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# 10

Axisymmetric
Iso-P Elements

10–1
Chapter 10: AXISYMMETRIC ISO-P ELEMENTS 10–2

Page
§10.1. INTRODUCTION 10–3
§10.2. ISOPARAMETRIC DEFINITION 10–3
§10.3. THE ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX 10–5
§10.3.1. The Strain-Displacement Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . 10–5
§10.3.2. The Stiffness Matrix Integrand . . . . . . . . . . . 10–5
§10.3.3. Numerical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–6
§10.4. CONSISTENT NODE FORCES FOR BODY LOADS 10–6
§10.4.1. Body Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–7
§10.4.2. Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–7
EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–9

10–2
10–3 §10.2 ISOPARAMETRIC DEFINITION

§10.1. INTRODUCTION

In this Chapter we consider the ﬁnite element discretization of structures of revolution (SOR). The
focus in this Chapter will be on isoparametric elements, so as to tie with the introductory course.
The dimensionality reduction process described in Chapter 9 “folds” the problem into integrals
taken over the generating cross section and its boundaries. The ﬁnite element discretization can be
therefore conﬁned to the r –z plane and the circumferential (θ) dimension conceptually disappears.
The resulting ﬁnite elements are called axisymmetric solid elements, SOR elements, or “ring”
elements in the literature. They are deﬁned completely by the geometry of their cross section in the
(r, z) plane, as illustrated in Figure 10.1. Because this cross section is plane, the element geometry
deﬁnition is two-dimensional. It follows that the two-dimensional element conﬁgurations studied
in IFEM: 3 and 6-node triangles, 4-, 8-, and 9-node quadrilaterals, etc, can be used.
The key difference with respect to the plane stress case is the appearance of the “hoop” strain and
stress, which together contribute a term
1
σ 
2 θθ θθ
(10.1)

to the strain energy density. This in turn introduces some additional terms in the structure of the
strain-displacement matrix B, which translate into additional contributions in the formation of the
element stiffness matrix and consistent node force vector.

## §10.2. ISOPARAMETRIC DEFINITION

Axisymmetric ﬁnite elements are developed in this Chapter using the displacement-based isopara-
metric formulation. That is, the element cross section geometry and displacement ﬁeld are inter-
polated by the same shape functions. For an isoparametric element with n nodes:
     (e) 
1 1 1 ··· 1 N1
 r   r1 r2 · · · rn   N (e) 
    2 
 z  =  z1 z2 · · · zn   .  . (10.2)
     .. 
ur ur 1 ur 2 · · · ur n
uz u z1 u z2 · · · u zn Nn(e)

Here u r (r, z) and u z (r, z) are ﬁnite element approximations to the actual displacement ﬁeld com-
ponents, while Ni(e) are the usual element shape functions in element natural coordinates deﬁned in
the Introduction to Finite Element Methods (IFEM) course. The same continuity and completeness
requirements apply with minor differences (see remarks below).

REMARK 10.1
Displacement based elements are based on the TPE functional. The variational index for the only master ﬁeld:
displacements, is one. Consequently the interelement continuity required is C 0 . That is, the displacement
components u r and u z must be continuous between adjacent elements. Element boundaries lying on the axis
of revolution are special: at such points the radial displacement u r must vanish if the structure is continuous
there (that is, a tiny hole is precluded) although there is no need to make that condition explicit in the element
formulation.

10–3
Chapter 10: AXISYMMETRIC ISO-P ELEMENTS 10–4

generating cross-section z

## Figure 10.1. FEM discretization of a SOR with

axisymmetric “ring” elements.

10–4
10–5 §10.3 THE ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRIX

REMARK 10.2
The completeness criterion demands that all rigid body modes and strain states be exactly represented. This
is met if the element shape functions can represent any displacement ﬁeld that is linear in r and z. (In fact, a
more detailed analysis shows that this is a slight overkill, but will do for now.)

## §10.3.1. The Strain-Displacement Matrix

The strain-displacement matrix that appears in the computation of the element stiffness matrix is
given by

B = DN (10.3)
where D is the strain-displacement gradient matrix introduced in the previous Chapter,

 ∂ 
∂r 0
 ∂ 
 0 
D= ∂z , (10.4)
 1 
 r 0 
∂ ∂
∂z ∂r
and N is the matrix of element shape functions:

N1(e) N2(e) ··· Nn(e) 0 0 ··· 0
N= , (10.5)
0 0 ··· 0 N1(e) N2(e) ··· Nn(e)

Here we have assumed that the same shape functions are used in both r and z directions.
Comparing these expressions with those in Chapter 15 of IFEM, we see that N is the same, and D
has an extra row. Multiplying (10.3) through we obtain
 
qr 0
 0 qz 
B = DN =  , (10.6)
qθ 0
qz qr

## where the n-component row vectors qr , qz , qθ are deﬁned by

qr = ∂ N1(e) ∂ N2(e) ∂ Nn(e) ,
···

∂r(e) ∂r
(e)
∂r
qz = ∂ N1 ∂ N2 ∂ Nn(e) , (10.7)
···

∂z(e)
∂z
(e) (e)
∂z

qθ = N N N .
1
r r
2 ··· r
n

10–5
Chapter 10: AXISYMMETRIC ISO-P ELEMENTS 10–6

## §10.3.2. The Stiffness Matrix Integrand

Let the constitutive (stress-strain) matrix be
 
E 11 E 12 E 13 E 14
E E 22 E 23 E 24 
E =  12 , (10.8)
E 13 E 23 E 33 0
E 14 E 24 0 E 44
in which E 34 = E 43 = 0 to maintain axisymmetry conditions. First we form the product
   
E 11 qr + E 13 qθ + E 14 qz E 12 qz + E 14 qr c1r c1z
 E q + E 23 qθ + E 24 qz E 22 qz + E 24 qr   c2r c2z 
EB =  12 r = . (10.9)
E 13 qr + E 33 qθ E 23 qz c3r c3z
E 14 qr + E 44 qz E 24 qz + E 44 qr c4r c4z
T
Premultiplying by B gives

Srr Sr z
B EB =
T
(10.10)
Sr z Szz
in which
Srr = qrT c1r + qθT c3r + qzT c4r
Sr z = Szr
T
= qrT c1z + qθT c3z + qzT c4z (10.11)
Szz = qrT c4z + qzT c2z

## §10.3.3. Numerical Integration

We shall assume here that the entries of the element stiffness matrix are computed by the standard
numerical integration techniques covered in IFEM. For example, the stiffness matrix of a quadrilat-
eral isoparametric element integrated by a p-point Gauss rule along each isoparametric coordinate
is evaluated as
p p
K(e) = wk wl BT (ξk , η
) E B(ξk , η
) r (ξk η
) J (ξk , η
). (10.12)
k=1
=1

## in which as usual ξk and η

denote abcissae of Gauss points whereas wk and w
denote integration
weights.
Notice the appearance of the radius r at the Gauss point; this quantity also appears inside B in the
form 1/r . This radius is obtained by the isoparametric interpolation, namely, the ﬁrst row of (10.6):

n
r (ξk , η
) = ri Ni(e) (ξk , η
). (10.13)
i=1

Other quantities such as the Jacobian determinant J , are calculated as explained in IFEM. In
particular the shape function subroutines can be reused, as explained in more detail in the following
Chapter.
The stiffness of triangular elements can also be evaluated by numerical quadrature but using inte-
gration rules appropriate to the triangular geometry.

10–6
10–7 §10.4 CONSISTENT NODE FORCES FOR BODY LOADS

## §10.4. CONSISTENT NODE FORCES FOR BODY LOADS

Body forces (also called volume forces) arise frequently in SOR analysis. The most important loads
of this type are

1. Gravity (own weight). This effect is important in massive SOR, as encountered in civil,
geophysical and nuclear applications.

2. Centrifugal forces in rotating structures. These are important in aerospace and mechanical
structures (for examble, high-speed rotating machinery such as turbines).

3. Thermal, shrinkage and prestress effects. These may be important depending on fabrication
techniques, material, and the environment to which the structure will be exposed. In the present
course thermal effects are covered brieﬂy.

## §10.4.1. Body Forces

An applied body force ﬁeld b is deﬁned by two components in the r and z directions, each of which
is a function of those two directions only:

b (r, z)
b(r, z) = r (10.14)
bz (r, z)

## The consistent node forces f are given by

(e)
f = NT b r d A, (10.15)
A

where N is the matrix of element shape functions given in (10.5). This can be conveniently processed
by numerical integration. Consideraing again the quadrilateral element with a p-point Gauss rule
in each direction,

p
p
(e)
f = wk wl NT (ξk , η
) b(ξk , η
) r (ξk , η
) J (ξk , η
). (10.16)
k=1
=1

## §10.4.2. Thermal Effects

Suppose the temperature of the structure changes axisymmetrically by T (r, z) from a reference
temperature. The constitutive equations become

σ = E(e − α T ) (10.17)
where α is an array of dilatation coefﬁcients that provide thermal strains in a mechanically un-
constrained body. (A linear relation between strains and temperature changes is assumed.) For
isotropic materials
αT = [ α α α 0 ] (10.18)

10–7
Chapter 10: AXISYMMETRIC ISO-P ELEMENTS 10–8

where α is the usual coefﬁcient of dilatation of the material. On inserting (10.18) into the potential
energy formulation for a generic element yields element stiffness equations that account for thermal
effects:
K(e) u(e) = f(e) = f(e)
M + fT
(e)
(10.19)
where f M are the mechanical forces condidered so far, and fT , called the thermal forces or equivalent
thermal loads, account for contribution from the temperature changes:

f(e)
T = BT α T r d A (10.20)
A

## This term can be evaluated by numerical integration.

The sum of mechanical and thermal node forces is sometimes called the effective node force vector
or simply effective forces in the FEM literature.

10–8
10–9 Exercises

## Homework Exercises for Chapter 10

Axisymmetric Iso-P Elements

## The following material is largely covered in Chapter 24 of IFEM, posted at

but is recapitulated here for completeness.
The four simplest Gauss integration rules over a triangle of area A use 1, 3, 3 and 7 points. These rules are
tabulated below. In the following expressions, F(ζ1 , ζ2 , ζ3 ) denotes the function to be integrated over the
traingle, expressed in terms of the triangular coordinates ζ1 , ζ2 and ζ3 , while A is the area of the element.
One point rule (exact for constant and linear polynomials over straight sided triangles):

1
F(ζ1 , ζ2 , ζ3 ) d A(e) ≈ F( 13 , 13 , 13 ). (E10.1)
A A(e)

Three-point rules (exact for constant through quadratic polynomials over straight sided triangles):

1
F(ζ1 , ζ2 , ζ3 ) d A(e) ≈ 13 F( 23 , 16 , 16 ) + 13 F( 16 , 23 , 16 ) + 13 F( 16 , 16 , 23 ). (E10.2)
A A(e)

1
F(ζ1 , ζ2 , ζ3 ) d A(e) ≈ 13 F( 12 , 12 , 0) + 13 F(0, 12 , 12 ) + 13 F( 12 , 0, 12 ). (E10.3)
A A(e)

The latter is also called the 3-midpoint rule for obvious reasons.
Seven point rule (exact for constant through cubic polynomials over straight sided triangles):

1
F(ζ1 , ζ2 , ζ3 ) d A(e) ≈ w0 F( 13 , 13 , 13 ) + w1 [F(α1 , β1 , β1 ) + F(β1 , α1 , β1 ) + F(β1 , β1 , α1 )]
A A(e)
+ w2 [F(α2 , β2 , β2 ) + F(β2 , α2 , β2 ) + F(β2 , β2 , α2 )] ,
(E10.4)
√ √
where w0 = 9/40 = 0.225, √w1 = (155 − 15)/1200 = 0.1259391805, √ w2 = (155 + 15)/1200 =
0.1323941528,
√ α1 = (9 + 2 15)/21 = 0.7974269853,
√ β1 = (6 − 15)/21 = 0.1012865073, α2 =
(9 − 2 15)/21 = 0.0597158718, β2 = (6 + 15)/21 = 0.4701420641.
A Mathematica module that implement these rules is TrigGaussRuleInfo.nb posted in the index of this
Chapter. The use of this module is explained in Chapter 24 of the IFEM Notes.

EXERCISE 10.1
[A/C:15] Using the minimum quadrature rule necessary for exactness, verify the following polynomial integrals
over straight-sided triangles, where indices i, j, k run over 1,2,3, and r is interpolated as r = r1 ζ1 +r2 ζ2 +r3 ζ3 .

ζi d A(e) = 13 A, (E10.5)
A(e)

ζi ζ j d A(e) = 1
12
A(1 + δi j ), (E10.6)
A(e)

ζi ζ j ζk d A(e) = 1
γ A,
60 i jk
(E10.7)
A(e)

10–9
Chapter 10: AXISYMMETRIC ISO-P ELEMENTS 10–10

r d A(e) = 1
3
A(r1 + r2 + r3 ) = A r0 , (E10.8)
A(e)

ζi r d A(e) = 1
12
A(r1 + r2 + r3 + ri ), (E10.9)
A(e)

r 2 d A(e) = 1
12
A[(r1 + r2 + r3 )2 + r12 + r22 + r32 ], (E10.10)
A(e)

ζi r 2 d A(e) = 1
γ
60 i jk
A r j rk . (E10.11)
A(e)

## In the above, δi j = 1 if i = j else 0 (the Kronecker delta); γi jk = 6 if i = j = k, γi jk = 1 if i = j = k, else 2.

Note: you can (and should) make use of previous results for expediency; to prove for example (E8.8) substitute
(E8.5) as appropriate.

EXERCISE 10.2
[A/C:15] Apply the triangle integration formulas to the non-polynomial integral

d A(e)
(E10.12)
A(e) r

## (a) r1 = 0, r2 = r3 = a, and compare to the exact integral 2A/a.

(b) r1 = 1, r2 = 2, r3 = 3 and compare to the exact integral log(27/16) A/a = 0.523238A/a. (The 7 point
rule should be accurate to 4 digits).

EXERCISE 10.3
[A/C:15] Repeat (a) of the previous exercise for the integrals

ζ1 ζ2 ζ3
d A(e) , d A(e) , d A(e) . (E10.13)
A(e) r A(e) r A(e) r

The exact integrals are A/a for the ﬁrst one, and 12 A/a for the other two. Why are all numerical quadrature
formula exact for the latter case?

EXERCISE 10.4
[A/C:20] The isoparametric deﬁnition of the 3-node linear SOR triangle is
1   1 1 1 
 
r   r1 r2 r 3  ζ1
z  =  z1 z3  (E10.14)
   z2  ζ2
ur ur 1 ur 2 u z3 ζ3
uz u z1 u z2 u z3

10–10
10–11 Exercises

## of the element stiffness matrix K(e) for the geometry deﬁned by

r1 = 0, r2 = r3 = a, z 1 = z 2 = 0, z 3 = b. (E10.16)

## The material is isotropic with ν = 0 for which the stress-strain matrix is

 
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
E= E , (E10.17)
0 0 1 0
1
0 0 0 2

Note: For integrals that contain 1/r , use one of the 3-point rules. Partial answer (if midpoint rule used)
K r 1r 1 = 12 Eb.

EXERCISE 10.5
[A/C:20] The triangle of Exercise 10.4 is subjected to the radial-centrifugal body force ﬁeld

br = ρω2 r, bz = 0 (E10.18)

where ρ and ω are constant (ρ is the mass density while ω is the angular velocity.)
Compute the consistent node force vector f(e) . In doing so interpolate the radial component br linearly over
the element:
br (ζ1 , ζ2 , ζ3 ) = br 1 ζ1 + br 2 ζ2 + br 3 ζ3 , (E10.19)
where bri is ρω2 r evaluated at corner i. Partial answers: fr 1 = ωa 3 /10, f z1 = 0.

EXERCISE 10.6
[A/C:20] Repeat the previous Exercise for the own-weight body force ﬁeld

br = 0, bz = −ρg (E10.20)

## where ρ and g are constant. Partial answer: f z2 = −ga/4.

EXERCISE 10.7
[A/C:20] For the triangle geometry of the preceding 3 exercises, ﬁnd the consistent thermal forces pertaining
to a uniform temperature increase T , assuming an isotropic material with zero Poisson’s ratio.

EXERCISE 10.8
[A/C:15] Show that u z = c (c is a constant) is the only possible rigid body mode of a SOR element. (Hint:
consider the presence of the circumferential strain). Hence deduce that the correct rank of the stiffness matrix
of a SOR element with n nodes and 2 DOFs per node is 2n − 1.

EXERCISE 10.9
[A/C:15] Find the displacement ﬁelds that separately generate the following constant strain states:

## γr z = cr z , others zero (E10.22)

where czz and cr z are constants.

10–11
Chapter 10: AXISYMMETRIC ISO-P ELEMENTS 10–12

Figure E10.1. Variable-section circular shaft conveying torque: the subject of Exercise 10.11.

EXERCISE 10.10
[A/C:15] Show that there are no displacement ﬁelds that separately generate the following constant strain
states:
err = crr , others zero (E10.23)

## eθθ = cθθ , others zero (E10.24)

where crr and cθθ are constants. Hint: integrate the appropriate strain-displacement relations.

EXERCISE 10.11
[A/C:25] The SOR sketched in Figure E10.1 (a circular shaft with varying cross section) is subjected to
torsional loading as indicated. According to Saint-Venant’s torsion theory, the displacement components for
this case are entirely circumferential, that is, u r = u z = 0 and u θ = u θ (r, z). The torsional shear strains

∂u θ uθ ∂u θ
γr θ = − , γzθ = , (E10.25)
∂r r ∂z

10–12
10–13 Exercises

are nonzero and functions of r, z only; all other strains (err , ezz , eθθ and γr z ) vanish. Assuming the shaft is
fabricated with an isotropic material, the only nonzero stress components are the shear stresses

## where G = 12 E/(1 + ν) is the shear modulus.

(a) Explain why this problem can be discretized by two-dimensional “ring” ﬁnite elements by laying out a
mesh over the (r, z) plane (r ≥ 0), although the element type is different from that considered previously
in this Chapter. How many degrees of freedoms would these “torqued ring” elements have per node?
(b) If an isoparametric formulation is used for the torqued-ring elements of (a), the element stiffness matrix,
on suppressing the 2π factor, is given by the usual expression

(e)
K = BT EB r d A(e) . (E10.27)
A(e)

10–13