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OTN – Optical Transport Network

José María Pindado Buendía


Engineering & Technology, EMEA

November 2016
Agenda
OTN
 Background
 Architecture
 Overhead Structure
 OTN Functioning
 FEC
 Coding Gain
 OTN – Bit Rates
 OTN - Mapping
 Recommended Test-Scenarios
 OTN-Layer
 BER
 Error/Alarm
 Pass-through-Mode (OH-Overwrite)
 FEC
 Client to Client (Based on RFC2544 / Y.1564)

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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• OTN
 Background
 Architecture
 Overhead Structure
 Functioning
 FEC
 Coding Gain
 OTN – Bit Rates
 OTN - Mapping

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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New Technologies: Network Changes

• Common Carrier Class Network • Carrier Class Network changes


– From Mobile to Core – Removal of T1/E1 where possible
– From Copper to Fiber – Core changes to ROADM, OTN, MPLS-TP
– From 2G to 4G – Migrate over time to remove SDH/SONET

2G
RRH 3G RF
TDM
RRH

3G
4G T1/E1 T1/E1
RRH

RF
(SDH/SONET)
Over Fiber SDH/ ROADM
Node B T1/E1
SONET Core
SDH /
Legacy T1/E1 Network
SONET /
Backhaul network with MPLS-
ATM Core
Base Station TP or PBB-
Network
Ethernet TE over
T1/E1
Carrier Class OTN
Ethernet
Business Connection over OTN Central Office

Interfaces Next Gen


T1/E1 SDH/SONET Ethernet Backhaul network

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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Core
Back
Network-Segmentation
Core Router
SAN
Mobile Fronthaul 8G/10G FC
10GbE/40Gb
Microcell
/Picocell

ROADM
(RRH) ROADM
(Data Center)
40G / 100G

CPRI Metro

RF
Over 10G OTN
Glass
(BTS/NB) Access
(Fiber) Ethernet Internet
Switch TDM
OLT
Transport

OLT

GE/10GbE
(RNC/BSC) Femtocell GbE/10GbE
FTTx, xDSL

ONU
Mobile Backhaul
OTN- Optical Transport Network
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Challenges
(RNC/BSC)
Mobile Network Traffic growing continuously
Microcell
⇒ Focus to expand traffic capacity
Core Router

Microcell
Several network /Picocell
technologiesare mixed,
like PDH, SDH, Ethernet… The latest high speed network
Microcell
⇒ Solution of complex maintenance
/Picocell ONU TDM ・ 100G Ethernet / 100G OTN
and operation management ・ 400G or more (2017~)
(RRH) ONU DS1/DS3, RODAM
E1/E2/E3 RODAM 40G / 100G
PON
Reduce CAPEX / OPEX byONU
migration from
Legacy to Ethernet
・TDM (E1/T1) ⇒ GbE/10GbE (1) Grow traffic 10G OTN
・Synchronize Ethernet networks OLT ⇒ Expand traffic capacity Internet
RF ⇒ Improve traffic efficiency
Over (2) High quality
Ethernetnetwork
TDM Transponder
for added value
GE Switch
Grass service like VoLTE, SLA…
(BTS/NB)
Fibre
SDH/SONET
(1) The latest high speed network (100G
Microcell
Ethernet / 100G OTN)
(2) Improve traffic efficiency by ODU-Xc
Priority management and traffic
Micro wave engineering
Mobile Backhaul network
OTN- Optical Transport Network
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OTN -Background

 OTN was designed at first for Submarine networks


 Quickly moved all the way to the Core  Metro  Access
 Operators able to implement better services, control & management
 Control customer traffic from the access point & across the network (single system single
management)
 Greater insight to faults, quick repair & reduces maintenance issues
 Single management of all technologies Legacy and Replacement
 Contribution to reduce the power budget of each network line and Tx/Rx port

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN - Background

 ITU-T (G. 709) defines Optical Transport Network (OTN)


as a group of Optical Network Elements (ONE), connected
with an optical fiber to transport, multiplexing, switching,
managing, monitor /control to provide optical channels
with user/client data.
 Typical signals, transported via OTN:
 SONET/SDH
 Ethernet
 Fibre Channel
 (CPRI)
 Key functions of OTN:
 Mapping / Demapping of non-OTN signals
 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing of OTN signals (OPU and
ODU’s)
 Forward Error Correction

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN - Background
Chronological development
 SDH
 Good fault management, performance monitoring and protection mechanism
 Not suited for packet based traffic
 Provides a deterministic and connection-oriented network
 These are the Key Points for a Telecom Network

 Ethernet/IP
– Efficient and with low costs in comparison to SDH
– Provides a non-deterministic and connectionless network in order to achieve
minimum overhead/management
– No fault management, performance monitoring or protection mechanism

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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• OTN
 Background
 Architecture
 Overhead Structure
 Functioning
 FEC
 Coding Gain
 OTN – Bit Rates
 OTN - Mapping

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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Architecture
OTS Area between EDFA´s and optical element
OMS Area between two optical elements
Och Area between two digital elements
OTU Area between two digital elements
ODU/OPU Area between edge to edge elements

Overhead per Layer enables further Management (Fault location etc.)


BEI of ODU Layer; indicates BIP-8 of a single connection (client)
BDI of OTU Layer; more critical
Optical Domain
Optical ADM Optical Amp Optical ADM
Operator or Digital ADM Digital ADM Operator or
Customer Customer

OTS OTS
BDI (Backward Defect Indication) OMS

BEI (Backward Error Detection) OCh (Channel)

BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8) OTU (Section)

ODU (Path)
OPU (Payload)

Digital Domain

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Mechanism- Signal Interaction
 Key for all
 What is the cause of an Error/Alarm
 What happens, if an
Error/Alarm occurs
 E.g..: if LOF is de-
tected, a BDI must be
returned by network-
element
 If the cause of a BDI is known,
the problem can quickly be
solved
 If the level of an Error/Alarm
is known, the nature and scale
of the problem can be evaluated
more easily
 Total Network or
On Client side only

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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Overhead Structure
OTN is based on a fixed Frame size and consists of three areas:
Overhead section
Payload section
FEC (Forward Error Correction) section

Column No# OTU Overhead section


17 …………………….….. 3825 …………………….
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
3824 4080
1 Frame Alignment Signal MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
PM & TCM
Row No#

2 RES TCM ACT


TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
OPU Payload OTU FEC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC

4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO PJO

ODU Overhead section OPU


Overhead

OTN OH similar to SDH


•FAS and OTU similar RSOH
•ODU similar MSOH
•OPU similar Ho POH
•OPU Payload similar to C-4 Payload

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTUk Overhead

Column Nr.# OTU Overhead Section

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ………………… 3824 3825 ………………. 4080

1 Frame Alignment Signal MFAS SM GCC0 RES


PM & TCM
Row Nr.#

2 RES TCM ACT


TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL
OPU Payload OTU FEC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP

4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI

ODU Overhead Section OPU


Overhead

 Frame Alignment Signal


FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)
MFAS (Multi Frame Alignment Signal) SM Section

 SM (Section Monitoring)
1 2 3

TTI BIP-8

TTI (Trail Trace Identifier)


SAPI (Source Access Point Identifier)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

SAPI

BDI

IAE
BEI/BIAE RES
DAPI (Destination Access Point Identifier), DAPI

BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8),


BEI/BIAE (Backward Error Indication and Operator
Specific

Backward Incoming Alignment Error),


BDI (Backward Defect Indication),
IAE (Incoming Alignment Error),
 GCC (General Communication Channel),

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ODUk Overhead
PM Section
1 2 3
Column Nr. # OTU Overhead section
TTI BIP-8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ………………... 3824 3825 ………………. 4080

1 Frame Alignment Signal MFAS SM GCC0 RES


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PM & TCM
Row Nr. #

2 RES TCM ACT


TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL

BDI
SAPI
OPU Payload BEI STAT
OTU FEC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP

4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI DAPI

ODU Overhead section OPU PM &


Overhead TCM
Operator
Specific
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• PM (Path Monitoring),
– TTI (Trail Trace Identifier),

DMp
– BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8),
– BDI (Backward Defect Indication),
– BEI (Backward Error indication), TCMi Section
– STAT (STATus bits),
1 2 3
– DMp (path Delay Measurement),
• TCM ACT (Activation/Deactivation), TTIi BIP-8i
• TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring),
– TTI (Trail Trace Identifier),
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
– BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8),
– BDI (Backward Defect Indication),

BDIi
SAPI BEIi/BIAEi STATi
– BEI/BIAE (Backward Error Indication and backward Incoming Alignment Error),
– STAT (STATus bits), DAPI PM &
– DMti (Delay Measurement TCMi i=1 to 6) TCM
• FTFL (Fault Type and Fault Location),
• EXP (Experimental Overhead), Operator 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

• GCC1 and GCC2 (General Communication Channels 1/2), Specific

DMt1
DMt2
DMt3
DMt4
DMt5
DMt6
• APS/PCC (Automatic Protection Switching and Protection Communication Channel).

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN Functioning….

 OTU section has three areas


 FAS (Frame Alignment) and MFAS (Multi Frame Alignment)
 Shows the start of the frame and MFAS
 Section Monitoring
 Includes details for each section (between any two Switches)
 Source- and destination address
 Parity check
 Backward Error Indication
 GCC0/1/2 (General Communication Channel)
 ODU section
 Includes details of the total path (often assignable to clients)
 Source- and destination address
 Parity check
 Backward Error indication
 Delay measurement
 FTFL (Fault Type and Fault Location), to indicate fault-status und -location
 APS/PCC (Auto Protection Switching / Protection Communication Channel), Data
may pass a different part of the network
 TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring) Section, enables the monitoring of individual
sections (various carrier) of an end to end network

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OPU Overhead

Column No# OTU Overhead section

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 …………….….. 3824 3825 ………………. 4080

1 Frame Alignment Signal MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


PM & TCM
Row No#

2 RES TCM ACT


TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
OPU Payload OTU FEC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC

4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO PJO

ODU Overhead section OPU


Overhead
 Controls various Client Signal Mappings into the Payload PSI & JC Section
AMP (Asynchronous Mapping Process)
BMP (Bit synchronous Mapping Process) 1 2 … 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

GMP (Generic Mapping Procedure) 1 PT Reserved JC

 Based on PT (Payload Type) Overhead bits will 1

be adapted

CSF
2
RES
 PSI (Payload Structure Identifier)


PT (Payload Type)
255
CSF (Client Signal Fail)
 JC (Justification Control)
NJO (Negative Justification Opportunity)
PJO (Positive Justification Opportunity)

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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FEC

Column No# OTU Overhead section

FEC Parity check-Bytes are calculated over the Information-Bytes 1 to 239 of each
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 …………….….. 3824 3825 ………………. 4080

JC
Sub-Row and inserted in the Bytes 240 to 255 of the same Sub-Row. In total there
1 Frame Alignment Signal MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES
PM & TCM
Row No#

2 RES TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC


TCM ACT

3 are 16 Sub-Rows.
TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
OPU Payload OTU FEC

4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO PJO

ODU Overhead section OPU


Overhead

The theoretical efficiency of the error


Correction are calculated based on
occurrence of randomized errors.

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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….OTN Functioning
 OPU section consists of two areas
 Overhead
 Includes Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) and Payload Type
(PT), the Overhead in connection with Concatenation and
Overhead (e.g. Justification Control und Opportunity Bits) for
mapping of client data into OPUk Payload
 Payload
 Container to carry the client data
 FEC
 Improves the erroneous behaviour and for longer
optical transmission path (use of Reed Solomon Codes;
RS(255,239))
 Bitrate expansion due to FEC-Algorithm by 7%
 Improves the SNR by up to 6,2 dB
 Correction of up to 8 symbol error

Technology Overview
OTN- Optical Transport Network
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• OTN
 Background
 Architecture
 Overhead Structure
 Functioning
 FEC
 Coding Gain
 OTN – Bit Rates
 OTN - Mapping

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN Bit Rates - OTU
 OTU is a physical interface in an OTN Network.
 ITU-T Recommendation G.709 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
line rates:

FEC Multi- Payload-


OTU Rate
OTN Type Multiplier plier rate Gbit/s Ideal Payload
OTU1 255 / 238  2.488 320 2.666 057 STM-16/OC-48, 1GFC/2GFC 1
OTU1e 255 / 238  10.312 500 11.049 107 10GigE LAN
OTU1f 255 / 238  10.518 750 11.270 089 10GFC
OTU2 255 / 237  9.953 280 10.709 225 STM-64/OC-192, 4GFC/8GFC 2
OTU2e 255 / 237  10.312 500 11.095 728 10GigE (LAN)
OTU2f 255 / 237  10.518 750 11.317 642 10GFC
OTU3 255 / 236  39.813 120 43.018 414 40GigE, STM-256/OC-768 3
OTU3e1 255 / 236  4  10.312 500 44.570 975 4xODU2e
OTU3e2 243 / 217  16  2.488 320 44.583 356 4xODU2e
OTU4 255 / 227  99.532 800 111.809 974 100GigE 4
OTU: Optical channel Transport Unit

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN 10 Gb/s Mappings

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN 40Gb/s Mappings

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OTN 100Gb/s Mappings

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Recommended Test-Scenarios
 OTN-Layer
 BER
 Error/Alarm
 Pass-through-Mode (OH-Overwrite)
 FEC
 Analog-Method
 Digital-Method
 Client to Client (Based on RFC2544/Y.1564)

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN-Layer
 BER
 Error/Alarm
 Pass-Through-Mode
 ODU-Multiplexing
 FEC
 Analog-Method
 Digital-Method
 Client to Client (Based on RFC2544/Y.1564)

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN Network Partition

OTN-Layer Test
RFC2544/Y.1564 Test  BER
 Error/Alarm
 FEC

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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Error/Alarm Status-check
 Monitoring of SM/PM

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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BER-Analysis
 Investigation on various mappings in order to view the results based on Client-
level

 E.g. BER at 1GbE

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OTN-Frequency-Offset

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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OH-Header Manipulation

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OTN-Error/Alarm-Injection

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Pass-Through-Mode; OH transparent/overwrite

 Bidirectional monitoring
 Evaluate if Network-Element shows the correct response
to Error situation. (OTU-AIS; SM-BDI )

ME

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ODU Multiplexing
 Simulation of various Client-Signals (Eth., CPRI etc.)

 Throughput
 BER

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OTN-Layer
 BER
 Error/Alarm
 Pass-Through-Mode
 ODU-Multiplexing
 FEC-Test
 Analog-Method
 Digital-Method
 Client to Client (Based on RFC2544/Y.1564)

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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Analog Method
Random Error generation by varying the SNR using an
optical attenuator.
 Input Error Ratio is determined with FEC disabled
 With FEC enabled the Error-Correction-Efficiency can be
obtained
ME ME
FEC
Encoder

Optical
FEC Error Addtition=Off Attenuator

DUT
FEC
Decoder
1.FEC=Off
2.FEC=On

FEC Efficiency
OTN- Optical Transport Network
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Digital Method
Random Error injection based on Poisson-Distribution in accordance
with ITU-T O.182

ME ME
Random
Error Addition = On

DUT
FEC FEC
Decoder Encoder
FEC=On FEC=On

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Digital Method
Reproducible and accurate FEC-Error-Correction -Test:
Error generation based on Poisson-Distribution in accordance with ITU-T O.182

Poor characteristic of Poisson-Distribution Good characteristic of Poisson-Distribution

FEC Efficieny
OTN- Optical Transport Network
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Digital Method
Reproducible and accurate FEC-Error-Correction -Test:
Error generation based on Poisson-Distribution in accordance with ITU-T O.182

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OTN-Layer
 BER
 Error/Alarm
 Pass-Through-Mode
 ODU-Multiplexing
 FEC-Test
 Analog-Method
 Digital-Method
 Client to Client (Based on RFC2544/Y.1564)

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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RFC2544 / Y.1564; Client to Client / Embedded

RFC2544/Y.1564 Test

RFC2544 / Y.1564 Test


 End to End
RFC2544 / Y.1564 Test
 Embedded

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What does RFC2544 mean?
 The RFC2544 defines Test-Scenarios to benchmark and
characterize the performance of Network-Equipment.
 Throughput; Latency ; Frame Loss Rate ; Back to Back Frames
(Burstability / Fragmentation-Defragmentation)
 The Tests should be performed at a number of frame sizes – at
least five frame sizes should be tested for each test condition.
 Frame sizes: 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, 1518

 Furthermore the format for reporting the results is described.

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Test-Setup
1. 2.

Tester Tester TX (RX) Tester RX (TX)

3. Tester

DUT 2
DUT 1
(e.g. 1GbE)
WAN (e.g. 1GbE)

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ITU-T Y.1564 Service Activation Test Back

 ITU-T Y.1564 completes the testing in two phases


 Service Configuration Test
Confirm each individual service is configured correctly checking,
CIR (Committed Information Rate), EIR (Excess Information Rate),
FTD (Frame Transfer Delay), FDV (Frame Delay Variation), FLR
(Frame Loss Ratio), CBS (Committed Burst Size), EBS (Excess Burst
Size).
 Service Performance Test
Transmits one or many Service Configuration Tests
simultaneously at the CIR confirming all traffic is able to traverse
the network under the full service load over time.

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Comparison of Y.1564 and RFC2544

Test-Methodology
RFC 2544; common
Defined for benchmarking Network-Equipment
Only run a test at a time (no simultaneous
verification)

ITU-T Y.1564 RFC 2544


Designed for Service activation Devices performance
Concurrent services Multiple services simultaneously One service at a time
Simulates A realistic network One service in a network
Testing time Short due to simultaneous test / Long due to serial nature of test
service
Test result Directly related to SLA requirements Link performance limit

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Comparison of Y.1564 and RFC2544

One doesn’t replace the other they are designed for different tasks

Y.1564 RFC 2544 Comment


Designed for No Yes When testing a single component you should stress it and multiple
Element testing. frame sizes sequentially.

Designed for Yes No When testing a network you should stress by generating multiple
Network testing. streams at the same time.

Fast testing time. Yes No The testing time can be almost the same depending on the settings
but if the full RFC is completed it is very long. Y.1564 can take
longer but allows the user to select shorter measurement times if
they wish.

Settings work Yes No Y.1564 settings can be configured based on customers SLA
with SLA’s. agreements.

Works on a Yes No Both are able to work on active networks but RFC 2544 is designed
loaded network. to find the network limit while Y.1564 is designed to find the circuit
limit. Incorrectly configured either will bring affect customer traffic.

OTN- Optical Transport Network


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