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Renewable energy is energy that comes from renewable sources, such as sunlight, wind,

rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Water electrolysis is a well-known technology that is used
for production of hydrogen gas for its high energy conversion efficiency.
In this research study, the effect of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) in the production rate of
hydrogen and oxygen during electrolysis was studied. 316 stainless steel were chosen as electrodes
for its resistance to corrosion. The molar concentrations of KOH that were used as alkaline
solutions in the electrolysis system were 0.1, 0.5 M, 1 M, 2 M, and 3M . Varying voltages were
used (1.5 V, 3 V, 6 V, 9 V, 12 V) to determine and compare the obtained results with each other.
Pure water and a widely known catalyst Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) were also used as a basis to
be able to differ results with KOH. The preliminary results showed that 0.5 M showed the most
efficient results in terms of usage of catalyst. ___/min were of hydrogen and __/min were produced
with 0.5 M of KOH. While, the 1 M, 2 M, 3 M, and 4 M produced small differences in volume
displacement when compared to 0.5 M that it was considered negligible.
An electrolysis prototype was fabricated to be able to test the chosen concentrations for
longer amount of time, a closed vessel, and a large volume.

KOH @ 0.5 M
1 M-negligible difference
2 M-slight difference from 1 M and 0.5
3 M- same
5 M- same

constructed for the purpose of measuring a significant amount of hydrogen and oxygen gas

with Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst when compared to pure water only. Laboratory

apparatus such as burette, 50 mL graduated cylinders, iron stand, and a burette clamp were used

during experimental runs. The electrolyte used differs in molar concentration of KOH (0.5M, 1M,

2M). Two stainless steel having a 15 cm length (0.7 mm OD) were used as the cathode electrode
while three single strand wire copper having 20 cm length (0.5 mm OD) as anode. The

experimental runs were conducted at room temperature. The electrolytic device was operated 2

hour fed batch process.

the 0.5 moles/Liter of KOH produced a larger amount of the two gases even when the

molarity was increased to 3 and 5 M. The difference in results (mol/min) from the 3 and 5 M to

the 2 M Potassium Hydroxide was minute that it was considered negligible.

Figure 3.3 Experimental Run using KOH solution.

The qualitative result from the preliminary setup provided the conduct of experimental runs

using potassium hydroxide solution as an electrolyte. The second setup as shown in Figure 3.3 is

an open area where ions moves freely resulting to a desirable production rate of hydrogen and

oxygen gases. All surface area of the electrodes was submerged in the electrolyte solution therefore

are participating in the electrolysis process. However, hydrogen, oxygen and other by-product

gases were mixed in the solution while electrolyzing.


In determining the power requirement for the electrolysis device, the researchers used an

AC to DC converter (Zoren Heavy Duty converter/charger), voltage ranges from 3V, 4.5V, 6V,

7.5V, 9V and 12V and an analog multi-meter for each setup until it reach a variation in the bubbling

effect on the surface area of the submerged electrode which is then the current readings was

recorded for every 10 minutes. A total of 12 readings was done for each voltage selection for each

2-hour experimental run. The current reading was tabulated in Appendix D.

Results of the preliminary runs are shown in Table 4-1. After one hour of operation, the

amount of water that was displacing through the two tubes were scarce to measure. However, it

was observed that at some point, the reading reach the highest value of hydrogen gas produced at

100th minute mark as shown in the Table 4.1. This only shows that in electrolysis, pure water needs

some kind of catalyst in order for it to yield more hydrogen and oxygen gas.

Table 4.1. Results of Preliminary experiment.

Preliminary Setup (no KOH added)

Time Height Difference Volume of the solution Rate of Hydrogen Production
min cm m mL m3 mL/min
10 0.8 0.008 1.281584122 0.0001056 12.81584122
20 0.9 0.009 1.139185886 0.0001188 22.78371772
30 0.9 0.009 1.139185886 0.0001188 34.17557657
40 1 0.01 1.025267297 0.000132 41.01069189
50 1 0.01 1.025267297 0.000132 51.26336486
60 1 0.01 1.025267297 0.000132 61.51603783
70 1.2 0.012 0.854389414 0.0001584 59.80725901
80 1.2 0.012 0.854389414 0.0001584 68.35115315
90 1.3 0.013 0.788667152 0.0001716 70.98004366
100 1.4 0.014 0.732333784 0.0001848 73.23337837
110 1.5 0.015 0.683511531 0.000198 75.18626846
120 1.6 0.016 0.640792061 0.0002112 76.89504729