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The first part will cover an overview of power systems protection including an introduction to the other major components, beside the relays, that constitute an operative protection system. The second part will cover the hardware aspect of the subject and the third will cover the calculations, testing, setting of the protective relays. Also, it will cover the sizing of breaking devices and the typical protection schemes of transformers (power and distribution), feeders, bus and motors. The presentation coverage will end by a few numerical examples to emphasize the previously given protective principles. Protective relays are mostly installed in switchgear assemblies or may be found in relay panels. The assembly will be divided into compartments to accomodate the different equipment and devices. The switchgear assembly will contain the circuit breakers and/or load break switches plus power/current limiting fuses and/or disconnect switches plus the instrument transformers (current and voltage feeding the relays and meters) and control power transformer. These assemblies will contain also the following accessories (to complete the operative system): the test switches (which come in a variety of designs to suit the different applications) to isolate the relays from their transformers, assist in testing the relays and provide the necessary protection (shortening) of the current transformers terminals, terminal blocks that come in different designs, current/voltage ratings, materials of the insulation and screws/clamps to suit the diversified requirements, the control wires, control circuit protection fuses or molded case (or miniature) circuit breakers and power supply (d.c. batteries or control power transformers) to operate the breaking devices, provide indications locally, and supply the auxilliary (supply) voltage to solid state/microprocessor based relays. Circuit breakers: If circuit breakers are used in low voltage installations, the protective devices will be an integral part of it; if switches are used, then the protective devices will be separate and protection is provided by fuses. Low voltage circuit breakers can be divided broadly into molded case and power (air magnetic). In molded case breakers, the protective device against overcurrent and short circuit is provided by thermal magnetic or electronic (solid state) inegral protective device. With power breakers, the most commonly used configurations will have the protective device as integral one with the breaker. Some designs will have current transformers (sensors) and relays separate from the breakers. The functions of the protective devices vary according to the user requirements and protective philosophy. In medium voltage installations, the most common configurations will have separate protective devices (relays or fuses) from circuit breakers or switches, though some designs of circuit breakers may have integral protective devices (sensors and relays). For integral protection from undervoltage conditions, the breakers may be supplied with under voltage releases. The standards that govern the design and testing of circuit breakers are either the ANSI C37 or the IEC 56 series. The ANSI C37.04 and 06 gives the ratings structure and preferred ratings for AC MV CBs, respectively. Standard C37.09 gives the test procedure for AC MV CBs, rated on a symmetrical current basis. Standard C37.010 gives an overview of the application procedures for AC MV CBs. Standard C37.16 covers the preferred ratings, related requirements and application recommendations for LV power CBs. In general, the ratings of the circuit
The 200 is the knee voltage on the secondary exciting voltage vs. 1200. reclosing of breakers after fault removal) a relative safer operation. for which the breakers are designed (without causing damage to itself or the surroundings for the projected lifetime of such device): • rated operating voltage range (eg. If the rated secondary current is 5 then the maximum burden to be connected is 2 ohm. if rated secondary is 1 then the burden is 10.T. it has its disadvantages.13. • duty cycle to which the breakers are designed and tested. draw out with circuit breakers). Mechanical damage may be caused by magnetic forces in the windings due to the first cycle (and subsequent ones) peak fault current and is proprtional to square the peak current. • mechanical durability under no load. Current transformers come in a few forms to provide for the space limitations in certain designs and the required high accuracy for others. • rated interrupting currents under the different operating voltages of the breakers.T.5 % error at 20 times its rated secondary current times the burden connected to the secondary. Though this design is much simpler in design and maintenance than circuit breakers. The construction is of the fixed type (vs. (Note: the same discussion is applicable when sizing cables and cable supports). • control circuit supply (operating) requirements. Current transformers are subjected to heavy primary currrent for short periods of time during faults. excitaton current curve of C.breakers are the limits of the operating conditions of the following parameters.. The breaker construction is more compact than the switch (as clearances have to be met in air).. • rated frequency (eg.T. • rated maximum continuous current (eg. bushing and wound (for higher accuracy). cross section area of the core and the saturation flux density for the silicone iron grade used for the core so that the C.13 and CSA CAN3 C. the cell door has to be opened and the fuses replaced (vs. can be checked for its proper operation under the given conditions. window. The other important pieces of information that are required about the C. nominal and maximum). 400 c/s or 50/60 c/s). If the fuse is blown. 2000. for power frequency voltages.). For eaxample a C.. • rated operating times. are: the secondary resistance. full load and short circuit currents. • equipment to which the breakers will be suitable to apply and use safely. Both types wil require fuses to provide the protection to the system and connected equipment. Load break switches: Medium voltage load break switches in series with power or current limiting fuses in medium voltage installations is a common configuration. minimum. Low voltage switches can be of the molded case type or the safety switch construction. Current transformers for protection application (rather than metering) do not require a high accuracy at rated current as much as require their operation without saturation at high fault currents. Partial dicharge in instrument . Thermal damage to the transformer insulation (and maybe its copper) may occur due to heating of the winding due to the integrated effective value of the fault current over the time period until the fault removal.5 L 200 will have a 2. Current transformers: Instruments transformers are covered in ANSI standard C57. impulse voltage wave shapes and switching voltage impulses).T rated 2. • rated dielectric strength limit or maximum voltage withstandability (eg. Current transformers can be classified broadly into bar.
SIS are as follows: temperature rating: 90 C vs. giving the effect as though the two leads belong to the same continuous circuit. SIS or teflon. sizes. AWG 12 and 14 arw not unusual. single pole short circuiting assembly.T.transformers are obtained by testing at the factory and the acceptable level varies depending on the requirement of the end user. The size varies to provide the minimum possible burden on the C. According to the standards there are three groups of potential transformers.T. some are of the open style and others covered (opaque or transparent). through bar. polarity tests can be performed at site to determine the polarity of unmarked transformers.C. winding should not exceed the maximum designated to the P. The switch can come with different number of poles up to ten with any combination of current type or potential type poles.T. The material of the insulating material can be black phenolic.T. For C.T. or D. Each P. Test switches: They come in many configurations and designs. the pole type can be classified accordingly: blank space.T. In relay circuits. melamine or polyamide. define the rated overvoltage factor and the duration of the overvoltage for each group.T. neutral/disconnect. insulaqtion thickness for both is the same though the base material of TBS is PVC (with cotton braid) and for SIS is XLPE (filled). Broadly. standard feed through terminals.). or P. For P. C. Certain designs come up to 3tier for dense wiring applications. ground. P. A measure of the condition of the isulating material is the dielectric loss which is given by the dissipation or power factor. The polarity of transformers can be additive (H1 & X1 are diagonally opposite) or subtractive (H1 & X1 are adjacent). They. Polarity markings designate the relative instantaneous directions of current in the transformer leads. An ideal insulation material should have a very low power factor close to 0 ( = cos φ = tan ). single pole potential.T. they define the rated voltage of the P. though the limit (a maximum value) is given as 50 picocoulomb. single pole test jack / short circuiting current assembly and three pole short circuiting current assembly. is used in voltage restrained.2. They can be front or back connected to the other devices. also. It also provides a standard low voltage signal irrelevant of the voltage class of the high voltage system. 30 amp. 600 V.T. The ratings for TBS vs. sies AWG 8.T. knife disconnect terminals.C. fuse mounting clip (max. Stationary batteries: The stationary battery is designed to serve as an auxilliary /standby source of . voltage rating 600 v vs. sliding link. Control wires: The three most commonly used types have as insulating material TBS. They are rated up to 750 volt. shoud be applied to. Definition of PT groups. 90 C. A high and a low voltage (or current) leads have the same polarity at a given instant if the current enters the high voltage lead and leaves the low voltage lead at this instant (or vice versa). that it is connected to. double clamp. solid or stranded for both from #14 to . up to about 130 amp. voltage and distance relays. The burden of the loads to the secondary of the P. miniature feedthrough terminals. just to list a few types. ganged two or more potential poles. and what should be the system voltage to which this P. Terminal blocks: Terminal blocks come in many shapes and forms to suit the specific needs of the user. Polarity of instrument transformers is important with differential protection schemes. Wires with teflon insulation have higher temperature ratings. A.T. 10 and 12 are common. Potential (voltage) transformers: This type of instrument transformers provide an isolation between the high voltage circuit and the control/metering circuit.. is rated for thermal withstandability at different ambient temperatures.
The grid (lead antimony) is a row of spines extending from the top bar to the bottom cap bar. The grid achieves and retains a physical shape and conducts the current to all parts of material. These elements are then put in a container and the cell cover (with vent cap and appropriate hole for terminal poles) is installed. The battery is normally mounted on racks and is continously charged except for intermittent discharging periods of varying times and power. The active material (nickel hydrate positive and cadmium sponge negative plus addittives to help conductivity) is sandwiched between two perforated strips (nickel plated steel). Battery voltage gradually declines during discharge and should not be permitted to drop below the minimum tolerated by the load plus the line drop. The rate at which the voltage declines depends upon: the demand current of the load. The second type is the multitubular plates. The grid of alloys antimony or calcium serves both purposes gives physical support and strength to the soft lead and acts as an electric conductor. the positive plate is lead peroxide and the negative one is sponge lead. To determine the state of charge of the battery. When the battery is fully charged. The pocket type is used for both positive and negative plates. medium rate (discharge shorter than 4 hrs) and low (the battery will supposedly carry loads for up to 20 hrs). Stationary batteries are usually rated for 8hour. 1 minute discharge. For lead acid batteries. For the nickelalkaline batteries there are two types of plates. Porous tubes filled with lead oxide (powedered) with the grid forms the positive plate. To protect the battery against over discharge. This design provides more AH of capacity per cubic foot of battery volume at moderate rates of discharge. The grid may be made up of lead antimony or lead calcium. There are three common ratings: high (discharge shorter than 1 hour). The strips are crimped together and this assembly is placed in a U shape frame. 3hour. The specific gravity of the electrolyte is maximum at start of discharge and the specific gravity gradually decreases as dicharge occurs. the gravity reading is . a low voltage relay (d.c. The amperehour rating is simply the product of the discharge in amperes multiplied by the given dicharge time period. duration of the discharge. the electrolyte is a solution of diluted sulphuric acid. The capacity of the battery is basically its ability to supply a given current for a given period of time at a given cell temperature without going below a minimum voltage (batteries are rated in amperehour at a given discharge rate). Metallic sponge lead is used on the negative plates. For the lead acid battery the positive plates are: the pasted (Faure) plate which comprises of a latticework metallic grid with the opennings filled with lead oxide paste.) can be used as part of the installation. Such plates have complex designs with circular opennings where corrugated lead ribbons are rolled into spiral ribbons.210. through the frame and plates. After intermeshing the positive and negative the insulator pins are put in place. with the pasted plate it is either lead calcium or lead antimony. battery state of charge at beginning of discharge. age of battery cells and temperature of cells. 1hour. The negative plates irrelevant of the type of the positve plates are built with pasted plate design. The positive plate consists of a grid (lead antimony) of large area with thin layers of lead oxide. which use porous plates to contain the lead oxide. control and emergency lighting is approximately 1. the pocket type and the sintered type. number and size of plates in each cell. chemical design and type of cells. The negative grid for the multitubular and plante (positive plates) is made of lead antimony. Specific gravity for stationary batteries used for switchgear applications.power to all devices connected to it. The third and last type is the plante type which is considered to have the longest life expectancy of all lead acid stationary battery designs.
It could be used for directional overpower. When the battery is fully charged the positive plate. It protects against abnormalities within a zone and should be insensitive to faults outside this zone (through faults). The contacts (in electromechanical construction).19 at 25 deg C. protection is the O/C relay. Relays: Every system is subject to short circuits and ground faults.c. It can also be used to sense an underpower condition and separate two sources operating in parallel. The specific gravity of the electrolyte can not be used to indicate the state of charge of the battery. for a predetermined phase angle and magnitude of current. the neutral is also run through . 600V 60HZ) to a d. A single windowtype current transformer is mounted in such a way to encircle all three phase conductors of incoming or outgoing circuits.16 to 1. To prevent the self discharge phenomena (standing loss) the charger maintains a float charge that continuously monitors and corrects for these internal losses. which are combined to operate jointly. 208. Differential protection schemes for generators. its function is to change the single phase or three phase input (120.compared with the full charge value and to the specific gravity drop of a particular cell size at a specific discharge rate. two winding transformer banks and buses are common in industrial plants. 4 wire circuits. if other than 25 deg C. motors. Directional power relays: comes in single or three phase versions and they work on the wattmeter principle. direct sensing or zero sequence (vectorial summation). to operate if excess energy flows out of an industrial plant into the utility. movable and fixed. differential protection is used with power transformers and in bus protection schemes. when the solution level drops below the normal or the battery has been in service for long time. Differential relays: the basic principle of operation for such relays is the continuous comparison of two or more current quantities. that should be removed quickly. A voltage restrained or voltagecontrolled O/C relay is able to distinguish between O/L and fault conditions. After discharge takes place the positive plate reduces to lower oxide while the metallic cadmium in the negative plate oxidizes. output suitable for charging the battery and maintainning a constant voltage throughout the battery's load range. nickel hydrate. get in contact at a pre determined value of power. For 3phase. In subtransmission and distribution levels. The charger is a static rectifier (scr). is highly oxidized and the negative plate is sponge metallic cadmium. Directional overcurrent: consists of a typical O/C unit and a directional unit. Such a relay operates only for current flow to a fault in one direction and will be insensitive to current flow in the opposite direction. For the NiCad the electrolyte is a solution of potassium hydroxide diluted in water with normal specific gravity of 1. 240. The specific gravity readings will vary from normal rating when the electrolyte temperature is lower or higher than 25 deg C. When a fault occurs. Ground fault relaying can be any of the following configurations: residually connected. 480.C. The most common relay for S. A short circuit on an electric system is always accompanied by a corresponding voltage dip (an overload will cause a moderate voltage drop). overexcitation or during energization or starting conditions. The reading has to be corrected to the ambient temperature at time of measurement. the resulting differential current will cause the relay to operate.
initiating switching when the following three conditions are met: the voltage difference of the two systems and the frequency difference are within the predetermined range. undervoltage or both. a. The relays will operate if the comparison indicates a fault internally on the line. taking into consideration the operating time of the switching devices. current and the ratio is expressed in terms of impedance.T. complex characteristics type. feeding motors. Frequency relays sense under or over frequency conditions during system disturbances. when two alternating current circuits are within the desired limits of frequency. overvoltage protection for generators. generators or transformers. Negative sequence voltage relays are used to detect single phase conditions. The usual application of these relays is: to selectively drop the load. This is seen as a fault by the voltage restraint relay. an example for the application of such a relay is with the voltage restrained relays. a current transformer is in the neutral grounding circuit and connected to the O/C relay. splitting up a grid by opening tie lines to prevent complete system collapse. to permit them to operate in parallel. Negative sequence overcurrent relays are used for single phase protection. Distance relays come in the following types: the MHO type. OHM or angle impedance.the sensor and the secondary of this sensor is connected to an O/C relay.c. either between the industrial system and the utility system or between major load centres within the industrial plant. reactance. The phase angle between the two systems voltage is zero. operate on the principle of comparing the conditions at the terminals of the protected line. The MHO relay is used to detect the loss of field of synchronous generators and motors. & d. modified impedance. when frequency supervision can prevent turbines and drive damages and for isolating small systems having their own generation from the main system. voltage unbalance. They are located in the equipment to be protected (embedded in the stator winding or the bearings of the motor . The use of balance relays can block the operation of the restrained relay. MHO or admittance. is on the load side of the opened phase. voltage and phase angle. The synchronizing relay monitors two separate systems that are to be paralleled. Temperature sensitive relays usually operate in conjunction with temperature detecting devices.. for the generators and auxiliaries protection. when the P. The location of the current transformer with respect to the opened point is insignificant. they are insensitive to external faults. Under/overvoltage relays are found in the following circuits: capacitor switching control. Voltage unbalance (comparing two sources). in order to restore normal system stability. The synchrocheck relay is used to verify. based on the frequency. For neutral relaying (direct sensing). offset MHO.e. elliptical characteristics and quadrilateral type. reverse phase voltage or excessive negative sequence voltage). fuse blows. Reverse phase voltage relays are used to detect reverse connections in three phase circuits. This scheme is used when tie lines have to be protected. overvoltage. impedance. The impedance can represent the equivalent impedance of a generator or large synchronous motor or a transmission line. load shedding on U/V and U/V protection for motors. They measure voltage. Pilot wire relays.T.c. Mi>Voltage relays can be classified according to their reason of operation (i. as long as the sensing P. These devices can be classified into RTD (resistance temperature detectors) and thermocouples. automatic transfer of power supplies.
Replicatype temperature relays have their operating characteristics closely matching the heating curve of the general purpose motor curves (in the light and medium overload zones). Multi function relays: These relays are microprocessor based and provide more than one protection function and even some indications and metered data. They can be classified inrto feeder protection units. The temperature detectors can have 10. . They have the provision of being interrogated and adjusted remotely through their communication ports and the local network they are connected to. 100 or 120 ohm and is connected in a bridge configuration. thus they are used for overload protection of motors in the medium voltage range.or generator). induction motors protection and synchronous motors protection units. with the temperature sensitive relay connected diagonally across the bridge.