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EVALUTION AND COMPARISON OF MECHNICAL AND

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COARSE AGGREAGTES FROM


POTENTIAL SITES IN PUNJAB REGION

Final Year Project Report

Session 2013-2017
Group Members
Nouman Ijaz Chatha nouman.ejaz@live.com
Ammad Hassan ammad0345@gmail.com
Ayaz Ashraf ayaz.ashraf@live.com
Muhammad Junaid junaidaslam60@gmail.com

Project Advisor: Engr. Usama Waseem

Department of Civil Engineering


FAST-NUCES, Lahore Campus
21st June 2017
Department of Civil Engineering
FAST NUCES, Lahore
(UAN) 111-128-128

Final Year Project Report


July 04, 2017

Engr. Usama Waseem


Project Advisor
FAST NUCES, Lahore

Attention: Engr. Usama Waseem, Lecturer

EVALUTION AND COMPARISON OF


MECHNICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
COARSE AGGREAGTES FROM POTENTIAL SITES
IN PUNJAB REGION

We submit herewith a report in support of a research that we conducted. This project progressed
under your command at Department of Civil Engineering FAST-National University, Lahore.

This report helps you to analyze the behavior of coarse aggregates from potential sites in Punjab
Region. You will be able to evaluate and compare the strength of coarse aggregates from Kallar
Kahar, Rajanpur and Margalla crushing sites. This report obscures the physical as well as
mechanical aspects of the coarse aggregates in comparison with baseline i.e. Margalla crush.
Evaluation of results obtained concludes the feasibility of using coarse aggregates from sites under
consideration. This report will help resolving the environmental bearings because of extensive
crushing at Margalla Hills.

We hope that this report will be a bench mark in field of construction industry and will encourage
the use of aggregates from potential sites under study. Moreover this research can be further
developed by conducting economic analysis of aggregate sites under observation.

Questions related to any technical aspects of this research should be directed to us. Your
consideration on our report is intensely appreciated.

Sincerely,

i
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment......................................................................................................................... viii
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... x
Chapter 01 ...................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 History of Aggregates ............................................................................................................ 1
Building Material (Building Stone, Gravel and Sand) ................................................................ 2
Occurrence of Building Material ................................................................................................. 2
Building stone: ......................................................................................................................... 2
Gravel and Sand....................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Aggregate ............................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Concrete ................................................................................................................................. 3
1.4 Environmental Impacts .......................................................................................................... 5
1.5 Facts and Figures ................................................................................................................... 6
Overview of Construction Industry in Pakistan: ......................................................................... 6
Demand:....................................................................................................................................... 7
1.6 Aggregate Sites in Punjab Region ......................................................................................... 7
1.6.1 Margalla .......................................................................................................................... 8
1.6.2 Rajanpur.......................................................................................................................... 9
1.6.3 Kallar Kahar.................................................................................................................... 9
1.7 Problem Statement ............................................................................................................... 10
1.8 Goals and objectives ............................................................................................................ 10
1.8.1 Scope & Methodology of Work ................................................................................... 11
Outcome of Research Activities: ........................................................................................... 11
Chapter 02 .................................................................................................................................... 12
Literature Review ........................................................................................................................ 12
2.1 Aggregate ............................................................................................................................. 12
Types of Aggregates .................................................................................................................. 13
Classification of Aggregates based on Shape ........................................................................ 13
Rounded Aggregates .............................................................................................................. 13
Irregular Aggregates .............................................................................................................. 13
Angular Aggregates ............................................................................................................... 14

ii
Flaky Aggregates ................................................................................................................... 14
Elongated Aggregates ............................................................................................................ 15
Flaky and Elongated Aggregates ........................................................................................... 15
Classification of Aggregates Based on Size .............................................................................. 15
Fine Aggregate....................................................................................................................... 15
Coarse Aggregate................................................................................................................... 16
2.2 Importance of Aggregates with respect to Concrete............................................................ 17
2.3 Uses / Application of aggregate ........................................................................................... 18
2.4 Role of Aggregates .............................................................................................................. 18
2.5 Role of Cement .................................................................................................................... 19
2.6 Role of Water....................................................................................................................... 19
2.7 Chemistry of Concrete ......................................................................................................... 20
Chapter 03 .................................................................................................................................... 21
Methodology ................................................................................................................................. 21
Approach: .................................................................................................................................. 21
3.1 Fine Aggregates: .................................................................................................................. 23
3.2 Coarse Aggregates: .............................................................................................................. 23
3.2.1 Physical Properties of Aggregates: ............................................................................... 23
3.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Concrete Cylinders: ............................................................. 24
Double Punch: ....................................................................................................................... 24
Split Tensile Strength: ........................................................................................................... 24
3.2.3 Mechanical Properties of Aggregates: .......................................................................... 24
Aggregate crushing Value: .................................................................................................... 24
Aggregate Impact Value: ....................................................................................................... 24
3.3 Mix Design: ......................................................................................................................... 25
3.4 Determination of Water- Cement Ratio ............................................................................... 25
3.5 Casting of Concrete Cylinders ............................................................................................. 25
3.6 Slump Test ........................................................................................................................... 26
Procedure: .............................................................................................................................. 27
Sampling Criteria:.................................................................................................................. 28
3.7 Proportions for One Cylinder: ............................................................................................. 28
Chapter 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 29
Experiments & Results ................................................................................................................ 29
iii
4.1 Physical Properties............................................................................................................... 29
4.1.1 Rodded Density: ........................................................................................................... 29
4.1.2 Specific Gravity ............................................................................................................ 30
4.1.3 Water Absorption: ........................................................................................................ 31
4.1.4 Slump Test .................................................................................................................... 32
4.1.5 Lawrencepur Sand: ........................................................................................................... 33
4.1.6 Aggregate Impact Value: .............................................................................................. 33
4.1.7 Aggregate crushing Value: ........................................................................................... 33
4.2 Margalla: .............................................................................................................................. 34
4.3 Rajanpur:.............................................................................................................................. 34
4.5 Kallar Kahar: ....................................................................................................................... 35
4.4 Mechanical Properties: ........................................................................................................ 35
4.4.1 Compressive Strength: .................................................................................................. 35
4.5 Margalla: .............................................................................................................................. 36
4.6 Rajanpur:.............................................................................................................................. 37
4.7 Kallar Kahar: ....................................................................................................................... 37
4.8 Comparison Strength: .......................................................................................................... 38
4.9 Cracks Formation: ............................................................................................................... 39
4.10 Split Tensile Strength ........................................................................................................ 40
4.10.1 Margalla: ......................................................................................................................... 41
4.10.2 Rajanpur:......................................................................................................................... 41
4.10.3 Kallar Kahar: .................................................................................................................. 42
4.11 Double Punch Test:............................................................................................................ 43
4.11.1 Margalla: ..................................................................................................................... 43
4.11.2 Rajanpur:..................................................................................................................... 43
4.11.3 Kallar Kahar: .............................................................................................................. 44
Chapter 5 ...................................................................................................................................... 45
Conclusion & Recommendation ................................................................................................. 45
Workability of Concrete ............................................................................................................ 45
Mechanical Properties of Concrete ............................................................................................ 46
Compressive Strength of Concrete ........................................................................................ 46
Tensile Strength of Concrete ................................................................................................. 47
Strength of Aggregates .............................................................................................................. 48
iv
Proximity Analysis .................................................................................................................... 49
Future Research: ........................................................................................................................ 49
References...................................................................................................................................... 50

LIST OF FIGURES
v
Figure 1: Revolution of Concrete with time .................................................................................... 4
Figure 2: GDP rate with time ........................................................................................................... 7
Figure 3: Four Potential Aggregate Sites in Punjab Region .......................................................... 10
Figure 4: Sources and uses of aggregates ...................................................................................... 12
Figure 5: Rounded Aggregates ...................................................................................................... 13
Figure 6: Irregular Aggregates ....................................................................................................... 14
Figure 7: Angular Aggregates ........................................................................................................ 14
Figure 8: Flaky Aggregates ............................................................................................................ 14
Figure 9: Elongated Aggregates ..................................................................................................... 15
Figure 10: Flaky and Elongated Aggregates .................................................................................. 15
Figure 11: Aggregates with respect to size .................................................................................... 16
Figure 12: Four Alternative approaches ......................................................................................... 21
Figure 13: Scope & Methodology .................................................................................................. 22
Figure 14: Cylinders Mold ............................................................................................................. 26
Figure 15: Curing Tank .................................................................................................................. 26
Figure 16: Slump Types ................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 17: Slump Apparatus .......................................................................................................... 28
Figure 18: Rodded Density Comparison ........................................................................................ 29
Figure 19: Specific Gravity Comparison ....................................................................................... 30
Figure 20: Water Absorption Comparison ..................................................................................... 31
Figure 21: Slump Value Comparison............................................................................................. 32
Figure 22: ACV & AIV Comparison Graph .................................................................................. 34
Figure 23: Testing of Cylinders of Margalla ................................................................................. 36
Figure 24: Cracks Behavior of Rajanpur ....................................................................................... 37
Figure 25: Compressive Strength Comparison .............................................................................. 38
Figure 26: General Cracks Formation ............................................................................................ 39
Figure 27: Tested Cylinders of different sites ................................................................................ 39
Figure 28: During Split Tensile Test .............................................................................................. 41
Figure 29: After Split Tensile Test ................................................................................................ 41
Figure 30: Cylinder during Double Punch Test ............................................................................. 43
Figure 31: Cracks after Double Punch Test ................................................................................... 43
Figure 32: Double Punch Comparison ........................................................................................... 44
vi
Figure 33: Slump Values................................................................................................................ 46
Figure 34: Slump according to its use ............................................................................................ 46
Figure 35: Compressive Strength Comparison .............................................................................. 47
Figure 36: Split Tensile Strength ................................................................................................... 48
Figure 37: Double Punch Test ....................................................................................................... 48
Figure 38: ACV and AIV comparison ........................................................................................... 48

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Mechanical Properties of Margalla Crush Concrete .......................................................... 5
vii
Table 2: Aggregate Quarry Sites in Punjab Region ......................................................................... 8
Table 3: Gradation of Fine Aggregates .......................................................................................... 16
Table 4: Gradation of Coarse Aggregates ...................................................................................... 17
Table 5: Coarse Aggregate Gradation ............................................................................................ 23
Table 6: Mix Concrete Design ....................................................................................................... 25
Table 7: Detail of Tests performed ................................................................................................ 26
Table 8: Slump Grading Concrete ................................................................................................. 27
Table 9: Proportion for cylinder ..................................................................................................... 28
Table 10: Rodded Density.............................................................................................................. 30
Table 11: Specific Gravity ............................................................................................................. 31
Table 12: Water Absorption ........................................................................................................... 32
Table 13: Slump Value .................................................................................................................. 32
Table 14: Physical properties of Lawrencepur Sand ..................................................................... 33
Table 15: Aggregate Impact Value ................................................................................................ 33
Table 16: Aggregate Crushing Value............................................................................................. 33
Table 17: Physical Properties of Margalla ..................................................................................... 34
Table 18: Physical Properties of Rajanpur ..................................................................................... 35
Table 19: Physical Properties of Kallar Kahar............................................................................... 35
Table 20: Margalla Compressive Strength ..................................................................................... 36
Table 21: Rajanpur Compressive Strength .................................................................................... 37
Table 22: Kallar Kahar Compression Strength .............................................................................. 38
Table 23: Margalla Split Tensile Strength ..................................................................................... 41
Table 24: Rajanpur Split Tensile Strength ..................................................................................... 42
Table 25: Kallar Kahar Split Tensile Strength ............................................................................... 42
Table 26: Split Tensile Strength Comparison ................................................................................ 42
Table 27: Margalla Double Punch ................................................................................................. 43
Table 28: Rajanpur Double Punch ................................................................................................. 44
Table 29: Kallar Kahar Double Punch ........................................................................................... 44
Table 30: Mix Design .................................................................................................................... 45

Acknowledgment

viii
This report is based on research done for Final Year Project. First of all we would like to thank
Allah Almighty as without His blessing this was not possible at all. We also like to express our
gratitude to Project Supervisor, Engr. Usama Waseem, for his guidance and continuous help.
Support on this research was also provided by Dr. Shahid Ali, Head of Civil Engineering
Department FAST National University, Lab Engineer Mr. Asim Shareef and Lab Assistant Mr.
Ihsan. Aggregate for purpose of research was provided by Mr. Razi Baig and AAJ Engineers.
Additional support was provided by family and friends.

ix
Abstract
Nearly every community in almost every industrialized or industrializing country is dependent on
aggregate resources (sand, gravel, and stone) to build and maintain their infrastructure. Indeed,
even agrarian communities depend on well-maintained transportation systems to transport their
materials to markets. To meet societal needs aggregate resources cannot be developed without
causing environmental impacts. Due to damaging impacts of crushing on environment the
honorable Supreme Court of Pakistan has ordered a ban on crushing at Margalla Hills, Islamabad.
This situation has caused imbalance in supply and demand of aggregates. The goal of this report
is to suggest new potential sites for coarse aggregates in Punjab region which can be used
commercially to lessen dependency on Margalla crush. This report is explains comparison and
evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of coarse aggregates that are Margalla, Rajanpur
and Kallar Kahar. This research is done following ASTM Standards and average control
conditions. Margalla was set as a baseline to study behavior of aggregate in concrete under fixed
mix design. Experimental approach is used for this report. Different tests were performed on
aggregates and on concrete i.e. aggregate crushing value, aggregate impact value, physical
properties of aggregates, compressive strength of concrete specimen, split tensile strength and
double punch strength. Considering results of mentioned experiments conclusion and
recommendations were made. As per results both Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur crush can be used in
place of Margalla crush but depends on type of construction required. Further research can be
carried out on this topic as we were focused on studying mechanical and physical properties only.
There is room for economic analysis and petrographic analysis, these will surely help making this
research more authenticate.

x
Chapter 01
Introduction

1.1 History of Aggregates


People have been using sand and stones from the start of this world. Major changes in the
production and use of stones made it aggregates. Stones were refined and impurities were removed
from the material. One of earliest example of use of aggregates is in Roman Empire. Romans were
famous for their vast and complex road networks. The foundations of them are still used today in
Europe. It was during Roman Empire when the demand of aggregates increased which were used
to build vast network of roads and aqueducts. The construction of aqueducts by roman are
considered very good as they are partially still being used today. Today, with the advent of modern
blasting techniques and to extract large deposits of aggregates. By identifying materials based in
aggregate, it creates a more streamlined system that is able to assign certain materials to
construction projects that are more suited to the merits of a material. The effectiveness of the
technology is especially important when the aggregate being mined is wet. Quarries tend to exist
near most major cities and are a large source of economic value, which helps to alleviate the costs
involved for sophisticated technology used in mining. The sustainability and economy of concrete
have made it the world‘s most widely used construction material. Around 4 tons of concrete are
produced per person per year worldwide and more than one ton per person in the United States.
The oldest concrete discovered was around 7000 BC. In 1985 when a concrete floor was discovered
during the construction of a road at Yiftah El in Galilee, Israel. Concrete is a mixture of a lime
concrete, made from burning limestone to produce quicklime, which when mixed with water and
stone, hardened to form concrete (Brown 1996 and Auburn 2000).
Concrete is one of widely used construction material across the world, it‘s not only cheap but also
having a good strength, long life and durability as well. Many materials are recycled so that they
can be used as aggregate, such as glass aggregate. Glass aggregate is made by crushing glass into
tiny particles and using it as a replacement for crushed rock. It is commonly used as pipe bedding
in sewers. Aggregates can now be recycled to be used again too; this is usually done in urban areas
where structures have fallen into disrepair and can be demolished. The materials from the
demolition can then be used for future projects. However the materials generated from older
structures cannot always be relied on for their quality, as the materials are not as durable and there
is no guarantee that they will be appropriate to use in other projects. Aggregates mined from a
quarry are still more favorable as they have not been used in a structure before. A lot of research
has come up with modern types of concrete like self-compacting, high strength concrete, fiber
reinforced concrete, polymer concrete, glass concrete, geo polymer concrete, shotcrete, high
density concrete, precast concrete and reinforced concrete etc. (Cement, n.d.).
Aggregate forms a vital part of the structural materials used in construction projects. It has been
ever-present in infrastructure since the Roman Empire and is a great source of economic investment
and importance.

1
Building Material (Building Stone, Gravel and Sand)
Many types of Building materials are used in the building and construction industry to
create buildings and structures. These building materials have been classified into the following
three categories:
 Igneous and metamorphic rocks
 Sedimentary rocks
 Gravels and sand

Occurrence of Building Material


Building stone:
In Punjab only igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks are available which can be used as building
stone. The Kirana Group of stone constitute the most northerly exposure of the Indian Shield. The
Kirana hills are located 12 Km south of Sargodha town and the rocks of same composition have
been extended to Shahkot (District Nankana). Sangla Hills (District Nankana) and Chiniot (District
Jhang)

The formation is pre-dominantly composed of grey slate, red and grey quartzite with minor amounts
of conglomerate. These metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with Andisite. Rhyolite and Tuff
beds. The sequence of intruded by basic igneous rocks of dibasic composition. The basic dykes
contain gold and silver in minor amounts. The rocks of kirana group can be placed in the late Pre-
Cambrian age. Great members of small to large crushing plants have been installed in the area
producing crush which is used in building and roads

Limestone is abundantly found in Punjab. Besides its industrial uses (cement manufacturing, lime
making, soda ash manufacturing, etc.) it is also being used at vast scale as building material in
crushed from. Margallah crush limestone market is well known. Also limestone, in raw and crushed
from, in Districts of Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Chakwal, Khushab, Mianwali, and D.G.Khan is
being used as building stone.

Purple sandstone, magnesian sandstone and other sedimentary rocks exposed in the Salt Range,
particularly in its eastern half, are quite suitable for use as building stone. The magnesian sand tone
is quarried near jutana and at Chammal. There are other places in the Salt Range where different
types of rocks have been quarried for use as road blast aggregate stone, etc.

Another important site of Crush market is near Sakhi Sarwar District Dera Ghazi Khan where about
50 to 60 crushers have been installed. The material here is broken limestone embedded in clay
(conglomerate). The said Crush market fulfils almost whole of the demand of the southern Punjab.
Slate stone found near Romian District Attock is also used as building material.

Gravel and Sand


Boulders and pebbles from the exposed hard rocks are broken under the action of weathering agents
and are swept dawn in rivers and streams. By roiling down, their sizes are reduced and ultimately
are converted into sand/silt.

2
Gravel from Sarwala, District Attock is famous & used in tube wells (around the filter of the tubes).
Gravel mixed with sand is found generally near the foothills. The pure sand occurs in the rivers
and streams in Punjab abundantly. It is also found, beneath 4-5 feet earth crust, in the old rivers
courses. The Lawrancepur sand (Haro Sand) is very famous one. Both gravel and sand are used as
construction material
Sand dunes (Tibba sand) is found in almost whole of Cholistan and Thal desert but this sand in not
in pure from. This sand is mixed with silty/clayey material and is generally used for filling purposes
in construction work or in embankment of road works.

1.2 Aggregate
Aggregate is one of the most frequently mined materials in the world and is used for a wide variety
of construction based purposes. It is composed of granular materials such as sand, gravel, or
crushed stone and it is most commonly used as an accompaniment to add strength to other
composite materials such as concrete, but it can also be found in roads and railroads. By using
aggregate, foundations are reinforced and they provide a stable basis because of their reliable,
highly adaptable qualities. Without aggregate, modern infrastructure would be built very differently
and is a cornerstone of the construction industry.
Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone that, along with water
and Portland cement. For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles
free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the
deterioration of concrete.
Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into
two distinct categories--fine and coarse. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or
crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any
particles greater than 0.19 inch, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter. Gravels
constitute the majority of coarse aggregate used in concrete with crushed stone making up most of
the remainder.
One of the earliest examples of aggregate being used is in the Roman Empire. The Romans are
famed for their vast and complex road system, the foundations of which are still used across Europe
today. Aggregate was refined by the Romans to reduce any impurities in the material, which is one
of the first occurrences of this process throughout history. The Romans also used aggregate to build
aqueducts, which was the infrastructure put in place to supply water to their cities. The aqueducts
required robust and durable materials to be used in their construction. Aggregate was used to create
underground conduits of stone or concrete which helped to move the water from distant locations
toward the city. Roman aqueducts proved to be extremely hard-waring, with many still being used
hundreds of later and even partially being used today.

1.3 Concrete
Concrete is the most widely used construction material of the 21st century. Concrete is a composite
building material composed of brick ballast, coarse and fine aggregates, water and cement. Where
water is used form mixing and curing cement as a binding material, fine aggregates as a void fillers
and coarse aggregate or brick ballast for large volumes of concrete, strength and durability.
Improvement of concrete is one of the major research topic in construction industry, an extensive
research has lead us toward different forms of concrete and its types having different properties
and uses. Conventional concrete is being gradually replaced with modern concretes like high
3
strength concrete (HSC), high performance concrete (HPC) and latest advances like Self
compacting concrete (SCC) in construction industries of developed world. Not till the 1900‘s
structural engineers and materials technologists become involved in optimizing the strength of
concrete, though concrete has been used throughout history as a building material leading back to
the rise of ancient Roman Empire. Concrete is considered as high strength concrete‖ solely on the
basis of its compressive strength measured at a given age.
The principle behind the improved strength of high strength concrete (HSC), is made possible by
reduction of porosity, inhomogeneity, and micro cracks in the hydrated cement paste and the
transition zone. With passage of time each successive development and corresponding strength
increase, the definition of ―high strength‖ was revised. In early 1940‘s the achieved compressive
strength of concrete was around 25 Mpa (3625 psi) which had an increment up to about 35 Mpa
(5075 psi) in 1950. In the 1970‘s concrete mixtures showed compressive strength in excess of 41
Mpa (6000 psi) or more at 28-days and were designated as high-strength concrete by American
Concrete Institute (ACI). This value was adopted by ACI in 1984 (ACI Committee 363, 1997).

300

250
Compressive Strength in Mpa

200

150

100

50

0
1940's 1950's 1970's 1980's 1990's 2000's Recent Future

Figure 1: Revolution of Concrete with time

The concrete industry embraces innovation and modern methods of construction by offering
concrete solutions which can be used to reduce construction time and promote sustainable
development, as well as offering cost savings. High workability is attained by super plasticizers,
they lower the water cement ratio to 0.25 which is the amount required only for hydration process.
Prof. J.Francis Young of the University of Illinois at Champaign Urbana has developed a strength
classification for describing high strength concretes (Portland Cement Association, 1994).

4
Table 1: Mechanical Properties of Margalla Crush Concrete

1.4 Environmental Impacts


The geologic characteristics of aggregate deposits (geomorphology, geometry, physical and
chemical quality) play a major role in the intensity of environmental impacts generated as a result
of crushing. The most obvious environmental impact of aggregate crushing is the conversion of
land use, most likely from undeveloped or agricultural land use, to a (temporary) hole in the ground.
This major impact is accompanied by loss of habitat, noise, dust, blasting effects, erosion,
sedimentation, and changes to the visual scene. Aggregates form the major part of concrete and are
derived from many types of rock. Granite and limestone are extracted from quarries, crushed and
graded. In many parts of the Pakistan, land-based or marine sand and gravel are available: these
require some processing, such as washing and grading, before use in concrete. Washing removes
deleterious contaminants such as chlorides from marine-derived materials or excessive amounts of
clay and silt from land-based sources. In some cases, silt particles can be recovered by flocculation
so that they can be used as part of the fine aggregate. To minimize transport costs, aggregates are
processed at their source or the landing point of marine materials. The yearly cement production
of more than one billion ton accounts for about seven percent of the global loading of carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere. Portland cement is responsible for a large amount of greenhouse gases
but also it is not only one of the most energy intensive materials of construction. Production of one
ton of Portland cement requires about four GJ energy. Portland cement manufactures releases one
ton of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere approximately (MEHTA, 2001).
Increasing concern now that the choice of construction materials must also be governed by
ecological considerations. Unfortunately, our technology choices have turned out to be wasteful
because decisions are based on short term and narrow goals of the enterprise rather than a holistic
view of the full range of consequences from the use of a technology. Furthermore, large quantities
of aggregates, minerals and other ingredients necessary for the production of cement and concrete
formation are being mined causing loss of natural resource of materials, endangering future
generations to meet their material requirement. Six percent of the global flow of materials, some
500 billion tons a year, actually ends up in consumer products whereas much of the virgin materials

5
are being returned to the environment in the form of harmful solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes.
Biggest environmental challenge today is that of the human made climate change due to global
warming caused by steadily rising concentration of green-house gases in the earth's atmosphere
during the past 100 years. By the 2050 world‘s demand for concrete production is assumed to be
exceeded by 18 Billion tons per year as compared to present need of 11.5 billion tons concrete per
year.

1.5 Facts and Figures


Pakistan area of 803,950 Km2 and a population of around 160 Million that use 228,206 km of road
network throughout the country. The Government took initiative in 1990’s to remodel and
reconstruct all the National Highways of Pakistan to provide safe and efficient communication
network. It is believed that better roads are considered as an imperative component of the
Government’s poverty alleviation approaches that operate as a mechanism to create jobs.
The transport sector contributes about ten percent of total GDP of Pakistan by providing work for
about 2 million people and transporting over ninety percent passengers and goods by roads
according to careful estimates.
In road construction a large quantity of aggregates is a prerequisite. Aggregates are produced
mainly by quarrying rocks and then crushing to required sizes for use in ordinary Portland cement
concrete, base, sub base, asphalt concrete, water bound macadam, railway ballast, riprap and fillers
in Pakistan. Besides these, gravel and sand produced by natural processes is also used as aggregate
(e.g. Neville and Brooks, 1999; Kandhal et al., 2000; Zadi et al., 2008). In service performance of
above mentioned structures is bracketed with the engineering properties of the aggregate.

Overview of Construction Industry in Pakistan:


The construction industry in Pakistan witnessed 11.31% growth in the current fiscal year on the
back of increased government spending, while the country’s GDP surpassed projected estimates,
rising by approximately 4.14%. Current Finance Minister, told local news sources that the country
was on track in terms of achieving its GDP growth targets. The contribution of individual sectors
to overall GDP growth rate was estimated at a recent National Accounts Committee (NAC)
meeting, chaired by Chief Statistician.

The construction industry of Pakistan is already rising due to growing infrastructure activities.
Significant reduction in interest, electricity, oil and coal prices will promote this sector. Overall,
stance of 2016 for construction sector is progressive as all the liberation actions for developers and
builders would give essential boost to the multi-billion dollar industry. Construction is the
privileged sector in Pakistan that has got major aid in the Federal Budget 2015-2016. As for the
construction industry, government has exempted the bricks and crushed-stones from Sales Tax till
June 30, 2018. Additionally, Custom Duty on the import of landfill trucks, concrete placing trucks
crane lories, truck mounted lories, mobile canal lining equipment and transit miners which are listed
with SECP and the Pakistan Engineering Council attained from construction companies, is
decreased from 30% to 20%.

6
6 5.54
4.99
5 4.71
4.05 4.04
3.84 3.68
4 3.62

3 2.58

1
0.36

0
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

Figure 2: GDP rate with time

Demand:
Demand of aggregates is increasing in Pakistan day by day as due to increase in Gdp, as mentioned
above. Aggregate demand showed a moderate increase of 3.7 percent during 2012. The domestic
market was responsible for the increase, as external demand faltered substantially during the year
Factors including higher remittance inflows, a vibrant informal economy, and a surge in fiscal
spending, appear to have underpinned domestic demand. Due to large increase in abrupt demand
of aggregates cannot aggregate crushing sites in Punjab region cannot fulfill need of aggregates.
As Punjab is the frontline partner in current development therefore a mafia has emerged which is
responsible for installation of illegal crushers in Margalla and Sargodha. Due to increase number
of crushers areas near Margalla i.e. Islamabad etc. are suffering great environmental damage.
There is a need to find out new aggregate crushing sites which can lower burden on current sites of
Margalla and Sargodha.

1.6 Aggregate Sites in Punjab Region


Crushed stone is used as aggregate in construction material uses. The most common types of rock
processed into crushed stone include limestone, dolomite, granite, and trap rock.
The quarry sites in Punjab region are following. (Authority, 2009)

7
Table 2: Aggregate Quarry Sites in Punjab Region

1.6.1 Margalla
It is a hill range part of Himalayas located within the Margalla Hills, north of Islamabad, Pakistan.
Margalla Hills has an area of 12,605 hectares. Hills are part of Murree hills. This range carries
many valleys and mountainous region.
But Margalla hills are affecting environment so much that Supreme Court has ordered Margalla to
stop crushing more stones. In Pakistan, aggregates manufactured in Margalla crush quarry is
considered to be the best aggregates for the pavement construction. The source and consensus
properties vary throughout the quarry. One cannot rely only on testing the physical properties from
the single source
Chief Justice of Pakistan (CJP) Anwar Zaheer Jamali remarked, “Protection of the environment is
our responsibility and the court cannot gloss over the stone crushing issue” (TODAY, 2016)
8
There are over 156 stone crushers in Margalla Hills in Taxila, eight of which are closed. According
to the data available with Punjab Mines and Minerals Department, there are 127 stone crushers in
Margalla Hills. There are 56 stone crushers in other parts of the province of which 53 are owned
by the Punjab Mines and Minerals Department and one owned by Pakistan Railways and the Punjab
Agriculture Department each. (DAWN, 2015)

1.6.2 Rajanpur
It is headquarters of Rajanpur District and Tehsil, is located in the extreme southwest part of
Punjab, Pakistan (29:06N, 70:19E) with a geographical span of 12,319 km. Rajanpur is one of the
only two districts of Punjab located west of the Indus River. Rajanpur Land is sandwiched by river
Indus on one side, while the Sulaiman Mountains range on the other. Pitok Nullah is a potential
quarry of the area (lat. 29º 09’ to 29º15’ N; long. 69º 54’ to 70º E). This source is 49 km from
Rajanpur inclusive of 27 km Kacha track. The height of these terraces varied between 20ft to 150ft
from nullah bed. Presently, Kachhi Canal contractors are using its aggregate but it had never been
used by Highway Department due to inaccessibility to the alluvial fan area. Rajanpur in Sulaiman
Range were sampled for evaluation of their engineering properties. The material mainly comprises
limestone and sandstone (GONDAL, 2008). One crushing unit located at the crest of this fan for
which large pieces are picked up manually from terraces and transported to crusher located on the
road side of the fan. These crushers crushed predominately quartzite/sand stone material of light
brown to reddish brown colour. The material comprises limestone and sandstone. Installation of
material separator was observed in Nullah bed. The material of the Nullah qualified only for use as
sub base and base. The coarse fraction is suitable to be used as base and sub base but its use in
asphalt concrete and cement concrete may not be suitable.

1.6.3 Kallar Kahar


Kallar Kahar is a subdivision and town of Chakwal District in Punjab, Pakistan, Capital of Kahar
tehsil. It contains Salt range and large amount of aggregates. The mountain ranges may not fall
within the precise definition of mountains, are the Kallar Kahar hills, the Choa Saidan Shah hill
range leading into Kallar Kahar on one side and Jhelum on the other, both falling in the Salt Range,
and the Diljabban hill. Ranges are dry and rocky, covered by deciduous forests ((HESCO), 2009).
Kallar kahar aggregates are normally sedimentary rocks. There composition mainly contains
limestone and salts.

9
Figure 3: Four Potential Aggregate Sites in Punjab Region

1.7 Problem Statement


Supreme Court of Pakistan has ordered to stop crushing at Margalla because of environmental
affects, due to this shortage of aggregate will occur and is key point of our problem statement. No
crushing at Margalla will create an unbalance condition between supply and demand of aggregates.
Our research will help to reduce shortage of coarse aggregate by testing aggregates from potential
sites in Punjab region, this will ultimately benefit our country’s economy. This project was
undertaken according to the present need of our country.
Moreover another approach can also be used which will reduce the use of coarse aggregates i.e.
use of different additives like Fly ash and Bagas. The usage of these additives will reduce the
amount of aggregates and lessen the environmental impacts which are caused by crushing of
aggregates.

1.8 Goals and objectives


This research focuses on studying the behavior of concrete using aggregates from potential sites of
Punjab region. It also concentrates on studying mechanical and physical properties of aggregates.
Finding new commercial sites for aggregates to be used in concrete can help cope with increased
demand of aggregates. This will also help control air and water pollution in surroundings of
Margalla. Goal of this paper is to balance supply and demand chain and to lower burden on
Margalla by finding new commercial crushing sites.

10
1.8.1 Scope & Methodology of Work
This research will enable use of aggregates from potential sites and lowering burden on Margalla
thus decrease in pollution in Margalla surroundings. This will also help attaining a balance in
supply and demand chain of aggregates.

In order to attain our objectives we will follow the following procedure. First we will narrow down
the potential sites. On these sites we will perform mechanical and physical tests according to the
need. Some of the tests are mentioned below. We will be able to judge whether site other than
Margalla i.e. Rajanpur and kallar kahar can be used commercially. According to these tests results
will be drawn and conclusion will be made. From the experiments we can conclude the strength of
the aggregates. We can also identify from the results that this aggregate ca be used in this specific
place.

Outcome of Research Activities:


This research will be able to find whether the aggregates of Kallar kahar and Rajanpur can be used
commercially. Following experiments i.e. Compression test, Split tensile strength, double punch
test, specific Gravity, rodded density, aggregate impact value and aggregate crushing value will
enable us to make a comparison of aggregate from potential sites with Margalla crush. This research
will help to lessen the burden Margalla hills and to reduce environmental damage which is
increasing day by day.

11
Chapter 02
Literature Review

2.1 Aggregate
Aggregates are a granular material used in construction. Aggregates are sand, gravel, (including
marine aggregates), crushed rock, recycled and manufactured aggregates. The diagram below
illustrates the sources, intermediate and end uses of aggregates:

Figure 4: Sources and uses of aggregates

The most common natural aggregates of mineral origin are sand, gravel and crushed rock. An end-
product in themselves as railway ballast or armourstones, aggregates are also a raw material used
in the manufacture of other vital construction products such as ready-mixed concrete (made of 80%
aggregates), pre-cast products, asphalt (made of 95% aggregates), lime and cement.

Aggregates are produced from natural sources extracted from quarries and gravel pits and in some
countries from sea-dredged materials (marine aggregates). Secondary aggregates are usually by-
products from other industrial processes, like blast or electric furnace slags or china clay residues.
12
Recycled aggregates derive from reprocessing materials previously used in construction, including
construction, demolition residues.
(ASTM, 2011)

Types of Aggregates
Aggregates can be classified in many ways. Major classification of aggregates are based on:
1) Shape
2) Size
Classification of Aggregates based on Shape
It is difficult to attain required shape of aggregate. But, the shape of aggregate will affect the
workability of concrete. So, shape of aggregate should be taken into account. Aggregates are
classified according to shape into the following types.
 Rounded aggregates
 Irregular or partly rounded aggregates
 Angular aggregates
 Flaky aggregates
 Elongated aggregates
 Flaky and elongated aggregates
Rounded Aggregates
The rounded aggregates are completely shaped due to water pressure and its availability in the form
of seashore gravel. Rounded aggregates result the minimum percentage of voids (32 – 33%) hence
gives more workability. They require lesser amount of water-cement ratio. They are not considered
for high strength concrete because of poor interlocking behavior and weak bond strength.

Figure 5: Rounded Aggregates

Irregular Aggregates
The irregular or partly rounded aggregates are partly shaped by attrition and these are available in
the form of pit sands and gravel. Irregular aggregates may result 35- 37% of voids. These will give
lesser workability when compared to rounded aggregates. The bond strength is slightly higher than
rounded aggregates but not as required for high strength concrete.

13
Figure 6: Irregular Aggregates

Angular Aggregates
The angular aggregates consist well defined edges formed at the intersection of roughly planar
surfaces and these are obtained by crushing the rocks. Angular aggregates result maximum
percentage of voids (38-45%) hence gives less workability. They give 10-20% more compressive
strength due to development of stronger aggregate-mortar bond. So, these are useful in high
strength concrete manufacturing.

Figure 7: Angular Aggregates

Flaky Aggregates
When the aggregate thickness is small when compared with width and length of that aggregate it
is said to be flaky aggregate. Or in the other, when the least dimension of aggregate is less than the
60% of its mean dimension then it is said to be flaky aggregate.

Figure 8: Flaky Aggregates


14
Elongated Aggregates
When the length of aggregate is larger than the other two dimensions then it is called elongated
aggregate or the length of aggregate is greater than 180% of its mean dimension.

Figure 9: Elongated Aggregates

Flaky and Elongated Aggregates


When the aggregate length is larger than its width and width is larger than its thickness then it is
said to be flaky and elongated aggregates. The above 3 types of aggregates are not suitable for
concrete mixing. These are generally obtained from the poorly crushed rocks.

Figure 10: Flaky and Elongated Aggregates

Classification of Aggregates Based on Size


Aggregates are available in nature in different sizes. The size of aggregate used may be related to
the mix proportions, type of work etc. the size distribution of aggregates is called grading of
aggregates. Following are the types of aggregates based on size:
1) Fine Aggregates
2) Coarse Aggregates

Fine Aggregate
When the aggregate is sieved through 4.75mm sieve, the aggregate passed through it called as fine
aggregate. Natural sand is generally used as fine aggregate, silt and clay are also come under this
category. The soft deposit consisting of sand, silt and clay is termed as loam. The purpose of the
fine aggregate is to fill the voids in the coarse aggregate and to act as a workability agent.

15
Table 3: Gradation of Fine Aggregates

Figure 11: Aggregates with respect to size

Coarse Aggregate
When the aggregate is sieved through 4.75mm sieve, the aggregate retained is called coarse
aggregate. Gravel, cobble and boulders come under this category. The maximum size aggregate
used may be dependent upon some conditions. In general, 40mm size aggregate used for normal
strengths and 20mm size is used for high strength concrete. The size range of various coarse
aggregates given below.

16
Table 4: Gradation of Coarse Aggregates

2.2 Importance of Aggregates with respect to Concrete


Aggregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture
proportions, and economy. Consequently, selection of aggregates is an important process.
Although some variation in aggregate properties is expected, characteristics that are considered
include:
 grading
 durability
 particle shape and surface texture
 abrasion and skid resistance
 unit weights and voids
 absorption and surface moisture
Grading refers to the determination of the particle-size distribution for aggregate. Grading limits
and maximum aggregate size are specified because these properties affect the amount of aggregate
used as well as cement and water requirements, workability, pumpability, and durability of
concrete. In general, if the water-cement ratio is chosen correctly, a wide range in grading can be
used without a major effect on strength. When gap-graded aggregate are specified, certain particle
sizes of aggregate are omitted from the size continuum. Gap-graded aggregate are used to obtain
uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete. Close control of mix proportions is necessary to
avoid segregation.

Particle shape and surface texture influence the properties of freshly mixed concrete more than the
properties of hardened concrete. Rough-textured, angular, and elongated particles require more
water to produce workable concrete than smooth, rounded compact aggregate. Consequently, the
cement content must also be increased to maintain the water-cement ratio.

The void content between particles affects the amount of cement paste required for the mix.
Angular aggregates increase the void content. Larger sizes of well-graded aggregate and improved
grading decrease the void content. The amount of water in the concrete mixture must be adjusted
to include the moisture conditions of the aggregate.

17
Abrasion and skid resistance of an aggregate are essential when the aggregate is to be used in
concrete constantly subject to abrasion as in heavy-duty floors or pavements. Different minerals in
the aggregate wear and polish at different rates. Harder aggregate can be selected in highly abrasive
conditions to minimize wear.

2.3 Uses / Application of aggregate


Aggregates have many uses in the construction industry. The most common and important use of
aggregates are:
• Portland Cement Concrete
• Asphalt Concrete
• Roadway Base Course
• Backfill, Railroad ballast
• Erosion Control

2.4 Role of Aggregates


Aggregates are generally thought of as inert filler within a concrete mix. But a closer look reveals
the major role and influence aggregate plays in the properties of both fresh and hardened concrete.
Changes in gradation, maximum size, unit weight, and moisture content can all alter the character
and performance of your concrete mix.
Aggregates are used in concrete for very specific purposes. The use of coarse and fine aggregates
in concrete provides significant economic benefits for the final cost of concrete in place.
Aggregates typically make up about 60 to 75 percent of the volume of a concrete mixture, and as
they are the least expensive of the materials used in concrete, the economic impact is measurable.
In addition, the use of aggregates provides volume stability to the hardened concrete. The shrinkage
potential of a cement paste is quite high when compared to the aggregates. Controlling shrinkage
of the concrete material is important since shrinkage and cracking potential increase together.
Higher shrinkage potential means more cracking when the concrete is restrained from movement
by contact with the base material beneath a slab-on-grade, steel reinforcement within structural
members, or contact with adjoining concrete members in a structure.
It is commonly accepted that water demand and cement content in a concrete mixture increases as
the maximum coarse aggregate size decreases. The required volume of paste in a concrete mixture
must increase, due to the increased surface area of smaller aggregate sizes, to coat all of the
aggregate particles. With this increase in paste quantity there is a reduction of volume of the
aggregates per unit of concrete produced, thus the shrinkage of the mixture increases. Again, an
increase in shrinkage potential combined with restraint of the concrete section may add
substantially to the cracking potential of a concrete section. In short, the aggregates are used to
improve economy, but more importantly do contribute significantly to the final properties of any
concrete mixture. Two characteristics of aggregates have an important influence on proportioning
concrete mixtures because they affect the workability of the fresh concrete. They are: -
1. Grading
2. Particle Size

18
Grading is important for attaining an economical mixture because it affects the amount of concrete
that can be made with a given amount of cementitious materials and water. Grading also influences
the workability and place ability of the concrete. Sometimes midsized aggregate, around the 9.5
mm (3 ⁄8 in.) size, is lacking in an aggregate supply; this can result in a concrete with high shrinkage
properties, high water demand, and poor workability and place ability. Durability may also be
affected. Various options are available for obtaining optimal grading of aggregate.
Similarly, different sites of aggregates effectively change the behavior of concrete. Different mix
design with different water cement ration can be used to find the maximum strength of a certain
site aggregate.

2.5 Role of Cement


Cement is binding material in the cement concrete. This concrete is used for different engineering
works where strength and durability are of Prime importance. It fills up voids existing in the fine
aggregate and makes the concrete impermeable. It provides strength to concrete on setting and
hardening. It binds the aggregate into a solid mass by virtue of its setting and hardening properties
when mixed with water. When port land cement is mixed with water, heat is liberated. This heat is
called the heat of hydration, the result of the exothermic chemical reaction between cement and
water. The heat generated by the cement‘s hydration raises the temperature of concrete. During
normal concrete construction, the heat is dissipated into the soil or the air and resulting temperature
changes within the structure are not significant. However, in some situations, particularly in
massive structures, such as dams, mat foundations, or any element more than about a meter or yard
thick, the heat cannot be readily released. The mass concrete may then attain high internal
temperatures, especially during hot weather construction, or if high cement contents are used.
Temperature rises of 55°C (100°F) have been observed with high cement content mixes. These
temperature rises cause expansion while the concrete is hardening. If the temperature rise is
significantly high and the concrete undergoes non uniform or rapid cooling, stresses due to thermal
contraction in conjunction with structural restraint can result in cracking before or after the concrete
eventually cools to the surrounding temperature. Contractors often insulate massive elements to
control temperature changes. As a rule of thumb, the maximum temperature differential between
the interior and exterior concrete should not exceed 20°C (36°F) to avoid crack development. The
potential for thermal cracking is dependent on the concrete‘s tensile strength, coefficient of thermal
expansion, temperature difference within the concrete, and restraint on the member. Concrete
placed in cold conditions benefits from the heat generated by cement hydration, helping protect it
from freezing and providing a more favorable curing temperature. Adding insulation to the
formwork helps trap the heat in the concrete, allowing it to achieve the required strength.

2.6 Role of Water


The water plays an important part in the mixing, laying compaction setting and hardening of
concrete. The strength of concrete directly depends on the quantity and quality of water is used in
the mix. Water stands responsible to react with cement all the reactions occurred in hydration
process. Water acts as a lubricant for the aggregate and makes the concrete workable. It facilitates
the spreading of cement over the fine aggregate. With the addition of water to a load of concrete in

19
excess of the design w/c, the following performance characteristics will likely be negatively
affected.
1. Compressive Strength
2. Resistance toward freezing and thawing cycle
3. Permeability and its associated effect to strength and durability
4. Minimizing potential for corrosion of steel

2.7 Chemistry of Concrete


The process of determining required and specifiable characteristics of a concrete mixture is called
mix design. Characteristics can include: -
Fresh Concrete Properties.
1. Required mechanical properties of hardened concrete i.e. strength and durability
requirements.
2. The inclusion, exclusion or limit on specific ingredients.
Mix design leads to the development of a concrete specification. Mixture proportioning refers to
the process of determining the quantities of concrete ingredients, using local materials, to achieve
the specified characteristics of the concrete. A properly proportioned concrete mix should possess
these qualities:-
1. Acceptable workability of freshly mixed concrete.
2. Strength, durability and uniform appearance of hardened concrete.
3. Economy
Understanding the basic principles of mixture design is as important as the actual calculations used
to establish mix proportions. Only with proper selection of materials and mixture characteristics
can the above qualities be obtained in concrete construction. The main ingredients of concrete are
aggregates (stones, sand), cement (Portland) and water, where stones are used for achieving greater
volume sand as filler material to lower the voids between the stone aggregates, cement is used as
binding material and water is used as mixing material. All these materials are mixed by volume or
weight depending upon the requirement of design.
1. Aggregates (Course and Fine)
2. Cement
3. Water

20
Chapter 03
Methodology

Approach:
There are four main approaches used in a research.
1. Logical theoretical research
2. Quantitative, experimental research
3. Qualitative, observational research
4. Participatory action research

Figure 12: Four Alternative approaches

None of the research strategies are considered to be unconditionally superior or


inferior to the others. They all have qualities that make them preferable for some
purposes and research problems.
We chose direct experimental approach from these four different types of approaches
it comes under the category of quantitative approach. A quantitative,
experimental approach to doing research is within the classical scientific paradigm.
The scientific method implies postulating hypotheses, doing quantitative
experiments, and then either sustain or reject the hypotheses based on statistical
analysis of the experimental data. Before outlining the research principles, the
research approach is narrowed a bit further and then experiments are performed and
results are concluded. We have chosen direct experimental approach. The reasons
are mentioned below

21
 As we have a specialty in material engineering not in geology or marketing.
 According to us, direct experimental approach is the best approach.
 In our resources we have Materials lab in which we have compressive testing
machine, cutting machine, curing tank, concrete mixer, weighing balance and
ASTM standards.
 In unavailability of resources we haven’t done petrography because e done have
that machine.

Selection of Sites

Mechanical
Physical Properties
Properties

Specific Gravity of
Finess Modulus of Compressive Splint Cylinder
Fines/Coarse
Fine Aggregates Strength Tensile Strength
Aggregates

Water Absorbtion
Rodded Density of Aggregate Impact
of Fine/Coarse Double Punch Test
Coarse Aggregates Value Test (AIV)
Aggregates

Aggregate
Specific Gravity of
Crushing Value
Cement
(ACV)

Figure 13: Scope & Methodology

22
For the evaluation of coarse aggregates of different sites various tests were performed on following
materials:
1. Fine Aggregates (Sand)
2. Coarse Aggregates (all sites)
3. Cement

3.1 Fine Aggregates:


The fine aggregates utilized for the research work was taken from Lawrencepur with Fineness
Modules (FM) 2.55. Lawrencepur sand was kept in open space free to environment so that the
results show accurate values when used in field.

3.2 Coarse Aggregates:


Concrete is considered to be best for its performance when well graded aggregates are used as filler
materials. The reason behind this is that particle of all size are when used in concrete can replace
the empty space and there is a close packing of particles in hardened concrete (Pages, 2009).
Particles are graded according to ASTM suggested curve for coarse maximum, coarse minimum,
fine maximum and minimum and an ideal condition in between this maximum and minimum curve
which gives the best result and enhanced efficiency of concrete while tested against compression.

COARSE AGGREGATE GRADATION


ASTM C33

Sieve Size
Percentage Passing
(mm)
50 100
37.5 90
25 81.3
19 41
12.5 33
9.5 10
4.75 10

Table 5: Coarse Aggregate Gradation

Various other tests were also performed on different quarry aggregates according to the standards
which are following:
3.2.1 Physical Properties of Aggregates:
 Rodded Density
 Specific Gravity
 Water Absorption
 Fineness Modulus
23
3.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Concrete Cylinders:
 Compressive Test
 Split Tensile Test
 Double Punch Test
Compressive Strength:
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to
withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads
tending to elongate.

Double Punch:
A method of evaluating the tensile strength in concrete is illustrated by interpreting the failure
mechanism from the double-punch test. A particular Coulomb-like failure criterion is at the basis
of this method. It is an indirect method in which we determine the tensile strength of concrete based
on the theory of perfect plasticity. In this test a concrete cylinder is placed vertically between the
loading platens of the machine and is compressed by two steel punches placed parallel to the top
and bottom end surfaces.

Split Tensile Strength:


A standard test cylinder is placed horizontally between the loading surfaces of compression testing
machine. The compression load is applied diametrically and uniformly along the length of the
cylinder until the failure occurs along the vertical diameters. To allow uniform distribution of
applied load and to reduce the magnitude of high compressive stresses near the points of application
of this load strips of iron are placed between the loading patterns of the testing machine. Concrete
cylinders split into two halves along this vertical plane due to this indirect tensile stress generated
by poisons affect.

3.2.3 Mechanical Properties of Aggregates:


 Aggregate Impact Value
 Aggregate crushing Value

Aggregate crushing Value:


The Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) provides a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate
to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. With aggregate crushing value 30 or
higher’ the result may be anomalous and in such cases the ten percent fines value should be
determined instead.

Aggregate Impact Value:


The aggregate impact value (AIV) is a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock, which may
differ for different aggregate. The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm.
Aggregates may be dried by heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled (Constructor,
2017).
24
Margalla Crush Rajan Pur Crush Kallar Kahar Crush

3.3 Mix Design:


The mix design used for the evaluation of aggregates are follows:

MIX CONCRETE DESIGN 1 : 1.4 : 2.8


Design w/c Brand of
Cylinder Coarse Fine Cement Water
Strength ratio Cement

3.75
300mm x 150mm 28 Mpa 0.4 7.5 kg 2.7 kg Bestway 1.25 kg
kg

Table 6: Mix Concrete Design

3.4 Determination of Water- Cement Ratio


Water to cement ratio plays an important role in the workability of concrete and in the strength of
concrete. A water/ cement ratio of 0.40 was selected as designed by ASTM standard to get best
workability and slump of concrete.
Water/ Cement = 0.40
Water = 0.40 * Quantity of Cement

3.5 Casting of Concrete Cylinders


Concrete cylinders of dimension (300 mm x 150 mm) are casted to check the compressional
strength at 7 days, 14 days and 28 days. Four cylinders are casted for each day compression test.
Average of these result values are taken to avoid errors. Total 20 cylinders are casted for each
quarry which includes cylinders 12 for compression test, 4 for split tensile test and 4 for double
punch test. Total 60 cylinders were casted including all quarries and tests.

25
Test Type 7 Day 14 Day 28 Day

Compression Test

Split Tensile Test

Double Punch Test

Table 7: Detail of Tests performed

Concrete mixer is used to mix coarse and fine aggregates and cement for dry mixing and then
measured water is added to get the required slump. Concrete mixer and cylinders are properly
painted with oil to avoid loos of material and for easy use.

Figure 15: Curing Tank


Figure 14: Cylinders Mold

3.6 Slump Test


The concrete slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it sets. It is performed
to check the workability of freshly made concrete, and therefore the ease with which concrete
flows. It can also be used as an indicator of an improperly mixed batch. The test is popular due to
the simplicity of apparatus used and simple procedure. The slump test is used to ensure uniformity
for different loads of concrete under field conditions. A sample of freshly prepared concrete is
placed and compacted by a rod in a mold shaped looks like a frustum of a cone. The mold is raised
and the concrete is allowed to subside. The vertical distance between original and displaced state
of the center of the top surface of the concrete is measured and reported as the slump of the concrete.
26
This test was done in accordance with ASTM C143 / C143M which specify the slump range 50 -
100. Test results obtained from laboratory of freshly prepared concrete show variation of slump as
mentioned in ASTM Code.

Table 8: Slump Grading Concrete

Procedure:
The cone is placed on a hard non-absorbent surface. This cone is filled with fresh concrete in three
stages. Each time, each layer is tamped 25 times with a 2 ft. (600 mm)-long bullet-nosed metal rod
measuring (16 mm) in diameter. At the end of the third stage, the concrete is struck off flush with
the top of the mold. The mold is carefully lifted vertically upwards, so as not to disturb the concrete
cone.

Figure 16: Slump Types

The next chapters explains briefly about the experimentations and their results. The slump test is
suitable for slumps of medium to high workability, slump in the range of 5 – 260 mm, the test fails
to determine the difference in workability in stiff mixes which have zero slump, or for wet mixes
that give a collapse slump. It is limited to concrete formed of aggregates of less than 38 mm
(1.5 inch).

27
Figure 17: Slump Apparatus

Sampling Criteria:
Sampling is perhaps the most important step in assuring that good quality aggregates are being
used. Since a sample is just a small portion of the total material, the importance that the sample be
representative of the material being delivered cannot be overemphasized. Any test performed on
the sample, regardless of how carefully and accurately performed, is worthless unless the sample
is truly representative of the material offered for use on the project. A representative sample can be
obtained by following the standard procedures detailed in the latest edition of AASHTO T2 and
ITM 207, “Method of Sampling Stockpile Aggregate.”

3.7 Proportions for One Cylinder:


The proportion of various sizes of coarse aggregates are follows (Network):

PROPORTIONS FOR ONE CYLINDER


(300mm x 150mm)

37.5 mm 0.75 kg

25 mm 0.65 kg

19 mm 3.06 kg

12.5 mm 0.6 kg

9.5 mm 1.73 kg

4.75 mm 0.77 kg

TOTAL = 7.5 kg

Table 9: Proportion for cylinder

28
Chapter 4
Experiments & Results
In order to accomplish the project three potential sites were narrowed down which are following:
1. Margalla
2. Kallar Kahar
3. Rajanpur
Margalla quarry serves as the base line for the aggregates of other two quarries. As Margalla quarry
is already operational and its aggregates are considered as best aggregates for construction
purposes.
Locals in Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur are using the aggregates from these quarries but on small
scale. The purpose of this project is to ensure that weather these quarries can be replaced by
Margalla quarry. Different tests are performed on all quarries sample according to their physical
and mechanical properties.

4.1 Physical Properties


The physical properties of coarse and fine aggregates are:

4.1.1 Rodded Density:


During the concrete mix design, when the aggregate is to be batched by volume or by weight, then
it becomes necessary to know the mass of the aggregates that will fill the container of unit volume.
If we know the Bulk density / Rodded density of the aggregate material then we can easily
determine the mass required to fill a unit volume container (Engineers.pk, Standard test method for
the determination of Bulk Density (i.e. unit weight and the voids in aggregates). (ASTM C-29/C-
29M), 2017). Standard test method was followed as specified by the ASTM code C-29/C-29 M for
measuring rodded density. Graphical representation of rodded density for different site aggregates
are as follows:

Rodded Density
1800
1550
1600 1430
1400 1250
1200
Kg/m3

1000
800
600
400
200
0
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 18: Rodded Density Comparison


29
The readings of Rodded / Bulk Density of different quarries are:

Rodded Density / Bulk Density


Quarry Name Result

Margalla 1550 kg/m3


Rajanpur 1250 kg/m3
Kallar Kahar 1320 kg/m3

Table 10: Rodded Density

4.1.2 Specific Gravity


Relative density (specific gravity) is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the volume
occupied by the aggregate in various mixtures containing aggregate, including Portland cement
concrete, bituminous analyzed on concrete, and other mixtures that are proportioned or an absolute
volume basis. (ASTM C127-04)
It is also used for the calculation of the volume occupied by the aggregates in various mixtures.
Standard test method was followed as specified by the ASTM code C-127-04 for measuring
Specific Gravity. Graphical representation of Specific Gravity for different site aggregates are as
follows:

Specific Gravity
2.7
2.67

2.65

2.6 2.58
Kg/m3

2.55

2.5
2.5

2.45

2.4
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 19: Specific Gravity Comparison

30
The readings of Specific Gravity of different quarries are:

Specific Gravity
Quarry Name Result
Margalla 2.5
Rajanpur 2.58
Kallar Kahar 2.67

Table 11: Specific Gravity

4.1.3 Water Absorption:


Water Absorption can be defined as “the increase in mass of aggregate due to water penetration
into the pores of the particles during a prescribed period of time, but not including water adhering
to the outside surface of the particles, expressed as a percentage of the dry mass.” (ASTM 127-04)
The pores at the surface of the particles affect the bond between the aggregate and the cement paste
and thus influence the concrete strength. Normally, it is assumed that at the time of setting of
concrete, the aggregate is in the saturated and surface dry condition. If the aggregate is to be batched
in the dry condition, then it is assumed that sufficient amount of water will be absorbed from the
mix to bring the aggregate in the saturated condition. If an additional amount of water is not added
as a cover for the absorbed water, the loss of work-ability is resulted (Engineers.pk, Standard test
method for the determination of relative density (i.e. specific gravity) and water absorption of the
coarse aggregates. (ASTM C-127-04), 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the water
absorption capacity of the aggregates. Standard test method was followed as specified by the
ASTM code C-127-04 for measuring Specific Gravity. Graphical representation of Water
Absorption for different site aggregates are as follows:

Water Absorption
1.50% 1.40%
1.13% 1.13%
Percentage %

1.00%

0.50%

0.00%
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 20: Water Absorption Comparison

31
The readings of Water Absorption of different quarries are:

Water Absorption
Quarry Name Result
Margalla 1.13%
Rajanpur 1.13%
Kallar Kahar 1.40%

Table 12: Water Absorption

4.1.4 Slump Test


A sample of freshly prepared concrete is placed and compacted by a rod in a mold shaped looks
like a frustum of a cone. The mold is raised and the concrete is allowed to subside. The vertical
distance between original and displaced state of the center of the top surface of the concrete is
measured and reported as the slump of the concrete (International, 2003). This test was done in
accordance with ASTM C143 / C143M which specify the slump range 50 - 100. Test results
obtained from laboratory of freshly prepared concrete shows variation according to ASTM
standard. Rajan Pur and Kallar Kahar is out of range of slump.

Slump Values (mm)


Margalla 53.5
Rajan Pur 47
Kallar Kahar 21

Table 13: Slump Value

Slump Value
60 53.5
50 47

40
Slump (mm)

30
21
20
10
0
Margalla Rajan Pur Kallar Kahar

Figure 21: Slump Value Comparison

32
4.1.5 Lawrencepur Sand:
Physical of properties of lawrencepur sand is as follows

Lawrencepur Sand
Specific Gravity 2.2
C-128-04a
Sand Water Absorption 4%

Fineness Modulus C-136-05 2.55

Table 14: Physical properties of Lawrencepur Sand

4.1.6 Aggregate Impact Value:


The aggregate impact value (AIV) is a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock, which may
differ for different aggregate. The test sample consists of aggregates sized 10.0 mm 12.5 mm.
Aggregates may be dried by heating at 100-110° C for a period of 4 hours and cooled (Constructor,
2017).

Aggregate Impact Value


Margalla 17.34 %

Rajanpur 16.07 %

Kallar Kahar 23.03 %

Table 15: Aggregate Impact Value

Margalla and Rajanpur aggregate lies in the range of strong aggregates and Kalar Kahar
Aggregate lies in exceptionally strong aggregates. These all three sites can be used in wearing
coarse in road construction.
4.1.7 Aggregate crushing Value:
The Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) provides a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate
to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. With aggregate crushing value 30 or
higher’ the result may be anomalous and in such cases the ten percent fines value should be
determined instead.

Aggregate Crushing Value


Margalla 1.16 %

Rajanpur 0.53 %

Kallar Kahar 1.43 %

Table 16: Aggregate Crushing Value

33
As all the values lies in the range of 30 percent. So this aggregate can be used for construction
purpose.

ACV & AIV Comparrison


25 23.03

20
17.34
16.07
Percentage %

15
ACV

10 AIV

5
1.16 1.43
0.53
0
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 22: ACV & AIV Comparison Graph

4.2 Margalla:
Margalla quarry are used now-a-days as a best site aggregate site.

Physical Properties and ASTM Standards


MARGALA CRUSH
Aggregate Property ASTM Standard Result
Rodded Density C-29 / C-29 M 1550 kg/m3
Specific Gravity 2.5
Coarse C-127-04
Water Absorption 1.13%
Fineness Modulus C-136-05 5.62

Table 17: Physical Properties of Margalla

4.3 Rajanpur:
The Rajanpur quarry contains crushed gravels as aggregate.

34
Physical Properties and ASTM Standards
RAJAN PUR CRUSH
Aggregate Property ASTM Standard Result
Rodded Density C-29 / C-29 M 1250 kg/m3
Specific Gravity 2.58
Coarse C-127-04
Water Absorption 1.13%
Fineness Modulus C-136-05 5.23

Table 18: Physical Properties of Rajanpur

4.5 Kallar Kahar:


Kallar Kahar quarry contains crushed stones as aggregate. The site has limestone aggregates and
possess light with color as compared to Margalla quarry.
Physical Properties and ASTM Standards
KALLAR KAHAR CRUSH
Aggregate Property ASTM Standard Result
Rodded Density C-29 / C-29 M 1320 kg/m3
Specific Gravity 2.67
Coarse C-127-04
Water Absorption 1.40%
Fineness Modulus C-136-05 5.66

Table 19: Physical Properties of Kallar Kahar

4.4 Mechanical Properties:


The performance and quality check of concrete is based upon the mechanical properties of
aggregates which include compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, etc. Usually it‘s
assumed that with improvement in compressive strength of concrete, other properties are also
improved, while in case of replacing aggregates of different sites all mechanical properties are not
directly associated with compressive strength and the effects of different aggregates on the
mechanical properties of hardened concrete are not same.

4.4.1 Compressive Strength:


“Concrete capability of resisting compressive load (load tend to squeeze the object) called
compressive strength”.
It is measured in MPa or Psi units. Different standards are available for pouring and testing of
concrete compressive strength of concrete. The standard test method that is used for measuring the
concrete compressive strength for construction of buildings is specifies by ATSM code C 39/C
39M-15 a and C192/C192M for field and laboratory respectively. The concrete provide majorly a
greater compressive strength as compared to other material like steel, timber and bricks etc.
Standard specimen used for measuring the compressive strength of concrete can be cubic or
cylindrical of size 150x150x150 and 150x300 metric unit i.e. mm.

35
Compression tests are performed to evaluate the result of compressional strength for concrete
cylinders at 7 days, 14 days and 28 days. Compression tests of different sites aggregates are follows:

4.5 Margalla:
Margalla quarry are used now-a-days as a best site aggregate site. Cylinders were casted in lab with
same water cement ratio and different proportion of aggregates were used during casting. Margalla
quarry contain crushed stones as aggregates. Cylinders were casted with care and demolded after
one day ± 4 hours. These were then kept in water until test is not performed. The values of Margalla
site cylinders are:

Strength Average
Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day
(MPa) (MPa)
1 15.06
2 7 13.04 13.88
3 13.54
4 17.62
Margalla 5 14 17.85 17.53
6 17.11
7 17.52
8 28 23.03 20.59
9 21.22

Table 20: Margalla Compressive Strength

Figure 23: Testing of Cylinders of Margalla

36
4.6 Rajanpur:
The Rajanpur quarry contains crushed gravels as aggregate. Different cylinders were casted for
compression test. Cylinders were casted by following same procedure and same water cement ratio
was used. It was designed for 28 MPa. At 7 days it showed 14.10 MPa and then it creases to 19.8
MPa at 28 days.

Aggregate Strength Average


Cylinder # Strength Day
Quarry (MPa) (MPa)
1 14.01
2 7 14.86 14.10
3 13.44
4 18.08
Rajanpur 5 14 17.86 17.76
6 17.33
7 19.52
8 28 23.63 19.80
9 16.24
Table 21: Rajanpur Compressive Strength

Figure 24: Cracks Behavior of Rajanpur

4.7 Kallar Kahar:


Kallar Kahar quarry contains crushed stones as aggregate. The site has limestone aggregates and
possess light with color as compared to Margalla quarry. Different cylinders were casted for
compression test by following same procedure. The water cement ratio used in cylinders were same
37
as that of Margalla. It was designed for 28 MPa. Compressive strength of concrete cylinders using
Kallar Kahar aggregates are:

Aggregate Cylinder Strength Average


Strength Day
Quarry # (MPa) (MPa)
1 15.25
2 7 14.43 15.10
3 15.61
4 18.86
Kallar Kahar 5 14 18.86 19.01
6 19.32
7 24.27
8 28 22.23 21.92
9 19.25

Table 22: Kallar Kahar Compression Strength

4.8 Comparison Strength:


All quarries i.e. Margalla. Rajanpur & Kallar Kahar show different results at same mix design. At
the initial days Kallar Kahar show highest strength whereas at 28th day Rajanpur show highest
strength. Comparison of different sites of compressive strength are shown below.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH COMPARISON


30

25
Strength (Mpa)

20

15 Margalla
Rajanpur
10
Kallar Kahar
5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Days

Figure 25: Compressive Strength Comparison

38
4.9 Cracks Formation:
General behavior of different cracks is shown in the figure below by ASTM standards.

Figure 26: General Cracks Formation

Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar


Figure 27: Tested Cylinders of different sites

39
All quarries i.e. Margalla. Rajanpur & Kallar Kahar shows same cracking behavior at same mix
design. Type 3 type of cracks are performed which are columnar vertical through both ends and no
well-formed cracks.
4.10 Split Tensile Strength
“Concrete capability of resisting tensile load (load tends to lengthen the object) known as tensile
strength”.
Split Tensile Strength test method is used for the determination of splitting tensile strength of
cylindrical concrete specimen. Splitting tensile strength is helpful for the following purposes;
 Splitting tensile strength is generally greater than the direct tensile strength and lower than
the flexural strength (modulus of rupture).
 Splitting tensile strength is used in the design of structural light weight concrete members
to evaluate the shear resistance provided by concrete and to determine the development
length of the reinforcement (M. M. Rahman, 2011).
This test method consists of applying a diametrical force along the length of a cylindrical concrete
at a rate that is within a prescribed range until failure. This loading induces tensile stresses on the
plane containing the applied load and relatively high compressive stresses in the area immediately
around the applied load (Engineers.pk, Standard test method for the determination of the splitting
tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimen. (ASTM C 496/C 496 M-04), 2017).
The maximum load sustained by the specimen is divided by appropriate geometrical factors to
obtain the splitting tensile strength.

Calculation
Calculate the splitting tensile strength of the specimen as follows:
𝟐𝑷
𝑻=
𝝅𝑳𝒅

Where:
T = Splitting tensile strength, psi (kPa),
P = Maximum applied load indicated by the testing machine, lbf (kN),
L = length, in. (m), and
d = diameter, in. (m).

40
Figure 28: During Split Tensile Test Figure 29: After Split Tensile Test

4.10.1 Margalla:
For split tensile test three concrete cylinders were tested. According to ASTM standards these
cylinders were tested within prescribed range until failure occurs. This loading induces tensile
stresses on the plane containing the applied load and relatively high compressive stresses in the
area immediately around the applied load. The results of Margalla quarry split tensile test are follows:

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH C 496 / C 496 M – 04


Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day Stress Tensile Strength Average

1 10.33 2.58

Margalla 2 28 10.5 2.63 2.61

3 10.47 2.62

Table 23: Margalla Split Tensile Strength

4.10.2 Rajanpur:
For split tensile test three concrete cylinders were tested. According to ASTM standards these
cylinders were tested within prescribed range until failure occurs. This loading induces tensile
stresses on the plane containing the applied load and relatively high compressive stresses in the
area immediately around the applied load (El-Reedy, 2015). The results of Rajanpur quarry split
tensile test are follows:

41
SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH C 496 / C 496 M – 04
Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day Stress Tensile Strength Average

1 11.02 2.67

Rajanpur 2 28 10.80 2.70 2.75

3 11.12 2.78

Table 24: Rajanpur Split Tensile Strength

4.10.3 Kallar Kahar:


For split tensile test three concrete cylinders were tested. According to ASTM standards these
cylinders were tested within prescribed range until failure occurs. This loading induces tensile
stresses on the plane containing the applied load and relatively high compressive stresses in the
area immediately around the applied load. The results of Kallar Kahar quarry split tensile test are
follows:

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH C 496 / C 496 M – 04


Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day Stress Tensile Strength Average
1 9.3 2.33

Kallar Kahar 2 28 10.5 2.22 2.26

3 10.47 2.24

Table 25: Kallar Kahar Split Tensile Strength

Split Cylinder Tensile Strength


3 2.75
2.61
Tensile Strength (Mpa)

2.5 2.26

1.5

0.5

0
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Lahar

Table 26: Split Tensile Strength Comparison

42
4.11 Double Punch Test:
It is a nonstandard and indirect method in which we determine the tensile strength of concrete based
on the theory of perfect plasticity.
In this test a concrete cylinder is placed vertically between the loading platens of the machine and
is compressed by two steel punches placed parallel to the top and bottom end surfaces (Neville,
2011). The sample splits across many vertical diametrical planes radiating from central axis.
4.11.1 Margalla:

Figure 30: Cylinder during Double Punch Test Figure 31: Cracks after Double Punch Test

Cylinders casted with Margalla quarry aggregates were placed in water for 28 days and the double
punch test was performed. General procedure was adopted which gives the following results:

DOUBLE PUNCH
Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day Force Stress Tensile Strength Average
1 87.8 4.96 2.11
Margalla 2 28 93.7 5.3 2.25 2.21
3 95.1 5.38 2.28

Table 27: Margalla Double Punch

4.11.2 Rajanpur:
Cylinders casted with Rajanpur quarry aggregates were placed in water for 28 days and the double
punch test was performed. General procedure was adopted which gives the following results:

43
DOUBLE PUNCH
Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day Force Stress Tensile Strength Average
1 113.8 6.44 2.73
Rajanpur 2 28 110.6 6.26 2.65 2.68
3 111.4 6.3 2.67

Table 28: Rajanpur Double Punch

4.11.3 Kallar Kahar:


Cylinders casted with Kallar Kahar quarry aggregates were placed in water for 28 days and the
double punch test was performed. General procedure was adopted which gives the following
results:

DOUBLE PUNCH
Aggregate Cylinder Strength Day Force Stress Tensile Strength Average
1 87.8 4.96 2.11
Kallar
2 28 93.7 5.3 2.25 2.21
Kahar
3 95.1 5.38 2.28

Table 29: Kallar Kahar Double Punch

Comparison can be made between quarries of Rajanpur and Kallar Kahar to Margalla. Results
shows that Kallar Kahar quarry show slightly high value to Margalla quarry. Whereas Rajanpur
quarry shows highest values. Comparison Chart between these quarries are follows:

3 Double Punch Tensile Strength


2.68

2.5
2.21 2.14
Tensile Strength (Mpa)

1.5

0.5

0
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 32: Double Punch Comparison


44
Chapter 5
Conclusion & Recommendation
Pakistan is a developing country and due to numerous ongoing projects our Construction Industry
is of greatest concern and is mainly responsible for rapid progress. This industry is very much
dependent on availability of good quality of aggregates and for both concrete and road construction
aggregate is of great importance. Talking of concrete, aggregate acts as inert filler material and
constitutes about 80% of concrete volume. At present Margalla and Sargodha are only crushing
sites which are trying to fulfill increased demand of aggregates in Punjab Region. Situation got
worse when Supreme Court of Pakistan put a ban on crushers installed on Margalla. To cope with
this situation new potential aggregate sites were needed to fill the gap between supply and demand.
This research is focused on testing aggregates from potential sites of Punjab Region.

Different tests were conducted on aggregates and their use in concrete was studied. For this research
aggregate from Margalla was a baseline. All mechanical and physical properties were compared
with Margalla to deduce conclusions and recommendations. To study behavior of concrete using
different aggregates mix design was done using properties of Margalla Crush. This mix design was
also used for casting concrete samples for Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur crush.

MIX CONCRETE DESIGN (1 : 1.4 : 2.8)


Design w/c Brand of
Cylinder Coarse Fine Cement Water
Strength ratio Cement
300mm x 3.75
28 Mpa 0.4 7.5 kg 2.7 kg Bestway 1.25 kg
150mm kg

Table 30: Mix Design

All the testing and casting was done in controlled environment using standard equipment as
mentioned earlier. Aggregate used for casting concrete specimens was properly graded as per
ASTM C33. Following conclusion can be deducted considering results of experiments performed,

Workability of Concrete
Slump test is used to study workability of concrete. For different types of constructions different
slump values are used i.e. more slump is required for piling to avoid chocking while concreting
while less slump is required for construction of beams and columns. Slump test was conducted on
fresh concrete for Margalla, Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur concrete. Following graph shows slump
values for concrete specimen using aggregates from Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur in comparison with
Margalla crush.

45
Slump Value
60 53.5
47
50
40
Slump (mm)

30 21
20
10
0
Margalla Rajan Pur Kallar Kahar

Figure 33: Slump Values

Referring to above bar chat it is clear that with fixed mix design and w/c ratio Margalla showed
highest slump value i.e. 53.5 mm making it most workable. Concrete sample casted using
KalarKahar aggregate showed minimum value of slump i.e. it is least workable. Workability of
concrete is an important parameter while deciding what concrete slump is allowable for a particular
construction. From table given below (keeping w/c ration constant) we can say that Kallar Kahar
crush can be used for construction of concrete roads while Rjanpur crush can be used for
construction of Beams and Slabs.

Figure 34: Slump according to its use

Mechanical Properties of Concrete


In mechanical properties mainly compressive and tensile strength governs. Tests for compressive
strength of concrete was performed on 7 day, 14 day and 28 day hardened concrete while tests for
tensile strength were conducted on 28 day hardened concrete specimens.

Compressive Strength of Concrete

Test for compressive strength of concrete specimen was performed as per ASTM C192/192 M.
Following figure shows compressive strength (3 day, 7 day, 14 day and 28 day) of concrete
specimen casted using aggregates from Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur in comparison with using
Margalla crush.

46
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH COMPARISON
30

25

20
Strength (Mpa)

15 Margalla
Rajanpur
10
Kallar Kahar

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Days

Figure 35: Compressive Strength Comparison

It is clear from graph that Kallar Kahar crush showed less 28 days strength as compared to Margalla
and Rajanpur, but Kallar Kahar crush can give high early strength i.e. 7 days and 14 days strength,
as needed mostly during fast track projects. If a structure requires more 28 days strength rather than
high early strength then Rajanpur Crush can be used in spite of using Margalla crush. This division
of use of aggregates will surely help lowering burden on Margalla.

Tensile Strength of Concrete

Split tensile test and double punch test gives the tensile strength of the aggregates. Tests were
conducted on 28 days hardened concrete specimens. These tests give the stresses in concrete which
is then used to calculate the tensile force by using the following formula.

𝟐𝑷
𝑻=
𝝅𝑳𝒅
Splitting tensile strength is used in the design of structural lightweight concrete members to
evaluate the shear resistance provided by concrete. The more tensile strength a concrete specimen
has, the more it will resist cracking. As per ASTM C496 average value of tensile strength for 28
Mpa concrete is 2.8 Mpa. Test results show that tensile forces in harden concrete also follows the
same pattern as compressive strength. Rajanpur aggregates have more tensile strength than
Margalla whereas, Kallar Kahar have less tensile strength than Margalla.

47
Split Cylinder Tensile Strength Double Punch Tensile Strength
3 3
2.75 2.68
2.61
2.5 2.5
2.26 2.21 2.14

Tensile Strength (Mpa)


Tensile Strength (Mpa)

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Lahar Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 36: Split Tensile Strength Figure 37: Double Punch Test

Above mentioned charts show that Rajanpur crush has highest tensile strength i.e. Rajanpur crush
should be preferred as high tensile strength shows great resistance towards cracks. Rajanpur crush
can be used for heavy construction like bridges etc. Tensile strength values for Margalla and
Kallar Kahar crush is quite lower than average value stated by ASTM C496.

Strength of Aggregates
Two tests were performed to find strength of aggregates, i.e. Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) and
Aggregate Impact Value (AIV). ACV show resistance of aggregates towards crushing, while AIV
shows resistance of aggregate towards impact loading. Results of performed experiments are given
below,
ACV & AIV Comparrison
25 23.03

20
17.34
16.07
Percentage %

15
ACV
10 AIV

5
1.16 1.43
0.53
0
Margalla Rajanpur Kallar Kahar

Figure 38: ACV and AIV comparison

Both Kallar Kahar and Rajanpur showed ACV comparable to Margalla i.e. aggregates from all
these sites are strong enough to be for light as well as heavy construction. Talking of AIV, Margalla
and Rajanpur aggregate lies in the range of strong aggregates and Kalar Kahar Aggregate lies in
exceptionally strong aggregates. These all three sites can be used in wearing coarse in road
construction.

48
Proximity Analysis
It can be concluded that the places near Rajanpur, DG Khan, Muzaffargarh, and Rahim Yar Khan
etc. can use Rajanpur aggregate quarry for concrete mixing. Whereas Kallar Kahar aggregates can
be utilized in Chakwal, Mianwali, Sargodha, Jhang, Bhakkar and Khushab etc. Further complete
economic survey can be done to find whether use of aggregates from Rajanpur and Kallar Kahar
can be an economical option or not. Economic Analysis might contradict with our findings as
installation of crushers require large capital cost.

Future Research:
 This research focuses on studying the physical and mechanical behavior of different potential
sites of Punjab region. In future this research can be continued on large scale i.e. finding new
potential aggregate sites all across Pakistan.
 This research is focused on use of aggregate in concrete only but as we all know that Road
Construction is a billion-dollar industry in Pakistan and there is a need to conduct further
research on use of aggregates from these sites in base and wearing coarse of Roads and
Highways.
 A detailed geological survey is also needed as we do not know the exact scale of Kallar Kahar
and Rajanpur sites. This will enable economists to accurately analyze these sites economically
as large capital will be on stake. Uninstallation of concrete crushers from Margalla and
installation of new setup for aggregates crushers involve huge cost. Therefore, complete
economic report must be established for selection of new aggregate sites. It must involve long
sustainable source otherwise it will again cause problems.
 Direct Experimental Approach is used in this project. Complete experimentation is already
explained in Chapter 03 and Chapter 4.
 This research can be continued by focusing on Petrographic Analysis of Kallar Kahar and
Rajanpur aggregate sites, petrographic analysis is done to study rock formation and
composition. Getting knowledge of rock formation and composition is of great importance as
chemistry of concrete and reactions taking place during hydration greatly effects crack behavior
and concrete strength.
 This research is done using experimental approach, it can be carried further using logical,
observational and participatory approach, and all these approaches might deduce varying
results.
 Average control is used during experimentation and mix design of concrete; an excellent
control can help getting more accurate results.

49
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