You are on page 1of 33

PSYCHROMETRY

AND AIR-CONDITIONING PROCESSES


Moist Air as Mixture of Ideal Gases
Dalton’s law of additive pressures
Amagat’s law of additive volumes
Psychometric Chart
Properties of Moist Air
DBT, WBT, DPT, RH
Humidity Ratio  kg vapor/kg DA
Specific Enthalpy of moist air h kJ/kg DA
Specific Volume of moist air v m3/kg DA
Air-Conditioning Processes
Sensible heating and cooling
Cooling and dehumidifying
Heating and humidifying
Mixing of two air streams

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 1


PSYCHROMETRY

Psychrometry
Study of systems involving dry air and water vapor

Gas mixtures
Mole fraction
Mass fraction

Moist Air
Dry air + Water Vapor

Moran and Shapiro (2006) Fig 12.3


Mixture of dry air and water vapor
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 2
DALTON’S LAW OF ADDITIVE PRESSURES

nRT na RT nv RT
p ; pa  ; pv 
For the V V V
moist air
p  pa  pb ; pa  y a p; pv  yv p
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 3
AMAGAT’S LAW OF ADDITIVE VOLUMES

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 4


T-v DIAGRAM FOR WATER VAPOUR
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.4
in an Air-Water Mixture

Saturated air=dry air +


saturated water vapor

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 5


Humidity Ratio, Relative Humidity, and Mixture Enthalpy
mv
Humidity ratio or Specific humidity 
ma
mv M v pvV / RT M v pv pv
    0.622
ma M a paV / RT M a pa p  pv

Relative Humidity
Ratio of mole fraction of water vapor yv in a given sample of moist air
to the mole fraction yv,sat in a saturated moist air sample at the same mixture
temperature and pressure
Mixture Enthalpy
yv  pv 
    H  H a  H v  ma ha  mv hv kJ
yv , sat T , p pg 
T,p H
 ha   hv  ha   hg kJ/kg d.a
ma
h ~h
v g from tables
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 6
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 7
MOIST AIR in EQUILIBRIUM WITH LIQUID WATER
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.5

• The dry air and water vapor behave as


independent ideal gases.
• The equilibrium between the liquid
phase and the water vapor is not
significantly disturbed by the presence of
the air.
• The partial pressure of the water vapor
equals the saturation pressure of water
corresponding to the temperature of the
mixture: pv = pg(T ).

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 8


MOIST AIR COOLED AT CONSTANT PRESSURE
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.6

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 9


DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.6

State of Water for Moist Air Cooled at Constant Mixture Pressure

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 10


DEW POINT TEMPERATURE
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Example 12.7

Cooling moist air at constant pressure:


A 1 kg sample of moist air initially at 21C, 1 bar, and 70% relative humidity is cooled to 5C
while keeping the pressure constant. Determine (a) the initial humidity ratio, (b) the dew point
temperature, in C, and (c) the amount of water vapor that condenses, in kg.

ASSUMPTIONS:
1. The 1 kg sample of moist air is taken as the closed system. The system pressure remains
constant at 1 bar.
2. The gas phase can be treated as an ideal gas mixture. Each mixture component acts as an
ideal gas existing alone in the volume occupied by the gas phase at the mixture
temperature.
3. When a liquid water phase is present, the water vapor exists as a saturated vapor at the
system temperature. The liquid present is a saturated liquid at the system temperature.

Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.7

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 11


Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.7

Analysis
Humidity ratio Dew point Temperature
pv1   pg  0.7  0.02487 bar  0.01741 bar Saturation temperature at pv1
From table: Tdew=15.3C
 0.01741  kg
1  0.622    0.011 Vapor part
 1.01325  0.01741  kg da
mv1
1 kg  ma  mv1; 1   mv1  0.0109 kg(vapor)
ma
ma  1  0.0109  0.9891 kg da
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 12
Mass of condensate

Based on the assumption 3, partial pressure of water vapor in the final state corresponding
to saturation pressure at T=5C i.e. 0.008721 bar (from tables)

 0.008721  kg
2  0.622    0.0054
 1.01325  0.008721  kg da

mv 2  2  ma  0.0054  0.9891=0.0053 kg(vapor)

Amount of condensate = mv1  mv 2  0.0109  0.0053 = 0.0056 kg(condensate)

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 13


ADIABATIC SATURATOR
Moran & Shapiro (2006)
(a) Schematic and (b) Process Representation

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 14


ADIABATIC SATURATOR

where

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 15


WBT MEASURING DEVICES
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.8
(a) Sling Psychrometer and (b) Aspirating Psychrometer

The wet-bulb temperature depends on the rates of heat and mass transfer between the
moistened wick and the air. Since these depend in turn on the geometry of the thermometer, air
velocity, supply water temperature, and other factors, Twb is not a mixture property.
16
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.9

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 17


PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Moran & Shapiro (2000)

18
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
LINES OF CONSTANT PROPERTY VALUE
Enthalpy of dry air :
Reference temperature is 0
deg C

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 19


WBT & ENTHALPY LINES
Why are they not Exactly Parallel?

What Contributes to the Deviation?


– Contribution of the energy entering the adiabatic
saturator with the makeup water is normally much
smaller than that of moist air
– Enthalpy of entering moist air is very nearly equal to
the enthalpy of the saturated mixture exiting
– This slight effect is ignored in some psychometric chart

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 20


Mass and Energy Balances to AC systems

Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.10

Mass balance Energy balance


m a1  m a 2 = m a (dry air)
m v1  m w  m v 2 (water) 0  Q cv  (m a ha1  m v1hg1 )  m
 w hw  (m a ha 2  m v 2 hg 2 )
 m w  m a (2  1 )
0  Q cv  m a  ha1  ha 2   1hg 1  (2  1 )hw  2 hg 2 

Assuming work done is zero and KE and PE


are negligible.

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 21


Mass and Energy Balances to AC systems
Moist air enters a duct at 10C, 80% relative humidity, and a volumetric flow rate of
150 m3/min. The mixture is heated as it flows through the duct and exits at 30C. No
moisture is added or removed, and the mixture pressure remains approximately
constant at 1 bar. For steady-state operation, determine (a) the rate of heat transfer, in
kJ/min, and (b) the relative humidity at the exit. Changes in kinetic and potential
energy can be ignored.

Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure E12.10b


Ans: 23%
and 3737 kJ/min

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 22


DEHUMIDIFICATION
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.11

(a) Equipment Schematic and (b) Representation on Psychrometric Chart

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 23


HUMIDIFICATION
(a) Control
Volume
(b) Steam
Injected
 T2  T1
 2  1

(c) Liquid Water


Injection
 T2  T1
 2  1 Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.12

24
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
EVAPORATIVE COOLING Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.13

(a) Equipment Schematic and (b) Representation on Psychrometric Chart

Enthalpy added by water is very negligible; so the process is almost a constant enthalpy or a
constant wet bulb temperature process.

25
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
ADIABATIC MIXING OF TWO
MOIST AIR STREAMS Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.14

Equipment Schematic

Mass Balance of Dry Air

m a 3  m a1  m a 2

Mass Balance of Water Vapour

m a 33  m a11  m a 22

Energy Balance

m a 3  ha 3  3hg 3   m a1  ha1  1hg1   m a 2  ha 2  2 hg 2 

26
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
COOLING TOWERS
fan work is
neglected

27
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
ASHRAE SUMMER AND WINTER
COMFORT CONDITION
ASHRAE Fundamentals 1997, Fig 4, pp 8.21
• Air Temperature
– 22 to 27 C

• Humidity
– 4.5 to 11 g moisture/kg DA

• Air velocity
– 0.1 to 0.25 m/s

• Summer Design Comfort


Conditions are Higher than
that in the Winter
– This reduces Air Conditioning
Load and Save Energy

28
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
DEHUMIDIFICATION
Moist air at 30C and 50% relative humidity enters a dehumidifier operating at steady state with
a volumetric flow rate of 280 m3/min. The moist air passes over a cooling coil and water vapor
condenses. Condensate exits the dehumidifier saturated at 10C. Saturated moist air exits in a
separate stream at the same temperature. There is no significant loss of energy by heat transfer
to the surroundings and pressure remains constant at 1.013 bar. Determine (a) the mass flow
rate of the dry air, in kg/min, (b) the rate at which water is condensed, in kg per kg of dry air
flowing through the control volume, and (c) the required refrigerating capacity, in tons.

( AV )1 m w
m a   1  2
va1 m a

Q cv  m a  ha   hv 2   ha   hv 1  1  2  hw 

ANS:
319.35 kg/min
0.0057 kg(vap)/kg(da)
-52.5 tons
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 29
HUMIDIFICATION
Moist air with a temperature of 22C and a wet-bulb temperature of 9C enters a steam-spray
humidifier. The mass flow rate of the dry air is 90 kg/min. Saturated water vapor at 110C is
injected into the mixture at a rate of 52 kg/h. There is no heat transfer with the surroundings,
and the pressure is constant throughout at 1 bar. Using the psychrometric chart, determine at
the exit (a) the humidity ratio and (b) the temperature, in C.

m st
2  1 
m a

0  m a  ha   hg    ha   hg   2  1  hg 3 
 2 1 
ha   hg    ha   hg   2  1  hg 3
2 1

ANS:
0.0116 kg/kg(da)
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure 12.12
23.5 C
30
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
ADIABATIC MIXING OF TWO
MOIST AIR STREAMS
A stream consisting of 142 m3/min of moist air at a temperature of 5C and a humidity ratio of
0.002 kg(vapor)  kg(dry air) is mixed adiabatically with a second stream consisting of 425
m3/min of moist air at 24C and 50% relative humidity. The pressure is constant throughout at
1 bar. Using the psychrometric chart, determine (a) the humidity ratio and (b) the temperature
of the exiting mixed stream, in C.

3=0.0074 kg(vap)/kg(da)
out going mixture enthalpy = 37.7 kJ/kg(da)
T3=19C

31
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
Air at 38C and 10% relative humidity enters an evaporative cooler with a volumetric flow rate of
140 m3/min. Moist air exits the cooler at 21C. Water is added to the soaked pad of the cooler
as a liquid at 21C and evaporates fully into the moist air. There is no heat transfer with the
surroundings and the pressure is constant throughout at 1 atm. Determine (a) the mass flow
rate of the water to the soaked pad, in kg/h, and (b) the relative humidity of the moist air at the
exit to the evaporative cooler.

0   ha   hg   2  1  h f   ha   hg 
1 2

c pa T1  T2   1  hg1  h f 
 2 
h g2  hf 

32
ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics
Cooling at Constant Volume
Moran & Shapiro (2006) Example 12.8

Moist air cooling at constant volume:


An air–water vapor mixture is contained in a rigid, closed vessel with a volume of 35 m3 at 1.5
bar, 120C, and =10%. The mixture is cooled at constant volume. Find the dew point
temperature and the temperature at which condensation actually begins.

Moran & Shapiro (2006) Figure E12.8

ME 306 Applied Thermodynamics 33