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Power Cycles

The ideal Rankine Cycle is composed of


the following processes:
 1 - 2: Isentropic expansion in the
engine; S=C
 2 – 3: Constant pressure rejection of
heat in the condenser; P=C
 3 – B: Adiabatic pumping; S=C
 B – 1: Constant pressure addition of
heat in the steam generator, P=C
Note:
a). In the ideal cycle, the state of steam
leaving the steam generator and entering the
engine are the same as well as the state of
feedwater leaving the pump and entering the
steam generator. This means that there is no
pressure drop and no heat leakage in the
steam line and feedwater line.
b). The quantity of the working substance
within the system is constant. This implies
that there are no leakages in the system.
 Heatadded, QA
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
Q A + h B = h1
QA = h 1 - hB
 HeatRejected, QR
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h2 = h3 + QR
QR = h 2 – h3
 Engine Work, W
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h1 = h 2 + W
W = h 1 – h2
 Considering the change in Kinetic Energy,
h 1 + K1 = h 2 + K2 + W
W = h 1 – h 2 + K 1 – K2
 Pump Work, WP
Exact Pump Work:
Ein = Eout
h3 + WP = hB
W P = hB – h3
 Approximate Pump Work
The state of feedwater leaving the pump is that
of a compressed liquid. Very often, compressed
liquid tables are not available, hence, the
properties of a compressed liquid are not easily
obtainable. Therefore, the exact pump work is
difficult to determine.
The following assumptions are made in the
determination of the approximate pump work.
 Water is practically an incompressible liquid.
Therefore, v3 = vB
 The change in internal energy is negligible.
uB = u3
 Approximate Pump Work
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
u3 + Wf3 + WP + = uB + WfB
WP = WfB – Wf3
WP = PB vB – P3v3
WP = v3 (PB - P3)

 Net Cycle Work, WNET

WNET = Gross Work – Pump Work


WNET = W – WP
WNET = h1 – h2 - WP
 Another method of determining the net cycle
work is obtaining it from the T-s Diagram.
WNET = area 1–2–3–B–1
= area (1–2–3–B–1) - area (2–3–b–c–2)
= QA - Q R
= (h1 - hB ) – (h2 – h3 )
= h2 – h1 – (hB – h3 )
= h 1 – h 2 – WP
 Thermal Efficiency, eC
 Steam Rate, m

Steam rate is the mass of steam used to


perform a unit work or the mass flow rate of
steam consumed to produce a unit of power.
For good design, a lower value of steam rate
is desired. A lower value of steam rate means
that a smaller quantity of steam is needed to
develop the desired power output.
 Let:
P = power output, kW
W = work done by a kg of steam, kJ/kg
M = steam rate, kg/kWh
By definition:

But:
Then;

For the Ideal Rankine Cycle:


The ideal Rankine Engine is either a steam
turbine or a steam engine. The difference
between an ideal Rankine Engine and an
ideal Rankine Cycle is that an ideal engine
does not include pump work since it is
concerned only with all the processes
occurring inside the engine. On the other
hand, the ideal cycle must include pump
work because the pump is needed for the
completion of the cycle. And for the engine
to be ideal, the expansion process should
be isentropic.
 Work, W
W = h 1 – h2
 Thermal Efficiency, ee
The definition of thermal efficiency does not
directly applies to an engine because no heat is
added to it. Instead, it is charged with the
enthalpy of steam entering the engine and
credited with the enthalpy of saturated liquid at
the condensing temperature.
When applied to an engine, the thermal
efficiency, e=W/QA becomes e=W/EC where EC is
energy chargeable against the engine.
EC = enthalpy of steam entering the engine –
enthalpy of saturated liquid at the
condensing temperature

 Steam Rate, me
 Heat Rate, HR
Heat rate is the energy chargeable per unit
of work or the rate of energy chargeable per
unit of power.
 Heat Rate, HR

 Relation between ee and HR


As can be seen from the resulting
equation (previous slide), the
thermal efficiency is inversely
proportional to the heat rate. This
means that the lower the heat rate,
the higher the thermal efficiency
and the higher the heat rate, the
lower the thermal efficiency.
 Any presence of the following conditions will
transform the ideal cycle into an actual one.
1. Pressure drop in the steam generator.
2. Pressure drop in the steam line (1-1’).
3. Pressure drop in the condenser.
4. Pressure drop in the feedwater line (B-B’)
5. Heat losses in the steam line.
6. Heat losses in the turbine/engine.
7. Irreversible adiabatic expansion in the turbine.
8. Inefficient pump.
9. Subcooled condensate.
 Heat Added, QA
QA = h1 - hB’

 Heat Rejected, QR’


QR’ = h2’ - h3’

 Engine Work, W’

 Irreversible adiabatic expansion from 1’ – 2’


W’ = h1’ - h2’

 Polytropic expansion from 1’ – 2’


Ein = Eout
h1’ = h2 + W’ + QLoss
W’ = h1’ – h2’ - QLoss
 Pump Work, WP’

where: nm = pump mechanical efficiency

 Actual Cycle Thermal Efficiency, ec’


 If during the expansion process, the steam
undergoes a process other than isentropic
process, the engine is said to be an actual one.
 Engine Analysis
 Work, W’
W’ = h1’ - h2’
 Energy Chargeable against the engine, EC’
EC’ = h1’ - hf3’
 Thermal Efficiency, ee’
1. Turbo-generator is a generator driven by a
turbine.
2. Ideal work, W, is the work done by the steam
during a reversible adiabatic expansion process
in the turbine.
3. Indicated or actual fluid work, W1 or W’, is
the work done by the steam during an
irreversible adiabatic expansion or polytropic
expansion process in the turbine.
4. Brake work, WB, is the useful work, i.e., the
available work at the engine shaft.
5. Combined Work, WK, is the electrical energy
available at the generator outlet.
 Ideal Thermal Efficiency, e

 Indicated Thermal Efficiency, ei

 Brake Thermal Efficiency, eb

 Combined Thermal Efficiency, ek

Note: e> ei > eb > ek


 Ideal Steam Rate, m

 Indicated Steam Rate, m1

 Brake Steam Rate, mb

 Combined Steam Rate, mk


 Indicated Engine Efficiency, ni

 Brake Engine Efficiency, nb

 Combined Engine Efficiency, nk

 Turbine/Engine Mechanical Efficiency, nme

 Generator Efficiency, ng
 Ideal Heat Rate, HR
HR = (m) (EC)

 Indicated Heat Rate, HRi


HRi = (mi)(EC)

 Brake Heat Rate, HRb


HRb = (mb)(EC)

 Combined Heat Rate, HRk


HRk = (mk)(EC)
3 – 1, p. 71
Steam is generated at 4.10 MPa and 440°C
and condensation occurs at 0.105 MPa.
(a) For a Rankine engine operating between
these limits, compute the thermal efficiency
and the heat rate.
(b) Considering that a Rankine cycle occurs
between the same limits, determine QA, QR,
WNET, and eC.
(c) What mass flow rate is required for a net
output of 30, 000 kW?
@ P1 = 4.10 MPa
P1 = 4.10 MPa h1 = 3305.7 kJ/kg
T1 = 440°C s1 = 6.8911 kJ/kg-K

@ P2 = 0.105 MPa
hf2 = 423.24 kJ/kg sf2 = 1.3181 kJ/kg-K
hfg2 = 2254.4 kJ/kg sfg2 = 6.0249 kJ/kg-K

h2 = hf2 - x2hfg2 = 423.24+(0.925)(2254.4)


h2 = 2508.6 kJ/kg
h3 = hf @ 0.105 MPa = 423.24 kJ/kg
vf3 = vf @ 0.105 MPa = 0.0010443 m3/kg
WP = vf3(PB - P3) = (0.0010443)(4100-105)
WP = 4.17 kJ/kg
hB = h3 + WP = 423.24 + 4.17 = 427.4 kJ/kg
(a) Rankine Engine
W = h1 – h2 = 3305.7 – 2508.6 = 797.1 kJ/kg
EC = h1 – hf2 = 3305.7 – 423.24 = 2882.5 kJ/kg
ee = W/EC
ee = (797.1 / 2882.5) x100%= 27.65%
m = 3600/W
m = 3600/ 797.1 = 4.156 kg/kWh
(b) Rankine Cycle
QA = h1 – hB = 3305.7 – 427.4 = 2878.3 kJ/kg
QR = h2 – h3 = 2508.6 – 423.24 = 2085.4 kJ/kg
WNET = QA – QR = 2878.3 – 2085.4 = 729.9 kJ/kg
or WNET = W – WP = 797.1 – 4.17 = 792.9 kJ/kg
eC = WNET /QA = (792.9/2878.3)x100% = 27.55%
(c) Steam flow rate
= (30,000 kW)/ WNET kJ/kg = 30,000 kJ/s / 792.9 kJ/kg = 37.84 kg/s
 Moisture is harmful to the blades of the
turbine. It causes erosion and cavitations of
the turbine blades. As have been observed in
the previous cycle, the moisture content
increases during the later stages of the
expansion process. One solution to this
problem is by reheating the steam after
partial expansion in the turbine. Reheating
minimizes the efficiency of the cycle.
Steam is usually withdrawn and reheated by
few degrees before the saturation point.
The ideal reheat cycle with one stage of
reheating is composed of the following
processes:
 1-2: Partial isentropic expansion in the turbine,
S=C
 2-3: Constant pressure resuperheating in the
reheater, P = C
 3-4: Complete isentropic expansion in the
turbine, S = C
 4-5: Constant pressure rejection of heat in the
condenser, P = C
 5-B: Adiabatic pumping process, S = C
 B-1: Constant pressure addition of heat in the
boiler, P = C
 Heat
Added, QA
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
QB + hB = h1
QB = h1 - hB
 Reheater
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
QRH + h2 = h3
QRH = h3 – h2
 Therefore:
QA = QB + QRH
QA = h1 - hB + h3 – h2
 For a given number of stages of reheating,

Where: n = number of reheaters


 HeatRejected, QR
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h4 = h5 + QR
QR = h 4 – h5
 Engine Work, W
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h1 + h3 = h2 + h4 + W
W = h 1 – h2 + h 3 - h4

 Another means of determining engine work is by


getting the sum of the work done by the steam
during the different stages of expansion.

W = W1-2 + W3-4

W = h 1 – h2 + h 3 - h4
 Pump Work, WP
Approximate Pump Work
WP ≈ vf5 (PB – P5)
Exact Pump Work:
Ein = Eout
h 5 + WP = h B
W P = hB – h5
 Net Cycle Work, WNET
WNET = Engine Work – Pump Work
WNET = h1 – h2 + h3 - h4 – WP

 Another method:
WNET = QA - Q R
= (h1 - hB + h3 – h2) – (h4 – h5)
= h1 – h2 + h3 – h4 – (hB – h5)
= h 1 – h 2 + h 3 – h 4 – WP
 Thermal Efficiency, ec

WNET = h1 – h2 + h3 - h4 – WP
QA = h1 - hB + h3 – h2
But
hB = h5 + WP
QA = h1 – h2 + h3 – h5 – WP

 Steam Rate, mc
mc = 3600/ WNET ,in kg/kWh
 The ideal reheat engine ignores the pressure
drop in the reheater. The engine is an ideal
one whether there is or there is no pressure
drop in the reheater for as long as the
expansion process is an isentropic one.
 Engine Analysis
 Work, W
W = h 1 – h2 + h 3 - h4
 Steam Rate, me
me = 3600/ W
 EnergyChargeable against the engine, EC
General equation which is applicable to a
reheat engine only.
EC = enthalpy of steam entering the
engine - enthalpy of saturated liquid at
the condensing temperature + ΣQRH
For the given engine:
EC = h1 - h5 + QRH
= h1 - h5 + (h3 – h2)
= h1 - h2 + h3 – h5
 Any presence of the following conditions will
make the ideal reheat cycle an actual one.
 Pressure drop in the boiler/steam generator.
PB’ ≠ P1; P1< PB’
 Pressure drop in the steam line (1 – 1’).
P1’ < P1; P1 ≠ P1’
t1’ < t1; t1 ≠ t1’
 Pressure drop in the reheater.
P2’ < P3’; P2’ ≠ P3’
 Pressure drop in the condenser.
P4’ ≠ P5; P5< P4’
 Irreversible adiabatic expansion process.
s2’ ≠ s1’ and s4’ ≠ s3’
QLoss = 0, but
s2’ > s1’ and s4’ > s3’
 Polytropic expansion process.
QLoss = 0 and s1’ ≠ s2’ and s4’ ≠ s3’
 Heat losses in the steam line (1 – 1’)
 Inefficient pump.
Pump efficiency < 100%
 Pressure drop in the feedwater line.
PB’ < PB
 Heat Added, QA’
QA’ = QB’ + QRH’
QA’ = (h1 – hB’) + (h3’ – h2’)
 Heat Rejected, QR’
QR’ = h4’ - h5’
 Engine Work, W’
W’ = h1’ – h2’ + h3’ – h4’
If irreversible adiabatic expansion process
or,
W’ = h1’ – h2’ + h3’ – h4’ – QLoss
If polytropic expansion process
 Net Cycle Work, WNET’
WNET’ = W’ – WP’
 Actual Pump Work, WP’

 Thermal efficiency, eC’


 If the expansion process is no longer
isentropic, the engine is said to be an actual
one.
 Engine Analysis
 Work, W’
W’ = h1’ – h2’ + h3’ – h4’
 Energy Chargeable against the engine, EC’
EC’ = h1’ – hf5 + QRH’
= h1’ - hf5 + (h3’ – h2’)
 Thermal efficiency, ee’

 Steam Rate, me’

 Heat Rate, HR’


HR’ = (me’)(EC’)
3 – 5, p. 88
In a reheat cycle steam at 8.0 MPa and 485°C
enters the turbine and expands to 1.4 MPa.
At this point, the steam is withdrawn and
passed through a reheater. It re-enters the
turbine at 1.3 MPa and 720°C. Expansion now
occurs to the condenser pressure of 0.006
MPa. For the cycle and 1 kg of steam,
determine (a) QA , (b) WNET’ and (c) eC’ . For
the engine, determine (d) W, (e) eC and (f)
the steam flow for an engine output of
40,000 kW.
h1 = h @ 8.0 MPa and 485°C = 3361 kJ/kg
h2 = h @ 1.4 MPa and S2 = S1 = 2891 kJ/kg
h3 = h @ 1.3 MPa and 720°C = 3968 kJ/kg
h4 = h @ 0.006 MPa and S4 = S3 = 2526 kJ/kg
h5 = hf @ 0.006 MPa = 151.53 kJ/kg
vf5 = vf @ 0.006 MPa = 1.0064x10-3 m3/kg
WP = vf5 (PB – P5) = (1.0064x10-3)(8000-6) = 8.05 kJ/kg
hB5 = h5 + WP = 151.53 + 8.05 = 159.58 kJ/kg
(a) QA = h1 – hB5 + h3 – h2
= 3361 – 159.58 + 3968 – 2891
= 4278.4 kJ/kg
(b) W = h1 – h2 + h3 – h4
= 3361 – 2891 + 3968 – 2526
= 1912 kJ/kg
WNET = W – WP = 1912 – 8.05 = 1904 kJ/kg
(c) eC = WNET /QA = (1904/4278.4)x 100% = 44.5%
(d) W = 1912 kJ/kg
(e) EC = h1 – h2 + h3 – hf5
= 3361 -2891 + 3968 -151.83
= 4286.5 kJ/kg
ee = W/EC
= (1912/4286.5)x100% = 44.6%
(f) m = 3600/W
= 3600/1912 = 1.88 kg/kWh
Steam flow rate = (40,000 kWh)(1.88 kg/kWh)
= 75,200 kg/h or 20.89 kg/s
 Introduction
The thermal efficiency of a simple power plant
is less than fifty percent (50%). This means that
more than half of the heat added to the water
in the boiler is just wasted and rejected in the
condenser. In order to utilize some of these
heats that would have been wasted and rejected
in the condenser, part of the throttle steam is
extracted or bled for feedwater heating after it
has partially expanded in the turbine. The
extraction/ bled points occur near the saturation
state. The process of heating feedwater in this
manner is called regeneration and the cycle
governing it is the REGENERATIVE CYCLE.
 Increase in thermal efficiency
By definition, e=WNET/Q . Examining the
equation, the two ways of increasing the thermal
efficiency are (a) by increasing the net cycle
work and (b) by reducing the heat supplied, QA’ .
The temperature of feedwater entering the
boiler in the regenerative cycle (tB5) is higher
than that of the original Rankine cycle (tB). Since
the feedwater enters the boiler at a relative
high temperature, a smaller quantity of heat is
needed to transform it to steam than without
the regenerative feedwater heating. This in
effect tend to increase the thermal efficiency.
 Increasein thermal efficiency
It is true that the net work done per
kilogram of the throttle steam in the
regenerative cycle is less than that of the
Rankine cycle as the consequence of the
extraction of steam for feedwater heating.
This tends to decrease the thermal
efficiency. But the rate of decreased in the
heat supplied, QA’ is faster than the
reduction rate in the net cycle work, WNET.
Therefore, the net result of this is an
increase in thermal efficiency.
 Decrease in the moisture content during the
later stages of expansion.
It is a fact that the quality of exhaust steam
for both cycles are the same, i.e., x2
(Rankine cycle) = x3 (Regenerative cycle).
But the quantity of exhaust steam decreases
in the regenerative cycle as the result of the
bleeding process. Therefore, the moisture
content decreases.
Plant Layout of Regenerative Cycle With One
Stage of Extraction for Feedwater Heating
 Basis: 1kg of throttle steam
 Mass of Bled Steam, m
Mass Balance:
min = mout
mB4 + m = 1
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
mh2 + mB4hB4 = m5h5
mh2 + (1 - m)hB4 = (1)h5
 Alternate Method:
Heat Balance:
Heat from bled steam = Heat to feedwater
m(h2 –h5) = mB4(h5 –hB4)
m(h2 –h5) = (1-m)(h5 –hB4)

The condensate pump work is often small so that it


can be neglected. Neglecting condensate pump work,
hB4 = h4

It can now be said that for any feedwater heater


using direct contact type (open heaters).
mass of bled steam = mass of feedwater leaving
the heater

(General Equation)
 Neglecting pump works
h6 ≈ hB6
h5 ≈ hB5
Applying the general equation for
determining the quantity of bled steam,
 Heat Supplied, QA
Pump:
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
WP2 + h5 = hB5
Where: WP2 = vf5 (PB5 – P5)
Boiler:
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
QA + hB5 = Eout
QA = h1 - hB5
But:
hB5 = h5 + WP2
Therefore:
QA = h1 - h5 - WP2
 HeatRejected, QR
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
(1 - m)h3 = QR + (1 - m)h4
QR = (1 - m)(h3 – h4)
 Engine Work, W
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h1 = mh2 + (1 - m)h3 + W
W = h1 - mh2 - (1 - m)h3
= h1 - mh2 - (1 - m)h3 + h2 - h2
= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)h2 - (1 - m)h3
W= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3)
 Another method:
W = ΣW (stage work)
W = W1-2 + W2-3
= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3)
 Total Pump Work, ΣWP
ΣWP = WP1 + WP2
WP1 = vf4 (PB4 – P4)
WP2 = vf5 (PB5 – P5)
 Approximate Total Pump Work
ΣWP = vf4 (PB5 – P4)
 Net Cycle Work, WNET
WNET = W – ΣWP
WNET = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) - ΣWP
 Thermal efficiency, eC
 Engine Analysis
Work, W
W = (h1 - h2) + (1-m)(h2 – h3)
 Energy Chargeable, EC

The engine is charged with the enthalpy of steam entering


the engine and credited with the enthalpy of feedwater
leaving the last heater assuming that all the bled steam
are used for feedwater heating.
EC = Enthalpy of steam entering the turbine - Enthalpy of
feedwater leaving the last heater
For the given cycle
EC = h1 – h5
 Thermal efficiency, ee
 Any presence of the following conditions will make an
ideal cycle an actual one.
 Pressure drop in the boiler.
P1< PB5’
 Pressure drop in the steam line (1-1’)
P1’< P1
 Pressure drop in the condenser.
P4< P3’
 Pressure drop in the bled steam line.
P2’’< P2’
 Pressure drop in the feedwater line.
PB5’< PB5
 Heat losses in the steam lines (1-1’) and (2’-2’’).
 Heat losses in the turbine
 Inefficient Pump
 Heat losses in the heaters.
Plant Layout of Actual Regenerative Cycle with One Stage
of Extraction for Feedwater Heating
 Heat Added, QA’
QA’ = h1 – hB5’

 Heat Rejected, QR’


QR’ = (1-m’)(h3’ - h4)

 Mass of Bled Steam

 Engine Work, W’
W’ = (h1’ – h2’)+(1-m’)(h2’ – h3’)
 Pump Work, WP’
WP’ = ΣWP
= WP1’ + WP2’

 Net Cycle Work, WNET’


WNET’ = W’ – WP’
 Thermal Efficiency, EC’
3 – 10, p.107
Steam is delivered to an engine at 5.4 MPa
and 600°C. Before condensation at 31°C,
steam is extracted for feedwater heating at
0.60 MPa.
For an ideal cycle, find (a) the amount of
steam extracted (b) W and (c) e. For an
ideal engine and the same states, compute
(d) W and e and (e) steam rate.
h1 = h @ 5.40 MPa and 600°C = 3663.3 kJ/kg
h2 = h @ 0.6 MPa and S2 = S1 = 2987 kJ/kg
h3 = h @ 0.004469 MPa and S3 = S1 = 2187 kJ/kg
h4 = hf @ 31°C = 129.97 kJ/kg
h5 = hf @ 0.60 MPa = 670.56 kJ/kg
vf4 = vf @ 31°C = 1.0064x10-3 m3/kg
vf5 = vf @ 0.60 MPa = 1.1006x10-3 m3/kg
WP2 = vf5 (PB5 – P5) = (1.1006x10-3)(5400-600)
WP2 = 5.3 kJ/kg
ΣWP = vf4 (PB5 – P4) = (1.0064x10-3)(5400-4.496)
ΣWP = 5.42 kJ/kg
hB5 = h5 + WP = 670.56 + 5.3 = 675.86 kJ/kg
Heat Balance:
(1-m)(h5 – h4) = m(h2 – h5)

m = 0.1898 kg of throttle steam


WNET = W – WP = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) – ΣWP
WNET = 3663.3 – 2978 + (1 - 0.1898)(2978 – 2187)-5.42
WNET = 1320.75 kJ/kg
QA = h1 – hB5 = 3663.3 – 675.86 = 2987.44 kJ/kg
eC = WNET /QA = (1320.75 / 2987.44)x100% = 44.2%
W = h1 – h2 + (1 - m)(h2 – h3)
W = 3663.3 – 2978 + (1 – 0.1898)(2978 – 2187)
W = 1326.3 kJ/kg
ee = W/(h1 – h2) = [1326.2/(3663.3-670.56)]x100% = 44.3%
m = 3600/1362.2 = 2.71 kg/kWh
 In this cycle, the reheat cycle and the
regenerative cycle are combined to attain
the following objectives.

1. Further improvement in the overall thermal


efficiency.

2. Further reduction in the moisture content


of steam during the latter part of the
expansion process.
The solution to a reheat-regenerative cycle
problems differs from that of the previous
cycles namely: reheat cycle, Rankine cycle,
and regenerative cycle. It does not follow
fixed set of formulas nor there is a fixed
pattern. Each problem requires a particular
solution although the same laws, definitions,
and principles are still being used. Problems
can best be solved by energy balance and
mass balance.
 CASE 1

Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle:


after some expansion, steam is extracted for
feedwater heating; after further expansion,
there is a reheat; then expansion to exhaust.
Write the equations for (a) the quantity of
extracted steam, (b) the net work, and (c)
the thermal efficiency. The equations should
refer to a T-s Diagram with named points.
 Massof Bled Steam, m
General Equation:
mass of bled steam = mass of feedwater leaving the
heater

Neglecting condensate pump work (Pump 1) hB6 ≈ h6


 Net Cycle Work, WNET
Engine Work, W
 First Method:
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h1 + (1 - m)h4 = mh2 + (1 - m)h3 + (1 - m)h5 + W
W = h1 + (1 - m)h4 - mh2 + (1 - m)(h3 + h5)
 Second Method:
W = ΣW of stages of expansion
= W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-4
= h1 – h2 + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) + (1 - m)(h4 - h5)
 Total Pump Work, ΣWP
ΣWP = WP1 + WP2
Exact formula:
ΣWP = vf5 (PB6 – P6) + vf7 (PB7 – P7)
Approximate formula:
ΣWP = vf5 (PB7 – P6)
WNET = Engine work – Pump work
= W – ΣWP
= h1 – h2 + (1 - m)(h2 – h3) + (1 - m)(h4 - h5)
- vf5 (PB7 – P6)
 Thermal Efficiency, e

 Heat Added, QA
QB = h1 – hB7
QB = h1 – h7 - WP2
But:
WP2 = vf7 (PB7 – P7)
QRH = (1 - m)(h4 – h2)
General Equation:
QA = QBoiler + ΣQReheaters
= (h1 – h7 - WP2)+(1 - m)(h4 – h3)
 CASE 2
Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle,
with, first, an extraction for feedwater
heating, then later a single reheating, and
finally, two extraction points for feedwater
heating. Sketch the energy diagram and
write equations for (a) the quantity of steam
extracted at each point, (b) the work from
QA and QR and the turbine work, and (c) the
thermal efficiency of the cycle. The equation
should refer to a T-s diagram with named
points.
 Note: Pump 1 is condensate pump
Pump 4 is main boiler feedwater pump

P2 = P11 = PB10 PB11 = P1


P5 = P10 = PB9 P7 = P 8
P6 = P9 = PB8 P3 = P 4
 Massof Bled Steam
Neglecting condensate pump work and pump
works between heaters.
hB8 ≈ h8 hB9 ≈ h8 hB10 ≈ h10
Last Heater:

Second Heater:

First Heater:
 Work
 Cycle Work, WNET
QB = h1 – hB11
QB = h1 – h11 – WP4
QB = h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11)
QRH = (1 - m1)(h4 – h3)

QA = QBoiler + QReheaters
= h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (1-m1)(h4 – h3)

QR = (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)
 Therefore, net cycle work based from QA and QR is,
WNET = QA – QR
= h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (1-m1)(h4 – h3)
- (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)

 Turbine Work, W
First Method:
Energy Balance:
Ein = Eout
h1 + (1 - m1)h4 = m1h2 + (1 - m1)h3 + m2h5 + m3h6
+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7 + W

W = h1 + (1 - m1)h4 - m1h2 - (1 - m1)h3 - m2h5 - m3h6


- (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7
 Second Method:
W = W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-4 + W4-5 + W5-6 + W6-7
W=(h1 – h2) + (1 – m1)(h2 – h3) + (1 - m1)(h4 - h5)
+ (1 - m1 - m2) (h5 – h6) + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h6 – h7)
 Thermal Efficiency, eC
 CASE3
The same as Case 2 except that the three
extraction points occur after the reheating

 Massof Bled Steam


Last Heater:

Second Heater:

Third Heater:
 Work
 Cycle Work, WNET
QB = h1 – hB11
QB = h1 – h11 – WP4
QB = h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11)
QRH = h3 – h2

QA = QBoiler + Qreheaters
QA = h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (h3 – h2)

QR = (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)
(Same as in Case 2)
WNET = QA – QR
= h1 – h11 – vf11 (PB11 – P11) + (h3 – h2)
- (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 – h8)
 Turbine Work
Ein = Eout
h1 + h3 = h2 + m1h4 + m2h5 + m3h6
+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7 + W

W = h1 + h3 – [h2 + m1h4 + m2h5 + m3h6


+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7]
 Another Method:
W + W5-6 + W6-7
W = (h1 – h2) + (h2 – h3) + (1 - m1)(h4 - h5)
+ (1 - m1 - m2) (h5 – h6)
+ (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h6 – h7)
 Thermal Efficiency, eC
 CASE 4
Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle:
after some expansion, part of the steam is
extracted for feedwater heating; the
remainder are withdrawn and reheated to
the original temperature; after further
expansion, a second extraction occurs; then
expansion to exhaust. Write the equations
for (a) the quantity of steam extracted and
(b) the turbine work.
 Mass
of Bled Steam
Open Heater no. 1

Open Heater no. 2


 Turbine Work, W
Ein = Eout
h1 + (1 - m1)h3 = m1h2 + (1 - m1)h2 + m2h4
+ (1 - m1 - m2)h5 + W

W = (h1 + h2) + (1 - m1)h3 - m2h4 - (1 - m1 - m2)h5


Or
W = W1-2 + W3-4 + W4-5
W = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m1)(h3 - h4) + (1 - m1 - m2) (h4- h5)
3 – 14, p.133

Steam at 5 MPa and 365°C enters a turbine


and expands until it becomes saturated. The
steam is withdrawn and reheated to 330°C.
After expansion in the turbine to 150°C, m1
kg is extracted for feedwater heating. The
remaining steam expands to the condenser
pressure of 0.016 MPa. For 1 kg of steam,
find WNET, eC, ee, and the ideal steam rate.
h1 = h @ 5 MPa and 365°C = 3108 kJ/kg
h2 = h @ S2 = S1 and saturated = 2786 kJ/kg
h3 = h @ 1.25 MPa and 330°C = 3110 kJ/kg
h4 = h @ 0.28 MPa and 150°C and S4 = S3 = 2762 kJ/kg
h5 = h @ 0.016 MPa and S5 = S4 = 2315 kJ/kg
h6 = hf @ 0.016 MPa = 231.56 kJ/kg
h7 = hf @ 0.28 MPa = 551.48 kJ/kg
vf6 = vf @ 0.016 MPa = 1.0147x10-3 m3/kg
vf7 = vf @ 0.28 MPa = 1.0709x10-3 m3/kg
WP2 = vf7 (P1 – P7) = (1.0709x10-3)(5000-280)
WP2 = 5.05 kJ/kg
hB7 = h7 + WP2 = 551.48 + 5.05 = 556.5 kJ/kg
ΣWP = vf6 (P1 – P6) = (1.0147x10-3)(5000-16)
ΣWP = 5.06 kJ/kg
 Heater:

= 0.1264 kg
W = (h1 – h2) + (h3 – h4) + (1 – m1)(h4 – h5)
= (3106 – 2786) + (3110 – 2762) + (1- 0.1264)(2762 – 2315)
= 1060.5 kJ/kg
WNET = W – ΣWP = 1060.5 - 5.06 = 1055.4 kJ/kg
QA = h1 – hB7 + h3 – h2 = 3108 – 551.48 + 3100 – 2786 = 2875.5
kJ/kg
EC = h1 – hf7 + h3 – h2 = 3108 – 551.48 + 3100 – 2786 = 2880.5
kJ/kg
eC = WNET /QA = (1055.4 / 2875.5)x100% = 36.70%
ee = W/EC = (1060.5/2880.5)x100% = 36.82%
m = 3600/1060.5 = 3.39 kg/kWh
 The ideal incomplete-expansion cycle is
composed of the following processes:
1-2: Isentropic expansion process in the
engine, s = C
2-3: Constant volume rejection of heat
process in the engine, V = C
3-4: Constant pressure rejection of heat
process in the condenser, P = C
4-B: Reversible adiabatic pumping process,
s=C
B-1: Constant pressure addition of heat
process in the boiler, P = C
 Engine Work, W
Recalling isentropic and isometric processes.

Isentropic Isometric
 Neglecting ΔP and ΔK, the area behind the curve
on the PV plane represents the work of a steady
flow process.

For isentropic process:


WS = area behind the curve, area 1-2-a-b-1
WS = h1 – h2

For isometric process:


WS = area behind the curve, area 2-3-c-d-2
WS = v2(P2 – P3)
 For incomplete-expansion with zero clearance:
W = W1-2 + W2-3
W = h1 – h2 + v2(P2 – P3)
 Heat Added, QA
Ein = Eout
QA + h B = h 1
QA = h 1 - h B
 Incomplete expansion engine almost always
operate with a low initial pressure, hence,
the pump work is very small so that it can be
neglected.
 From the pump energy balance:
h B = h 4 + WP
WP ≈ 0
hB ≈ h 4
QA = h 1 – h 4
 Thermal Efficiency, eC
 EnergyChargeable, EC
EC = h1 + hf3
 Thermal Efficiency, e

 Mean Effective Pressure, MEP or Pm


Ideal Mean Effective Pressure
 Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, MEPI

 Brake Mean Effective Pressure, MEPB

 Combined Mean Effective Pressure, MEPK


 Steam Rate, m
 Ideal Steam Rate, m

 Indicated Steam Rate, mI

 Brake Steam Rate, mB

 Combined Steam Rate, mK


 Thermal Efficiency, e
 Indicated Thermal Efficiency, eI

 Brake Thermal Efficiency, eB

 Combined Thermal Efficiency, eK


 Engine Efficiency, n
 Indicated Engine Efficiency, nI

 Brake Engine Efficiency, nB


 Combined Engine Efficiency, nK

 Mechanical Efficiency, nm

 Generator Efficiency, ng
 Approximate Enthalpy of Exhaust Steam, he’

Where:
W’ = actual work
W’ = WI, indicated work

Energy Balance:
h1 = Qloss + WI + he’
he’ = h1 - Qloss - WI
 eI = nIe
Proof:

 eB = nBe
Proof:
 eK =nKe
Proof:

 eK =ngnmeI
Proof: eK = ngnmeI
 nm = mI/mB
Proof:

 nm = eB/eI
Proof:
 ng = eK/eB
Proof:

 nK = nInmng
Proof:
 mK = mI/nmng
Proof:
3 -19, p. 154
Steam at 1.10 MPa and 250°C is delivered to
the throttle of an engine. The steam expands
to 0.205 MPa, where release occurs. Exhaust
is at 0.105 MPa. A test of the engine showed
an indicated steam consumption of 13.28
kg/kWh and a mechanical efficiency of 85%.
Find (a) the ideal work and ideal thermal
efficiency, (b) the ideal steam rate, (c) the
brake and indicated works, (d) the brake
thermal efficiency, (f) the MEP of the ideal
engine and the indicated MEP.
Given:
P1 = 1.10 MPa h1 = 2834.2 kJ/kg
T1 = 205°C S1 = 6.6659 kJ/kg-K
@ P2 = 0.205 MPa
vf2 = 0.0010613 hf2 = 508.03 sf2 = 1.5386
vfg2 = 0.86444 hfg2 = 2199.8 sfg2 = 5.5803
S2 = Sf2 + x2 Sfg2
S2 = 1.5386 + (x2) 5.5803
x2 = 0.9188 = 91.88%
h2 = hf2 + x2 hfg2
h2 = 508.03 + (0.9188) 2199.8
h2 = 2529.2 kJ/kg
v2 = vf2 + x2 vfg2
v2 = 0.0010613 + (0.9188) 0.86444
v2 = 0.7953 m3/kg
h4 = hf3 = hf @ 0.105 MPa = 423.24 kJ/kg
W = h1 – h2 + v2(P2 – P3)
W = 2834.2 – 2529.2 + (0.7953)(205 – 105)
W = 384.5 kJ/kg
ee = W/(h1 – hf3) = [384.5/(2834.2-423.24)] x100%
ee = 15.95%
m = 3600/W = 3600/384.5 = 0.363 kg/kWh
WI = 3600/mI = 3600/13.28 = 271.1 kJ/kg
WB = nm WI = (0.85)(271.1) = 230.4 kJ/kg
eB = WB/(h1 – hf3) = [230.4/(2834.5-423.24)]x100% = 9.56%
nB = WB/W = (230.4/384.5)x 100% = 59.92%
Ideal MEP = W/v2 = 384.5/0.7953 = 483.47 kPa
Indicated MEP = WI/v2 = 271.1/0.7953 = 340.88 kPa
Superposition or topping unit is a new set of
high-pressure equipment to be added or
topped into the existing system with the idea
of increasing the capacity of the whole
system and at the same time replacing the
old boiler (oil-fired) with a new high-pressure
steam generator (coal-fired). As shown in the
diagram, the new Hp turbine or the topping
unit is a non-condensing turbine and its
exhaust will be utilized by the old low-
pressure turbine.
3 – 24, p.166

A 30,000 kW existing plant has the following


throttle conditions:
PS = 1.50 MPa; TS = 260°C
The steam rate of this plant is 5.67 kg/kWh.
An additional 12,500 kW is wanted from this
superposed unit using an average indicated
efficiency of 78% and a mechanical-electrical
efficiency of 98%, estimate the steam
conditions of the superposed plant.
hs = h @1.5 MPa, 260°C = 2946.7 kJ/kg
ms = (mk)(Pk) =(5.67)(30,000) = 170,100 kg
 For the topping unit:
mk’ = ms/output = 170100/12500 = 13.6 kg/kWh
WK = 3600/ mk’ = 3600/13.6 = 264.7 kJ/kg
WI = W/nme = 264.7/0.96 = 275.73 kJ/kg
WI = h t – h s
275.73 = ht – 2946.7
ht = 3222.43 kJ
h0 :

@ point 0,
P0 = 1.5 MPa
h0 = 2868.93 kJ/kg
then;
S0 = 6.52 kJ/kg-K
@ point t,
St = S0 = 6.52 kJ/kg-K
ht = 3222.43 kJ/kg
then;
Pt = 6.0 MPa and Tt = 416°C
15 – 174 (Sta. Maria)
A reheat-regenerative engine receives steam at 207 bar
and 593°C, expanding it to 38.6 bar, 343°C. At this point,
the steam passes through a reheater and reenters the
turbine at 34.5 bar, 593°C, hence expands to 9 bar, 492°C,
at which point the steam is bled for feedwater heating.
Exhaust occurs at 0.07 bar. Beginning at the throttle (point
1), these enthalpies are known (kJ/kg)
h1=3511.3 h2’=3082.1 h4=3205.4 h5=2308.1 h7’=723.59
h2=3010.0 h3=3662.5 h4’=322.9 h6=163.4 h7=742.83
For ideal engine, sketch the events on the T-s plane and
for 1 kg of throttle steam, find (a) the mass of bled steam,
(b) the work, (c) the efficiency, and (d) the steam rate. In
the actual case, water enters the boiler at 171°C and the
brake engine efficiency is 75% (e) determine the brake
work and the brake thermal efficiency. (f) Let the pump
efficiency be 65%, estimate the enthalpy of the exhaust
steam.
@Pt. 1: P1 = 20.7 MPa; T1 = 593°C
Tsat = 368.635°C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH
h1 = 3511.3 kJ/kg
@Pt. 2: P2 = 3.86 MPa; T2 = 343°C
Tsat = 244.23°C ; Tsat < T2 ; Therefore, SH
h2 = 3010.0 kJ/kg
@Pt. 3: P3 = 3.45 MPa; T3 = 593°C
Tsat = 241.77°C ; Tsat < T3 ; Therefore, SH
h3 = 3662.5 kJ/kg
T(°C) S (kJ/kg-K)
580 7.3880
593 S3
600 7.4409
Interpolate:

S3 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K = S4 = S5
@Pt. 4: P4 = 0.90 MPa; T4 = 492°C
Tsat = 175.38°C ; Tsat < T4 ; Therefore, SH
h4 = 3205.4 kJ/kg
S4 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; S5 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K
Sg = 8.2758 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore,WET
h5 = 2308.1 kJ/kg
@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.007 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h6 = hf6 = 163.40 kJ/kg
S6 = Sf6 = 0.5592kJ/kg-K
v6 = vf6 = 1.0074x10-3 m3/kg
@Pt. B6: PB6 = 0.90 MPa; SB6 = 0.5592kJ/kg-K
Sf = 0.6224 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf; Therefore, SUBCOOLED
@Pt. 7: P7 = 0.90 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h7 = hf7 = 742.83 kJ/kg
S7 = Sf7 = 2.0946 kJ/kg-K
v7 = vf7 = 1.212x10-3 m3/kg
@Pt. B7: PB7 = 20.7 MPa; SB7 = 2.0946 kJ/kg-K
Sf = 4.0762 kJ/kg-K; SB7 < Sf; Therefore, SUBCOOLED
 Mass of Bled Steam
Ein = Eout
mh4 + (1 – m)h6 = 1h7
m(3205.4) + (1 – m)163.40= 742.83
3205.4m + 163.40 – 163.40m = 742.83
3042m = 579.43
m = 0.19 kg
 Work
Ein = Eout
1h1 + 1h3 = 1h2 + mh4 + (1 - m)h5 + W
3511.3 + 3668.5 = 3010 + (0.19)(3205.4) + (1 - 0.19) (2308.1) + W
W = 1685.213 kJ/kg
 Efficiency, e
ee = W/EC
EC = (h1 – h7) + (h3 – h2)
EC = 3511.3 - 742.83 + 3662.5 – 3010.0
EC = 3420.7 kJ/kg
ee = 1685.213 / 3420.7 = 49.26%
 Steam Rate, m
m = 3600/W
m = 3600 / 1685.213 = 2.14 kg/kWh
 W B , eB
WB = nB W
WB = (0.75)(1685.213) = 1263.91 kJ/kg
eB = WB /EC = 1263.91/3420.7 = 37%
16 – 174-175 (Sta. Maria)
In a 35,000 kW turbo-generator that receives steam
at 6.9 MPa and 370°C, 11% of the throttle steam is
actually extracted at 2MPa, 215°C; with the
remainder being reheated to 1.8 MPa and 315°C;
then 20% of the throttle steam is actually extracted
at 0.724 MPa, each extraction serving an open
feedwater heater. The engine exhaust to a condenser
pressure of 0.005 MPa and the temperature of the
feedwater from the last heater is 205°C. The
combined steam rate of the turbo-generator unit is
4.898 kg/kWh and the generator efficiency is 95%.
For the total throttle flow to an ideal engine, find (a)
extracted steam for the last heater, (b) W, (c) e. For
the actual engine, find (d) eK (e) nK. (f) What is the
enthalpy of the actual exhaust when the pump
efficiency is 60% ?
@Pt. 1: P1 = 6.9 MPa; T1 = 370°C
Tsat = 284.905°C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH
h1 = 3077.6 kJ/kg
S1 = 6.3314 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 2: P2 = 2 MPa; T2 = 215°C
Tsat = 212.42°C; Tsat < T2 ; Therefore, SH
h2 = 2807.2 kJ/kg
S2 = 6.3566 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 3: P3 = 1.8 MPa; T3 = 315°C
Tsat = 207.15°C; Tsat < T3 ; Therefore, SH
h3 = 3063.2 kJ/kg
S3 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 4: P4 = 0.724 MPa; S4 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K
P (MPa) S (kJ/kg-K)
0.72 6.6985
0.724 Sg
0.73 6.6938

Sg = 6.69662 kJ/kg-K; S4 > Sg ; Therefore, SH


Double Interpolation:
@P = 0.72 MPa
S (kJ/kg-K) h(kJ/kg)
6.8717 2843.7
6.88105 h0.72
6.9185 2866.0
Interpolate:

h0.72 = 2848.155 kJ/kg


@P = 0.73 MPa
S (kJ/kg-K) h(kJ/kg)
6.8573 2842.6
6.88105 h0.73
6.9042 2865.0

h0.73 = 2853.94 kJ/kg


Interpolate:
P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)
0.72 2848.155
0.724 h4
0.73 2853.94

h4 = 2849.31 kJ/kg
@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.005 MPa; S5 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K
Sg = 8.3951 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore, WET
S5 = Sf5 + x5 Sfg5
6.88105 = 0.4674 + (x5) 7.9187
x5 = 0.8088 = 80.88%
h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5
h5 = 137.82 + (0.8088)(2423.7)
h5 = 2098.109 kJ/kg
@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.005 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h6 = hf6 = 137.82 kJ/kg
S6 = Sf6 = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. B6: PB6 = 0.724 MPa; SB6 = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K
P (MPa) S (kJ/kg-K)
0.72 2.0035
0.724 Sf
0.73 2.0091

Sf = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED


@Pt. 7: P7 = 0.724 MPa; Saturated Liquid
P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)
0.72 702.20
0.724 hf
0.73 704.64

hf = 703.176 kJ/kg
@Pt. 8: P8 = 2 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h8 = hf8 = 908.79 kJ/kg
S8 = Sf8 = 2.4474 kJ/kg-K
 W = (h1 – h2) + (1 – m1)(h3 – h4) + (1 - m1 – m2)(h4 – h5)
W = (3077.6 – 2807.2) + (0.89)(3063.2 – 2849.31) + [1 – 0.11 –
(0.20)(0.89)](2849.31 – 2098.109)
W = 995.6172/0.95
W = 1048.02 kJ/kg
 ee = W/EC
EC = h1 – hf8 + h3 – h2
EC = 3077.6 – 908.79 + 3063.2 – 2807.2
EC = 2424.81 kJ/kg
ee = (1048.02 / 2424.81) x100%= 43.22%
 mK = 3600/ WK
WK = 3600 / 4898 = 734.99 kJ/kg
 eK = WK / EC
eK = (734.99 / 2424.81)x100% = 30.31%
 nK = W K / W
nK = (734.99 / 1048.02)x100% = 70.13%
17 – 175, p.175
There are developed 25,000 kW by a reheat-
regenerative engine (turbo-generator) which receives
steam at 4.2 MPa, 313°C and exhaust at 0.007 MPa. At
1.90 MPa and 215°C, part of the steam is extracted for
feedwater heating and the remainder is withdrawn for
reheating. The reheated steam enters the turbine at 1.8
MPa and 270°C and expands to 1.38 MPa, where more
steam is extracted for feedwater heating and the
remainder expands to the condenser pressure of 0.007
MPa and an actually quality of 90%. Feedwater leaves
the last heater at a temperature of 207°C. The
generator has an efficiency of 95%. For the ideal
engine, find (a) the percentages of the extracted
steam, (b) W, and (c) e. Let the actual extracted steam
be 85% of those for the ideal engine and for the actual
engine, find (d) the total throttle flow, if the break
work equal the fluid work, (e) eK and (f) nK.
@Pt. 1: P1 = 4.2 MPa; T1 = 313°C
Tsat = 253.31°C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH
P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)
310 2982.1
313 h1
320 3009.6

h1 = 2990.35 kJ/kg
@Pt. 2: P2 = 1.9 MPa; T2 = 215°C
Tsat = 209.84°C; Tsat < T2; Therefore, SH
h2 = 2813.4 kJ/kg
S2 = 6.3905 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 3: P3 = 1.8 MPa; T3 = 270°C
Tsat = 207.15°C; Tsat < T3; Therefore, SH
h3 = 2959.5 kJ/kg
S3 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 4: P4 = 1.38 MPa; S4 = S3 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K
Sg = 6.4743 kJ/kg-K; S4 > Sg ; Therefore, SH
Double Interpolation
@ 1.35 MPa
S (kJ/kg-K) h (kJ/kg)
6.6743 2881.9
6.6976 h1.35
6.6980 2893.9
Interpolate:

h1.35 = 2893.697 kJ/kg


@ 1.40 MPa
S (kJ/kg-K) h (kJ/kg)
6.6778 2891.7
6.6976 h1.40
6.7012 2903.7

h1.40 = 2901.854 kJ/kg


Interpolate:
P (MPa) h (kJ/kg)
1.35 2893.697
1.38 h4
1.40 2901.854

h4 = 2898.59 kJ/kg
@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; S5 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K
Sg = 8.2758 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore, WET
S5 = Sf5 + x5 Sfg5
6.6976 = 0.5592 + (x5) 7.7167
x5 = 0.7955 = 79.55%
h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5
h5 = 163.40 + (0. 7955)(2409.1)
h5 = 2079.839 kJ/kg
@Pt. 5’: P5’ = 0.007 MPa; x5’ = 0.90
h5' = hf5’ + x5’ hfg5’
h5' = 163.40 + (0. 90)(2409.1)
h5' = 2331.59 kJ/kg
@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.007 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h6 = hf6 = 163.40 kJ/kg
S6 = Sf6 = 0.5592 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. B6: PB6 = 1.38 MPa; SB6 = 0.5592 kJ/kg-K
Sf = 2.7778 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED
@Pt. 7: P7 = 1.38 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h7 = hf7 = 827.29 kJ/kg
S7 = Sf7 = 2.2778 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. B7: PB7 = 1.90 MPa; SB7 = 2.2778 kJ/kg-K
Sf = 2.4109 kJ/kg-K; SB7 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED
@Pt. 8: P8 = 1.90 MPa; Saturated Liquid
h8 = hf8 = 897.02 kJ/kg
S8= Sf8 = 2.4233 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. B8: PB8 = 4.2 MPa; SB8 = 2.4233 kJ/kg-K
Sf = 2.8229 kJ/kg-K; SB8 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED
% of Extracted Steam:

m1 = 0.035

m2 = 0.234
W = (h1 – h2) + (1 – m1)(h3 – h4) + (1 - m1 –
m2)(h4 – h5)
W = (2990.35 – 2813.4) + (0.965)(2959.5 –
2898.59) + (0.731)(2898.59 – 2079.839)
W = 834.24 kJ/kg
 ee = W/EC
EC = h1 – hf8 + h3 – h2
EC = 2990.35 – 897.02 + 2959.5 – 2813.4
EC = 2239.43 kJ/kg
ee = (834.24 / 2239.43) x100%= 37.25%
Thermodynamics 2
Section: 57003 Schedule: 7:00 – 9:40/ M - F

Group 5 Group 6
Abangco, Kevin B. Arante, Kenneth V.
Honorario, James O. Axalan, Jimwell M.
Pedroso, Elvin Louie R. Corpuz, Adrian Lorenzo G.
Polo, Napoleon S. Dumalaon, Mark Lorenze R.
Sarmiento, Emmanuel G. Rocela, Noriel E.
Tagaya, Jerome M. Uyam, Jeffrey A. Jr.

Submitted to:
Engr. Bienvenido D. Manuntag Jr.