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SEMINAR REPORT ON:

ORGANIC LIGHT- EMITTING DIODE

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE

IN MSC IN APPLIED CHEMISTRY SUBMITTED BY:

SUKUMAR PANI REGISTRATION NO-1611106024

SEMINAR REPORT ON: ORGANIC LIGHT- EMITTING DIODE SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (AN AUTONOMOUS AND CONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF BPUT,ODISHA)

CERTIFICATE

CERTIFICATE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, BHUBANESWAR This is to certify that the seminar report entitled

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, BHUBANESWAR

This is to certify that the seminar report entitled ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODEsubmitted to DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY of COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY by Sukumar Pani bearing registration number 1611106024 for the award of the degree of 2-year msc applied

chemistry is a bonafide record of data collected by reviewing various literature and sources .The information and data given in the report are best cited from various sources and references given at the end

The candidate has fulfilled all the prescribed requirements .The seminar report is in standard fulfillment of all the requirements for the award of degree of master of science in applied chemistry.

To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied in this seminar report has not been submitted to any other university for the award of degree or diploma.

Head of the Department

Seminar Supervisor

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DECLARATION

DECLARATION I, SUKUMAR PANI, do hereby declare that this seminar report titled “ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE”

I,SUKUMAR PANI, do hereby declare that this seminar report titled “ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE” submitted to “DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY” Of “CET BHUBANESWAR”is a record of data collected by reviewing literature and sources by me under the guidance of the faculties of our department.

The information and data given in the report are best cited from various sources and references given at the end.

The seminar report

is

not

submitted to any other

university or

institution for the award of any degree ,diploma or fellowship or

published any time before.

STUDENT’S SIGNATURE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

  • I express my deepest gratitude to our Honourable Head of the department“PROF A.N.ACHARYA” for mentoring, guiding and aiding the seminar.I also acknowledge Sir for generously providing his valuable time,knowledge and experience.

  • I am also thankful to other faculty members of “department of chemistry” who encouraged guided and supported me in the seminar preparation as well as presentation.

Lastly I thank all my dear friends and juniors for their support and cooperation in this regard.

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Contents What is a Light Emitting Diode(LED)?

Working principle of LED.

What is a organic light emitting diode(OLED)?

History of evolution of OLEDs.

Types of OLED.

Strucutre of OLED.

Synthesis of organic compounds used in OLEDs.

COLOUR OF OLED.

Prepairing organic layers in OLED.

Working principle of OLED.

Device architecture of OLED.

ADVANTAGES OF OLED

FEW DEMERITS.

FUTURE OF OLED.

QUANTUM DOT ORGANIC-LIGHT EMITTING DIODE.

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WHAT

IS

A

LED?

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-terminal semiconductor light source.

It

is

a

pn junction diode that emits light when

activated.When a suitable voltage is applied to the terminals, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons.

WHAT IS A LED? • A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-terminal semiconductor light source. •

Fig-1 light emitting diode

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WORKING PRINCIPLE:

A P-N junction can convert absorbed light energy into a proportional electric current. The same process is reversed here (i.e. the P-N junction emits light when electrical energy is applied to it).

This phenomenon is generally called electroluminescence, which can be defined as the emission of light from a semiconductor under the influence of an electric field.

The charge carriers recombine in a forward-biased P-N

junction

as

the

electrons

cross

from

the

N-region

and

recombine with the holes existing in the P-region.

WORKING PRINCIPLE: • A P-N junction can convert absorbed light energy into a proportional electric current.

Fig-2 working of LED

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What is an OLED?

An

organic

light-emitting

diode

(OLED)

is

a

light-

emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.

This device is 100 to 500 nanometers thin or about 200 times smaller than a human hair.

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History of its evolution:

Organic electroluminescence was first discovered by Martin Pope in 1963 .

They observed luminescence when a voltage of about 400 was applied to an anthracene crystal.

However, the development of devices based on organic electroluminescence was very slow, because of the high voltage required and the low efficiency.

In 1987, Ching W. Tang and Steve Van Slyke developed a novel electroluminescent device at Eastman Kodak Company . This is considered the first organic light- emitting diode.

The device was fabricated by vapor deposition using Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) and diamine in a double layer structure. This structure made the electron and hole recombination effective.

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Classification of OLED:

OLED SMALL MOLECULES OLED POLYMERS OLED
OLED
SMALL
MOLECULES
OLED
POLYMERS
OLED

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SMALL MOLECULES OLED:

SMALL MOLECULES INCLUDE FLOURESCENT AND PHOSPORESCENT DYES,METAL CHELATES.

FLOURESCENT DYES

FIG -3 FLOURESCENT DYES

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SMALL MOLECULES OLED: • SMALL MOLECULES INCLUDE FLOURESCENT AND PHOSPORESCENT DYES,METAL CHELATES. FLOURESCENT DYES FIG -3

SYNTHESIS OF TRIS(8-OXYCHINOLINATO)ALUMINIUM AND DCM

SYNTHESIS OF TRIS(8-OXYCHINOLINATO)ALUMINIUM AND DCM DCM(and its derivatives)are made by the sequence of steps given below:
SYNTHESIS OF TRIS(8-OXYCHINOLINATO)ALUMINIUM AND DCM DCM(and its derivatives)are made by the sequence of steps given below:

DCM(and its derivatives)are made by the sequence of steps given below:

SYNTHESIS OF TRIS(8-OXYCHINOLINATO)ALUMINIUM AND DCM DCM(and its derivatives)are made by the sequence of steps given below:

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DPVBI SYNTHESIS

DPVBI synthesis follows continuous and similar sequence of coupling reactions mentioned below:

DPVBI SYNTHESIS DPVBI synthesis follows continuous and similar sequence of coupling reactions mentioned below: 12

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Iridium complexes showing phosphorescence:

Iridium complexes showing phosphorescence: FIG-4 IRIDIUM COMPLEXES SHOWING PHOSPHORESCENCE Hole transporting Materials: FIG-5 HOLE TRANSPORTING MATERIAL

FIG-4 IRIDIUM COMPLEXES SHOWING PHOSPHORESCENCE

Hole transporting Materials:

Iridium complexes showing phosphorescence: FIG-4 IRIDIUM COMPLEXES SHOWING PHOSPHORESCENCE Hole transporting Materials: FIG-5 HOLE TRANSPORTING MATERIAL

FIG-5 HOLE TRANSPORTING MATERIAL

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SYNTHESIS OF TPD AND NPD

SYNTHESIS OF TPD AND NPD 14
SYNTHESIS OF TPD AND NPD 14

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Criterias Metal chelates must satisfy:

Metal chelates should be- Thermally stable. Highly luminescent in the solid state. Thin-film forming. Capable of transporting electrons.

Polymers in OLED:

Electron delocalisation within the π-molecular orbitals is the source of conductivity.

In Conducting polymers conductivity within one polymer chain is based on the conjugated nature of the polymer molecules and the resulting mobilityof pi electrons.

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Dendrimers

They are highly branched structures built up from monomer units with precisely controlled architectures.

Dendrimers They are highly branched structures built up from monomer units with precisely controlled architectures. FIG-6
Dendrimers They are highly branched structures built up from monomer units with precisely controlled architectures. FIG-6

FIG-6 DENDRIMERS

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Synthesis of dendrimers:

Synthesis of dendrimers: Long chain conjugated polymers : FIG -7 LONG CHAIN CONJUGATED POLYMERS SYNTHESIS OF

Long chain conjugated polymers:

Synthesis of dendrimers: Long chain conjugated polymers : FIG -7 LONG CHAIN CONJUGATED POLYMERS SYNTHESIS OF

FIG -7 LONG CHAIN CONJUGATED POLYMERS SYNTHESIS OF POLYFLOURENE:

Synthesis of dendrimers: Long chain conjugated polymers : FIG -7 LONG CHAIN CONJUGATED POLYMERS SYNTHESIS OF

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SYNTHESIS OF POLYPHENYLVINYLENE: COLOUR OF OLED: • COLOUR OF OLED IS DUE TO COLOUR OF POLYMERS

SYNTHESIS OF POLYPHENYLVINYLENE:

SYNTHESIS OF POLYPHENYLVINYLENE: COLOUR OF OLED: • COLOUR OF OLED IS DUE TO COLOUR OF POLYMERS

COLOUR OF OLED:

COLOUR OF OLED IS DUE TO COLOUR OF POLYMERS AND CHELATES USED IN ITS

PREPARATION COLOUR OF POLYMERS IS DUE TO ITS ADDITIVES GIVEN TO IT.

COLOUR OF CHELATES IS DUE TO THE INTENSE CHARGE TRANSFER SPECTRA B ETWEEN METAL AND LIGANDS.

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Structure of OLED

Structure of OLED FIG-8 STRUCTURE OF OLED A typical OLED consists of the following components: •

FIG-8 STRUCTURE OF OLED

A typical OLED consists of the following components:

Substrate.

Anode.

Emissive layer .

Conductive layer.

Cathode.

Substrate:The substrate is used to support the OLED. The substrate most commonly used are plastics, foils or even glass.

Anode: Anode adds electron holes to organic layers when current flows through diode.

Cathode: cathode injects electrons to the organic layers when current flows through the diode.

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Emissive layer(electron transporting layer):- The emissive layer got its name as the light produced in the emissive region has a frequency in the visible region .It transport electrons from the cathode.The emissive layer component is made up of organic plastic molecules out of which the most commonly used is polyfluorene.

Conductive layer(Hole transporting layer): -This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. The commonly used component is polyaniline.

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Prepairing organic layers in OLED:

Three methods:

Vacuum Deposition/Vacuum Thermal Evaporation(VTE).

Organic Vapor Phase Deposition.

Inkjet Printing.

Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) - In a vacuum chamber, the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates. This process is expensive and inefficient.

Prepairing organic layers in OLED: Three methods:  Vacuum Deposition/Vacuum Thermal Evaporation(VTE).  Organic Vapor Phase

FIG-8 VACCUM THERMAL DEPOSITION

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• • Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) - In a low-pressure, hot-walled reactor chamber, a carrier
Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) - In a low-pressure,
hot-walled reactor chamber, a carrier gas transports
evaporated organic molecules onto cooled substrates, where
they condense into thin films. Using a carrier gas increases the
efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs.
Inkjet printing - With inkjet technology, Organic
materials diluted into a liquid and sprayed onto
substrates.Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of
OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs to be printed
onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV
screens or electronic billboards.
Fig -9 Organic vapour phase decomposition

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Fig-10 inkjet printing 23

Fig-10 inkjet printing

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Working Principle

During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode.

Higher potential is applied at anode consequently injects holes into the hole-transport layer (HTL). On the contrary, cathode injects electrons into the electron-transport layer (ETL)

The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are known as valence and conduction band respectively.

Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine forming an exciton, a bound state of the electron and hole.

This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons

The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron, accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material, in this case the difference in energy between the HOMO and LUMO.

The exciton may either be in a singlet state or a triplet state depending on how the spins of the electron and hole have been combined.

Decay from triplet states (phosphorescence) is spin forbidden.

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Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spinorbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states, thus obtaining emission from both singlet and triplet states and improving the internal efficiency.

• Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spin – orbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing
• Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spin – orbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing

FIG-11 WORKING OF OLED

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DEVICE ARCHITECTURE OF OLEDs Passive-matrix

Active-matrix

Transparent

Top-emitting

Foldable

White

Passive-Matrix OLED(PMOLED):PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode, determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. Again, the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current.

PMOLEDs are easy to make, but they consume more power than other types of OLED, mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens such as cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry, passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs.

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FIG-12 PASSIVE MATRIX OLED • Active-Matrix OLED(AMOLED):AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and anode,

FIG-12 PASSIVE MATRIX OLED

Active-Matrix OLED(AMOLED):AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and anode, but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image.

AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry, so they are efficient for large displays. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors, large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards.

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FIG13-ACTIVE MATRIX OLED • Top-Emitting OLED:This type of OLED is integrated with a transistor backplane that

FIG13-ACTIVE MATRIX OLED

Top-Emitting OLED:This type of OLED is integrated with a transistor backplane that is not transparent. The substrate used for this device is of reflective type.The electrode used is either semi-transparent or fully transparent. Such devices are suitable for matrix applications like smart cards:

FIG13-ACTIVE MATRIX OLED • Top-Emitting OLED:This type of OLED is integrated with a transistor backplane that

FIG-14 TOP EMITTING OLED

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Foldable OLED

Foldable OLED: In this type of OLEDs, the substrate is flexible and made of plastics or metallic foils, making them durable and lightweight. This type is mainly used in PDAs and cell phones since it reduces the chance of breakage.

White OLED: White OLEDs emit white light that is brighter, more uniform and more energy efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lights. White OLEDs also have the true-color qualities of incandescent lighting. They can replace fluorescent lights that are currently used in homes and buildings. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting.

Foldable OLED • Foldable OLED: In this type of OLEDs, the substrate is flexible and made

FIG-15 WHITE OLED

Stacked OLED:The device consists of three separately contacted, red-, green-and blue- emitting OLEDs placed in a vertical stack and separated by transparent, conducting electrodes. The stacked OLED (or SOLED) is shown to efficiently generate a high-intensity optical output whose color is a

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linearsuperposition of spectra of the individual emitting elements in the device.It provides the highest efficiency and resolution.

linearsuperposition of spectra of the individual emitting elements in the device.It provides the highest efficiency and

FIG -16 STACKED OLED

Transparent OLED:Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate, cathode and anode When a transparent OLED display is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions. A transparent OLED display can be either active- or passive-matrix. This technology can be used for heads-up displays.

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FIG-17 TRANSPARENT OLED Advantages: • The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are flexible than the

FIG-17 TRANSPARENT OLED

Advantages:

The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD.

OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs.

OLEDs are brighter than LEDs. Because the organic layers of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED, the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED can be multi- layered.

OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs .

OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees.

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Few Demerits:

Lifetime - While red and green OLEDs have longer lifetimes ,blue organics currently have much shorter lifetimes.

Manufacturing - Manufacturing processes are expensive. Water - Water can easily damage OLEDs.

Current OLEDs:

Currently, OLEDs are used in small-screen devices such as cell phones, PDAs and digital cameras.

Several companies have already built prototype computer monitors and large-screen TVs that use OLED technology.

Future of OLEDs?

Research is being continued to get OLED with increased efficiency greater lifetime, flexibility and cost effective .

Manufacturers have been working hard to get water resistant OLED.

Research is also Continuing to get better picture quality in OLED Displays.

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Quantum dots light -emitting diodes

QLED means Quantum dot light emitting diodes and are a form of light emitting technology and consist of nano-scale crystals that can provide an alternative for applications such as display technology . The structure of a QLED is very similar to the OLED technology. But the difference is that the light emitting centers are cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals, or quantum dots. A layer of cadmium-selenium quantum dots is sandwiched between layers of electron-transporting and hole transporting organic materials. An applied electric field causes electrons and holes to move into the quantum dot layer, where they are captured in the quantum dot and recombine, and emitting photons.

QLEDs are a reliable, energy efficient, tunablecolor solution for display and lighting applications that reduce manufacturing costs, while employing ultra-thin, transparent or flexible materials.

Quantum dots light -emitting diodes • QLED means Quantum dot light emitting diodes and are a

FIG -18 QUANTUM DOT OLED

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References

Textbooks referred:

1A.R.West,SolidStatechemistryandits

applications, 2 nd edition, JohnWiley& Sons.

2.Materials Science and Engineering -An

Introduction

by

William

D.

Callister,Jr.

seventh edition(john wiley and sons).

3. L.Smart andE.Moore,SolidState chemistry:

An Introduction, 4 th edition, ChapmanandHall.

Websites referred:

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