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Ma. Luz C.

Mendoza BEED III ( TED 115 Educational Research )

Individual Activity No.1
1. Define research.

 Research is a careful, detailed and systematic study of a specific problem, concern, or

issue to establish facts This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with
the intent of the research to answer the question.
 A careful, systematic study in the field of knowledge that is undertaken to discover or
establish facts or principles (Webster, 1984).
 A systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a
solution to a problem, to validate or test an existing theory (David, 2000).
 Research is controlled unlike ordinary problem solving which may be done cursorily.
Scientific research is so planned every step of the way that fancy and guess work do not set in.

2. What are the values of research?

 Accuracy
 Objectiveness
 Timeless
 Relevance
 Clarity
 Completeness
 Systematic
 Neatness

3. What are the essential factors for effective research?

 Research is a journey towards the search for infinite knowledge both in modern
and social sciences which are always unfinished processes.
 Research allows us to identify problems in treatment and find solutions.
 In the field of business, research has been undertaken to serve as a voice on key
national issues by providing research-based information to the commercial and
industrial sectors as well as services, such as product, consumer advertising and
image studies, public opinion polls, labor and employment data, viewership and
listenership of mass communication, and information for local and foreign

4. Define a research problem. What are not research problems?

 It explains the existence and seriousness of the problem.

 It shows evidences that prove the problem really exists, that is serious, and/ or
 The definition of a problem identifies elements of a broader problem that are to be the
focus of the research activities.


 If a research problem is not relevant.
 If a research problem is not feasible.
 If a research problem is not clear.
 If a research problem is not ethical.

5. Where are research problems found?

 Contemporary issues
 Theory deductions
 Funding agencies
 Past researches and literature review
 Casual observation
 Related and relevant literature
 Personal interest and experience
 Replication of previous studies
 Clarification of contradictory research results
 Archive data
 Interdisciplinary perspectives

6. When is a research problem considered a “good” problem? Cite some of the

characteristics of a good problem.

 Great interest to the researcher- should ask about a relationship of two or more
 Practical value and contribution- should be clearly stated.
 Novelty – should be stated in question form, or alternatively in the form of an
implicit question.
 Completed in allotted time desired- should be testable by empirical methods-
possible to collect data to answer the questions asked.
 No ethical or moral impediments- should not represent a moral or ethical

7. List down certain factors in the selection of a research problem. Discuss briefly each
 1.Clear and unambiguous:
Clarity in the research problem selected. It should not give scope for divergent
expressions and thus become confusing.
 2. Logical and systematic:
research is guided by logic or reasoning. The problem must be amenable for
studying a specified step or in a specified sequence, in accordance with the well-
defined set of rules and methods.

 3. Empirical:
Research is always related to one or more aspects of real situations and hence
deals with concrete data that provides a basis for external validity to research
results. Therefore, the problem should be such as to take realities into

 4. Relation between variables:

The problem selected for study should express a relation between the variables
contained in the study. The problem under study must be in a position to highlight
the nature, extent and implications of such relation existing among variables of
the study.

 5. Verifiable:
Verifiability is said to be the chief characteristic of physical and natural sciences.
Even in social science, the problem chosen for study should not look absurd.

 6.Interesting:
The problem selected for study must be interesting to the researcher and to the
society at large.

8. What is a good researcher? Cite some of the qualifications of a good researcher according
to various authors.

 A good research has a well-defined goal. It should have a clear statement of


 It should also have a systematic plan of work. A specific programmed helps in

monitoring and carrying out the research within a budgeted time and cost
framework and at the same time yields conclusive results.

 A good research contributes towards the existing knowledge bank. It aims at

increasing the understanding of existing and new facts and ideas.

 Good research is logical. A clear logical argument is required to communicate

and ordered sequence of ideas and activities and hence support research
 The results of good research should be verifiable. 'He researches if replicated
should yield same conclusions. A research that relies on concrete data collected
form a real-life situation would have good chances of yielding valid results.

 A good research is frank. In other words, it lists the flaws in the research and
also explains the impact of such flaws on research results.

9. What are the characteristics of a good researcher?

 Inquisitiveness: Curiosity to know something new is what guides a researcher

during thick and thin times. He should have an inner urge to achieve his aim.

 Innate Creativeness: A good researcher should have some degree of creativity

and imagination. It would help him in not only looking out for new things but will
also enable him to look at old things with a different perception.

 Unbiasedness: Personal prejudice should not enter into his research. He should
be unbiased in collecting and interpreting the results.

 Perseverance: Research requires lot of patience and hard, work. A researcher

should have the grit and courage to overcome hurdles at all stages. He should
remember that even best laid plans can go wrong and persevere ahead.

 Analytical mind: A good researcher should have an analytical mind to unearth

new relationships-give sound reasoning and correlate his findings logically.

 Technology savvy: In the current times it is very important that a good researcher
should have an understanding of various analytical tools and software available to
analyze his data. He should not use them simply to make his research look
glamorous but also understand the appropriateness of their use.

 Communication Skill: Research involves communication with people who

sponsor your research-who collect data i.e. field workers and respondents from
whom you collect data- apart from a large number of other people who assist you
in one way or the other. A good researcher is one who is able to maintain his
humor without losing direction and get things done from others effectively.
Individual Activity No.2

1. Compare and contrast the definitions of research as given by:

a. Good (1956)
“ideally, the careful, unbiased investigation of a problem, based in so far as
possible, upon demonstrable facts and involving refined distinctions, interpretations,
and usually some generalizations.”

b. Kerlinger (1973)
“a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical
propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.”

c. Crawford (1946)
“Research is simply a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing
specialized tools, instruments, and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate
solution of a problem that would be possible under ordinary means. It starts with a
problem, collects data or facts, analyzes these critically, and reaches decisions based
on actual evidences. It involves original work instead of a mere exercise of personal
opinion. It evolves from a genuine desire to know rather than a desire to prove
something. It is quantitative, seeking to know not only what but how much, and
measurement is therefore a central feature of it.”

d. Isidro and Malolos (1979)

“…is a process of scientific thinking that leads to the discovery or establishment of
new knowledge or truth. It is not a subjective expression of ideas or opinion”

e. Parel
“research is a systematic study or investigation of something for the purpose of
answering question post by a researcher.

f. Goods and Scates (1972)

“the continuous discovery and exploration of the unknown.”

g. Best (1981)
“the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that
may be lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in
the prediction and possibly the ultimate control of events.”

and what elements do these definitions have in common? What elements distinguish
one from the others?
From the definitions above, for me the elements that they have in common:
Research is systematic.
Research is controlled.
Research is objective, unbiased and logical.
Research is analytical.
Research is original work.

2. Explain why you agree or disagree with the following statements:

a. Critical analysis of the research project should be done only by a panel of judges.

 I agree. Because, just like what Crawford stated “Research is simply a systematic and
refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments, and procedures
in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem that would be possible under
ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects data or facts, analyzes these critically,
and reaches decisions based on actual evidences. It involves original work instead of a
mere exercise of personal opinion. It evolves from a genuine desire to know rather than a
desire to prove something. It is quantitative, seeking to know not only what but how
much, and measurement is therefore a central feature of it.” I agree because research is
analytical there is a critical analysis of all the data used so that there is no error in their

b. Research involves original work instead of a mere exercise of personal opinion.

 I agree. Because research is original work the researcher users valid and
carefully designed procedures, valid data-gathering instruments and valid
data. It’s all about valid and reliable data of information. Unlike the personal
opinion maybe there is an error in the interpretation.

3. Make a distinction between research involving the gathering of new data from primary
sources from research using existing data for a new purpose.
 Research gathers new knowledge or data from primary of first-hand sources. It is
not research when one merely restates or merely reorganizes what is already
known or what had been written research places emphasis upon the discovery of
general principles. It goes beyond the specific groups and situations investigated,
and, by, careful sampling procedures infers qualities of the entire population from
those observed in the smaller group.

4. Why is it that research requires courage?

 Research requires courage because the researcher oftentimes undergo hazards,
discomforts and the like. At times the researcher encounters public and social
disapproval. Also, disagreements with colleagues may arise.
5. Enumerate the essential phases of the research process according to Best?

 Identification of the problem.

 Formulation of the hypothesis or the hypotheses, in which the researcher
entertains one or several tentative propositions.
 The collection of data.
 The analysis or classification and tabulation of data, in which the researcher
applies the process of deduction.
 The synthesis of data, or the formulation of generalizations or principles that may
substantiate or refute the hypothesis or hypotheses. This is the inductive phase of

6. What is the common goal shared by all research projects according to Bailey?
 Choosing the research problem and stating the hypothesis
 Formulating the research design
 Gathering the data
 Coding and analyzing the data
 Interpreting the results so as to test the hypothesis.

7. A thesis is said to be the report of a scholar. Discuss the three elements that are inherent
in the word “scholar” and eight additional points that must be taken into account in order
to understand that word fully.

8. Differentiate a term paper from a thesis, and thesis from a dissertation.

A term paper can also be a research paper on a topic chosen by the student and involving
thus more thorough academic research in the chosen subject. However, it is very probable
that you need to select a topic or subject that had been discussed in the class or in a
relevant text book. In this case the requirements are basically the same as of a research
paper, starting with choosing a feasible topic which interests and/or challenges you and
that has a sufficient range of references available. The materials that are being used and
cited in the term paper should be versatile, i.e. encyclopaedias, text books, journal articles
and other documents relevant in the chosen topic.

Every research paper should contain a central statement that the research seeks to defend
or support or discuss. It may be stated in the form of a question that needs to be discussed
or even answered or in a form of a claim that needs to be defended. In any way it cannot
be longer than one sentence and needs to be formed with clarity.

There is also a difference between the thesis/dissertation and dissertation statement. The
thesis statement is more focused on your primary argument, and it presents the readers
with what you are actually trying to prove. It tells your various states of point, and in the
end, summarizes the argument.

In a master’s thesis or dissertation you have to conduct research on a specific topic to

present your point. In a PhD thesis or dissertation you have to conduct original research,
and add novel findings to the already existing literature.

9. What does originality in research consist of?

Original research is considered a primary source.

An article is considered original research if...

it is the report of a study written by the researchers who actually did the study.
the researchers describe their hypothesis or research question and the purpose of the
the researchers detail their research methods.
the results of the research are reported.
the researchers interpret their results and discuss possible implications.l

10. Elucidate on the statement by Good and Scates with regard to the “basic claim of
research to acceptance.” Refer to the text for the complete statement.
 Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary duplication
 Practical value of the problem
 Investigator’s interest in the problem
 Availability of data and choice method
 Training and special qualifications
 Time required to investigate the problem
 Cost involved in conducting the research.
 Institutional or administrative cooperation.
Individual Activity No. 3

What kind of research methods are you going to use? Are they mostly:

 Quantitative, or qualitative, or a mixture of both?

 What do you think your methods will enable you to discover?

 What might they prevent you from discovering?

 What kinds of research methods would be best suited to the kind of research you
are undertaking and the research questions you are pursuing?

 What sort of problems do you envisage in setting up these methods?

 What are their benefits?

 What will you need to do to ensure they gather useful data?

 I will think of the objectives, the readers, and the appearance of my own
paper. Also, give my topic the “best” and the latest data of information. I
will prove the correctness of my data by revealing the exact identity of the
sources of my information. And last, avoid plagiarism by writing in the
text and in the bibliography, the names of the original owners of copied,
paraphrased, or summarized ideas.