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Identification of Individuals and Genders Based on Lips Patterns
Indri Seta Septadina
Department of Anatomy Faculty of Medicine, University of Sriwijaya, Palembang
One application of forensic medicine is to identify individuals and sexes. Identification
a person can be done through biological and non biological means. Lipstick is one of the means
of identification
biological in forensic cases as in the case of murder, whereas in nonforensic cases it is used
to identify age, gender and race. Every human being has a typical groove or pattern on the image
of sulci
on the different upper and lower lip mucoses as well as fingerprints. This is the underlying point
the use of lip as one way to identify individuals.
Keywords: lipstick, individual identification, gender
One of the applications of forensic medicine is to identify individual and gender. Identifying a
person may be carried in a
situated biological and nonbiologically. Lip print pattern is a means of identification in the case
of biological forensic as
solving a murder case, while in the case of non forensic used to identify age, sex and racial.
Every human has a groove
or a characterictic pattern of imagery mucous sulci on the upper lip and lower different as a
fingerprint. This
variance underlying the use of lip print to identify individuals.
Keywords: lip print, individual identification, sex
Forensic dentistry is
a branch of forensic medicine that is
now has become a standing science
own. Forensic or dentistry science
forensic odontology is a branch of
dentistry on the way
handling and inspection of evidence
through teeth and evaluation and exposure
related invention results
with the oral cavity for the sake of interest
court. 1 Definition of forensic odontology
is a branch of science from dentistry
judiciary that aims to apply
knowledge of inner dentistry
solving legal and criminal problems. 2
The history of forensic odontology already exists
since prehistoric times, but only begun
gained attention at the end of the 19th century.
Around the year 1960 when the program
formal instructional forensic dentistry
first created by Armen Force in the year
1962 from the Institute of Pathology . Since then
many cases of forensic odontology application
reported in the literature so the name
Forensic odontology is widely known
not just among dentists, but
also among law enforcement and experts
forensics. 3
Identification is the determination and
assurance of the identity of the living person and
the dead by virtue of the characteristics they contain
on the person. Scope
identification in forensic dentistry
wide enough, not only covering the problem
forensic but also nonforensic problems.
Identities that support the identification of
a victim may be a biological identity
and non biological. Non-biological identities can

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in the form of identity cards, permits
driving, clothing, and others. Identity
biological can be known through the bone
bones, teeth, blood, fingerprints, hair, profile,
DNA and identity on the lips.
Lipstick as a means of identification
can be used to identify case-
forensic and non forensic cases. On
forensic lip-smear cases are used for
solve murder case, whereas
in non forensic cases used for
identify age, gender, race and
2. Discussion
Anatomy of Lips
Lips are two folds of muscle that
formed a mouth gate, consisting of lips
upper and lower lip. 4 Outside lips
closed by skin tissue, while parts
in covered by the oral mucosa. 5 According to
The American Join Committee of Cancer , lips
is part of the cavity oris , starting from
border of vermilion-skin and covers
whole vermilion only. The lips consist of three
parts, ie skin, vernilion, and mucosa.
The upper lip is composed of three units, ie 2
lateral and 1 medial. Cuspid bow is
downward projections of the philtrum unit
gives a distinctive lip shape. Projection
linear thin that gives upper lip border and
down in a circle at the cutaneous boundary
and vermilion is called white roll . Lips section
down has 1 unit that is mental part
crease that separates the lips with the chin. 6
Figure 1. Anatomy of the Lips Surface
The upper sensory nerve sensory comes from
branches of the cranial nerve V (N. trigeminus ) and
N. infraorbitalis . The lower lip gets
sensory innervation of the mentalist Nerves .
Lips motor innervation comes from the nerves
cranial VII ( N. facialis ). Ramus buccalis N.
facialis memyarafi Muscularis orbicularis
oris and Musculus levator labii . Ramus
mandibularis N. facialis menginervasi M.
orbicularis oris and M. depressor labii. 7
Lip muscle consists of muscle groups
oral sphincter (orbicularis oris) and dilator muscle
which consists of a series of small muscles that
spread out from the lips. Muscle function
the lip sphincter is to close the lips,
while the lymph muscle dilator function is
to open the lips. 7
Lips are a soft tissue
protect the mouth. Lips have variations
in shape and color. Lips inside
everyday has an important role among others
talking, drinking, sucking, blowing and
etc. On the body burn often
found the lips tightly closed when it is
died before the fire burned the body
them, but will be found open lips
width in case of burning alive. In
hardness in infants often found wounds
ruptured in the upper frenulum. 8
Histology of Lips
The outer surface of the lips is covered with skin with
hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat.
Then on the edge of the vermilion which is
the transition between skin and mucous membranes, lips
turned into a very thin skin without
hair, with a transparent epidermis. 9
The inside of the lips covers the mucosa
composed of layered flat epithelial layer
horns, located above the lamina connective tissue
propria with high papillae. Layer
submucoses contain elastin fibers
Continuing yourself around the skeletal muscle in
middle lips and inside lamina propria. Fiber
This elastin binds tightly to mucous membranes
thus preventing the formation of folds
mucosa that can be bitten when the upper teeth

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and bottom contact. 11 Part of the epidermis of
transparent edge of vermilion lips as well
dermis that has many vessel plexus
blood makes the lips red. 10
Figure 2. Histology of Lips
Lip Finger
Every human being is born with characteristics
different physical one with yang
others. One of the distinctive differences is
groove or pattern on the lips still
many do not know yet. One of
a Japanese researcher named Suzuki
has been researching lip markers for identification
forensics and studies of inheritance properties. 11
Lipstick is defined as a picture
groove on the upper and lower lip mucosa, and by
Suzuki is called " figura linearum labiorum
rubrorum ". Normal lines or grooves on
lips have individual characteristics
just as it does on prints
finger. 12
Figure 3. Oculi Orbicularis Muscle
Fingerprint Pattern
Lipstick is a collection of indentations
located on the edge of vermilion or red part
lip. The indentations include
can be a vertical line, branched pattern, pattern
reticular, and intersection patterns. 13 Lipsticks
until now not known with certainty
since when the formation, but there are
argue that lipstick has been observed
when the baby is four months old. Science that
studied lip marks called Cheiloscopy . 14
Research on lipstick first
done by a named anthropologist
Fischer in 1902. The use of lipstick
in individual identification is recommended
by Edmond Locard who is one
the best criminologist in France in 1932. 15 At
1970. Suzuki and Tsuchihashi perform
research in 1364 people in Japan and
says that lipstick has a pattern
unique to each individual. 16
Classification of Lips Patterns
Some researchers identify and
classifies the pattern of lipstick, however
there is no agreement on the pattern of fingerprints
lip used as a reference
Figure 3. Lips Pattern Pattern (Suzuki & Tsuchihashi
Type IV)
Santos (1967) classified indentations
on the lips and divide it into 4 types

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namely: 1) Straight line 2) Wavy lines 3)
Angular line 4) Sinus-shaped lines). 1
Renaud (1973) divides the pattern of lip scans
into 10 types. Domiaty et al
that classification according to Renaud is that
most complete. 13
Figure 4. Lips Pattern According to Renaud
Information :
Method of Taking Lips Pattern
Research on lipstick until now
not much done yet. One factor
the cause is probably a lip marker
is a new field of study
developed. The other thing is yet
agreement on methods
printing between one researcher and the researcher
others. 10
Picture-making or printing techniques
lipstick still needs improvement
through further experiments, likewise
with storage so obtained
accurate mold. 17
Some methods
taking lipstick such as
using thin cardboard and dye paper
lips, latex, scotch tape , photography, materials
tooth molding, glass preparations, and fingerprint hinge
lifter. Based on the results of fingerprinting
lips, taking the most lipstick
easy to do that is by using
thin cardboard paper and the results obtained
quite clear. 10
Lips Pattern Patterns in Individual Identification
Lip lipids can be used in identification
individual. A supportive identity
identifiers of a victim may
a biological or non-biological identity.
Non-biological identity can be a sign card
residents, driver's licenses, clothing, and
etc. Biological identity can be bone
bones, teeth, blood, fingerprints, hair,
DNA profile, and identity on the lips. 17 Patterns
lipstick is stable and not experienced
change by climate difference or presence
disease around the mouth. Inner lips condition
open state, smiling, and kissing
still produce a unique pattern on each
individual. This has not changed
although individuals experience trauma,
diseases, as well as bias surgical treatments
change the shape and color of the lips.
Although still controversial, pattern lipstick
can still be used as a method
alternative identification of individuals because of the pattern
very unique. 10
Pattern of Lip Lips in Type Identification
A number of studies prove that pattern
lipstick can be used for
identifying the sex of the individual. Pattern
Vertical lines are more commonly found on
women and patterns intersect more
found in men. 18 Fingerprint identification
lips are easier to do in groups
age 21-40 years due to age change can
affect the size and shape of the lips
so it can change the shape of the pattern of the fingerprint
lips produced. There is no pattern

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lipstick that has similarities, so
grouping can be done more easily.
Variations are also found to differentiate
gender. 19 Type I lip pattern pattern
is the pattern of most lipstick
appeared in the male sex group and
type IV is found in many sexes
woman. Type III patterns emerge at least
on female sex, while pattern type
V at least found in gender
men using the Suzuki classification. 20
Fingerprint Identification Against Relationship
A widely held belief is
The "hereditary blood theory" which states
that the genetic factors are on the second
parents move in a certain way to
in a particular cell on a reproduction
sexual. 17
Some families are recognizable because
the presence of apparent properties, as is the case
lip. But most of the traits
others even if some people do not
consistently visible from generation to generation
generation. One of Mendel's hypotheses
says that the traits are determined by
a pair of units, and just a unit of that
passed on to his offspring by
its parent. 17
The genes of each child are related to nature
inherited by both parents.
Some properties have been derived from a person
parent in her child, including good lipstick
dominant, or recessive. Lipstick
are fixed from birth, as are the prints
finger. 9
After doing enough research
long, some researchers concluded bahaw
lipstick is fixed. Lip can
observed starting a four month old child.
Age increase does not cause
meaningful changes in lipstick,
but there is a reduction of volume and elements
support such as tooth loss or occurrence
gum recession. Lips are genetic and
individual. Children have a pattern of fingerprints
the same lips with their parents
although the location is different (residing on
different lip quadrants) so it's a fingerprint
the lips of each person are unique, different
between one person and another. 21
3. Conclusions
Lipstick is one of the means of identification
biological in forensic cases used
to identify age, gender,
blood relationships, and race. Every human
has a typical groove or pattern on the picture
groove on the upper and lower lip mucosa
Different as well as fingerprints.
This underlies the use of lipstick
as one way to identify
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