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Thermodynamics 2 Rankine Cycle

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the following processes:

1 - 2: Isentropic expansion in the

engine; S=C

2 – 3: Constant pressure rejection of

heat in the condenser; P=C

3 – B: Adiabatic pumping; S=C

B – 1: Constant pressure addition of

heat in the steam generator, P=C

Note:

a). In the ideal cycle, the state of steam

leaving the steam generator and entering the

engine are the same as well as the state of

feedwater leaving the pump and entering the

steam generator. This means that there is no

pressure drop and no heat leakage in the

steam line and feedwater line.

b). The quantity of the working substance

within the system is constant. This implies

that there are no leakages in the system.

Heatadded, QA

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

Q A + h B = h1

QA = h 1 - hB

HeatRejected, QR

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h2 = h3 + QR

QR = h 2 – h3

Engine Work, W

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h1 = h 2 + W

W = h 1 – h2

Considering the change in Kinetic Energy,

h 1 + K1 = h 2 + K2 + W

W = h 1 – h 2 + K 1 – K2

Pump Work, WP

Exact Pump Work:

Ein = Eout

h3 + WP = hB

W P = hB – h3

Approximate Pump Work

The state of feedwater leaving the pump is that

of a compressed liquid. Very often, compressed

liquid tables are not available, hence, the

properties of a compressed liquid are not easily

obtainable. Therefore, the exact pump work is

difficult to determine.

The following assumptions are made in the

determination of the approximate pump work.

Water is practically an incompressible liquid.

Therefore, v3 = vB

The change in internal energy is negligible.

uB = u3

Approximate Pump Work

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

u3 + Wf3 + WP + = uB + WfB

WP = WfB – Wf3

WP = PB vB – P3v3

WP = v3 (PB - P3)

WNET = W – WP

WNET = h1 – h2 - WP

Another method of determining the net cycle

work is obtaining it from the T-s Diagram.

WNET = area 1–2–3–B–1

= area (1–2–3–B–1) - area (2–3–b–c–2)

= QA - Q R

= (h1 - hB ) – (h2 – h3 )

= h2 – h1 – (hB – h3 )

= h 1 – h 2 – WP

Thermal Efficiency, eC

Steam Rate, m

perform a unit work or the mass flow rate of

steam consumed to produce a unit of power.

For good design, a lower value of steam rate

is desired. A lower value of steam rate means

that a smaller quantity of steam is needed to

develop the desired power output.

Let:

P = power output, kW

W = work done by a kg of steam, kJ/kg

M = steam rate, kg/kWh

By definition:

But:

Then;

The ideal Rankine Engine is either a steam

turbine or a steam engine. The difference

between an ideal Rankine Engine and an

ideal Rankine Cycle is that an ideal engine

does not include pump work since it is

concerned only with all the processes

occurring inside the engine. On the other

hand, the ideal cycle must include pump

work because the pump is needed for the

completion of the cycle. And for the engine

to be ideal, the expansion process should

be isentropic.

Work, W

W = h 1 – h2

Thermal Efficiency, ee

The definition of thermal efficiency does not

directly applies to an engine because no heat is

added to it. Instead, it is charged with the

enthalpy of steam entering the engine and

credited with the enthalpy of saturated liquid at

the condensing temperature.

When applied to an engine, the thermal

efficiency, e=W/QA becomes e=W/EC where EC is

energy chargeable against the engine.

EC = enthalpy of steam entering the engine –

enthalpy of saturated liquid at the

condensing temperature

Steam Rate, me

Heat Rate, HR

Heat rate is the energy chargeable per unit

of work or the rate of energy chargeable per

unit of power.

Heat Rate, HR

As can be seen from the resulting

equation (previous slide), the

thermal efficiency is inversely

proportional to the heat rate. This

means that the lower the heat rate,

the higher the thermal efficiency

and the higher the heat rate, the

lower the thermal efficiency.

Any presence of the following conditions will

transform the ideal cycle into an actual one.

1. Pressure drop in the steam generator.

2. Pressure drop in the steam line (1-1’).

3. Pressure drop in the condenser.

4. Pressure drop in the feedwater line (B-B’)

5. Heat losses in the steam line.

6. Heat losses in the turbine/engine.

7. Irreversible adiabatic expansion in the turbine.

8. Inefficient pump.

9. Subcooled condensate.

Heat Added, QA

QA = h1 - hB’

QR’ = h2’ - h3’

Engine Work, W’

W’ = h1’ - h2’

Ein = Eout

h1’ = h2 + W’ + QLoss

W’ = h1’ – h2’ - QLoss

Pump Work, WP’

If during the expansion process, the steam

undergoes a process other than isentropic

process, the engine is said to be an actual one.

Engine Analysis

Work, W’

W’ = h1’ - h2’

Energy Chargeable against the engine, EC’

EC’ = h1’ - hf3’

Thermal Efficiency, ee’

1. Turbo-generator is a generator driven by a

turbine.

2. Ideal work, W, is the work done by the steam

during a reversible adiabatic expansion process

in the turbine.

3. Indicated or actual fluid work, W1 or W’, is

the work done by the steam during an

irreversible adiabatic expansion or polytropic

expansion process in the turbine.

4. Brake work, WB, is the useful work, i.e., the

available work at the engine shaft.

5. Combined Work, WK, is the electrical energy

available at the generator outlet.

Ideal Thermal Efficiency, e

Ideal Steam Rate, m

Indicated Engine Efficiency, ni

Generator Efficiency, ng

Ideal Heat Rate, HR

HR = (m) (EC)

HRi = (mi)(EC)

HRb = (mb)(EC)

HRk = (mk)(EC)

3 – 1, p. 71

Steam is generated at 4.10 MPa and 440°C

and condensation occurs at 0.105 MPa.

(a) For a Rankine engine operating between

these limits, compute the thermal efficiency

and the heat rate.

(b) Considering that a Rankine cycle occurs

between the same limits, determine QA, QR,

WNET, and eC.

(c) What mass flow rate is required for a net

output of 30, 000 kW?

@ P1 = 4.10 MPa

P1 = 4.10 MPa h1 = 3305.7 kJ/kg

T1 = 440°C s1 = 6.8911 kJ/kg-K

@ P2 = 0.105 MPa

hf2 = 423.24 kJ/kg sf2 = 1.3181 kJ/kg-K

hfg2 = 2254.4 kJ/kg sfg2 = 6.0249 kJ/kg-K

h2 = 2508.6 kJ/kg

h3 = hf @ 0.105 MPa = 423.24 kJ/kg

vf3 = vf @ 0.105 MPa = 0.0010443 m3/kg

WP = vf3(PB - P3) = (0.0010443)(4100-105)

WP = 4.17 kJ/kg

hB = h3 + WP = 423.24 + 4.17 = 427.4 kJ/kg

(a) Rankine Engine

W = h1 – h2 = 3305.7 – 2508.6 = 797.1 kJ/kg

EC = h1 – hf2 = 3305.7 – 423.24 = 2882.5 kJ/kg

ee = W/EC

ee = (797.1 / 2882.5) x100%= 27.65%

m = 3600/W

m = 3600/ 797.1 = 4.156 kg/kWh

(b) Rankine Cycle

QA = h1 – hB = 3305.7 – 427.4 = 2878.3 kJ/kg

QR = h2 – h3 = 2508.6 – 423.24 = 2085.4 kJ/kg

WNET = QA – QR = 2878.3 – 2085.4 = 729.9 kJ/kg

or WNET = W – WP = 797.1 – 4.17 = 792.9 kJ/kg

eC = WNET /QA = (792.9/2878.3)x100% = 27.55%

(c) Steam flow rate

= (30,000 kW)/ WNET kJ/kg = 30,000 kJ/s / 792.9 kJ/kg = 37.84 kg/s

Moisture is harmful to the blades of the

turbine. It causes erosion and cavitations of

the turbine blades. As have been observed in

the previous cycle, the moisture content

increases during the later stages of the

expansion process. One solution to this

problem is by reheating the steam after

partial expansion in the turbine. Reheating

minimizes the efficiency of the cycle.

Steam is usually withdrawn and reheated by

few degrees before the saturation point.

The ideal reheat cycle with one stage of

reheating is composed of the following

processes:

1-2: Partial isentropic expansion in the turbine,

S=C

2-3: Constant pressure resuperheating in the

reheater, P = C

3-4: Complete isentropic expansion in the

turbine, S = C

4-5: Constant pressure rejection of heat in the

condenser, P = C

5-B: Adiabatic pumping process, S = C

B-1: Constant pressure addition of heat in the

boiler, P = C

Heat

Added, QA

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

QB + hB = h1

QB = h1 - hB

Reheater

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

QRH + h2 = h3

QRH = h3 – h2

Therefore:

QA = QB + QRH

QA = h1 - hB + h3 – h2

For a given number of stages of reheating,

HeatRejected, QR

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h4 = h5 + QR

QR = h 4 – h5

Engine Work, W

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h1 + h3 = h2 + h4 + W

W = h 1 – h2 + h 3 - h4

getting the sum of the work done by the steam

during the different stages of expansion.

W = W1-2 + W3-4

W = h 1 – h2 + h 3 - h4

Pump Work, WP

Approximate Pump Work

WP ≈ vf5 (PB – P5)

Exact Pump Work:

Ein = Eout

h 5 + WP = h B

W P = hB – h5

Net Cycle Work, WNET

WNET = Engine Work – Pump Work

WNET = h1 – h2 + h3 - h4 – WP

Another method:

WNET = QA - Q R

= (h1 - hB + h3 – h2) – (h4 – h5)

= h1 – h2 + h3 – h4 – (hB – h5)

= h 1 – h 2 + h 3 – h 4 – WP

Thermal Efficiency, ec

WNET = h1 – h2 + h3 - h4 – WP

QA = h1 - hB + h3 – h2

But

hB = h5 + WP

QA = h1 – h2 + h3 – h5 – WP

Steam Rate, mc

mc = 3600/ WNET ,in kg/kWh

The ideal reheat engine ignores the pressure

drop in the reheater. The engine is an ideal

one whether there is or there is no pressure

drop in the reheater for as long as the

expansion process is an isentropic one.

Engine Analysis

Work, W

W = h 1 – h2 + h 3 - h4

Steam Rate, me

me = 3600/ W

EnergyChargeable against the engine, EC

General equation which is applicable to a

reheat engine only.

EC = enthalpy of steam entering the

engine - enthalpy of saturated liquid at

the condensing temperature + ΣQRH

For the given engine:

EC = h1 - h5 + QRH

= h1 - h5 + (h3 – h2)

= h1 - h2 + h3 – h5

Any presence of the following conditions will

make the ideal reheat cycle an actual one.

Pressure drop in the boiler/steam generator.

PB’ ≠ P1; P1< PB’

Pressure drop in the steam line (1 – 1’).

P1’ < P1; P1 ≠ P1’

t1’ < t1; t1 ≠ t1’

Pressure drop in the reheater.

P2’ < P3’; P2’ ≠ P3’

Pressure drop in the condenser.

P4’ ≠ P5; P5< P4’

Irreversible adiabatic expansion process.

s2’ ≠ s1’ and s4’ ≠ s3’

QLoss = 0, but

s2’ > s1’ and s4’ > s3’

Polytropic expansion process.

QLoss = 0 and s1’ ≠ s2’ and s4’ ≠ s3’

Heat losses in the steam line (1 – 1’)

Inefficient pump.

Pump efficiency < 100%

Pressure drop in the feedwater line.

PB’ < PB

Heat Added, QA’

QA’ = QB’ + QRH’

QA’ = (h1 – hB’) + (h3’ – h2’)

Heat Rejected, QR’

QR’ = h4’ - h5’

Engine Work, W’

W’ = h1’ – h2’ + h3’ – h4’

If irreversible adiabatic expansion process

or,

W’ = h1’ – h2’ + h3’ – h4’ – QLoss

If polytropic expansion process

Net Cycle Work, WNET’

WNET’ = W’ – WP’

Actual Pump Work, WP’

If the expansion process is no longer

isentropic, the engine is said to be an actual

one.

Engine Analysis

Work, W’

W’ = h1’ – h2’ + h3’ – h4’

Energy Chargeable against the engine, EC’

EC’ = h1’ – hf5 + QRH’

= h1’ - hf5 + (h3’ – h2’)

Thermal efficiency, ee’

HR’ = (me’)(EC’)

3 – 5, p. 88

In a reheat cycle steam at 8.0 MPa and 485°C

enters the turbine and expands to 1.4 MPa.

At this point, the steam is withdrawn and

passed through a reheater. It re-enters the

turbine at 1.3 MPa and 720°C. Expansion now

occurs to the condenser pressure of 0.006

MPa. For the cycle and 1 kg of steam,

determine (a) QA , (b) WNET’ and (c) eC’ . For

the engine, determine (d) W, (e) eC and (f)

the steam flow for an engine output of

40,000 kW.

h1 = h @ 8.0 MPa and 485°C = 3361 kJ/kg

h2 = h @ 1.4 MPa and S2 = S1 = 2891 kJ/kg

h3 = h @ 1.3 MPa and 720°C = 3968 kJ/kg

h4 = h @ 0.006 MPa and S4 = S3 = 2526 kJ/kg

h5 = hf @ 0.006 MPa = 151.53 kJ/kg

vf5 = vf @ 0.006 MPa = 1.0064x10-3 m3/kg

WP = vf5 (PB – P5) = (1.0064x10-3)(8000-6) = 8.05 kJ/kg

hB5 = h5 + WP = 151.53 + 8.05 = 159.58 kJ/kg

(a) QA = h1 – hB5 + h3 – h2

= 3361 – 159.58 + 3968 – 2891

= 4278.4 kJ/kg

(b) W = h1 – h2 + h3 – h4

= 3361 – 2891 + 3968 – 2526

= 1912 kJ/kg

WNET = W – WP = 1912 – 8.05 = 1904 kJ/kg

(c) eC = WNET /QA = (1904/4278.4)x 100% = 44.5%

(d) W = 1912 kJ/kg

(e) EC = h1 – h2 + h3 – hf5

= 3361 -2891 + 3968 -151.83

= 4286.5 kJ/kg

ee = W/EC

= (1912/4286.5)x100% = 44.6%

(f) m = 3600/W

= 3600/1912 = 1.88 kg/kWh

Steam flow rate = (40,000 kWh)(1.88 kg/kWh)

= 75,200 kg/h or 20.89 kg/s

Introduction

The thermal efficiency of a simple power plant

is less than fifty percent (50%). This means that

more than half of the heat added to the water

in the boiler is just wasted and rejected in the

condenser. In order to utilize some of these

heats that would have been wasted and rejected

in the condenser, part of the throttle steam is

extracted or bled for feedwater heating after it

has partially expanded in the turbine. The

extraction/ bled points occur near the saturation

state. The process of heating feedwater in this

manner is called regeneration and the cycle

governing it is the REGENERATIVE CYCLE.

Increase in thermal efficiency

By definition, e=WNET/Q . Examining the

equation, the two ways of increasing the thermal

efficiency are (a) by increasing the net cycle

work and (b) by reducing the heat supplied, QA’ .

The temperature of feedwater entering the

boiler in the regenerative cycle (tB5) is higher

than that of the original Rankine cycle (tB). Since

the feedwater enters the boiler at a relative

high temperature, a smaller quantity of heat is

needed to transform it to steam than without

the regenerative feedwater heating. This in

effect tend to increase the thermal efficiency.

Increasein thermal efficiency

It is true that the net work done per

kilogram of the throttle steam in the

regenerative cycle is less than that of the

Rankine cycle as the consequence of the

extraction of steam for feedwater heating.

This tends to decrease the thermal

efficiency. But the rate of decreased in the

heat supplied, QA’ is faster than the

reduction rate in the net cycle work, WNET.

Therefore, the net result of this is an

increase in thermal efficiency.

Decrease in the moisture content during the

later stages of expansion.

It is a fact that the quality of exhaust steam

for both cycles are the same, i.e., x2

(Rankine cycle) = x3 (Regenerative cycle).

But the quantity of exhaust steam decreases

in the regenerative cycle as the result of the

bleeding process. Therefore, the moisture

content decreases.

Plant Layout of Regenerative Cycle With One

Stage of Extraction for Feedwater Heating

Basis: 1kg of throttle steam

Mass of Bled Steam, m

Mass Balance:

min = mout

mB4 + m = 1

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

mh2 + mB4hB4 = m5h5

mh2 + (1 - m)hB4 = (1)h5

Alternate Method:

Heat Balance:

Heat from bled steam = Heat to feedwater

m(h2 –h5) = mB4(h5 –hB4)

m(h2 –h5) = (1-m)(h5 –hB4)

can be neglected. Neglecting condensate pump work,

hB4 = h4

using direct contact type (open heaters).

mass of bled steam = mass of feedwater leaving

the heater

(General Equation)

Neglecting pump works

h6 ≈ hB6

h5 ≈ hB5

Applying the general equation for

determining the quantity of bled steam,

Heat Supplied, QA

Pump:

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

WP2 + h5 = hB5

Where: WP2 = vf5 (PB5 – P5)

Boiler:

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

QA + hB5 = Eout

QA = h1 - hB5

But:

hB5 = h5 + WP2

Therefore:

QA = h1 - h5 - WP2

HeatRejected, QR

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

(1 - m)h3 = QR + (1 - m)h4

QR = (1 - m)(h3 – h4)

Engine Work, W

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h1 = mh2 + (1 - m)h3 + W

W = h1 - mh2 - (1 - m)h3

= h1 - mh2 - (1 - m)h3 + h2 - h2

= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)h2 - (1 - m)h3

W= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3)

Another method:

W = ΣW (stage work)

W = W1-2 + W2-3

= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3)

Total Pump Work, ΣWP

ΣWP = WP1 + WP2

WP1 = vf4 (PB4 – P4)

WP2 = vf5 (PB5 – P5)

Approximate Total Pump Work

ΣWP = vf4 (PB5 – P4)

Net Cycle Work, WNET

WNET = W – ΣWP

WNET = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) - ΣWP

Thermal efficiency, eC

Engine Analysis

Work, W

W = (h1 - h2) + (1-m)(h2 – h3)

Energy Chargeable, EC

the engine and credited with the enthalpy of feedwater

leaving the last heater assuming that all the bled steam

are used for feedwater heating.

EC = Enthalpy of steam entering the turbine - Enthalpy of

feedwater leaving the last heater

For the given cycle

EC = h1 – h5

Thermal efficiency, ee

Any presence of the following conditions will make an

ideal cycle an actual one.

Pressure drop in the boiler.

P1< PB5’

Pressure drop in the steam line (1-1’)

P1’< P1

Pressure drop in the condenser.

P4< P3’

Pressure drop in the bled steam line.

P2’’< P2’

Pressure drop in the feedwater line.

PB5’< PB5

Heat losses in the steam lines (1-1’) and (2’-2’’).

Heat losses in the turbine

Inefficient Pump

Heat losses in the heaters.

Plant Layout of Actual Regenerative Cycle with One Stage

of Extraction for Feedwater Heating

Heat Added, QA’

QA’ = h1 – hB5’

QR’ = (1-m’)(h3’ - h4)

Engine Work, W’

W’ = (h1’ – h2’)+(1-m’)(h2’ – h3’)

Pump Work, WP’

WP’ = ΣWP

= WP1’ + WP2’

WNET’ = W’ – WP’

Thermal Efficiency, EC’

3 – 10, p.107

Steam is delivered to an engine at 5.4 MPa

and 600°C. Before condensation at 31°C,

steam is extracted for feedwater heating at

0.60 MPa.

For an ideal cycle, find (a) the amount of

steam extracted (b) W and (c) e. For an

ideal engine and the same states, compute

(d) W and e and (e) steam rate.

h1 = h @ 5.40 MPa and 600°C = 3663.3 kJ/kg

h2 = h @ 0.6 MPa and S2 = S1 = 2987 kJ/kg

h3 = h @ 0.004469 MPa and S3 = S1 = 2187 kJ/kg

h4 = hf @ 31°C = 129.97 kJ/kg

h5 = hf @ 0.60 MPa = 670.56 kJ/kg

vf4 = vf @ 31°C = 1.0064x10-3 m3/kg

vf5 = vf @ 0.60 MPa = 1.1006x10-3 m3/kg

WP2 = vf5 (PB5 – P5) = (1.1006x10-3)(5400-600)

WP2 = 5.3 kJ/kg

ΣWP = vf4 (PB5 – P4) = (1.0064x10-3)(5400-4.496)

ΣWP = 5.42 kJ/kg

hB5 = h5 + WP = 670.56 + 5.3 = 675.86 kJ/kg

Heat Balance:

(1-m)(h5 – h4) = m(h2 – h5)

WNET = W – WP = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) – ΣWP

WNET = 3663.3 – 2978 + (1 - 0.1898)(2978 – 2187)-5.42

WNET = 1320.75 kJ/kg

QA = h1 – hB5 = 3663.3 – 675.86 = 2987.44 kJ/kg

eC = WNET /QA = (1320.75 / 2987.44)x100% = 44.2%

W = h1 – h2 + (1 - m)(h2 – h3)

W = 3663.3 – 2978 + (1 – 0.1898)(2978 – 2187)

W = 1326.3 kJ/kg

ee = W/(h1 – h2) = [1326.2/(3663.3-670.56)]x100% = 44.3%

m = 3600/1362.2 = 2.71 kg/kWh

In this cycle, the reheat cycle and the

regenerative cycle are combined to attain

the following objectives.

efficiency.

of steam during the latter part of the

expansion process.

The solution to a reheat-regenerative cycle

problems differs from that of the previous

cycles namely: reheat cycle, Rankine cycle,

and regenerative cycle. It does not follow

fixed set of formulas nor there is a fixed

pattern. Each problem requires a particular

solution although the same laws, definitions,

and principles are still being used. Problems

can best be solved by energy balance and

mass balance.

CASE 1

after some expansion, steam is extracted for

feedwater heating; after further expansion,

there is a reheat; then expansion to exhaust.

Write the equations for (a) the quantity of

extracted steam, (b) the net work, and (c)

the thermal efficiency. The equations should

refer to a T-s Diagram with named points.

Massof Bled Steam, m

General Equation:

mass of bled steam = mass of feedwater leaving the

heater

Net Cycle Work, WNET

Engine Work, W

First Method:

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h1 + (1 - m)h4 = mh2 + (1 - m)h3 + (1 - m)h5 + W

W = h1 + (1 - m)h4 - mh2 + (1 - m)(h3 + h5)

Second Method:

W = ΣW of stages of expansion

= W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-4

= h1 – h2 + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) + (1 - m)(h4 - h5)

Total Pump Work, ΣWP

ΣWP = WP1 + WP2

Exact formula:

ΣWP = vf5 (PB6 – P6) + vf7 (PB7 – P7)

Approximate formula:

ΣWP = vf5 (PB7 – P6)

WNET = Engine work – Pump work

= W – ΣWP

= h1 – h2 + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) + (1 - m)(h4 - h5)

- vf5 (PB7 – P6)

Thermal Efficiency, e

Heat Added, QA

QB = h1 – hB7

QB = h1 – h7 - WP2

But:

WP2 = vf7 (PB7 – P7)

QRH = (1 - m)(h4 – h2)

General Equation:

QA = QBoiler + ΣQReheaters

= (h1 – h7 - WP2)+(1 - m)(h4 – h3)

CASE 2

Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle,

with, first, an extraction for feedwater

heating, then later a single reheating, and

finally, two extraction points for feedwater

heating. Sketch the energy diagram and

write equations for (a) the quantity of steam

extracted at each point, (b) the work from

QA and QR and the turbine work, and (c) the

thermal efficiency of the cycle. The equation

should refer to a T-s diagram with named

points.

Note: Pump 1 is condensate pump

Pump 4 is main boiler feedwater pump

P5 = P10 = PB9 P7 = P 8

P6 = P9 = PB8 P3 = P 4

Massof Bled Steam

Neglecting condensate pump work and pump

works between heaters.

hB8 ≈ h8 hB9 ≈ h8 hB10 ≈ h10

Last Heater:

Second Heater:

First Heater:

Work

Cycle Work, WNET

QB = h1 – hB11

QB = h1 – h11 – WP4

QB = h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11)

QRH = (1 - m1)(h4 – h3)

QA = QBoiler + QReheaters

= h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (1-m1)(h4 – h3)

QR = (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)

Therefore, net cycle work based from QA and QR is,

WNET = QA – QR

= h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (1-m1)(h4 – h3)

- (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)

Turbine Work, W

First Method:

Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout

h1 + (1 - m1)h4 = m1h2 + (1 - m1)h3 + m2h5 + m3h6

+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7 + W

- (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7

Second Method:

W = W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-4 + W4-5 + W5-6 + W6-7

W=(h1 – h2) + (1 – m1)(h2 – h3) + (1 - m1)(h4 - h5)

+ (1 - m1 - m2) (h5 – h6) + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h6 – h7)

Thermal Efficiency, eC

CASE3

The same as Case 2 except that the three

extraction points occur after the reheating

Last Heater:

Second Heater:

Third Heater:

Work

Cycle Work, WNET

QB = h1 – hB11

QB = h1 – h11 – WP4

QB = h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11)

QRH = h3 – h2

QA = QBoiler + Qreheaters

QA = h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (h3 – h2)

QR = (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)

(Same as in Case 2)

WNET = QA – QR

= h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (h3 – h2)

- (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)

Turbine Work

Ein = Eout

h1 + h3 = h2 + m1h4 + m2h5 + m3h6

+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7 + W

+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7]

Another Method:

W + W5-6 + W6-7

W = (h1 – h2) + (h2 – h3) + (1 - m1)(h4 - h5)

+ (1 - m1 - m2) (h5 – h6)

+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h6 – h7)

Thermal Efficiency, eC

CASE 4

Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle:

after some expansion, part of the steam is

extracted for feedwater heating; the

remainder are withdrawn and reheated to

the original temperature; after further

expansion, a second extraction occurs; then

expansion to exhaust. Write the equations

for (a) the quantity of steam extracted and

(b) the turbine work.

Mass

of Bled Steam

Open Heater no. 1

Turbine Work, W

Ein = Eout

h1 + (1 - m1)h3 = m1h2 + (1 - m1)h2 + m2h4

+ (1 - m1 - m2)h5 + W

Or

W = W1-2 + W3-4 + W4-5

W = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m1)(h3 - h4) + (1 - m1 - m2) (h4- h5)

3 – 14, p.133

and expands until it becomes saturated. The

steam is withdrawn and reheated to 330°C.

After expansion in the turbine to 150°C, m1

kg is extracted for feedwater heating. The

remaining steam expands to the condenser

pressure of 0.016 MPa. For 1 kg of steam,

find WNET, eC, ee, and the ideal steam rate.

h1 = h @ 5 MPa and 365°C = 3108 kJ/kg

h2 = h @ S2 = S1 and saturated = 2786 kJ/kg

h3 = h @ 1.25 MPa and 330°C = 3110 kJ/kg

h4 = h @ 0.28 MPa and 150°C and S4 = S3 = 2762 kJ/kg

h5 = h @ 0.016 MPa and S5 = S4 = 2315 kJ/kg

h6 = hf @ 0.016 MPa = 231.56 kJ/kg

h7 = hf @ 0.28 MPa = 551.48 kJ/kg

vf6 = vf @ 0.016 MPa = 1.0147x10-3 m3/kg

vf7 = vf @ 0.28 MPa = 1.0709x10-3 m3/kg

WP2 = vf7 (P1 – P7) = (1.0709x10-3)(5000-280)

WP2 = 5.05 kJ/kg

hB7 = h7 + WP2 = 551.48 + 5.05 = 556.5 kJ/kg

ΣWP = vf6 (P1 – P6) = (1.0147x10-3)(5000-16)

ΣWP = 5.06 kJ/kg

Heater:

= 0.1264 kg

W = (h1 – h2) + (h3 – h4) + (1 – m1)(h4 – h5)

= (3106 – 2786) + (3110 – 2762) + (1- 0.1264)(2762 – 2315)

= 1060.5 kJ/kg

WNET = W – ΣWP = 1060.5 - 5.06 = 1055.4 kJ/kg

QA = h1 – hB7 + h3 – h2 = 3108 – 551.48 + 3100 – 2786 = 2875.5

kJ/kg

EC = h1 – hf7 + h3 – h2 = 3108 – 551.48 + 3100 – 2786 = 2880.5

kJ/kg

eC = WNET /QA = (1055.4 / 2875.5)x100% = 36.70%

ee = W/EC = (1060.5/2880.5)x100% = 36.82%

m = 3600/1060.5 = 3.39 kg/kWh

The ideal incomplete-expansion cycle is

composed of the following processes:

1-2: Isentropic expansion process in the

engine, s = C

2-3: Constant volume rejection of heat

process in the engine, V = C

3-4: Constant pressure rejection of heat

process in the condenser, P = C

4-B: Reversible adiabatic pumping process,

s=C

B-1: Constant pressure addition of heat

process in the boiler, P = C

Engine Work, W

Recalling isentropic and isometric processes.

Isentropic Isometric

Neglecting ΔP and ΔK, the area behind the curve

on the PV plane represents the work of a steady

flow process.

WS = area behind the curve, area 1-2-a-b-1

WS = h1 – h2

WS = area behind the curve, area 2-3-c-d-2

WS = v2(P2 – P3)

For incomplete-expansion with zero clearance:

W = W1-2 + W2-3

W = h1 – h2 + v2(P2 – P3)

Heat Added, QA

Ein = Eout

QA + h B = h 1

QA = h 1 - h B

Incomplete expansion engine almost always

operate with a low initial pressure, hence,

the pump work is very small so that it can be

neglected.

From the pump energy balance:

h B = h 4 + WP

WP ≈ 0

hB ≈ h 4

QA = h 1 – h 4

Thermal Efficiency, eC

EnergyChargeable, EC

EC = h1 + hf3

Thermal Efficiency, e

Ideal Mean Effective Pressure

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, MEPI

Steam Rate, m

Ideal Steam Rate, m

Thermal Efficiency, e

Indicated Thermal Efficiency, eI

Engine Efficiency, n

Indicated Engine Efficiency, nI

Combined Engine Efficiency, nK

Mechanical Efficiency, nm

Generator Efficiency, ng

Approximate Enthalpy of Exhaust Steam, he’

Where:

W’ = actual work

W’ = WI, indicated work

Energy Balance:

h1 = Qloss + WI + he’

he’ = h1 - Qloss - WI

eI = nIe

Proof:

eB = nBe

Proof:

eK =nKe

Proof:

eK =ngnmeI

Proof: eK = ngnmeI

nm = mI/mB

Proof:

nm = eB/eI

Proof:

ng = eK/eB

Proof:

nK = nInmng

Proof:

mK = mI/nmng

Proof:

3 -19, p. 154

Steam at 1.10 MPa and 250°C is delivered to

the throttle of an engine. The steam expands

to 0.205 MPa, where release occurs. Exhaust

is at 0.105 MPa. A test of the engine showed

an indicated steam consumption of 13.28

kg/kWh and a mechanical efficiency of 85%.

Find (a) the ideal work and ideal thermal

efficiency, (b) the ideal steam rate, (c) the

brake and indicated works, (d) the brake

thermal efficiency, (f) the MEP of the ideal

engine and the indicated MEP.

Given:

P1 = 1.10 MPa h1 = 2834.2 kJ/kg

T1 = 205°C S1 = 6.6659 kJ/kg-K

@ P2 = 0.205 MPa

vf2 = 0.0010613 hf2 = 508.03 sf2 = 1.5386

vfg2 = 0.86444 hfg2 = 2199.8 sfg2 = 5.5803

S2 = Sf2 + x2 Sfg2

S2 = 1.5386 + (x2) 5.5803

x2 = 0.9188 = 91.88%

h2 = hf2 + x2 hfg2

h2 = 508.03 + (0.9188) 2199.8

h2 = 2529.2 kJ/kg

v2 = vf2 + x2 vfg2

v2 = 0.0010613 + (0.9188) 0.86444

v2 = 0.7953 m3/kg

h4 = hf3 = hf @ 0.105 MPa = 423.24 kJ/kg

W = h1 – h2 + v2(P2 – P3)

W = 2834.2 – 2529.2 + (0.7953)(205 – 105)

W = 384.5 kJ/kg

ee = W/(h1 – hf3) = [384.5/(2834.2-423.24)] x100%

ee = 15.95%

m = 3600/W = 3600/384.5 = 0.363 kg/kWh

WI = 3600/mI = 3600/13.28 = 271.1 kJ/kg

WB = nm WI = (0.85)(271.1) = 230.4 kJ/kg

eB = WB/(h1 – hf3) = [230.4/(2834.5-423.24)]x100% = 9.56%

nB = WB/W = (230.4/384.5)x 100% = 59.92%

Ideal MEP = W/v2 = 384.5/0.7953 = 483.47 kPa

Indicated MEP = WI/v2 = 271.1/0.7953 = 340.88 kPa

Superposition or topping unit is a new set of

high-pressure equipment to be added or

topped into the existing system with the idea

of increasing the capacity of the whole

system and at the same time replacing the

old boiler (oil-fired) with a new high-pressure

steam generator (coal-fired). As shown in the

diagram, the new Hp turbine or the topping

unit is a non-condensing turbine and its

exhaust will be utilized by the old low-

pressure turbine.

3 – 24, p.166

throttle conditions:

PS = 1.50 MPa; TS = 260°C

The steam rate of this plant is 5.67 kg/kWh.

An additional 12,500 kW is wanted from this

superposed unit using an average indicated

efficiency of 78% and a mechanical-electrical

efficiency of 98%, estimate the steam

conditions of the superposed plant.

hs = h @1.5 MPa, 260°C = 2946.7 kJ/kg

ms = (mk)(Pk) =(5.67)(30,000) = 170,100 kg

For the topping unit:

mk’ = ms/output = 170100/12500 = 13.6 kg/kWh

WK = 3600/ mk’ = 3600/13.6 = 264.7 kJ/kg

WI = W/nme = 264.7/0.96 = 275.73 kJ/kg

WI = h t – h s

275.73 = ht – 2946.7

ht = 3222.43 kJ

h0 :

@ point 0,

P0 = 1.5 MPa

h0 = 2868.93 kJ/kg

then;

S0 = 6.52 kJ/kg-K

@ point t,

St = S0 = 6.52 kJ/kg-K

ht = 3222.43 kJ/kg

then;

Pt = 6.0 MPa and Tt = 416°C

15 – 174 (Sta. Maria)

A reheat-regenerative engine receives steam at 207 bar

and 593°C, expanding it to 38.6 bar, 343°C. At this point,

the steam passes through a reheater and reenters the

turbine at 34.5 bar, 593°C, hence expands to 9 bar, 492°C,

at which point the steam is bled for feedwater heating.

Exhaust occurs at 0.07 bar. Beginning at the throttle (point

1), these enthalpies are known (kJ/kg)

h1=3511.3 h2’=3082.1 h4=3205.4 h5=2308.1 h7’=723.59

h2=3010.0 h3=3662.5 h4’=322.9 h6=163.4 h7=742.83

For ideal engine, sketch the events on the T-s plane and

for 1 kg of throttle steam, find (a) the mass of bled steam,

(b) the work, (c) the efficiency, and (d) the steam rate. In

the actual case, water enters the boiler at 171°C and the

brake engine efficiency is 75% (e) determine the brake

work and the brake thermal efficiency. (f) Let the pump

efficiency be 65%, estimate the enthalpy of the exhaust

steam.

@Pt. 1: P1 = 20.7 MPa; T1 = 593°C

Tsat = 368.635°C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH

h1 = 3511.3 kJ/kg

@Pt. 2: P2 = 3.86 MPa; T2 = 343°C

Tsat = 244.23°C ; Tsat < T2 ; Therefore, SH

h2 = 3010.0 kJ/kg

@Pt. 3: P3 = 3.45 MPa; T3 = 593°C

Tsat = 241.77°C ; Tsat < T3 ; Therefore, SH

h3 = 3662.5 kJ/kg

T(°C) S (kJ/kg-K)

580 7.3880

593 S3

600 7.4409

Interpolate:

S3 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K = S4 = S5

@Pt. 4: P4 = 0.90 MPa; T4 = 492°C

Tsat = 175.38°C ; Tsat < T4 ; Therefore, SH

h4 = 3205.4 kJ/kg

S4 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; S5 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K

Sg = 8.2758 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore,WET

h5 = 2308.1 kJ/kg

@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.007 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h6 = hf6 = 163.40 kJ/kg

S6 = Sf6 = 0.5592kJ/kg-K

v6 = vf6 = 1.0074x10-3 m3/kg

@Pt. B6: PB6 = 0.90 MPa; SB6 = 0.5592kJ/kg-K

Sf = 0.6224 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

@Pt. 7: P7 = 0.90 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h7 = hf7 = 742.83 kJ/kg

S7 = Sf7 = 2.0946 kJ/kg-K

v7 = vf7 = 1.212x10-3 m3/kg

@Pt. B7: PB7 = 20.7 MPa; SB7 = 2.0946 kJ/kg-K

Sf = 4.0762 kJ/kg-K; SB7 < Sf; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

Mass of Bled Steam

Ein = Eout

mh4 + (1 – m)h6 = 1h7

m(3205.4) + (1 – m)163.40= 742.83

3205.4m + 163.40 – 163.40m = 742.83

3042m = 579.43

m = 0.19 kg

Work

Ein = Eout

1h1 + 1h3 = 1h2 + mh4 + (1 - m)h5 + W

3511.3 + 3668.5 = 3010 + (0.19)(3205.4) + (1 - 0.19) (2308.1) + W

W = 1685.213 kJ/kg

Efficiency, e

ee = W/EC

EC = (h1 – h7) + (h3 – h2)

EC = 3511.3 - 742.83 + 3662.5 – 3010.0

EC = 3420.7 kJ/kg

ee = 1685.213 / 3420.7 = 49.26%

Steam Rate, m

m = 3600/W

m = 3600 / 1685.213 = 2.14 kg/kWh

W B , eB

WB = nB W

WB = (0.75)(1685.213) = 1263.91 kJ/kg

eB = WB /EC = 1263.91/3420.7 = 37%

16 – 174-175 (Sta. Maria)

In a 35,000 kW turbo-generator that receives steam

at 6.9 MPa and 370°C, 11% of the throttle steam is

actually extracted at 2MPa, 215°C; with the

remainder being reheated to 1.8 MPa and 315°C;

then 20% of the throttle steam is actually extracted

at 0.724 MPa, each extraction serving an open

feedwater heater. The engine exhaust to a condenser

pressure of 0.005 MPa and the temperature of the

feedwater from the last heater is 205°C. The

combined steam rate of the turbo-generator unit is

4.898 kg/kWh and the generator efficiency is 95%.

For the total throttle flow to an ideal engine, find (a)

extracted steam for the last heater, (b) W, (c) e. For

the actual engine, find (d) eK (e) nK. (f) What is the

enthalpy of the actual exhaust when the pump

efficiency is 60% ?

@Pt. 1: P1 = 6.9 MPa; T1 = 370°C

Tsat = 284.905°C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH

h1 = 3077.6 kJ/kg

S1 = 6.3314 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 2: P2 = 2 MPa; T2 = 215°C

Tsat = 212.42°C; Tsat < T2 ; Therefore, SH

h2 = 2807.2 kJ/kg

S2 = 6.3566 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 3: P3 = 1.8 MPa; T3 = 315°C

Tsat = 207.15°C; Tsat < T3 ; Therefore, SH

h3 = 3063.2 kJ/kg

S3 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 4: P4 = 0.724 MPa; S4 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K

P (MPa) S (kJ/kg-K)

0.72 6.6985

0.724 Sg

0.73 6.6938

Double Interpolation:

@P = 0.72 MPa

S (kJ/kg-K) h(kJ/kg)

6.8717 2843.7

6.88105 h0.72

6.9185 2866.0

Interpolate:

@P = 0.73 MPa

S (kJ/kg-K) h(kJ/kg)

6.8573 2842.6

6.88105 h0.73

6.9042 2865.0

Interpolate:

P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)

0.72 2848.155

0.724 h4

0.73 2853.94

h4 = 2849.31 kJ/kg

@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.005 MPa; S5 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K

Sg = 8.3951 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore, WET

S5 = Sf5 + x5 Sfg5

6.88105 = 0.4674 + (x5) 7.9187

x5 = 0.8088 = 80.88%

h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5

h5 = 137.82 + (0.8088)(2423.7)

h5 = 2098.109 kJ/kg

@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.005 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h6 = hf6 = 137.82 kJ/kg

S6 = Sf6 = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. B6: PB6 = 0.724 MPa; SB6 = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K

P (MPa) S (kJ/kg-K)

0.72 2.0035

0.724 Sf

0.73 2.0091

@Pt. 7: P7 = 0.724 MPa; Saturated Liquid

P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)

0.72 702.20

0.724 hf

0.73 704.64

hf = 703.176 kJ/kg

@Pt. 8: P8 = 2 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h8 = hf8 = 908.79 kJ/kg

S8 = Sf8 = 2.4474 kJ/kg-K

W = (h1 – h2) + (1 – m1)(h3 – h4) + (1 - m1 – m2)(h4 – h5)

W = (3077.6 – 2807.2) + (0.89)(3063.2 – 2849.31) + [1 – 0.11 –

(0.20)(0.89)](2849.31 – 2098.109)

W = 995.6172/0.95

W = 1048.02 kJ/kg

ee = W/EC

EC = h1 – hf8 + h3 – h2

EC = 3077.6 – 908.79 + 3063.2 – 2807.2

EC = 2424.81 kJ/kg

ee = (1048.02 / 2424.81) x100%= 43.22%

mK = 3600/ WK

WK = 3600 / 4898 = 734.99 kJ/kg

eK = WK / EC

eK = (734.99 / 2424.81)x100% = 30.31%

nK = W K / W

nK = (734.99 / 1048.02)x100% = 70.13%

17 – 175, p.175

There are developed 25,000 kW by a reheat-

regenerative engine (turbo-generator) which receives

steam at 4.2 MPa, 313°C and exhaust at 0.007 MPa. At

1.90 MPa and 215°C, part of the steam is extracted for

feedwater heating and the remainder is withdrawn for

reheating. The reheated steam enters the turbine at 1.8

MPa and 270°C and expands to 1.38 MPa, where more

steam is extracted for feedwater heating and the

remainder expands to the condenser pressure of 0.007

MPa and an actually quality of 90%. Feedwater leaves

the last heater at a temperature of 207°C. The

generator has an efficiency of 95%. For the ideal

engine, find (a) the percentages of the extracted

steam, (b) W, and (c) e. Let the actual extracted steam

be 85% of those for the ideal engine and for the actual

engine, find (d) the total throttle flow, if the break

work equal the fluid work, (e) eK and (f) nK.

@Pt. 1: P1 = 4.2 MPa; T1 = 313°C

Tsat = 253.31°C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH

P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)

310 2982.1

313 h1

320 3009.6

h1 = 2990.35 kJ/kg

@Pt. 2: P2 = 1.9 MPa; T2 = 215°C

Tsat = 209.84°C; Tsat < T2; Therefore, SH

h2 = 2813.4 kJ/kg

S2 = 6.3905 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 3: P3 = 1.8 MPa; T3 = 270°C

Tsat = 207.15°C; Tsat < T3; Therefore, SH

h3 = 2959.5 kJ/kg

S3 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 4: P4 = 1.38 MPa; S4 = S3 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K

Sg = 6.4743 kJ/kg-K; S4 > Sg ; Therefore, SH

Double Interpolation

@ 1.35 MPa

S (kJ/kg-K) h (kJ/kg)

6.6743 2881.9

6.6976 h1.35

6.6980 2893.9

Interpolate:

@ 1.40 MPa

S (kJ/kg-K) h (kJ/kg)

6.6778 2891.7

6.6976 h1.40

6.7012 2903.7

Interpolate:

P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)

1.35 2893.697

1.38 h4

1.40 2901.854

h4 = 2898.59 kJ/kg

@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; S5 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K

Sg = 8.2758 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore, WET

S5 = Sf5 + x5 Sfg5

6.6976 = 0.5592 + (x5) 7.7167

x5 = 0.7955 = 79.55%

h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5

h5 = 163.40 + (0. 7955)(2409.1)

h5 = 2079.839 kJ/kg

@Pt. 5’: P5’ = 0.007 MPa; x5’ = 0.90

h5' = hf5’ + x5’ hfg5’

h5' = 163.40 + (0. 90)(2409.1)

h5' = 2331.59 kJ/kg

@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.007 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h6 = hf6 = 163.40 kJ/kg

S6 = Sf6 = 0.5592 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. B6: PB6 = 1.38 MPa; SB6 = 0.5592 kJ/kg-K

Sf = 2.7778 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

@Pt. 7: P7 = 1.38 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h7 = hf7 = 827.29 kJ/kg

S7 = Sf7 = 2.2778 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. B7: PB7 = 1.90 MPa; SB7 = 2.2778 kJ/kg-K

Sf = 2.4109 kJ/kg-K; SB7 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

@Pt. 8: P8 = 1.90 MPa; Saturated Liquid

h8 = hf8 = 897.02 kJ/kg

S8= Sf8 = 2.4233 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. B8: PB8 = 4.2 MPa; SB8 = 2.4233 kJ/kg-K

Sf = 2.8229 kJ/kg-K; SB8 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

% of Extracted Steam:

m1 = 0.035

m2 = 0.234

W = (h1 – h2) + (1 – m1)(h3 – h4) + (1 - m1 –

m2)(h4 – h5)

W = (2990.35 – 2813.4) + (0.965)(2959.5 –

2898.59) + (0.731)(2898.59 – 2079.839)

W = 834.24 kJ/kg

ee = W/EC

EC = h1 – hf8 + h3 – h2

EC = 2990.35 – 897.02 + 2959.5 – 2813.4

EC = 2239.43 kJ/kg

ee = (834.24 / 2239.43) x100%= 37.25%

Thermodynamics 2

Section: 57003 Schedule: 7:00 – 9:40/ M - F

Group 5 Group 6

Abangco, Kevin B. Arante, Kenneth V.

Honorario, James O. Axalan, Jimwell M.

Pedroso, Elvin Louie R. Corpuz, Adrian Lorenzo G.

Polo, Napoleon S. Dumalaon, Mark Lorenze R.

Sarmiento, Emmanuel G. Rocela, Noriel E.

Tagaya, Jerome M. Uyam, Jeffrey A. Jr.

Submitted to:

Engr. Bienvenido D. Manuntag Jr.

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