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Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can

affect a person’s thoughts, behaviour, feelings and sense of well
being. People with depressed mood can feel sad, anxious,
empty,hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, ashamed or


 Feeling of sadness, emptiness or unhappiness

 Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small
 Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities, such as sex
 Sleep disturbance, including insomnia or sleeping too much
 Tiredness and lack of energy, so that even small tasks take
extra effort
 Changes in appetite-often reduced appetite and weight loss,
but increased cravings for food and weight gain in some
 Anxiety, agitation or restlessness- for example excessive
worrying, pacing, hand-wringing or an inability to sit still
 Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
 Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or
blaming yourself for things that are not your responsibility
 Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and
remembering things
 Frequent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide
attempts or suicide
 Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or

 Abuse: Past physical, sexual, or emotional abuse can cause
depression later in life.
 Certain medications: Some drugs such as Accutane(used to
treat acne), the antiviral drug interferon-alpha, and
corticosteroids, can increase your risk of depression
 Conflict: Depression in someone who has the biological
vulnerability to develop depression may result from personal
conflicts or disputes with family members or friends.
 Death or a loss: Sadness or grief from the death or loss of a
loved one, though natural, may increase the risk of depression.
 Genetics: A family history of depression may increase the risk.
It’s thought that depression is a complex trait that may be
inherited across generations, although the genetics of
psychiatric disorders are not as simple or straightforward as in
purely genetic diseases such as Huntington’s chorea or cystic
 Major events: Even good events such as starting a new job,
graduating, or getting married can lead to depression. So can
moving, losing a job or income, getting divorced, or retiring.
 Other personal problems: Problems such as social isolation due
to other mental illnesses or being cast out of a family or social
group can lead to depression.
 Serious illnesses: Sometimes depression co-exists with a major
illness or is a reaction to the illness.
 Substance abuse: Nearly 30% of people with substance abuse
problems also have major or clinical depression.
Cognitive behavioural therapy(CBT)
Helps you understand your thoughts and behaviour and how
they affect you. CBT recognises that events in your past may
have shaped you, but it concentrates mostly on how you can
change the way you think, feel and behave in the present. It
teaches you how to overcome negative thoughts, for example
being able to challenge hopeless feelings.

Interpersonal therapy(IPT)
IPT focuses on your relationships with other people and on
problems you may be having in your relationships, such as
difficulties with communication or coping with bereavement.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy
In psychodynamic(psychoanalytic) psychotherapy, a
psychoanalytic therapist will encourage you to say whatever is
going through your mind. This will help you to become aware
of hidden meanings or patterns in what you do or say that may
be contributing to your problems.

Counselling is a form of therapy that helps you think about the
problems you are experiencing in your life to find new ways of
dealing with them. Counsellors support you in finding solutions
to problems, but do not tell you what to do. Counselling is ideal
for people who are basically healthy but need help coping with
a current crisis, such as anger, relationship issues,
bereavement, redundancy, infertility or the onset of a serious