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Computer Applications in Chemical Engineering

Stokes Law Second Problem

Introduction:

Stokes’s law is a mathematical equation that expresses the settling velocities of small
spherical particles in a fluid medium. Stokes’ second problem is the steady-state oscillatory flow
in a semi-infinite flow domain arisen from an oscillating infinite flat plate that undergoes
sinusoidal oscillations parallel to itself. Stokes’ second problem, the flow of velocity v=u(y,t)I,
where I is the unit vector along the x-axis of the Cartesian coordinate system, satisfies the
diffusion equation
𝜕𝑦 𝜕 2𝑢
= 𝑣 2,𝑦 > 0
𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑦
Subject to the boundary conditions
𝑢0, 𝑡 = 𝑈𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑡, 𝑢+∞, 𝑡 = 0
Where v is the kinematic viscosity and U and 𝜔 are constants. Thus the solution of Stokes’
second problem is
−𝑦√ 𝜔 𝜔

𝑢𝑦, 𝑡 = 𝑈𝑒 cos⁡(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑦√ ) 2𝑣

2𝑣
Which is periodic with respect to t.

Objective:
To present sample calculation using Stokes’ Second Problem. Also, provide graphical
solutions using Microsoft Excel.

Results and Discussion:

Given:
𝜈 = 0.04 − 0.42⁡𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ⁡0.02⁡𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝛽 = 0.60
𝜔=1
𝜋 3𝜋
𝜏 = 0, , 𝜋,
4 2
𝜔 2−𝛽
Y-axis:𝑦 = √𝑣(𝛽)
𝜔2−𝛽 𝜋𝛽
𝑢 −𝑦√ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔 2−𝛽 𝜋𝛽
X-axis:⁡𝑈 = 𝑒 𝑣(𝛽) 4
cos⁡(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑦√ 𝑣𝛽 𝑐𝑜𝑠 )
4

Sample Calculations:
At 𝜈 = 0.04⁡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝜔𝑡 = 0⁡
12−0.6
𝑦=√ = 6.45
0.04(0.6)

𝑢 −𝑦√
𝜔2−𝛽 𝜋𝛽
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔 2−𝛽 𝜋𝛽
=𝑒 𝑣(𝛽) 4
cos⁡(𝜔𝑡 − 𝑦√ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 )
𝑈 𝑣𝛽 4

𝑢 −5√
12−0.6
𝑠𝑖𝑛 12−0.6 𝜋 ∗ 0.6
𝜋∗0.6

=𝑒 0 − 𝑦√
0.040.6
𝑐𝑜𝑠
4

𝑈 0.10.6 4
𝑢
= 5.11𝑥10^ − 09
𝑈

y
v ω=1 β=0.6 πβ/4

-
0.04 1 0.6 6.454972 41.6667 0.471239
-
0.06 1 0.6 5.270463 27.7778 0.471239
-
0.08 1 0.6 4.564355 20.8333 0.471239
-
0.1 1 0.6 4.082483 16.6667 0.471239
-
0.12 1 0.6 3.72678 13.8889 0.471239
-
0.14 1 0.6 3.450328 11.9048 0.471239
-
0.16 1 0.6 3.227486 10.4167 0.471239
-
0.18 1 0.6 3.042903 9.25926 0.471239
-
0.2 1 0.6 2.886751 8.33333 0.471239
-
0.22 1 0.6 2.752409 7.57576 0.471239
-
0.24 1 0.6 2.635231 6.94444 0.471239
-
0.26 1 0.6 2.531848 6.41026 0.471239
-
0.28 1 0.6 2.43975 5.95238 0.471239
-
0.3 1 0.6 2.357023 5.55556 0.471239
-
0.32 1 0.6 2.282177 5.20833 0.471239
-
0.34 1 0.6 2.214037 4.90196 0.471239
-
0.36 1 0.6 2.151657 4.62963 0.471239
-
0.38 1 0.6 2.09427 4.38596 0.471239
-
0.4 1 0.6 2.041241 4.16667 0.471239
-
0.42 1 0.6 1.992048 3.96825 0.471239

0 π/4 π 3π/2
5.11629E-09 5.96E-09 -5.11629E-09 -3.3E-09
3.09451E-06 3.07E-06 -3.09451E-06 -1.2E-06
7.48612E-05 6.86E-05 -7.48612E-05 -2.2E-05
-
0.000338475 -0.00052 0.000338475 0.000391
-
0.001793062 0.001513 0.001793062 -0.00035
-0.00170234 0.001738 0.00170234 -0.00416
-
0.008743947 -0.00708 0.008743947 0.001263
-
0.005764468 -0.01382 0.005764468 0.013785
-
0.009461016 -0.00794 0.009461017 0.020688
-
0.028652675 0.010049 0.028652675 0.014442
-
0.042540773 0.032967 0.042540773 -0.00408
-
0.045806972 0.053225 0.045806972 -0.02946
-
0.037371733 0.065789 0.037371733 -0.05567
-
0.018900485 0.068539 0.018900485 -0.07803
-
0.006736345 0.061529 0.006736346 -0.09375
-
0.036502344 0.046077 0.036502345 -0.10167
-
0.067738418 0.024049 0.067738419 -0.10175
- -0.0026 0.098366837 -0.09469
0.098366836
-0.12690461 -0.0321 0.12690461 -0.08151
-
0.152388151 -0.06294 0.152388152 -0.06338

For this activity, the equation used for the Stoke’s Second Problem is as follows:

𝑢 −𝑦√
𝜔2−𝛽 𝜋𝛽
𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔 2−𝛽 𝜋𝛽
=𝑒 𝑣𝛽 4
cos 𝜔𝑡 − 𝑦√ 𝑐𝑜𝑠
𝑈 𝑣𝛽 4

𝜔 2−𝛽 𝑢
Where y-axis = √ 𝑣𝛽 and x-axis = 𝑈.

The comparison of u-distribution versus the wall distance at different frequency levels for the
Stokes’ second problem for 𝑣 ranging from 0.04-0.42 is depicted in the figure above. It is
graphed with constant 𝛽 = 0.6. The significant features of velocity variations also clearly
demonstrate the physics underlying the Stokes’ second problem process.

Conclusion:
Based from the results, it can be concluded that velocity differences clearly demonstrate physics
underlying stokes second problem.