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DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY

GASTROINTESTINAL PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY EXCERCISE


VENUE: HI LAB

GROUP 7A
ANCHETA, Celline Victoria
GERODIAS, Mark Patrick
PANOPIO, Allen Jeremy
REYES, Dana Gillian
RUIZ, John Michael
TABIRAO, Mia Veronica
VELASCO, Patrick Benedict
VITUG, Jasmine Lorraine

For Lab Discussion:

Questions:

For Activity 1: Assessing Starch Digestion by Salivary Amylase:

1. Describe the effect that boiling had on the activity of amylase. Why did boiling
have this effect? How does the effect of freezing differ from the effect of boiling?
- Appropriate temperature is highly needed for enzyme to work
optimally, in this case, amylase works at 37 degrees Celsius. When the
temperature increases like in boiling, the amylase’s activity is inhibited
due to the denaturation. On the other hand, freezing does not change
the structure of the enzyme thus, it will not affect its activity.

2. What is the purpose for including tube 3 and what can you conclude from the
result.
- The purpose of the tube 3 is to serve as a basis or a standard and for
comparison between tubes 1 and 2 that was subjected to boiling and
freezing, respectively with the same incubation time and pH level (7.0).

3. Describe how you determined the optimal pH for amylase activity.


- Optimum pH for amylase activity was determined through IKI test
according to the result, at the pH level of 7.0 most starch was digested
due to its negative result. Also, through benedict’s test that shows a
reddish-brown color that indicates the amount of glucose that was
broken down from starch.

4. From what you learned in this activity, suggest a reason why salivary amylase
would be much less active in the stomach.
- Salivary amylase would be much less active in the stomach because of
its pH level. The stomach is too acidic for this enzyme work optimally.
The pH should approximately at 7.0.

For Activity 3: Assessing Pepsin Digestion of Protein

1. Describe the significance of the optimum pH for pepsin observed in the


simulation and the secretion of pepsin by the chief cells of the gastric glands.
- Optimum pH is important because this enzyme works optimally at a
specific pH level in this case an acidic environment. During digestion,
the chief cells in the stomach secretes pepsinogen - inactive form of
pepsin, once it diffuses into the lumen of the stomach, proteolytic
activity occurs due to the acidic environment then it is converted into its
active form which is the pepsin.

2. Would pepsin be active in the mouth? Explain your answer.


- No, because the pH of the mouth is 7.0 which is a neutral environment
and the activity of this enzyme is highest at pH 2.0, an acidic
environment is preferred like in the stomach.

3. What are the subunit products of peptide digestion?


- Peptides and amino acids
4. Describe the reason for including control tube 4.
- It serves as the negative control due to the absence of enzyme

For Actiity 4: Assessing Lipase Digestion of Fat

1. Describe how lipase activity is measured in the simulation


- it is determined through monitoring of the pH level of each solution

2. Can you determine if fat hydrolysis occurred in tube 5? Why or why not?
- No, because the pH of the solution is too acidic for the enzyme.
3. Would pancreatic lipase be active in the mouth? Why or Why not?
- Yes, because pancreatic lipase works optimally at pH 7.0 and the
mouth has a pH closer to 7.0.
4. Describe the physical separation of fats by bile salts.
- Bile salts physically emulsifies fat globules (triglyceride clumps) by
separating it into fat (triglyceride) droplets.