
on power consumption, Fj . (d) Suspension factor for various horsepowers: F4 = F1F2F3•

EXAMPLE 10.3 d / D and HP is read off Figure 10.8(d).

Design of the Agitation System for Maintenance of a Slurry
These conditions are taken: HP

V = 5000 gal, d/ D Off btm Uniform

h/D = l, 0.2 20 65
settling velocity = 10 ft/rnin, 0.4 7.5 25
0.6 4 12
solids content = 10 wt %

Reading frorn Figure 10.8, Cornparing with readings from Tables 10.2 and 10.3,

Fi = 4, Superficial
liq. velocity HP/rpm
¡;; = 1.1,
0.3 (off btm) 10/45, 10/56
F; = { 3.0, off bottorn, 0.6 (uniform) 30/155, 30/125, 30/100, 30/68
10.0, uniforrn,
F = F, F F = {13.2, off bottorn,
4 1 2 3
44, uniforrn. These results correspond roughly to those of the Oldshue
method at d / D = 0.4. The impeller sizes can be deterrnined with
The relation between the ratio of irnpeller and vessel diarneters, Figures 10.6 and 10.7.

l. Start with a known required mass transfer coeflicient. Frorn a 3. As soon as a superficial liquid velocity has been selected, a
correlation such as Figure 10.9 or Eq. (10.6) the gassed power suitable combination of HP/rpm can be taken from Table 10.5.
per unit volume will become known, and the total gassed power
to the tank will be Pg. The ratio of gassed power to ungassed These procedures are applied in Example 10.4.
power is represented by Figure 10.ll(a) and the equations given As general rules, levels of 5-12 HP/1000 gal are typical of
there; at this stage the rotation speed N is not yet known. This aerobic fermentation vessels, and 1-3 HP/1000 gal of aerobic waste
value is found by tria! by simultaneous solution with Figure 10.6 treatment; concentrations and oxygen requirements of the
which relates the Reynolds and power numbers; the power here microorganisms are different in the two kinds of processes.
is the ungassed power. The value of N that results in the
precalculated Pg will be the correct one. Curve 2 of Figure 10.6 is
the one applicable to gas dispersion with the data of this section.
2. Start with a choice of superficial liquid velocity U¿ made in
accordance with the criteria of Table 10.2. With the aid of the
known gas velocity u, and d / D, find Pg/V from Figure 10.12.
Then proceed to find N by tria! with Figures 10.ll(a) and 10.6 as
in method l. o
0.1 ..:
e:1 6
KGO .....
.04 ll:
FT3/HR/l\TM .02 .§

.004 ............._. ._....... ...... -"'..... ........ 0 05 0.10 0.15 0.20 025 0.30
0.3 0 .6 !.O 2.0 4.0 B.O 10 Superficiol qos velocify, f f/s
HP I 1000 Gl\L. Gl\SSEO
Figure 10.10. Minirnum power requirernent to overcorne ftooding as
Figure 10.9. Typical data of mass transfer coefficients at various a function of superficial gas velocity and ratio of impeller and tank
power levels and superficial gas rates for oxidation of sodium sulfite diameters, d / D. [Hicks and Gates, Chem. Eng., 141-148 ( 19 July
in aqueous solution. d / D = 0.25-0.40 (Oldshue, 1983). 1976)].

o. p a
- = 1 - 1 26 --
P, . NO,• 1

º' p -. .... 0.6 ..... I

"O A I I
a.ª ,,. 0.4 I
/ '
a. ,; I I
>- I
0.2 - & 9,g" s
d "'
' M

4 • 6
o o o
X ª 0.1 2 4 6 8 1 2
X = (P/ V)(d/0) 1·85

Figure 10.12. Relation between power input, P/V HP/1000 gal,

superficial liquid velocity uL ft/sec, ratio of impeller and tank
diameters, d / D, and superficial gas velocity u5 ft/sec. [Hicks and
Gates, Chem. Eng., 141-148 (19 July 1976)].

have its own feed nozzle, as in Figure 10.13(b), but usually the
0.9 streams may be combined extemally near the blender and then
given the works, as in Figure 10.13(a).
One manufacturer gives these power ratings:

Tank size (gal) 5 10 30

0.1 Motor HP 0.5 2 3

Another ties in the line and motor sizes:

Une size, (in.) 1-4 6-8 10-12

o.a Motor HP 0.5 2

But above viscosities of 10 cP a body one size larger than the line
size is recommended.
Other devices utilize the energy of the flowing fluid to do the
mixing. They are inserts to the pipeline that force continua! changes
of direction and míxing. Loading a section of piping with tower
( ..) packing is an example but special assemblies of greater convenience
have been developed, sorne of which are shown in Figure 10.14. In
(b) each case manufacturer's literature recommends the sizes and
pressure drops needed for particular services.
Figure 10.11. Power consumption. (a) Ratio of power consumptions The Kenics mixer, Figure 10.14(a), for example, consists of a
of aerated and unaerated liquids. Q is the volumetric rate of the succession of helical elements twisted altemately in opposite
gas: (0) glycol; ( x ) ethanol; (T) water. [After Calderbank, Trans. directions. In laminar flow for instance, the flow is split in two at
Inst. Chem. Eng. 36, 443 ( 1958)]. (b) Ratio of power consumptions each element so that after n elements the number of striations
of aerated and unaerated liquids at Jow values of Q/ Nd 3. Six·bladed becomes zn.The effect of this geometrical progression is illustrated
disk turbine: (O) water; (e) methanol (10%); (.Á) ethylene glycol in Figure 10.14(b) and points out how effective the mixing becomes
(8%); (.0.) glycerol (40%); Pg = gassed power input; P = ungassed after only a few elements. The Reynolds number in a corresponding
power input; Q = gas flow rate; N = agitator speed; d = agitator· empty pipe is the major discriminant for the size of mixer, one
impeller diameter. [ Luong and Volesky, AIChE J. 25, 893 (1979)].
manufacturer:s recommendations being

114.. Number of Elements

10.7. IN-LINE BLENDERS ANO MIXERS Less than 10 24

10-2000 12-18
When long residence time is not needed for chemical reaction or More than 2000 6
other purposes, small highly powered tank mixers may be suitable,
with energy inputs measured in HP/gal rather than HP/1000 gal. Besides liquid blending applications, static mixers have been
They bring together severa! streams continuously for a short contact used for mixing gases, pH control, dispersion of gases into liquids,
time (at most a second or two) and may be used whenever the and dispersion of dyes and solids in viscous liquids. They have the
effiuent remains naturally blended for a sufficiently long time, that advantages of small size, ease of operation, and relatively Jow cost.
is, when a true solution is formed or a stable emulsion-like mixture. The strong mixing effect enhances the rate of heat transfer from
When it is essential that the mixing be immediate each stream will viscous streams. Complete heat exchangers are built with such

From Table 10.2, a liquid velocity of 0.6-0.7 ft/sec will give
HP and rpm Requirements of an Aerated Agitated Tank moderate to high dispersion. Table 10.5 gives possible HP/rpm
A tank contains 5000 gal of liquid with sp gr = 1.0 and viscosity combination of 30/125, somewhat less than the value found here.
100 cP that is aerated and agitated. The ratio of impeller to tank
diameters is d / D = 0.4. Two sets of conditions are to be examined. b. With Iiquid circulation velocity specified,

a. The air rate is 972 SCFM or 872 ACFM at an average uL = 0.5 ft/sec.
submergence of 4 ft. The corresponding superficial gas velocity is
0.206 ft/sec or 0.063 m/sec. A mass transfer coefficient Use Figure 10.12:
kLa = 0.2/sec is required; Dickey's equation (10.6) applies. Find
the power and rpm needed. Y = iouL(d / D)t. 2 = 10(0.5)(0.4)1. 2 = 1.67,
b. The air rate is 296 ACFM, 0.07 ft/sec, 0.0213 m/sec. The X = 0.8,
required intensity of mixing corresponds to a liquid superficial P8 /V = 0.8/(0.4) 185 = 4.36 HP/1000 gal
velocity of 0.5 ft/sec. Find the power, rotation speed, and mass
transfer coefficients for sulfite oxidation and for fermentation.
(this does exceed the minimum of 1.6 from Figure 10.11),
a. d = 0.4(9.47) = 3.79 ft, 45.46 in.,
1 2
pg = 5(4.36) = 21.8,
k La = 0.064( Pg/V ) 0· u· = 0.2,
0 2 10 7 3
P /V = [0.2/0.064(0.206) ]1 = 8.00 HP, N 3= 296/(3.79) N = 5.437/N,
P8 = 5(8.0) = 40.0 HP/5000 gal, NRe = 222N (part a),
Q/ Nd 3 = 872/(379) N = 16.02/N,
NRe = 10.75Nd S/µ = 10.75(45.46) 2N/100 = 222N.
2 K78,2P (part a).

Equation (10.2),
Solve by tria!, using Figure 10.lO(a) and curve 2 of Figure 10.6.
NP = 1.523(1013)P/N3d5S = 78,442P/N .
N Q/ Nd3 P,, / P 1141. N,, p P,,
Curve 2 of Figure (10.6) applies. P 8/ P from Figure 10.lO(a). Solve 100 0.0544 0.5194 22,200 4 51 26.5
by trial. 94 0.0576 0.5130 4 42.35 21.7 == 2.8

N Q/ Ntf' P,, / P IV,, p P,, The closest reading from Table 10.5 is HP/rpm = 25/100 which is a
100 0.160 0.324 22,200 4 51 16.5 good check.
150 0.107 0.422 33,300 4 172 72.6 For sulfite oxidation, at u8 = 0.07 ft/sec,
127 0.1261 0.3866 28,194 4 104.5 40.4 == 40.0

The last entry of P checks the required value 40.0. Find the P8 /V = 4.36 HP/1000 gal, from Figure 10.9,
corresponding superficial liquid velocity with Figure 10.12: k 8a = 0.07 lb mol/(cuft)/(hr)(atm).

X = ( P/V )( d / D)t.85 = 8.04(0.4)t.85 = 1.48, For fermentation, Eq. 10.6 gives

at uc = 0.206 ft/sec, Y = 2.0, kLa = 0.064(4.36)º 7(0.07)º 2

= Jb mol/(cuft)(sec)
0 ·105
:. uL = 2/10(0.4)1. 2 = 0.60 ft/sec. lb mol/ cuft ·

mixing inserts in the tubes and are then claimed to have 3-5 times projects somewhat out of direct experience and where design by
normal capability in sorne cases. analogy may not suffice, testing in pilot plant equipment is a service
provided by many equipment suppliers.
10.8. MIXING OF POWDERS ANO PASTES A few examples of mixers and blenders for powders and pastes
are illustrated in Figure 10.15. For descriptions of available
Industries such as foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics, equipment-their construction, capacity, performance, poweor
rubbers, and also sorne others have to do with mixing of high consumption, etc.-the primary sources are catalogs of manufac-
viscosity liquids or pastes, of powders together and of powders with turers and contact with their offices. Classified lists of manu-
pastes. Much of this kind of work is in batch mode. The processes facturers, and sorne of their catalog information, appear in the
are so diverse and the criteria for uniformity of the final product are Chemical Engineering Catalog (Reinhold, New York, annually)
so imprecise that the nonspecialist can do little in the way of and in the Chemical Engineering Equipment Buyers Guide (McGraw-
equipment design, or in checking on the recommendations of Hill, New York, annually). Brief descriptions of sorne types of
equipment manufacturers. Direct experience is the main guide to equipment are in Perry's Chemical Engineers Handbook (McGraw-
selection of the best kind of equipment, predicting how well and Hill, New York, 1984 and earlier editions). Well-classified
quickly it will perform, and what power consumption will be. For descriptions, with figures, of paste mixers are in Ullmann (1972,

(a) (b)

Figure 10.13. Motor-driven in-line blenders: (a) Double impeller made by Nettco Corp.; (b)
three-inlet model made by Cleveland Mixer Co.

(a) (b)

(e) (d)
Go o

Element Number
2 3 4 5

2 4 8 16 32
Number of Striations

(e) (f)
Figure 10.14. Sorne kinds of in-line mixers and blenders. (a) Mixing and blending with a recirculating pump. (b) Injector
mixer with a helical baffie. (e) Severa! perforated plates (orifices) supported on a rod. (d) Several perforated plates ftanged in.
(e) Hellical mixing elements with altemating directions (Kenics Corp.). (f) Showing progressive striations of the ftow channels
with Kenics mixing elements.



(e) (d)



(e) (f)

(g) (h)

Figure 10.15. Sorne mixers and blenders for powders and pastes. (a) Ribbon blender for powders. (b) Flow pattern in a double cone blender
rotating on a horizontal axis. (c) Twin shell (Vee-type); agglomerate breaking and liquid injection are shown on the broken line. (d} Twin
rotor; available with jacket and hollow screws for heat transfer. (e) Batch muller. (f) Twin mullers operated continuously. (g) Double-arm
mixer and kneader ( Baker-Perkins !ne.). (h) Sorne types of blades for the double-arm kneader ( Baker-Perkins !ne.).

Vol. 2, pp. 282-300) and a similar one for powder mixers (loe. cit., older books are still useful, notably those of Riegel (1953), Mead
pp. 301-311). Since this equipment industry has been quite stable, (1964), and particularly Kieser (1934-1939).

7. S. Nagata, Mixing Principies and App/ications, Wiley, New York,
l. R.S. Brodkey (Ed.), Turbulence in Mixing Operations, Academic, New 1975.
York, 1975. 8. J.Y. Oldshue, Fluid Mixing Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York,
2. Chemineer Co. Staff, Liquid Agitation, Reprint of 12 articles from 1983.
Chemical Engineering, 8 Dec. 1975-6 Dec. 1976. 9. E.R. Riegel, Chemical Process Machinery, Reinhold, New York, 1953.
3. D.S. Dickey, In Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations, (N.P. 10. Z. Sterbacek and P. Tausk, Mixing in the Chemica/ Industry, Pergamon,
Chopey and T.G. Hicks Eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984. New York, 1965.
4. S. Harnby, M.F. Edwards, and A.W. Nienow, Mixing in the Process 11. J.J. Ulbrecht and G.K. Patterson, Mixing of Liquids by Mechanica/
Industries, Butterworths, Stoneham, MA, 1985. Agitation, Gordon & Breach, New York, 1985.
5. A.J. Kieser, Handbuch der chemisch-technischen Apparate, Springer- U. V. Uh! and J.B. Gray (Eds.), Mixing Theory and Practice, Academic,
Verlag, Berlin, 1934-1939. New York, 1966, 1967, 2 vols.
6. W.J. Mead, Encyclopedia of Chemica/ Process Equipment, Reinhold, 13. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemica/ Technology, Verlag Chemie,
New York, 1964. Weinheim, Germany, 1972, Vol. 2, pp. 249-311.