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小蜜蜂的拉丁文学习经历

我们的论坛越来越热闹啦。能遇到这么多同好真是很开心的一件事。虽然我也只
断断续续学了两年,在此抛砖引玉讲一下自己的心得体会、经验教训,请专家指
教,也供同学在制定计划和内容选择上参考。

一,学习经历:

1,04 年 9 月-05 年 1 月

地点:人大。

老师:[奥地利]雷立柏老师。

课时:一周一次,四节课,前两节初阶,后两节原典。

上课语言:汉语。

教材:雷老师自编中文教材。以教会拉丁文为主。(我在本坛贴过全部教材。)

感想:

雷老师说也可以这学期学初阶,下学期学原典,但他推荐一起听,这样进步比
较快。优点:雷老师精通汉语,又是精通三语(希腊,拉丁,希伯来)的修士出
身,上课旁征博引中外警句格言,真是文化盛宴。

缺点是,语法讲解过于简单,不够系统。基本上是一节课就把名词的五种变格都
讲了。第二课讲了动词直陈式的所有五种变位,自己背去吧……我反应比较慢,
后来只得放弃了原典导读,仅修了初阶的学分。而且半年课完,自主阅读简单材
料依然困难重重。不过好歹算入门了。

2,05 年 7 月初-06 年 8 月中

地点:台湾辅仁大学

老师:[美]魏欣齐神父

课时:每周一二四五,上午九点到十二点。三周为一学期,共六周。

上课语言:英语。

教材:Wheelock's Latin (6th edition), Cambridge Latin Course I & II
(都是古典拉丁文教材)
感想:

在短短的一个半月,一共修了 72 学时的古典拉丁文,相当于一年的拉丁文选修
课。可以说是逼到不能再紧的语言强化班。每天进度是:前两小时学习两课
Wheelock,第三小时学一课 Cambridge。三周结束前半本 Wheelock 和一本
Cambridge。每天两课 wheelock 语法是一定要掌握的。至于 Cambridge 当然不可
能所有文章都念,魏神父挑选了一部分,还补充了一部分文化知识。课后要写一
部分 wheelock 上的句子翻译和短文翻译,第二天早上 9 点交作业,然后就是
quiz,测验语法和 wheelock 两课的单词,所有内容仅要求拉翻英(这就是为什
么我英翻拉至今很痛苦)。每周一为一周内容大测验,三周为一学期,第三周周
五期末考试。

第一学期还好,第二学期,wheelock 从 23 课分词开始就很难了,所有学生基本
上都要弄到头两点钟才睡。这可能是我拿得最痛苦的课程之一了。周围人纷纷
quit。但是强化的课程给我之后的学习打下了一个良好的基础。因为拉丁文语法
非常规则(绝对没有英文德文那么多不规则动词),学友们若有时间将
wheelock 语法拿下是很有帮助的。wheelock 语法讲解详细,循序渐进,结合例
句,自学也没问题,还有专门的辅导网站。尤其适合英文比较好,最好还学过一
点法西葡或德文二外的人。

但是我发现 wheelock 最大的缺点是练习大都是单句和格言,没有上下文,翻译
起来需要猜测。对于我这种学习语言比较没有天分、不喜欢记单词格言的人来说,
不够有趣味。

Cambridge 恰好补足了 wheelock。Cambridge 类似于直接法教学,很少说教,
语法被撕碎在 每一课的内容里。整本书就是一个很完整的家族故事,扣人心弦,
即使不懂语法也很好理解。此外 Cambridge 每课后面都有大量的古罗马文化英文
介绍,配着彩色照片和地图,让人心驰神往,极大地增强了学习的积极性。

Cambridge 的缺点就是语法太琐碎,若手头没有 Wheelock,就需要花大量时间
寻找散落在各个角落的语法点。此外 Cambridge 前两册只涉及直陈式,虚拟式
要到第三册后才出现。读者花很多时间在阅读而非语法学习上,不及 Wheelock
来得有成就感。

Cambridge 也有专门的辅导网站。

3,05 年 9 月-06 年 6 月。

地点:北师大

老师:[中]李永毅老师

课时:每周末两小时小组聚会,在老师的办公室围坐而学。
上课语言:汉语+英语

教材:Cambridge III & IV

感想:自从跟随李老师学习,我才开始真正喜欢上拉丁文。李老师通多门外语,
尤其熟悉拉丁词根在英法语言的流变过程。而且李老师也深知中国人学拉丁文的
难点,上课总是能讲得大家恍然大悟。还穿插着大家对古罗马文化、欧洲文学的
讨论,让我受益匪浅。感动于李老师的无私投入,大家都坚持学下来,我也对得
起自己的承诺,做了一年的课文翻译整理,开了个人拉丁文 blog。

4,如今又是一个新的开始,可惜我需要一整年时间写论文和为毕业作打算,还
要自学德文(*^_^*真不好意思,我从 01 年就开始学德文了,可还是很差劲,
我学德文为什么就没有拉丁文那么有兴趣呢?都是自己太懒吧!),且拉丁文
学习小组也不一定有时间聚会了。于是本学期的第一个计划是:

复习 Wheelock,两天一课,满打满算到 11 月中结束。

9 月 一——十五

10 月: 十六——三十

11 月:三十一——四十五

12 月:四十六——五十

此外 Cambridge IV 最后几课整理我也会穿插在 11 月和 12 月的 wheelock 复习间
隙完成。

二,使用 Wheelock 和 Cambridge 建议:

使用者必须有一定英文基础,并须勤查字典了解语法讲解中专有名词的意思。

不必盲目求快,选择你认为最合适的进度即可。有问题请在那一课的贴子后跟贴。
我打字很可能打错,一切以书为准。

个人建议最小量:

周一:学语法,记诵到能琅琅上口,并背诵单词

周二:自测语法,自测单词(仅需要将单词的英文意思写出来),然后挑选一
些 practise & review 和 sententia antiqua 的句子翻译成英文。(不必记诵
单词表以外的单词),对答案了解错误原因。

周三:学 cambridge I 的半个 stage,记诵单词(不必测验,但要看熟)。
周四五六继续一二三的步骤学习下一课。

周日休息。有兴趣看看 Cambridge 的文化知识、图片,还有精力和兴趣可以看看
Wheelock 的 Etymology 语源学知识(这里能提高你的英文水平)。(或打打罗马
全面战争,下载一个拉丁文语音补丁之类。笑)

这样的进度。一学期十八周,再加上假期两周,可以学完 Wheelock 的所有 40 课
语法。(当然后面的比较头大,但一定要坚持下来。然后假期的其他时间就增强
复习。)Cambridge 也可结束第一册所有 12 个 stage。

第二学期学 Cambridge II……wheelock 基本语法学完,你会发现 Cambridge 很
容易啦。一周一课,弄明白故事里的每一句话的意思,每一个词的性数格。查词
典记单词,自己整理单词表(Cambridge 给出的意思太简单,可查字典后自己
举一反三)。

假期就可以开始第三册 Cambridge 了。到第三学期的后半段开始第四册。第四册
比较难,都是原文,可以根据课文长短和体裁选择一周一课或两周一课。诗歌会
比较难,若搞不明白就先放一边,散文一定要搞懂。课外自己周边阅读,补充古
典文学知识。

Cambridge 和 Wheelock 的全部教材都已经被李老师做好事传到北师大网络上去
了,我们论坛就有帖子。

都学完了下来呢?到时候你就不会问我了,你有的是拉丁文书可以看,textkit
上有一大堆呢。

最后:词典!

在国内能买到的比较物美价廉的词典是 The New College Latin & English
Dictionary。若买不到试试看亚马逊,词典很重要,一定要备一本。此外还有著
名的 Cassell’s Latin Dictionary,国内买不到,但一些大学的图书馆有早年
的版本(我在北外图书馆找到了解放前版本的 wheelock 和 Cassell,还有很多
其他教材。上海的朋友可以试着翻翻上外或者复旦)。
随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第一课

说干就干:)

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第一 课,动词 ;第一、 二种变位 :现在时 主动不定 式,直陈 式,

命令 式;翻译 (Verbs; First and Second Conjugations: Present
Infinitive, Indicative, and Imperative Active; Translating)

本课不难,只是需要花功夫熟记各种词形,尽量做到一课任务一课清,

以免与后面比较复杂的形式搞混。

单词也应熟记:

I, 简单汉译单词表:

mē 代 我(宾格单数)

quid 代 什么

mihil 名 没有什么

nōn 副 不

saepe 副 经常
sī 连 如果

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum 动(单词表中出现-ō, -*re -**ī -um/us/a 四个

形式的词都是动词,下略不标) 爱,喜欢 amābō tē 短语,请,求求

你(字面意义:我会爱你的)

cōgitō, cōgitāre, cōgitāvī, cōgītātum 思考,想,计划

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitum 欠,归功于;必须,应该

dō, dare, dedī, datum 给,提供

errō, errāre, errāvī, errātum 错误,迷路

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātum 表扬

moneō, monere, monuī, monitum 提醒,建议,警告

salveō, salvēre 身体好,健康 salvē, salvēte 哈罗!好!(打招呼)

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātum 保持,保存,持续,保护

cōnservō, cōnservāre, cōnservāvī, cōnservātum (con-servō) 是 servō 的增强

形式,意思同

terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum 惊吓,恐吓

valeō, valēre, valuī, valitūrum 强壮,有力,身体好 valē (valēte)再见!
videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum 看到,观察,理解

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātum 叫,传唤

II, Sententiae (句子翻译)

1. Labor mē vocat.

Labor calls me.

2. Monē mē, amābō tē, sī errō.

Please, warn me if I err.

3. Festīnā lentē.

Hasten slowly.

4. Laudās mē; culpant mē.

You praise me; they blame me.

5. Saepe peccāmus.

We often sin.

6. Quid dēbēmus cōgitāre?

What should we think? (情态动词后接的实义动词 cogitare 用不定

式)

7. Cōnservāte mē!
Protect me! (动词 conservate 是命令式复数,单数是 conserva)

8. Rūmor volat.

A rumor flies. (拉丁文无冠词,翻译成英文就要按规则加 a/the)

9. Mē nōn amat.

She does not love me.

10. Nihil mē terret.

Nothing scares me.

11. Apollō mē saepe servat.

Apollo often saves me.

12. Salvēte!-- quid vidētis? Nihil vidēmus.

Hello!—what do you see? We see nothing.

13. Saepe nihil cōgitās.

You often plan nothing.

14. Bis dās, sī cito dās.

You give twice, if you give quickly.(曾问过老师这句话的含义。

他说好比施舍,若你很快地给了人援助就走了,那同时也照顾了受助

者的面子,那个人不会觉得很窘,就好像你给了他两倍的好处。若你还
要搞个仪式,让大家都来看,那就是一种伤害了。——如学校的特困生

捐助仪式、某某领导拜访特困户上电视之类)

15. Sī valēs, valeō.

If you are well, I am well.

16. What does he see?

Quid videt?

17. They are giving nothing.

Nihil dant.

18. You ought not to praise me.

Me laudare non debes.

19. If I err, he often warns me.

Si erro, me saepe monet.

20. If you love me, save me, please!

Si me amas, serva me, amabo te! (这里动词用单数比较合意)

THE POET HORACE CONTEMPLATES AN INVITATION

Maecēnās et Vergilius mē hodiē vocant. Quid cōgitāre dēbeō? Quid dēbeō
respondēre? Sī errō, mē saepe monent et culpant; sī nōn errō, mē laudant.
Quid hodiē cōgitāre dēbeō?

Maecenas and Vergil are calling me today. What should I think? What
should I reply? If I am wrong, they often warn and blame me; if I am
not wrong, they praise me. What should I think today?
随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第二课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第二课名词与位格;第一种变格;形容词的一致;句法 Nouns and Cases;
First Declension; Agreement of Adjectives; Syntax

提示:

名词常用格有五个。除此之外还有呼格 vocative, 地格 locative 等。

一部分单词(-a 结尾)采用第一种方式变格。变格的词尾一定要熟记。

形容词必须与所修饰的名词保持性数格的一致,然而不一定词尾形式相同。

单词表: (凡给出阴阳中性标志 f/m/n 的为名词;给出阴阳中性词尾-us -a -um 的

为形容词,不再用中文标示。)

fāma, fāmae, f 传闻,报告;名声,名气

fōrma, fōrmae, f 形式,形状;美态

fortūna, fortūnae, f 运气,好运

īra, īrae, f 怒气,生气
nauta, nautae, m 水手

patria, patriae f 祖国,本国,(某人自己的)国家

pecūnia, -ae f 金钱

philosophia, -ae f 哲学

poena, -ae f 惩罚,罚款;poenās dare,受到惩罚

poēta, -ae f 诗人

porta, -ae f 大门,入口

puella, -ae f 女孩

rosa, -ae f 玫瑰

sententia, -ae, f 感觉,思想,观点,投票,句子

vita, -ae f 生命,生活方式

antīquus, -a -um 古老的,陈旧的

magnus -a -um 大的,重大的,重要的

meus -a -um 我的

multus -a -um 许多
tuus -a -um 你的

et 连词 和

sed 连词 但是

O 语气词 哦!

sine 介词 没有

est 是(此是动词现在时第三人称单数。原型及其它变位见下一课)

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE (人名旁打 *号的为改写过的原文)

1. Salvē, O patria! (Plautus.)

Hello, O fatherland!

2. Fāma et sententia volant. (Virgil. -- volāre 动词 飞,迅速移动)

Rumor and opinion fly.

3. Dā veniam puellae, amābō tē. (Terence. -- venia, -ae 宽恕,好感)

Give the girl a pardon, please.

4. Clēmentia tua multās vītās servat. (Cicero. -- clēmentia, -ae, 仁慈)

Your clemency saves many lives.

5. Multam pecūniam dēportat. (Cicero. -- dēportāre, 带走)

He carries away much money.
6. Fortūnam et vītam antīquae patriae saepe laudās sed recūsās. (Horace. -- recūsāre

拒绝)

You often praise but reject the fortune and life of the old country.

7. Mē vītāre turbam iubēs. (*Seneca. -- vītāre 避免。-- turba, -ae 人群 --iubēre 命令)

You order me to avoid the crowd.

8. Mē philosophiae dō. (Seneca)

I give myself to philosophy.

9. Philosophia est ars vītae. (*Cicero. --ars 艺术)

Philosophy is the art of life.

10. Sānam fōrmam vītae cōnservāte. (Seneca. --sāna 形容词 健全,理智.)

Preserve the sound beauty of life. (这句话是命令式,动词-te,因此是
对“你们”说的)

11. Immodica īra creat īnsāniam. (Seneca. -- immodica, -ae 形容词 不适中的,过多

的)

Immoderate anger creates insanity.

12. Quid cōgitās? --dēbēmus īram vītāre. (Seneca.)

What are you thinking? – we must avoid anger.

13. Nūlla avāritia sine poenā est. (*Seneca. --nūlla, -ae 形容词 无。--avāritia, -ae 贪

婪)

There is no avarice without punishment.
14. Mē saevīs catēnīs onerat. (Horace. -- saeva, -ae 形容词 残酷。--catēna, -ae 锁

链。--onerāre 负荷,压抑)

It oppresses me with cruel chains.(有时主语不明确,仅从动词判断出为
第三人称单数,那很有可能是抽象的”it”)

15. Rotam fortūnae nōn timent. (Cicero --rota, -ae 车轮 --timēre 恐惧,害怕)

They do not fear the wheel of fortune.

16. The girls save the poet’s life.

Puellae vitam poetae servant.

17. Without philosophy we often go astray and pay the penalty.

Sine philosophia saepe erramus et poenas damus. (to pay the penalty
受到惩罚,在拉丁文中固定表达为 poenas dare)

18. If your land is strong, nothing terrifies the sailors and you ought to praise your
great fortune.

Si valet tua patria, nihil nautas terret et debes magnam fortunam
tuam laudare. (翻译时注意将动词放在最后,et 两侧结构对称。)

19. We often see the penalty of anger.

Saepe poenam irae videmus.

20. The ancient gate is large.

Porta antiqua est magna.

CATULLUS BIDS HIS GIRLFRIEND FAREWELL

Puella mea mē nōn amat. Valē, puella! Catullus obdūrat: poēta puellam nōn amat,
fōrmam puellae nōn laudat, puellae rosās nōn dat, et puellam nōn bāsiat! Ira mea est
magna! Obdūrō, mea puella -- sed sine tē nōn valeō.

(Catullus 8; 散文改写版。obdūrāre 坚定;bāsiāre 接吻;tē 你)
My girl does not love me. Good-bye, girl! Catullus is firm: the poet does not
love the girl, he does not praise the girl's beauty, he does not give the girl
roses, and he does not kiss the girl! My anger is great! I am firm, my girl – but
without you I am not well. (这段文章很有意思。一开始摆出很傲慢的样子,以
“他”自称,最后才忍不住说出真心话——没有你,我一点也不好-_-||)

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第三课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第三课 第二种变格:阳性名词与形容词;同位语;词序

Chapter 3 Second Declension: Masculine Nouns and Adjectives; Apposition; Word
Order

第二种变格也不难,包括大部分 (不是全部哦)-us 结尾的阳性名词和-um 结尾
的中性名词。只要看到词典里给出的名词是:

词根+us,-ī 的形式,就知道是阳性的第二种变格名词。个别词的主格以-er 结尾

而非-us。

词根+um,-ī 的,就是中性的第二种变格名词。

在这一章中只介绍了阳性名词与形容词,中性在下一课。
书上 19 页还提醒说,仅仅在阳性第二变格名词和形容词的单数 情况下,呼

格 vocative 要改为-e,其余情况都维持原型。

同位语 Apposition 和英语一样,同性同数同格。

词序:主语+主语修饰语+间接宾语+直接宾语+副词结构+动词

单词表(仅有简单中译,背诵请看原书):

ager, agrī, m 田地,农田

agricola, -ae m 农民(注意!此为少数-a 结尾的阳性词之一)

amīca, -ae, f 朋友(女性)

femina, -ae f 女人

fīlia, -ae f 女儿

fīlius, fīliī, m 儿子

numerus -ī m 数字

populus, -ī m 人民,民族,国家

puer, puerī m 男孩

sapientia, -ae f 智慧
vir, virī m 男人,英雄

avārus -a um 贪婪的

paucī -ae -ī (通常复数)少数的

Rōmānus -a -um 罗马的

dē 介词+夺格 abl 从……,来自……;关于……;

in 介词+夺格 abl 在……里,在……上

hodiē 副词,今天

semper 副词,总是

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum 有,保有,占有,认为

satiō (1) 满足(所有第一种变位的规则动词将不再写出其他三个形式,而是以数

字(1)表示)

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Filium nautae Rōmānī in agrīs vidēmus.

We see the son of a Roman sailor on the farm.我们看到一个罗马水手的儿
子在田野里。

2. Puerī puellās hodiē vocant.

The boys are calling the girls today. 今天男孩们在招呼女孩们。

3. Sapientiam amīcārum, fīlia mea, semper laudat.
My daughter always praises her friends’ wisdom. 我的女儿总是表扬她朋
友们的智慧。(朋友们的智慧宾语提前了)

4. Multī virī et fēminae philosophiam antīquam cōnservant.

Many men and women preserve the ancient philosophy.很多男人和女人保留
了古代哲学。

5. Sī īra valet, O mī fīlī, saepe errāmus et poenās damus.

If anger is strong, O my son, we often err and pay the penalty.如果怒
气很盛,哦我的儿,我们常常会犯错并受到惩罚

6. Fortūna virōs magnōs amat.

Fortune loves great men.幸运钟情于伟人。

7. Agricola fīliābus pecūniam dat.

The farmer gives his daughters money. 农夫给他的女儿们钱。

8. Without a few friends life is not strong. 没有一些朋友们,生命就不坚强。

Sine paucis amicis vita non valet.

9. Today you have much fame in your country.

Multam famam in patria tua hodie habes.

10. We see great fortune in your daughters’ lives, my friend.

Videmus, mi amice, magnam fortunam in filiarum tuarum vitis.

11. He always gives my daughters and sons roses.

Filiis et filiabus meis rosas semper dat.

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Dēbētis, amīcī, dē populō Rōmānō cōgitāre. (Cicero)

Friends, you must think of the Roman people.
2. Maecēnās, amīcus Augustī, mē in numerō amīcōrum habet. (Horace. --

Maecēnās, 一名字,主格单数;Augustus, -ī)

Maecenas, a friend of Augustus, has me in his number of friends.

3. Libellus meus et sententiae meae vītās virōrum moment. (Phaedrus. --libellus,

-ī, 小书,小册子)

My little book and opinions advise men’s lives.

4. Paucī virī sapientiae student. (Cicero. --studēre+与格 dat,积极寻求)

Few men are eager for wisdom.

5. Fortūna adversa virum magnae sapientiae nōn terret. (Horace. -- adversus, -a,

-um 不幸的)

Adverse fortune does not frighten a man of great wisdom.

6. Cimōn, vir magnae fāmae, magnam benevolentiam habet. (Nepos. --Cimōn,某

人名,主格单数;--benevolentia, -ae 仁慈,善行)

Cimon, a man of great fame, possesses great benevolence.

7. Semper avārus eget. (*Horace. --avārus=avārus vir. --egēre, 缺乏,处于缺乏

的状态中)

A greedy man is always in need.

8. Nūlla cōpia pecūniae avārum virum satiat. (Seneca. --cōpia, -ae, 大量,充裕)

No abundance of money satisfies a greedy man.
9. Pecūnia avārum irrītat, nōn satiat. (Publilius Syrus. --irrītāre, 使……兴奋,

激怒,激起)

Money excites, not satisfies a greedy man.

10. Sēcrētē amīcōs admonē; laudā palam. (*Publilius Syrus. -- sēcrētē, 副词,

秘密地。--admonē=monē. --palam, 副词,公开地。)

Advise your friends in secret; praise them openly.

11. Modum tenēre dēbēmus. (*Seneca. --modus, -ī 适度。--tenēre,保有,保持,

观察)

We ought to keep moderation.

THE GRASS IS ALWAYS GREENER

Agricola et vītam et fortūnam nautae saepe laudat; nauta magnam fortūnam et vītam
poētae saepe laudat; et poēta vītam et agrōs agricolae laudat. Sine philosophiā avārī
virī dē pecūniā semper cōgitant: multam pecūniam habent, sed pecūnia multa virum
avārum nōn satiat. (Horace, Sermōnēs 1.1; 散文改写版)

The farmer often praises both the life and fortune of the sailor; the sailor often
praises the great fortune and life of the poet; the poet praises both the life and
fields of the farmer. Without philosophy, greedy men are always thinking about
money: they have much money, but much money does not satisfy a greedy
man.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第四课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。
第四课 第二种变格中性词;形容词; Sum(是)的直陈现在时;名词与

形容词作表语;形容词作名词 ( Second Declension Neuters; Adjectives;
Present Indicative of Sum; Predicate Nouns and Adjectives; Substantive
Adjectives)

第四课内容也不难,但比较零碎,名动形都讲到了。

一点一点来看:

第二种变格中性

第二种变格上课已经学了,但是第二种变格不仅包括一部分阳性,还包括中性
词。其词尾与阳性词基本一致,差别:

中性词单数:主格-um,宾格-um,呼格-um

中性词复数:主格-a,宾格-a,呼格-a

阳性词单数:主格-us(个别-er),宾格-um,呼格-e (主格为-er 者保持-er 不变)

阳性词复数:主格-ī,宾格-ōs,呼格-ī

形容词的变格:

形容词的变格和名词一致,只是所有形容词都有阴阳中三性。

magnus 为代表的一类形容词词尾与已学过的第一二种变格名词一致。

个别形容词无单数,只有复数,如 paucī, -ae, -a

sum 的变位:
sum 属于不规则变位,但使用很广,一定要记住:

latina English Deutsch

sum (I) am (ich) bin

es (You sg.) are (du) bist

est (he/she/it) is (er/sie sg./es) ist

sumus (we) are (wir) sind

estis (you pl.) are (ihr) seid

sunt (they) are (sie pl.) sind

esse to be sein

sum 的现在时不定式是:esse,相当于 to be / sein

名词和形容词作表语

简单一句:sum 连接的两部分都用主格,表语的性数格与主语一致。和英文德文
一样。

注意:若主语由多个不同性的名词组成,应采用就近原则——表语与最近的主
语一致,但也常常直接随阳性主格(到处一样,男性比较强势哈)。

形容词作名词

和“the old 老的;the red 红的”一样。

形容词是阳性的则指代男性/雄性;阴性则代女性/雌性。根据上下文决定。单数则
为一个,复数则为多个。不再赘述。见书上例句。

单词表:

bāsium, -iī n 亲吻
bellum, -ī n 战争

cōnsilium, -iī n 计划,目标,忠告,建议,判断,智慧

cūra, -ae f 关心,注意,小心,焦虑

dōnum, -ī n 礼物

exitium, -iī n 破坏,毁灭

magister, magistrī, m 或 magistra, -ae f 老师(男/女),主人(男/女)

mora, -ae f 延迟

nihil 无变格 n 无,没有任何事物

oculus, -ī n 眼睛

officium, -iī n 责任,服务

ōtium -iī n 闲暇,和平

perīculum -ī n 危险,冒险

remedium -iī n 治疗,补救

bellus -a -um 美丽的,英俊的,迷人的

bonus -a -um 好的,善良的
hūmānus -a -um 有人性的,人类的,善良的,有文化的,有教养的

malus -a -um 坏的,邪恶的

parvus -a -um 小的

stultus -a -um 愚蠢的;stultus -ī m 名词,蠢人

vērus -a -um 真实的,真正的,合适的

iuvō (或 adiuvō) iuvāre iūvī iūtum 帮助,协助;取悦

sum esse fuī futūrum 是,存在

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. ōtium est bonum, sed ōtium multōrum est parvum.

Leisure is good, but the leisure of many people is little.

2. Bella sunt mala et multa perīcula habent.

Wars are bad and have many dangers.

3. Officium nautam dē ōtiō hodiē vocat.

Duty calls the sailor from leisure today.

4. Paucī virī avārī multās fōrmās perīculī in pecūniā vident.

Few greedy men see the many forms of danger in money.

5. Sī multam pecūniam habētis, saepe nōn estis sine cūrīs.

If you have much money, you are often not without anxiety.

6. Puellae magistram dē cōnsiliō malō sine morā moment.
The girls warn the teacher about the evil plan without delay.

7. O magne poēta, sumus vērī amīcī; mē iuvā, amābō tē!

O great poet, we are true friends; help me, please!

8. Fēmina agricolae portām videt.

The farmer’s wife sees the gate – or – The woman sees the
farmer’s gate.

9. You (sg.) are in great danger.

In magno periculo es.

10. My son’s opinions are often foolish.

Sententiae mei filii saepe sunt stultae.

11. The daughters and sons of great men and women are not always great.

Filiae et filii virorum et feminarum magnarum non semper sunt magni.

12. Without wisdom the sailors’ good fortune is nothing and they are paying the
penalty.

Sine consilio bona fortuna nautarum est nihil et poenas dant.

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Fortūna est caeca. (*Cicero. --caecus -a -um 盲目的)

Fortune is blind.

2. Sī perīcula sunt vēra, īnfortūnātus es. (Terence. --īnfortūnātus -a -um 不幸的)

If the danger is real, you are unfortunate.

3. Salvē, O amīce; vir bonus es. (Terence.)

Hello, O friend; you are a good man.
4. Nōn bella est fāma fīliī tuī. (Horace.)

Not good is your son’s reputation. =Your son’s reputation is not
charming.

5. Errāre est hūmānum. (Seneca. --不定式可作主语,相当于一个无变格中性名词)

To err is human.

6. Nihil est omnīnō beātum. (Horace -- omnīnō, 副词,整个地,完全地. -- beātus -a

-um 幸福的,幸运的)

Nothing is entirely blessed.

7. Remedium īrae est mora. (Seneca.)

The cure for anger is delay.

8. Bonus Daphnis, amīcus meus, ōtium et vītam agricolae amat. (Virgil.)

My friend, kind Daphnis, loves leisure and the farmer’s life.

9. Magistrī parvīs puerīs crūstula et dōna saepe dant. (Horace. -- crūstulum -ī 饼干)

Teachers often give cookies and gifts to small children.

10. Amīcam meam magis quam oculōs meōs amō. (Terence. --magis quam 多于……)

I love my friend more than my eyes.

11. Salvē, mea bella puella -- dā mihi multa bāsia, amābō tē! (Catullus. --mihi, 与格

dat,对于我)

Hello, my pretty girl – give me many kisses, please!

12. Infīnītus est numerus stultōrum. (Ecclesiastes. --īnfīnītus -a -um 不可计数的)
The number of fools is infinite.

13. Officium mē vocat. (Persius)

Duty calls me.

14. Malī sunt in nostrō numerō et dē exitiō bonōrum virōrum cōgitant. Bonōs
adiuvāte; cōnservāte populum Rōmānum. (Cicero. -- nostrō, 我们的)

Bad men are in our number and they are plotting about the destruction
of good men. Help the good men; protect the Roman people.

THE RARITY OF FRIENDSHIP

Paucī virī vērōs amīcōs habent, et paucī sunt dignī. Amīcitia vēra est praeclāra, et
omnia praeclāra sunt rāra. Multī virī stultī dē pecūniā semper cōgitant, paucī dē
amīcīs; sed errant; possumus valēre sine multā pecūniā, sed sine amīcitiā nōn valēmus
et vīta est nihil.

(Cicero. Dē Amīcitiā 21.79-80. --dignus -a -um 值得的 amīcitia -ae 友谊. --

omnia 所有(东西). -- praeclārus -a -um 极好的,非凡的. --rārus -a -um 稀少的. --

possumus (我们)能够)

Few men have true friends, and few are worthy. True friendship is remarkable,
and all remarkable things are rare. Many foolish men are always thinking
about money, few about friends; but they err: we can be well without much
money, but without friendship we are not well and life is nothing.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第五课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin
需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下

载。

第五 课 将来 时与未完 成时:第 一、二种变位 的动词; 以 -er 结尾的

形容 词 First and Second Conjugations: Future and Imperfect;
Adjectives in -er

本课比较简单。第一二种变位的动词,将来时和未完成时的词尾很规律。

未完成时不能简单等同于英语的过去时,它包括在过去某段时间重复、

或持续、或习惯性、或曾经尝试过、或刚刚开始的动作。可以翻译成英语

的过去进行时、used to 结构、kept doing、和一般过去时。

-er 结尾的形容词:

若已经掌握了第三课的-er 结尾的阳性第二种变格名词,这就没什么好

谈的啦。

单词 表:

adulēscentia -ae f 青年时期

animus -ī m 灵魂,精神,头脑

caelum -ī n 天空,天堂

culpa -ae f 错误,责任
glōria -ae f 荣誉,名声

verbum -ī n 话,词

tē 夺格 abl &宾格 acc 单数 你

līber lībera līberum 自由的

pulcher pulchra pulchrum 美丽,英俊;美好的

sānus -a -um 健康,正常

igitur 连词,后置 因此,从而

-ne 后缀,附加于句首第一个词后,表示疑问。

propter 介词+acc 因为

crās 副词 明天

herī 副词 昨天

quandō 疑问和关系副词/连词 当……时;sī quandō 无论何时

satis 不可变格的名词、形容词、副词 足够(的/地)

tum 副词 然后,在那时;于是,下一步

cēnō (1) 用餐
culpō (1) 责怪,审查

remaneō remanēre remānsī remānsum (或:maneō manēre mānsī mānsum)

superō (1) 在上面,处于优势,超过;克服,战胜

PRA CTIC E AN D RE VIEW

1. Officium līberōs virōs semper vocābat.

Duty always called free men.

2. Habēbimusne multōs virōs et fēminās magnōrum animōrum?

Will we have many men and women of great courage?

3. Perīcula bellī nōn sunt parva, sed patria tua tē vocābit et agricolae
adiuvābunt.

The dangers of war are not small, but your fatherland will

call you and the farmers will help.

4. Propter culpās malōrum patria nostra nōn valēbit.

Because of the evil men’s crimes, our country will not be

well.

5. Mora animōs nostrōs superābat et remedium nōn habēbāmus.
The delay was conquering our spirits and we did not possess

the cure.

6. Multī in agrīs herī manēbant et Rōmānōs iuvābant.

Many stayed in the fields yesterday and were helping the

Romans.

7. Paucī virī dē cūrā animī cōgitābant.

Few men used to think about the care of the spirit.

8. Propter īram in culpā estis et crās poenās dabitis.

Because of anger, you are in blame and tomorrow you will pay

the penalty.

9. Vērum ōtium nōn habēs, vir stulte!

You do not have true leisure, foolish man!

10. Nihil est sine culpā; sumus bonī, sī paucās habēmus.

Nothing is without fault; we are good if we have few

[faults].

11. Poēta amīcae multās rosās dōna pulchra, et bāsia dabat.

The poet gave the girl friend many roses, fine gifts, and

kisses.

12. Will war and destruction always remain in our land?
Manebuntne semper bellum et exitium in terra nostra?

13. Does money satisfy the greedy man?

Avarumne pecunia satiat?

14. Therefore, you (sg.) will save the reputation of our foolish boys.

Famam igitur nostrorum puerorum stultorum servabis.

15. Money and glory were conquering the soul of a good man.

Pecunia et gloria animum viri boni superabant.

SEN TENT IAE A NTI QUAE

1. Invidiam populī Rōmānī crās nōn sustinēbis. (Cicero. -- invidia -ae 不喜

欢 --sustinēre 忍耐,支撑)

You will not endure the Roman people’s dislike tomorrow.

2. Perīculumne igitur herī remanēbat? (Cicero)

Did danger therefore remain yesterday?

3. Angustus animus pecūniam amat. (Cicero. -- angustus -a -um 狭窄的,狭

隘的)

A narrow mind loves money.
4. Superā animōs et īram tuam. (Ovid.)

Overcome your pride and your anger.

5. Culpa est mea, O amīcī. (Cicero)

The fault is mine, O friends.

6. Dā veniam fīliō et fīliābus nostrīs. (Terence. --venia -ae, 好感,原谅)

Give our son and daughters a pardon.

7. Propter adulēscentiam, fīliī meī, mala vītae nōn vidēbātis. (Terence)

Because of youth, my sons, you used to not see the bad things

of life.

8. Amābō tē, cūrā fīliam meam. (Cicero. -- cūrāre 照顾)

Please, take care of my daughter.

9. Vīta hūmāna est supplicium. (Seneca. --supplicium -iī 惩罚)

Human life is a punishment.

10. Satisne sānus es? (Terence.)

Are you sane enough?

11. Sī quandō satis pecūniae habēbō, tum mē cōnsiliō et philosophiae dabō.
(Seneca. -- pecūniae, 属格 gen)
If ever I will have enough money, at that time I shall give

myself to wisdom and philosophy.

12. Semper glōria et fāma tua manēbunt. (Virgil.)

Your glory and fame will always remain.

13. Vir bonus et perītus aspera verba poētārum culpābit. (Horace. -- perītus
-a -um 灵巧的,熟练的)

The good and skillful man will blame the harsh words of

poets.

HIS ONL Y GU EST W AS A RE AL B OAR!

Nōn cēnat sine aprō noster, Tite, Caeciliānus:

bellum convīvam Caeciliānus habet!

(Martial 7.59. Epigrams -- aper aprī 野猪,猪;-- convīva -ae m <少数几

个阳性第一变格名词> 餐客)

Titus, our Caecilianus does not dine without a boar:

Caecilianus has a pretty dinner-guest!
THE RMOP YLAE : SO LDIE R'S H UMO R

“Exercitus noster est magnus,” Persicus inquit, “et propter numerum
sagittārum nostrārum caelum nōn vidēbitis!” Tum Lacedaemonius
respondet: “In umbrā, igitur, pugnābimus!” Et Leōnidās, rēx
Lacedaemoniōrum, exclāmat: “Pugnāte cum animīs, Lacedaemoniī; hodiē
apud umbrās fortasse cēnābimus!”

exercitus 军队。-- Persicus -ī 波斯人。-- inquit 说。-- sagitta -ae 箭。--

Lacedaemonius -ī 斯巴达人。-- respondēre 回答。-- umbra -ae 阴影,树荫;

鬼魂。-- pugnāre 打斗,战斗。 -- rēx 国王,首领。-- exclāmāre 喊叫。--

cum + 夺格 abl 跟,和<with>。-- apud +宾格 acc 在……中间。 -- fortasse

副词 也许。

"Our army is great," says the Persian, "and because of the number of
our arrows you will not see the sky!" Then the Spartan replies: "Then
we shall fight in the shade!" And Leonidas, king of the Spartans,
exclaims: "Fight with courage, Spartans; perhaps today we shall dine
among ghosts!"

<Play on words with umbra "shade/shadow" and "shade/ghost";
Spartans were renowned for their laconic statements, as a matter of
fact the word "laconic" comes from a word for "Spartan">

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第六课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。
第六课 Sum 的直陈将来时和未完成时; Possum 的直陈现在时、将来时和

未完成时;补充不定式

Sum: Future and Imperfect Indicative; Possum: Present, Future, and Imperfect
Indicative; Complementary Infinitive

这课内容只有一页。关键是掌握 sum 的将来时和未完成时。sum 的现在时已经在

第四课学过。结合 sum 的这三个重要形式,我们很容易就能掌握 possum(to be

able to, can)的这三个相应形式。

详细请看 P37-38

和英文 can/ to be able 一样,possum 后也要接动词不定式来使意义完整。

单词表:

dea -ae f (注意:复数与格 dat 和夺格 abl 不规则,为 deābus) 女神,deus -ī m

(注意:单数呼格 voc 为 deus,复数主格 dī,复数与格 dat 和夺格 abl 为

dīs),(复数 deī 和 deīs 在奥古斯丁时代成为常见形式),神,上帝

discipula -ae f 和 discipulus -ī m 学习的人,小学生,学生

īnsidiae -arum f pl 陷阱,计谋,背叛

liber librī m 书

tyrannus -ī m 独裁者

vitium -iī n 过错,罪,恶行
Graecus -a -um 希腊的;Graecus -ī m 希腊人

perpetuus -a -um 永久的,持续的,不被打断的,延续的

plenus -a -um 丰富的,大方的

salvus -a -um 安全的,健康的

secundus -a -um 第二位的,讨人喜欢的

vester vestra vestrum 你们的

-que 附属连词 和。加在第二个单词后,将之和前一个单词相连,如:fāma

glōriaque 名声和荣耀

sed 连词 但是

ubi (1)关系副词和连词,那儿,那时;(2)疑问副词和连词。哪儿?

ibi 副词 那儿

nunc 副词,现在,目前

quārē 副词 由于……的缘故(quā rē),因此,为什么……的理由

possum posse potuī 能够,可以,有能力

tolerō (1) 忍受,忍耐
PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Oculī nostrī nōn valēbant; quārē agrōs bellōs vidēre nōn poterāmus.

Our eyes were not strong; by which reason we were not able to see the
pretty fields.

2. Sine multā pecūniā et multīs dōnīs tyrannus satiāre populum Rōmānum nōn poterit.

Without much money and many gifts, the tyrant will not be able to
satisfy the Roman people.

3. Nōn poterant, igitur, tē dē poenā amīcōrum tuōrum herī monēre.

Therefore, they could not warn you about your friends’ punishment
yesterday.

4. Parvus numerus Graecōrum crās ibi remanēre poterit.

A small number of the Greeks will be able to stay there tomorrow.

5. Magister puerōs malōs sine morā vocābit.

The teacher will call the bad children without delay.

6. Fīliae vestrae dē librīs magnī poētae saepe cōgitābant.

Your daughters use to think often about the great poet’s books.

7. Quandō satis sapientiae habēbimus?

When shall we have enough wisdom?

8. Multī librī antīquī propter sapientiam cōnsiliumque erant magnī.

Many ancient books were great because of wisdom and advice.

9. Glōria bonōrum librōrum semper manēbit.

The glory of good books will always remain.

10. Possuntne pecūnia ōtiumque cūrās vītae hūmānae superāre?

Can money and leisure overcome the concerns of human life?
11. Therefore, we cannot always see the real vices of a tyrant.

Vera igitur vitia tyranni non semper possumus videre.

12. Few free men will be able to tolerate an absolute ruler.

Pauci liberi tyrannum tolerare poterunt.

13. Many Romans used to praise the great books of the ancient Greeks.

Multi Romani magnos Graecorum antiquorum libros laudabant.

14. Where can glory and (use -que) fame be perpetual?

Ubi possunt gloria famaque esse perpetuae?

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Dionysius tum erat tyrannus Syracūsānōrum. (Cicero.-- Dionysius -iī 希腊人名。--
Syrācūsānus -ī a syracusan.)

Dionysius was, at that time, the tyrant of the Syracusans.

2. Optāsne meam vītam fortūnamque gustāre? (Cicero. -- optāre 希望。-- gustāre 品尝)

Do you wish to taste my life and fortune?

3. Possumusne, O dī, in malīs īnsidiīs et magnō exitiō esse salvī? (Cicero.)

Can we be safe, O gods, in wicked treachery and great destruction?

4. Propter cūram meam in perpetuō perīculō nōn eritis. (Cicero.)

Because of my attention, you will not be in continuous danger.

5. Propter vitia tua multī tē culpant et nihil tē in patriā tuā dēlectāre nunc potest.
(Cicero. -- dēlectāre 使高兴)

Because of your vices, many blame you and nothing can delight you now
in your country.
6. Fortūna Pūnicī bellī secundī varia erat. (Livy. -- Pūnicus -a -um 古迦太基的. --

varius -a -um 多样的)

The fortune of the second Punic war was varied.

7. Patria Rōmānōrum erat plēna Graecōrum librōrum statuārumque pulchrārum.
(Cicero. -- statua -ae 雕像)

The fatherland of the Romans was full of Greek books and fine
statues.

8. Sine dīs et deābus in caelō animus nōn potest sānus esse. (Seneca.)

Without the gods and goddesses in the sky, the spirit cannot be
sound.

9. Sī animus īnfīrmus est, nōn poterit bonam fortūnam tolerāre. (Publilius Syrus. --
īnfīrmus -a -um 不坚强,软弱)

If the spirit is weak, it will not be able to tolerate good fortune.

10. Ubi lēgēs valent, ibi populus līber potest valēre. (Publilius Syrus. --lēgēs 主格复

数 法律)

Where the laws are strong, the free people there can be strong.

"I DO NOT LOVE THEE, DOCTOR FELL"

Nōn amo tē, Sabidī, nec possum dīcere quārē.

Hoc tantum possum dīcere: nōn amo tē.

(*Martial 1.32; meter: elegiac couplet. am 在拉丁文诗歌中词尾-ō 常常被缩为短

音。--Sabidius -iī. --nec=et nōn. -- dīcere 说。-- hoc 这(宾格)。-- tantum 副词 仅仅)
I do not love you, Sabidius, and I cannot say why.

I can only say this: I do not love you.

THE HISTORIAN LIVY LAMENTS THE DECLINE OF ROMAN MORALS

Populus Rōmānus magnōs animōs et paucās culpās habēbat. Dē officiīs nostrīs
cōgitābāmus et glōriam bellī semper laudābāmus. Sed nunc multum ōtium habēmus,
et multī sunt avārī. Nec vitia nostra nec remedia tolerāre possumus.

(Livy, from the preface to his history of Rome. Ab Urbe Conditā; see Introd. -- nec…
nec, 连词,不是……也不是……)

The Roman people used to have great courage and few faults. We used to
think about our duties and we always used to praise the glory of war. But we
now have much leisure, and many are greedy. We can neither tolerate our
vices nor the remedies.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第七课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第七课 第三种变格名词

Third Declension Nouns

Wheelock 用整整一章来解释第三种变格。

第三变格比较特殊,单数主格可以是任何形式,任何性别,唯一的标志是所有
第三格的名词单数属格(sg. Genitive)都以 is 结尾。

那如何判断第三格名词的性别呢?
Father Anthony 课上教的一个简单的不完全归纳是:

s-o-x = female (单数主格以 s 或 o 或 x 结尾的词大都是阴性,例外:us 结尾的

第三格名词为中性)

er-r-or = male

l-a-n-c-e-t = neuter

当然,最好的方法还是着意记一下第三格的性别,因为以上的归纳很不完全。

同样地,有些单词语义上默认为阳性,虽然它们是 s-o-x 结尾的单词,如 rex

dux 等等(古代的国王和统治者都是男性)。

words rēx, rēgis virtūs, homō, hominis corpus,
virtūtis corporis

Gender m f m n
Singular
N rēx virtūs homō corpus
G rēgis virtūtis hominis corporis
D rēgī virtūtī hominī corporī
A rēgem virtūtem hominem corpus
Ab rēge virtūte homine corpore
Plural
N rēgēs virtūtēs hominēs corpora
G rēgum virtūtum hominum corporum
D rēgibus virtūtibus hominibus corporibus
A rēgēs virtūtēs hominēs corpora
Ab rēgibus virtūtibus hominibus corporibus

阳性和阴性的变格完全相同,需要注意的是中性单数宾格完全 copy 了主格的形

式,而复数主格和宾格都有词尾-a,这一点类似于第二种变格的中性词,都应
注意与第一种变格区分。
第三种变格还包括一类特殊的词,叫 I-Stem Nouns。与常规的第三种变格相比有
一些小小的不同:

regular 主格属格音节数相同者 主格以二辅 -e, -al, 不规则名词
3rd decl. 音结尾者 -ar 结尾的
中性词
rēx, cīvis, -is nūbēs, -is urbs, -is mare, -is vīs, vīs f
rēgis m m f f n
rēx cīvis nūbēs urbs mare vīs

rēgis cīvis nūbis urbis maris vīs

rēgī cīvī nūbī urbī marī vī

rēgem cīvem nūbem urbem mare vim

rēge cīve nūbe urbe marī vī
rēgēs cīvēs nūbēs urbēs maria vīrēs

rēgum cīvium nūbium urbium marium vīrium

rēgibus cīvibus nūbibus urbibus maribus vīribus

rēgēs cīvēs nūbes urbēs maria vīrēs

rēgibus cīvibus nūbibus urbibus maribus vīribus

主要的不同就是复数属格加了一个 i,中性复数主格宾格也加了 i,至于重要的

不规则名词 vīs,记忆起来要记得与 vir, virī 区分哦。

单词表:

amor, amōris m 爱

carmen carminis n 歌,诗
cīvitās cīvitātis f 国家,公民身份

corpus corporis n 身体

homō hominis m 人

labor labōris m 劳动,工作;产品

littera -ae f 字母;litterae -ārum pl 书信

mōs mōris m 习惯,习俗; mōrēs mōrum pl 习惯,特征

nōmen nōminis n 名字

pāx pācis f 和平

rēgīna -ae f 王后

rēx rēgis m 国王

tempus temporis n 时间;场合;机会

terra -ae f 土地,领土,国家

uxor uxōris f 妻子

virgō virginis f 少女

virtūs virtūtis f 勇气,刚毅,杰出,品质,价值,美德
novus -a -um 新的;陌生的

post 介词+宾格 acc 在……之后

sub 介词:跟行为动词时+宾格 acc 跟其他动词时+夺格 abl 在……下,靠近……

audeō audēre ausus sum 敢于

necō (1) 杀人,杀死

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Secundās litterās discipulae herī vidēbās et de verbīs tum cōgitābās.

You saw the student’s second letter yesterday and then thought about the words.

2. Fēminae sine morā cīvitātem dē īnsidiīs et exitiō malō monēbunt.

The women will warn the state about the ambush and wicked destruction without
delay.

3. Rēx et rēgīnā igitur crās nōn audēbunt ibi remanēre.

The king and queen therefore will not dare remain there tomorrow.

4. Mōrēs graecōrum nōn erant sine culpīs vitiīsque.

The Greeks’ customs were not without faults and vices.

5. Quandō hominēs satis virtūtis habēbunt?

When will men have enough virtue?

6. Corpora vestra sunt sāna et animī sunt plēnī sapientiae.

Your bodies are sound and your minds are full of wisdom.

7. Propter mōrēs hūmānōs pācem vēram nōn habēbimus.
Because of human character we shall not have true peace.

8. Poteritne cīvitās perīcula temporum nostrōrum superāre?

Will the state be able to overcome the dangers of our times?

9. Post bellum multōs librōs dē pāce et remediīs bellī vidēbant.

After the war, they kept seeing many books about peace and the remedies for war.

10. Officia sapientiamque oculīs animī possumus vidēre.

We can see duties and wisdom with the eyes of the spirit.

11. Without sound character we cannot have peace.

Sine moribus sanis pacem habere non possumus.

12. Many students used to have small time for Greek literature.

Multi discipuli parvum tempus litteris Graecis habebant. (Greek Literature 用与格
dat)

13. After bad times true virtue and much labor will help the state.

Post tempora mala virtus vera et labor multus civitatem adiuvabunt.

14. The daughters of your friends were dining there yesterday.

Ibi filiae amicorum vestrorum heri cenabant.

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Homō sum. (*Terence.)

I am a man.

2. Nihil sub sōle novum (*Ecclesiastes. --sōl, sōlis m 太阳。-- novum: 省略了 est.)

Nothing beneath the sun [is] new.
3. Carmina nova dē adulēscentiā virginibus puerīsque nunc cantō. (Horace. --cantāre

唱歌)

I now sing new songs about youth for maidens and boys.

4. Laudās fortūnam et mōrēs antīquae plēbis. (*Horace. --plēbs, plēbis f 普罗大众)

You praise the fortune and character of the ancient plebs.

5. Bonī propter amōrem virtūtis peccāre ōdērunt. (Horace. --peccāre 有罪 sin --

ōdērunt 恨)

Good men hate to sin because of love for virtue.

6. Sub prīncipe dūrō temporibusque malīs audēs esse bonus. (Martial. --prīnceps
-cipis m 领袖,王子;dūrus -a -um 困难的,艰难的)

7. Populus stultus virīs indignīs honōrēs saepe dat. (Horace. --honor -nōris 荣誉,职

位。--indignus -a -um 不值得的,不足取的)

Foolish people often give public offices to unworthy men.

8. Nōmina stultōrum in parietibus et portīs semper vidēmus. (Cicero. -- pariēs -etis m

建筑物的墙壁)

We always see the name of the foolish on the walls and gates of
buildings.

9. ōtium sine litterīs mors est. (*Seneca. --mors mortis f 死亡)

Leisure without literature is death.

10. Multae nātiōnēs servitūtem tolerāre possunt; nostra cīvitās nōn potest. Praeclāra
est recuperātiō lībertātis. (Cicero. --nātiō -ōnis 国家。--servitūs -tūtis 奴隶状态,惩
役。--praeclārus -a -um 高贵的,非凡的。--recuperātiō -ōnis 恢复。 --lībertās -tātis

自由)

Many nations can tolerate servitude; our state cannot. Remarkable is
the recovery of liberty.

11. Nihil sine magnō labōre vīta mortālibus dat. (Horace. --mortālis -tālis 凡人)

Life gives nothing to mortals without great effort.

12. Quōmodo in perpetuā pāce salvī et līberī esse poterimus? (Cicero. --quōmodo 怎

么 how)

How will we be able to be safe and free in perpetual peace?

13. Glōria in altissimīs Deō et in terrā pāx hominibus bonae voluntātis. (*Luke. --
altissimus abl pl 最高的。 --voluntās -tātis 意志,意愿,决心)

Glory to God in the highest and peace to men of good will on earth.

THE RAPE OF LUCRETIA

Tarquinius Superbus erat rēx Rōmānōrum, et Sextus Tarquinius erat fīlius malus
tyrannī. Sextus Lucrētiam, uxōrem Collātīnī, rapuit, et fēmina bona, propter magnum
amōrem virtūtis, sē necāvit. Rōmānī antīquī virtūtem animōsque Lucrētiae semper
laudābant et Tarquiniōs culpābant.

(Livy 1.58)

Tarquinius Superbus was a king of the Romans, and Sextus Tarquinius was
the tyrant's evil son. Sextus raped Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, and the
good woman because of great love of virtue killed herself. Ancient Romans
always praised the virtue and courage of Lucretia and they blamed the
Tarquins.

CATULLUS DEDICATES HIS POETRY BOOK
Cornēliō, virō magnae sapientiae, dabō pulchrum librum novum. Cornēlī, mī amīce,
librōs meōs semper laudābās, et es magister doctus litterārum! Quārē habē novum
labōrem meum: fāma librī (et tua fāma) erit perpetua.

(Catullus 1, prose adaptation; see L.I. 1. Catullus dedicated his first book of poems to
the historian and biographer Cornelius Nepos. -- doctus -a -um 博学的,学者的)

I will give my fine new book to Cornelius, a man of great wisdom. Cornelius,
my friend, you always praised my books, and you are a learned master of
literature! So have my new labor: the book's fame (and your fame) will be
forever.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第八课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第八课 动词第三种变位:直陈现在不定式、 现在时、 将来时、 未完成时,
命令式

Third Conjugation: Present Infinitive, Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative,
Imperative

继第七课的名词第三变格之后,动词第三种变位也是另一个需要多花时间的内
容。

第三变位和第二变位的动词原型差别仅在于一个长音符:

第二类:-ēre(注意,是长音-ēre)

第三类:-ere(注意,是短音-ere)
第三变位直陈现在时词尾:-ō -is -it -imus -it is -unt

直陈将来时词尾没有常见的-bi-标志,而是以-ē-取代之:

-am -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent

直陈未完成时词尾依然有-ba-标志,相对规则些:

-ēbam -ēbās -ēbat -ēbāmus -ēbātis -ēbant

命令式:单数-e;复数-ite

不定式:-ere

单词表:

Cicerō Cicerōnis m 西塞罗

cōpia -ae f 供应,丰富;cōpiae -ārum pl 供给,军队

frāter frātris m 兄弟

laus laudīs f 表扬,名气

lībertās lībertātis f 自由

ratiō ratiōnis f 理由,判断,考虑;系统;方式,方法

scrīptor scrīptōris m 作家,作者

soror sorōris f 姐妹
victōria -ae f 胜利

dum 连词 当……,一……就……,与此同时……;+虚拟式:直到

ad 介词+宾格 acc,到……,到……旁(表示动作的趋向,与表静态的与格 dat

相区别)ad 在构词时,d 常常被后面的字母同化,如:accipiō: ad-capiō; appellō:

ad-pellō; aspiciō: ad-spiciō。

ex 或 e 介词+夺格 abl,从……出来,自……;因为……,由于……。构词时,

在元音或辅音前均可用 ex,但 ē 仅用于辅音前。与 ad 相同,ex 的 x 也有被同化

的现象:excipiō, ēdūcō, ēventus, efficiō (ex-faciō.)

numquam 副词 从不

tamen 副词 尽管如此,依然

agō agere ēgī āctum 领导,带领,做,行动;经过,花费(生命或时间)

dēmōnstrō (1) 指出,表现,证明

discō discere didicī 学习

doceō docēre docuī doctum 教

dūcō dūcere dūxī ductum 领导;考虑,重视;延长

gerō gerere gessī gestum 携带,继续,管理,实现,表现
scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptum 写,撰写

trahō trahere trāxī tractum 拖,拉,源自

vincō vincere vīcī victum 占领,克服

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Tempora nostra nunc sunt mala; vitia nostra, magna.

Our times are now bad; our vices, great.

2. Quārē soror mea uxōrī tuae litterās scrībit (scrībet, scrībēbat)?

Why does (will, did) my sister write a letter to your wife?

3. Tyrannus populum stultum ē terrā vestrā dūcet (dūcit, dūcēbat).

The tyrant will (does, did) lead the foolish people out of your land.

4. Ubi satis ratiōnis animōrumque in hominibus erit?

When will there be enough judgment and courage in humans?

5. Cōpia vērae virtūtis multās culpās superāre poterat.

An abundance of true virtue was able to overcome many faults.

6. In līberā cīvitāte adulēscentiam agēbāmus.

In the free state, we spent our youth.

7. Rēgem malum tolerāre numquam dēbēmus.

We should never tolerate a bad king.

8. Post parvam moram multa verba dē īnsidiīs scrīptōrum stultōrum scrībēmus.

After a little delay, we shall write many words of the treachery of
foolish writers.
9. The body will remain there under the ground.

Ibi corpus sub terra remanebit.

10. Write (sg. and pl.) many things about the glory of our state.

[Scribe] / [Scribite] multa de gloria civitatis nostrae.

11. Does reason always lead your (pl) queen to virtue?

Ducitne ratio reginam vestram semper ad virtutem?

12. We shall always see many Greek names there.

Multa nomina Graeca ibi semper videbimus.

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Frāter meus vītam in ōtiō semper aget. (Terence.)

My brother will always spend his life in leisure.

2. Age, age! Iuvā mē! Dūc mē ad secundum fīlium meum. (Terence. -- age, age=来,

来!)

Come, come! Help me! Take me to my second son.

3. O amīcī, lībertātem perdimus. (Laberius. --perdere 破坏)

Oh friends, we are destroying liberty.

4. Nova perīcula populō Rōmānō expōnam sine morā. (Cicero. -- expōnere 暴露,公

开)

I shall expose the new dangers to the Roman people without delay.

5. Numquam perīculum sine perīculō vincēmus. (Publilius Syrus.)

We shall never conquer danger without danger.
6. Ex meīs errōribus hominibus rēctum iter dēmōnstrāre possum. (Seneca. --error
-rōris. 错误。-- rēctus -a -um 正确的。-- iter itineris n 道路,途径。)

From my errors, I can show the right way to people.

7. Catullus Mārcō Tulliō Cicerōnī magnās grātiās agit. (Catullus.)

Catullus gives great thanks to Marcus Tullius Cicero.

8. Eximia fōrma virginis oculōs hominum convertit. (Livy. -- eximius -a -um, 杰出的。

-- convertere 吸引)

The extraordinary beauty of a maiden attracts people’s eyes.

9. Agamemnon magnās cōpiās ē terrā Graecā ad Trōiam dūcet, ubi multōs virōs
necābit. (Cicero. -- Agamemnon -nonis)

Agamemnon will lead his great troops from the Greek country to Troy,
where he will kill many men.

10. Amor laudis hominēs trahit. (Cicero.)

Love of praise draws men.

11. Auctōrēs pācis Caesar cōnservābit. (Cicero. -- auctor -tōris 作者。)

Caesar will protect supporters of peace.

12. Inter multās cūrās labōrēsque carmina scrībere nōn possum. (Horace. -- inter
prep+ acc., 在……中)

Among many worries and labors, I cannot write poems.

13. Dum in magnā urbe dēclāmās, mī amīce, scrīptōrem trōiāni bellī in ōtiō relegō. --
Trōiānus -a -um. (-- relegere 重读)

While you, my friend, declaim in a large city, I reread the writer of
the Trojan war in my leisure.
14. Nōn vītae, sed scholae, discimus. (*Seneca. -- vītae 和 scholae, 表目的的与格
dat)

We learn not for life, but for school.

15. Hominēs, dum docent, discunt. (*Seneca.)

While men teach, they learn.

16. Ratiō mē dūcet, nōn fortūna. (Livy.)

Reason will lead me, not fortune.

CICERO ON THE ETHICS OF WAGING WAR

Cīvitās bellum sine causā bonā aut propter īram gerere nōn dēbet. Sī fortūnās et agrōs
vītāsque populī nostrī sine bellō dēfendere poterimus, tum pācem cōnservāre
dēbēbimus; sī, autem, nōn poterimus servāre pātriam lībertātemque nostram sine
bellō, bellum erit necessārium. Semper dēbēmus dēmōnstrāre, tamen, magnum
officium in bellō, et magnam clēmentiam post victōriam.

(Cicero. Dē Officiīs 1.11.34-36 and Dē Pūblicā 3.23.34-35, and see L.A. 7 for a fuller
adaptation. --causa -ae. 原因。-- dēfendere 抵抗。 --autem 连词,然而。--necessārius

-a -um 必要的。 --clēmentia -ae 仁慈。)

The state should not wage war without good cause or because of anger. If we
will be able to defend the fortunes and farms and lives of our people without
war, then we will owe it to preserve peace; if, however, we will not be able to
guard fatherland and our liberty without war, war will be necessary.
Nevertheless we should show great duty in war, and great mercy after victory.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第九课

中断了几天,很抱歉……
随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第九课 指示代词 hic, ille, iste;特殊词尾 -īus 的形容词( Demonstratives hic,

ille, iste; Special -īus Adjectives)

指示代词 hic 相当于 this/these,ille 相当于 that/those,iste 是一个有蔑
视含义的指示代词,相当于 such 的某些用法。

要掌握这三个词的变格,不妨先看本课的第二部分(P57),讲的是一类单数属
格以-īus 结尾的形容词。常见的也就十个左右,在 P58 有列表。看 P57 页左边

sōlus -a -um 的例子,该-īus 形容词与常规第一二变格形容词的唯一不同点就是

单数属格(gen sg)和单数与格(dat sg)阴阳中性统一为-īus(gen)和-

ī(dat)。

当然也有个别词有进一步的不同:右侧的 alius alia aliud(另一个,其他的)就

是一个。其单数属格采用另一词的形式:alterīus,其它都规则。

回过头来看指示代词,就发现其实 ille illa illud 是很规则的-īus 属格形式。而 hic

haec hoc 则有些不规则。主要在词尾的-c,需要仔细记忆。

m 阳性 f 阴性 n 中性 m 阳性 f 阴性 n 中性
singular 单数
ille illa illud hic haec hoc

illīus illīus illīus huius huius huius

illī illī illī huic huic huic
illum illam illud hunc hanc hoc

illō illā illō hōc hāc hōc
Plural 复数
illī illae illa hī hae haec

illōrum illārum illōrum hōrum hārum hōrum

illīs illīs illīs hīs hīs hīs

illōs illās illa hōs hās haec

illīs illīs illīs hīs hīs hīs

iste ista istud:

gen: istīus istīus istīus

dat: istī istī istī

……

翻译问题:

一般来说 hic haec hoc; iste ista istud 翻译为这个这些,ille illa illud 翻译为那个那

些。但 ille 和 hic 有时指前者、后者。ille 也可指“著名的……”。虽然 hic 和 ille 指

人时相当于“他的、她的、它的”,但实际意义比单纯的人称代词更丰富些。iste

有时候翻译为 such,含有不赞同和蔑视的意思,如 ista īra(你那臭脾气)。

单词表:
locus -ī m 地方;文学中的一段;复数:loca -ōrum n 地方,区域;locī -ōrum m

文学中的段落。

morbus -ī m 疾病

studium -iī n 热情,急迫,追求;书房

hic haec hoc 这个,后者;他她它他们

ille illa illud 那个,前者;著名的;他她它他们

iste ista istud 你的那个,那个;那(表蔑视)

alius -a -um 另外的,别的;aliī…aliī, 一些……另一些

alter altera alterum (两者中的)另一个,第二个

neuter neutra neutrum 两者中的任一个都没有 neither, not either

nullus -a -um 没有一个。

sōlus -a -um 唯一,仅仅;唯一的;nōn sōlum…sed etiam 不仅……而且

tōtus -a -um 全部,整个

ūllus -a -um 任何

ūnus -a -um 一个,单个,单独
uter utra utrum 两者中任何一个 either, which (of two)

enim 后置连词 因为,事实上,实际上

in 介词+宾格 acc 朝向,进入;针对(此外还有 in+夺格 abl,在……里,详见第

三章)。在复合中 in-也可能为 il-, ir-, im-; 可能有实际意义,也可能仅仅加强语

气。(与不可分词缀 in-(表示否定)相区分。)

nimis 或 nimium 副词 太,太过,过分的

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Hic tōtus liber litterās Rōmānās semper laudat.

This entire book always praises Roman literature.

2. Hī igitur illīs deābus herī grātiās agēbant.

These men therefore were thanking those goddesses yesterday.

3. Illud dē vitiīs istīus rēgīnae nunc scrībam, et ista poenās dabit.

I shall now write that about the vices of that queen, and that woman
will pay the penalty.

4. Neuter alterī plēnam cōpiam pecūniae tum dabit.

Neither man will then give a full supply of money to the other.

5. Potestne laus ūllīus terrae esse perpetua?

Can the glory of any land be everlasting?

6. Labor ūnīus numquam poterit hās cōpiās vincere.

The work of one man will never overcome these troops.
7. Mōrēs istīus scrīptōris erant nimis malī.

The character of that writer was too evil.

8. Nūllī magistrī, tamen, sub istō vēra docēre audēbant.

Nevertheless, no teachers dared to teach true things under that man.

9. Valēbitne pāx in patriā nostrā post hanc victōriam?

Will peace be strong in our fatherland after this victory?

10. Dum illī ibi remanent, aliī nihil agunt, aliī discunt.

While those men remain there, some do nothing, others learn.

11. Cicero was writing about the glory of the other man and his wife.

Cicero de gloria alterius uxorisque scribebat.

12. The whole state was thanking this man’s brother alone.

Tota civitas fratri huius viri soli gratias agebat.

13. On account of that courage of yours those (men) will lead no troops into these
places tomorrow.

Propter istos animos illi nullas copias in haec loca cras ducent.

14. Will either book be able to overcome the faults of these times?

Uterne liber vitia horum temporum vincere poterit?

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Ubi illās nunc vidēre possum? (Terence.)

Where can I now see those women?

2. Hic illam virginem in mātrimōnium dūcet. (Terence. -- mātrīmōnium -iī. 结婚)
This man will lead that virgin into matrimony.

3. Huic cōnsiliō palmam dō. (Terence. --palma -ae 代表胜利的棕榈枝)

I give the palm branch to this decision.

4. Virtūtem enim illīus virī amāmus. (Cicero.)

We truly love that man’s virtue.

5. Sōlus hunc iuvāre potes. (Terence.)

You alone can help this man.

6. Poena istīus ūnīus hunc morbum cīvitātis relevābit sed perīculum semper
remanēbit. (Cicero. --relevāre 减轻,减少)

The punishment of that one man will relieve this illness of the
state, but the danger will always remain.

7. Hī enim dē exitiō huius cīvitātis et tōtīus orbis terrārum cōgitant. (Cicero. --orbis
orbis m 圈,环;orbis terrārum 世界)

These men truly think about the destruction of this state and of the
entire world.

8. Est nūllus locus utrī hominī in hāc terrā. (Martial.)

There is no place for either man in this land.

9. Nōn sōlum ēventus hoc docet -- iste est magister stultōrum! -- sed etiam ratiō.
(Livy. -- ēventus 结果,成果)

Not only does the outcome teach this – that is the teacher of fools!
– but reason also (does).

WHEN I HAVE... ENOUGH!
Habet Africānus mīliēns, tamen captat.

Fortūna multīs dat nimis, satis nūllī.

(Martial 12.10; meter: choliambic. -- Africānus -ī 人名。-- mīliēns 百万。--captāre 争

夺遗产。)

Africanus has ‘millions’, nevertheless he hunts legacies.

Fortune give too much to many men, enough to none.

Sī vīs studēre philosophiae animōque, hoc studium nōn potest valēre sine frūgālitāte.
Haec frūgālitās est paupertās voluntāria. Tolle, igitur, istās excūsātiōnēs: “Nōndum
satis pecūniae habeō. Sī quandō illud ‘satis’ habēbō, tum mē tōtum philosophiae
dabō.” Incipe nunc philosophiae, nōn pecūniae, studēre.

(Seneca, Epistulae 17.5. --vīs 你希望。 --studēre +与格 dat., 急切想做,投身于。--

frūgālitās -tātis 节俭。)

If you wish to study philosophy and the mind, this study cannot be strong
without frugality. This frugality is a voluntary poverty. So remove those
excuses of yours: “I do not yet have enough money. If ever I shall have that
‘enough’, then I shall give all myself to philosophy.” Begin to study philosophy
now, not money.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第十课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。
第十课 动词第四变位,以及第三变位的 -iō 动词( Fourth Conjugation and

-iō Verbs of the Third)

第四变位和第三变位的-iō 动词几乎是一样的,区别仅在命令式单数(present
imperative active)

普通第三变位 第四变位 -iō 结尾第三变位
Present Indicative Active
sg. agō audiō capiō

agis audīs capis

agit audit capit
pl. agimus audīmus capimus

agitis audītis capitis

agunt audiunt capiunt
Future Indicative Active
sg. agam audiam capiam

agēs audiēs capiēs

aget audiet capiet
pl. agemus audiēmus capiēmus

agētis audiētis capiētis

agent audient capient
Imperfect Indicative Active
sg. agēbam audiēbam capiēbam

agēbās audiēbās capiēbās

agēbat audiēbat capiēbat
pl. agēbāmus audiēbāmus capiēbāmus

agēbātis audiēbātis capiēbātis

agēbant audiēbant capiēbant
Present Imperative Active
sg. age audī cape
pl. agite audīte capite

单词表:

amīcitia -ae f 友谊

cupiditās cupiditātis f 欲望

hōra -ae f 小时,时间

nātura -ae f 自然

senectūs senectūtis f 老年

timor timōris m 恐惧

vēritās vēritātis f 真理

via -ae f 路,街道

voluptās voluptātis f 愉快

beatus -a -um 快乐的,幸运的

quoniam 连词 自从,因……之故

cum 介词+夺格 abl 跟……。作为前缀,cum 会变成 com-, con-, cor-, col-, co-,意

思为“跟……,一起,完全地”,或仅仅表强调。
audiō audīre audīvī audītum 听,听见

capiō capere cēpī captum 抓住,拿,得到。在复合词中-a-变成-i-,如-cipiō: ac-

cipiō, ex-cipiō, in-cipiō, re-cipiō,等等。

dīcō dīcere dīxī dictum 说,告诉;称,叫做

faciō facere fēcī factum 做。在复合词中-a-变成-i-,如-ficiō: cōn-ficiō, per-ficiō,等

等。

fugiō fugere fūgī fugitūrum 逃离,迅速离开;逃亡;避免,避开

veniō venīre vēnī ventum 来

inveniō invenīre -vēnī -ventum 发现,找出

vīvō vīvere vīxī vīctum 生活

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Quid discipulae hodiē discere dēbent?

What should the students learn today?

2. Frātrēs nihil cum ratiōne herī gerēbant.

The brothers were performing without a plan yesterday.

3. Ille magnam virtūtem labōris et studiī docēre saepe audet.

That man often dares to teach the great virtue of work and study.

4. Hic dē senectūte scrībēbat; ille, dē amōre; et alius, dē lībertāte.
This man wrote about old age; that man of love; and another of
liberty.

5. Ex librīs ūnīus virī nātūram hārum īnsidiārum dēmōnstrābimus.

From the books of one man, we shall demonstrate the nature of this
plot.

6. Istī sōlī victōriam nimis amant; neuter dē pāce cōgitat.

Those men alone love victory too much; neither thinks of peace.

7. Ubi cīvitās ūllōs virōs magnae sapientiae audiet?

When will the state listen to any men of great wisdom?

8. Ex illīs terrīs in hunc locum salvum cum amīcīs vestrīs venīte.

Come out of those countries into this safe place with your(pl.)
friends.

9. Post paucās hōrās sorōrem illīus invenīre poterāmus.

After a few hours, we were able to find that man’s sister.

10. Cōpiae vestrae utrum virum ibi numquam capient.

Your troops will never capture either man there.

11. Alter Graecus remedium huius morbī inveniet.

The other Greek will find the cure for this disease.

12. Carmina illīus scrīptōris sunt plēna nōn sōlum vēritātis sed etiam virtūtis.

That writer’s poems are full not only of truth but also of virtue.

13. We shall then come to your land without any friends.

Sine amicis ad terram tuam tum veniemus.

14. While he was living, nevertheless, we were able to have no peace.

Dum vivebat tamen poteramus nullam pacem habere.
15. The whole state now shuns and will always shun these vices.

Tota civitas haec vitia nunc fugit et semper fugiet.

16. He will, therefore, thank the queen and the whole people.

Reginae igitur populoque toti gratias aget.

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Cupiditātem pecūniae glōriaeque fugite. (Cicero)

Avoid the desire for money and glory.

2. Officium meum faciam. (*Terence.)

I shall do my duty.

3. Fāma tua et vīta fīliae tuae in perīculum crās veniet. (Terence.)

Your fame and your daughter’s life will come into danger tomorrow.

4. Vīta nōn est vīvere sed vālēre. (Martial.)

Life is not living but being well.

5. Semper magnō cum timōre incipiō dīcere. (Cicero. -- incipiō -ere 开始。这句话体

现了拉丁文一个特点,介宾结构如 cum+acc 中,宾语的修饰语放在 cum 前,而

非 acc 前。)

I always begin to speak with great fear.

6. Sī mē dūcēs, Mūsa, corōnam magnā cum laude capiam. (Lucretius. -- Mūsa -ae 缪

斯女神。-- corōna -ae 桂冠)

If you guide me, Muse, I shall take the wreath with great praise.
7. Vīve memor mortis; fugit hōra. (Persius. -- memor 形容词主格单数阳性或阴性,

留心的,不忘的。-- mors mortis f 死亡。)

Live mindful of death; time hurries away.

8. Rapite, amīcī, occāsiōnem dē hōrā. (Horace. -- rapiō -ere 抓住。-- occāsiō -ōnis f 机

会。)

My friends, snatch the opportunity from the hour.

9. Paucī veniunt ad senectūtem. (*Cicero.)

Few come to old age.

10. Sed fugit, intereā, fugit tempus. (Virgil. -- intereā 副词,同时。-- 动词重复表强

调。)

But it flees, meanwhile, time flees.

11. Fāta viam invenient. (*Virgil. -- fātum -ī 命运)

The Fates will find a way.

12. Bonum virum nātūra, nōn ōrdō, facit. (*Publilius Syrus. -- ōrdō -dinis m 地位)

Nature, not rank makes a good man.

13. Obsequium parit amīcōs; vēritās parit odium. (Cicero. -- obsequium -iī 顺从。--

pariō -ere 制造。-- odium -iī 憎恨)

Compliance produces friends; truth produces hatred.

THE INCOMPARABLE VALUE OF FRIENDSHIP
Nihil cum amīcitiā possum comparāre; dī hominibus nihil melius dant. Pecūniam aliī
mālunt; aliī, corpora sāna; aliī, fāmam glōriamque; aliī, voluptātēs -- sed hī virī
nimium errant, quoniam illa sunt incerta et ex fortūnā veniunt, nōn ex sapientiā.
Amīcitia enim ex sapientiā et amōre et mōribus bonīs et virtūte venit; sine virtūte
amīcitia nōn potest esse. Sī nūllōs amīcōs habēs, habēs vītam tyrannī; sī inveniēs
amīcum vērum, vīta tua erit beāta.

(Cicero. Dē Amīcitiā, excerpts; see L.A.6. -- comparāre 比较。-- melius 更好。--

mālunt 更喜欢。-- incertus -a -um 不确定的)

I can compare nothing with friendship; the gods give nothing better to men.
Some prefer money; others, sound bodies; others, fame and glory; others,
pleasures – but these men err too much, since those things are unsure and
come out of luck, not out of wisdom. Friendship truly comes from wisdom and
love and good character and virtue; without virtue friendship cannot be. If you
have no friends, you have a tyrant's life; if you will find a true friend, your life
will be happy.

随我自学 /复习 Wheelock Latin 第十一课

随我自学/复习 Wheelock Latin

需要书的学友请至 http://www.magic-e.org/latin/textbook.htm 下载。

第十一课 人称代词 ego, tū 和 is;指代词 is 和 īdem (Personal Pronouns ego,
tū, and is; Demonstratives is and īdem)

第一第二人称代词:

I/we you (sg./pl)
sg. Nom ego tū

Gen meī tuī

Dat mihi tibi

Acc mē tē

Abl mē tē
pl. Nom nōs vōs

Gen nostrum / nostrī vestrum / vestrī

Dat nōbīs vōbīs

Acc nōs vōs

Abl nōbīs vōbīs

第三人称代词 is ea id 同时也是指示代词,并且指示代词的用法更常见:

M (he, they) F (she, they) N (it, they)
sg. Nom is ea id

Gen eius eius eius

Dat eī eī eī

Acc eum eam id

Abl eō eā eō
pl. Nom eī / iī eae ea

Gen eōrum eārum eōrum

Dat eīs / iīs eīs / iīs eīs / iīs

Acc eōs eās ea
Abl eīs / iīs eīs / iīs eīs / iīs

用法:

当人称代词用在句子的不同位置时,使用相应各格。

代词作主语一般省略,罗马人仅仅在表强调时才将主语说出。

当使用 cum+代词 abl 格时,一般 cum 会变成后缀。如:eōs nōbiscum ibi inveniēs

第一二人称不用属格修饰名词表归属,而是使用形容词 meus -a -um, tuus -a -um;

noster nostra nostrum, vester vestra vestrum。(形容词按照所修饰的名词变格。形

式同名词第一二种变格。)

属格用法举例:

表宾语:timor tuī, fear of you

表整体的部分:pars meī, part of me

第三人称则习惯用属格 eius,eōrum/eārum/eōrum 表示归属,修饰时没有格的变

化。详见 P69-70 例句。

拉丁文常常省略形容词性物主代词,而翻译成英语时候应该适当添加:

patriam amāmus: we love our country

is ea id 作指示代词:
表示的语气比 hic、ille 为轻。可翻译成这/这些、那/那些。当看到 is ea id 后面紧紧

跟着一个名词,而 is ea id 的性数格都与其一致时,则代表此处为指示代词用法。

仔细看书 P70 例句。

指示代词 īdem eadem idem 表示“同样的”

在 is ea id 后加-dem 表示同样的…。变格基本与 is ea id 相同。不规则的几个基本
是为了发音方便而改变的:

Nom N Sg: idem

Acc Sg: eundem/eandem/idem

Gen Pl: eōrundem/eārundem/eōrundem

īdem 可作形容词或代词用:

eōsdem mittō.

dē eādem ratiōne cōgitābāmus

单词表:

caput capitis n 头,领导;开头;生活;标题;章节

cōnsul cōnsulis m 执政官

nēmō nūllīus nēminī neminem nūllō/nūllā m/f 没有人

ego meī 我
tū tuī 你

is ea id 他她它(单复数)

īdem eadem idem 同样的……

amīcus -a -um 友好的

cārus -a -um 亲爱的

quod 连词 因为

neque, nec, 连词 既非……也非……:neque… neque… / nec… nec…

autem 后置连词 尽管如此,仍然;此外

bene 副词。bonus 的副词形式。

etiam 副词。甚至

intellegō intellegere intellēxī intellēctum 理解

mittō mittere mīsī missum 发送

sentiō sentīre sēnsī sēnsum 感觉,思考,经历

PRACTICE AND REVIEW

1. Eum ad eam cum aliō agricolā herī mittēbant.

They sent him to her with the other farmer yesterday.
2. Tū autem fīliam beātam eius nunc amās.

You, however, now love his happy daughter.

3. Propter amīcitiam, ego hoc faciō. Quid tū faciēs, mī amīce?

Because of friendship, I do this. What will you do, my friend?

4. Vōsne eāsdem litterās ad eum mittere crās audēbitis?

Will you dare to send the same letter to him tomorrow?

5. Dūc mē ad eius discipulam (ad eam discipulam), amābō tē.

Lead me to his student (to that student), please.

6. Post laborem eius grātiās magnās eī agēmus.

After his great labor, we shall give him great thanks.

7. Tūne vēritātem in eō librō dēmōnstrās?

Do you show truth in this book?

8. Audē, igitur, esse semper īdem.

Therefore, dare to always be the same.

9. Venitne nātūra mōrum nostrōrum ex nōbīs sōlīs?

Does the nature of our character come from us alone?

10. Dum ratiō nōs dūcet, valēbimus et multa bene gerēmus.

While reason will lead us, we shall be strong and accomplish many
things well.

11. Illum timōrem in hōc virō ūnō invenīmus.

We find that fear in this man alone.

12. Sine labōre autem nūlla pāx in cīvitātem eōrum veniet.

Without labor, however, no peace will come into their state.
13. Studium nōn sōlum pecūniae sed etiam voluptātis hominēs nimium trahit; aliī eās
cupiditātēs vincere possunt, aliī nōn possunt.

Eagerness not only for money but also for pleasure drags humans
(around) too much; somecan ove rcome these desires, others cannot.

14. His life was always dear to the whole people.

Vita eius populo toti semper erat cara.

15. You will often find them and their friends with me in this place.

Eas et amicos earum in hoc loco mecum saepe invenies.

16. We, however, shall now capture their forces on this road.

Nos autem copias eorum in ea via nunc capiemus.

17. Since I was saying the same things to him about you and his other sisters, your
brother was not listening.

Quoniam eadem de te et aliis eius sororibus ei dicebam, frater tuus
non audiebat.

SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE

1. Virtūs tua mē amīcum tibi facit. (Horace.)

Your virtue makes me friendly to you.

2. Id sōlum est cārum mihi. (Terence. -- cārus 以及其他表示关系或者态度的形容词

常常用与格,英文翻译成 to 或者 for。详见 35 章。)

It alone is precious to me.

3. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō. (Pliny. -- bene est, it is well.)

If you healthy, that is well; I am healthy.
4. Bene est mihi quod tibi bene est. (Pliny. 这句话体现了拉丁文的对称美学观哦。)

What is well for you is well for me.

5. “Valē.” “Et tū bene valē.” (Terence.)

“Good-bye.” “And you good-bye (well).”

6. Quid hī dē tē nunc sentiunt? (Cicero.)

What do these men now think of you?

7. Omnēs idem sentiunt. (*Cicero. -- omnēs all men.主格复数)

Everyone thinks the same thing.

8. Videō nēminem ex eīs hodiē esse amīcum tibi. (Cicero. -- 不定式的主语为宾格

nēminem。详见 25 章。)

I see that none of them is a friend of you today.

9. Hominēs vidēre caput Cicerōnis in Rōstrīs poterant. (Livy. -- eius:讲安东尼将西塞

罗放逐,并将他的头砍下,放在古罗马广场的演讲台上。)

The men were able to see Cicero’s head on the Rostrum.

10. Nōn omnēs eadem amant aut eāsdem cupiditātēs studiaque habent. (Horace.)

Not all men love the same things or have the same desires and
pursuits.

11. Nec tēcum possum vīvere nec sine tē. (*Martial.--蜜蜂好喜欢 Martial 的)

I can live neither with you nor without you.

12. Vērus amīcus est alter īdem. (Cicero. -- alter īdem: a second self)
A true friend is a “second self.”

CICERO DENOUNCES CATILINE IN THE SENATE

Quid facis, Catilīna? Quid cōgitās? Sentīmus magna vitia īnsidiāsque tuās. O
tempora! O mōrēs! Senātus haec intellegit, cōnsul videt. Hic tamen vīvit. Vīvit? Etiam
in senātum venit; etiam nunc cōnsilia agere audet; oculīs dēsignat ad mortem nōs! Et
nōs, bonī virī, nihil facimus! Ad mortem tē, Catilīna, cōnsul et senātus dūcere dēbent.
Cōnsilium habēmus et agere dēbēmus; sī nunc nōn agimus, nōs, nōs -- apertē dīcō--
errāmus! Fuge nunc, Catilīna, et dūc tēcum amīcōs tuōs. Nōbīscum remanēre nōn
potes; nōn tē, nōn istōs, nōn cōnsilia vestra tolerābō!

(Cicero. In Catilīnam 1.1.ff. 西塞罗任执政官时,Lucius Sergius Catilina,

“Catiline,” 策划了一项针对罗马政府的阴谋。本文节选并改写自西塞罗公元前 63

年针对 Catilina 的第一次元老院演讲。参见 L.I.5-6 以及课文第十四章的短文。)

senātus 元老院

dēsignāre 设计,谋划

mors mortis f 死亡

apertē 副词 公开地

What are you doing, Catiline? What are you thinking? We feel your great
vices and treachery. O the times! O the customs! (What a time! What a
custom!)The senate understands these, the consul sees. This man lives
nevertheless. He lives? Even into the senate he comes; even now he dares to
lead judgments; with his eyes he designates us to death! And we, good men,
we do nothing! The consul and senate should lead you to death, Catiline! We
have a decision and we must act; if we do not act now, we, we – I openly say
– we are wrong! Flee now, Catiline, and take with you your friends. You can
not remain with us; not you, not them, not your judgments will I tolerate!
拉丁语 900 句讲座( 1)最佳闲聊入门教材

今天起。我瓦罗给愿意学拉丁文的朋友们,讲解一下拉丁文 900 句。希望朋友们
一起学,提任何问题。拉丁文不难学。

1. Puella amat rosas 女孩子爱玫瑰。

这句话是练习 a 字尾名词 puella 和 rosa。

puella 是主格(字典字头) 和 rosas 是 rosa 的复数受格(直接宾语)。

amat 是动词 amare (爱)的单数第三人称变位。

类似句型 te amo。me amas. (我爱你.你爱我)

每天记住一句话,有何难哉。

拉丁语 900 句讲座(2)

瓦罗大约选择 50 句短句,主要操练 declinatio prima 的用法。诸位可以自己找
单词替换句子中的名词成分。拉丁文并不是想象中的难学。当然精益求精是要花
精力的。

2. Luna et stellae illustrant tenebras (月亮和星星晚上亮着)

stellae 为 stella 复数,luna 同为句子主语。tenebras 为无变化的时间副词。

illustrant 为 illustrare 的复数第三人称变位。

拉丁文的次序相对比较灵活,但是有人称变为的动词基本上位于句末。有时为了
语气,次序略有不同,但意义不变。

学拉丁语不能冒进,最好是互帮互学,触类旁通。如能较好地掌握拉丁语语法,
那末除了发音以外,按照这个次序,你可以无师自通粗通葡萄牙语-西班牙语-
意大利语-罗马尼亚语-法语-高地德语-低地德语(荷兰语)-英语。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 3)
3. Opera agricolae fecundat terram (农事肥沃土地)。这是今天讲的句子。

这句句子中的 agricolae 是 agricola 的属格。agricola 是 a 尾的阳性名词。它由
ager(田地)和 cola(colere 居住,培养) 组成。由于最初的居住地都是农
村,因此由 colere 引申出 colona(农妇)colonus(农夫) colonia(农庄,
殖民地)等词汇。随着社会发展,很多职业女性也从事。因此-cola 也可以是阴
性名词。相同例子有 nauta,poeta 等。

-cola 在植物学拉丁文中使用广泛,主要指植物生存的环境,名词多数用作学
名中的种名,其形容词作用。如 ponticola(桥边,水边),amnicola (河边),
sanghaevicola(住上海的)。等等。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 4)

4. Do rosam ancillae (我给女佣一支玫瑰)

这句话里面,动词 do 是一个极常用的单词。其字典四式为 do,dare,dedi,datum.
它的现在时虚拟式变位是:dem,des,det,demus,detis,dent.但是瓦罗提醒诸位,
碰到下列变异形式,不要不认识啊:duim,duis,duit,duint 和
duam,duas,duat,duant.

动词 do 属于第一变位法,但是它的复合词却属于第三变位法。除了
circumdo,venumdo 两个复合词仍然属于第一变位法。

说起复合词,据我了解古希腊语中复合词简直多得惊人,属于随手拈来型。因此
古希腊语能成为哲学语言,它的构词法的灵活起了相当重要的作用。这一点,近
代语言德语堪与此比肩。

说起动词词根的数量,阿拉伯语(从语源学角度看,希伯来语基本等同于阿拉
伯语)堪称世界第一。据研究,80%的英语词根,75%的拉丁语词根来源于阿拉伯
语。阿拉伯语动词词根多达 38645 个,而盎格鲁萨克森语约 4000 个,拉丁语约
3000 个。三者的数量是非常悬殊的。阿拉伯语/希伯来语的动词词根已经多到可
以省略元音照样可以辨别词义。扯远了。瓦罗无非要说明复合词的起到扩展词根,
精准词义的作用。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 5)

5.Marcus inderdum ruri,Romae interdum habitat.?(马库斯有时住在乡下,
有时住在罗马。)

拉丁语表达地点一般用 in 和夺格名词。譬如,in oppido(在城里), in
via(在路上)。但是有的地名和一些特殊名词用特殊形式表达。譬如,ruri(在
乡下), Romae(在罗马)。实际上这不是夺格,而是已经消失的 locotivum
(位置格)。ruri,Romae 两个都是位置格,再有 Athenis(在雅典),
militiae(在战时)等等,都是位置格。由于残存数量不多,语法学家已经将他
们归入夺格的特殊形式。目前位置格最突出的用法是在拉丁文版的书籍封面上标
注印刷的地点,譬如 Lipsiae(在莱比锡),Londini(在伦敦),Olisippone
(在里斯本)。

这里举例一下拉丁文地名。Ancyra(土耳其),Austria(奥地利),
Helvetia(瑞士),Sinae(中国,注意不是 Sina),Persia(波斯,伊朗)等。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 6)

(6)Miseret nos timiditatis nostrae.(我们可怜我们的胆怯。)

这一讲主要是讲无人称动词。无人称动词只有第三人称单数。无人称动词一般表
示天气的比较多见。譬如,pluit(下雨),tonat(打雷), ningit(下雪)。这
个用法欧洲语言大都相似。这里不展开。

拉丁语的无人称动词有时候和汉语的主语和宾语的次序完全不类似,初学者容
易混淆。这里有三种类型:

(a)无人称动词在汉语中是主语,在拉丁文中作宾语。汉语中的宾语在拉丁语中
用所有格。如:Miseret nos timiditatis nostrae.(我们可怜我们的胆怯。)
这里的“我们”用作宾语,“我们的胆怯”用所有格表示。再有 Me vitae meae
non taedebat.(我不厌恶我的生活。)

(b)无人称动词在汉语中是主语,在拉丁文中作宾语。汉语中的宾语用动词不定
式表示。如:Me hoc facere oportet.(我应该做这件事。)me 用受格,hoc 是
不定式的宾语,facere 不定式。再有 Me te audire oprtet.(我应该听你的。)

(c)无人称动词在汉语中是主语,在拉丁文中要求与格。如:Licet tibi
facere.(你可以做。)Mihi hoc facere licet.(我可以做这个。)

无人称动词都是极为常用的动词,需要用心掌握。需要说明的是,有些非无人称
动词,在单数第三人称变位时往往带有特殊含义。如:
accedit,constat,interest,placet 等等。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 7)

7.Natus est Augustus consulibus Ciceroe et Antonio.(西塞罗和安东尼任
执政官的时候,奥古斯特出生了。)

本期讲座是将瓦罗最感有趣的拉丁语语法现象--独立夺格(the albative
absolute)。从语法角度上讲,独立夺格不从属于句子中任何一个词。它由一个
位于夺格的名词或者代词,外加上一个位于夺格的形动词或者分词组成一个词
组。它的作用几乎是百搭式的,说明时间、地点、原因、情况、静态描述(植物学拉
丁语的最主要用法。某种程度上,植物学拉丁语了解独立夺格和数量属格足够了)
等等语法现象。

独立夺格出现避免了从句、动词变位等繁琐现象,极大地简洁了拉丁语的表现手
段,增加了语言表达的灵活性。下面举例一些经典例句。

Ocukis clausis,nihil videmus.(眼睛闭着,我们什么也看不见。)
Regibus exactis consules creati sunt.(国王正在被废除,执政官已经选举
出来了。)
Caesare venturo,Phosphore, redde diem.(凯撒还在行军,启明星升上了天
空。)

需要说明的是,独立夺格中的动词如果是 esse(to be 是),那么该动词可以
省略掉。如:Te puero,his magnum bellum gestum est.(当你还是小孩的时候,
这里打过仗。)

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 8)

希腊语名词的变格

由于罗马人不断吸收希腊文化的营养,因此罗马人的作品中经常夹杂希腊名词。
尽管希腊语与拉丁语的语法相当接近,但差别总是有的。譬如,希腊语名词的词
尾几乎完全不同于拉丁语。这里简单罗列一些常见词尾名词的变格。

第一变格法名词 阳性-as,-es 阴性-e

单数变格
主格 Aeneas Atrides(-a) Cybele(-a)
呼格 Aenea Atride (-a) Cybele(-a)
受格 Aenean Atriden Cybelen(-am)
属格 Aeneae Atridae Cybeles(-ae)
与格 Aeneae Atridae Cybelae
夺格 Aenea Atride (-a) Cybele(-a)
复数变格完全与 mensa 变化相同。

第二变格法名词 阴性-os 中性-on
希腊语第二变格法名词,特别是人名地名的主格与受格经常保持希腊语形式,
其余变化基本上被拉丁语形式所取代。

单数变格
主格 Delos Pelion
呼格 Delos Pelion
受格 Delon,-um Pelion
属格 Deli Peli
与格 Delo Pelio
夺格 Delo Pelio
希腊语词尾-ros 往往对应于拉丁语词尾-er,譬如:Alexandros 对应于
Alexander。

第三变格法名词 阳性-os -x -er
希腊语第三变格法名词词尾五花八门。这点与拉丁语类似。下面举例的只是极少
部分词尾。

单数变格
主格 heros lynx crater
呼格 heros lyncx crater
受格 hero-a,-em lync-em,-a cratera
属格 herois lyncis crateros
与格 heroi lynci crateri
夺格 heroe lynce cratere

复数变格
主格 heroes lynces crateres
呼格 heroes lynces crateres
受格 heroas lync-as,-es crateras
属格 heroum lyncum craterum
与格 heroibus lyncibus crateribus
夺格 heroibus lyncibus crateribus

拉丁语文献中,希腊语借词不少,限于篇幅,也限于瓦罗学识,只能说这些。欢
迎诸位批评指正。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 9)

诸位都熟悉英拉、德拉、汉拉对照的拉丁语语法。不知诸位能看拉丁文版的拉丁语
语法吗?这里是一篇非常有名的多纳图斯的《小学》。据说作者是哲罗姆的老师 。
我们一起欣赏一下原文选段--论名词。我分了段落,有不妥请指正。

中国古代有很多蒙学读物,如《千字文》、
《三字经》

《百家姓》等。殊不知,中世 纪
拉丁文独霸欧洲文坛的时候,也出了不少拉丁文蒙学读物,如多纳图斯的《小
学》、加图《格言录》为其代表(我肯定有遗漏重要的)。瓦罗会逐渐贴出来,希 望
一起学习交流。

Partes orationis quot sunt?
Octo.
Quae?
Nomen pronomen verbum adverbium participium coniunctio praepositio
interiectio.
DE NOMINE

Nomen quid est?
Pars orationis cum casu corpus aut rem proprie communiterve
significans.
Nomini quot accidunt?
Sex.
Quae?
Qualitas conparatio genus numerus figura casus.
Qualitas nominum in quo est?
Bipertita est:aut enim unius nomen est et proprium dicitur,aut
multorum et appellativum.
Conparationis gradus quot sunt?
Tres.
Qui?
Positivus,ut doctus,conparativus,ut doctior,superlativus,ut
doctissimus.
Quae nomina conparantur?
Appellativa dumtaxat qualitatem aut quantitatem significantia.
Conparativus gradus cui casui servit?
Ablativo sine praepositione:dicimus enim "doctior illo".
Superlativus cui?
Genetivo tantum plurali:dicimus enim "doctissimus poetarum".
Genera nominum quot sunt?
Quattuor.
Quae?
Masculinum,ut hic magister,femininum,ut haec Musa,neutrum,ut hoc
scamnum,commune,ut hic et haec sacerdos. est praeterea trium
generum,quod omne dicitur,ut hic et haec et hoc felix;est
epicoenon,id est promiscuum,ut passer aquila.
Numeri nominum quot sunt?
Duo.
Qui?
Singularis,ut hic magister,pluralis,ut hi magistri.
Figurae nominum quot sunt?
Duae.
Quae?
Simplex,ut decens potens,conposita,ut indecens inpotens.
Quibus modis nomina conponuntur?
Quattuor:ex duobus integris,ut suburbanus;ex duobus corruptis,ut
efficax municeps;ex integro et corrupto,ut insulsus;ex corrupto et
integro,ut nugigerulus;aliquando ex conpluribus,ut inexpugnabilis
inperterritus.
Casus nominum quot sunt?
Sex.
Qui?
Nominativus genetivus dativus accusativus vocativus ablativus.......

这篇文章几乎不用查字典,都是语法术语。譬如:

Numeri nominum quot sunt?名词有几个数?
Duo.两个。
Qui?哪两个?
Singularis,ut hic magister,pluralis,ut hi magistri.单数(Singular),
如 magister,复数(plural),如 magistri。hic 、hi 的作用有点类似定冠词 ,
主要作用是避免误解。
Genera nominum quot sunt?名词有几个性?
Quattuor.四个。
Quae?哪四个?
Masculinum,ut hic magister,femininum,ut haec Musa,neutrum,ut hoc
scamnum,commune,ut hic et haec sacerdos. 阳性,如
magister。阴性,如 Musa。中性,如 scamnum。通性(或共性),如 sacerdos。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 10 )

1. Consulibus M. Vinicio et Q. Lucretio et postea P. Lentulo et Cn.
Lentulo er tertium Paullo Fabio Maximo et Q. Tuberone senatu
populoque Romano consentientibus ut curator legum et morum summa
potestate solus crearer, nullum magistrarum contra morem maiorum
delatum recepi.

(在 M. Vinicius 和 Q. Lucretius 任执政官期间,又在 P. Lentulus 和 Cn.
Lentulus 任执政官期间,第三次在 Paullus Fabius Maximus 和 Q. Tubero 为执
政官期间,罗马元老院和人民一致同意推举我为独一的,拥有最高权力的法律
和道德监护人。)

今天讲座主要想介绍一下罗马人名的构成。从 M. Vinicius,Q. Lucretius,P.
Lentulus,Cn. Lentulus,Paullus Fabius Maximus,Q. Tubero 等六人的名
字中,我们可以看到罗马男性的名字最多有三部分组成。譬如最完整的 Paullus
Fabius Maximus,他就由本名 Paullus、族名 Fabius、家名 Maximus 三部分构成。
这三者的拉丁文分别是 praenomen,nomen gentile,cognomen。至于绰号(别
名)agnomen 下文会再提及。

本名诸位可以理解,这里不做深究。需要说明一下的是,古罗马人极常见
Primus, Secundus, Tertius, Quintus, Sextus, Septimus, Octavius 和
Decimus 这九个名字,中文意思是第一到第十(没有第九)。这在古罗马早期,
由于婴儿死亡率极高,因此每家多子很正常,因此男性便以长幼次序命名。比较
著名的有 Sextus Pompeius(塞克图斯·庞培)。以后随着社会发展,这一习俗
逐渐演变为表示为出生年月。插一句,八月 Augustus 原来称为 Sextilis(第六
月)。

在原始社会,古罗马全体人民分别属于三个胞族,每个胞族再分为若干家族,
据当时官方统计共有 35 个家族。家族名称都以-ius 结尾。女性一概以族名命名,
并以阴性词尾-ia 表示。因此古罗马女性重名率极高。历史上闻名的族名称有
Claudius, Cornelius, Domitius, Valerius 等等。

家名实际上就是类似于现在的姓氏。主要用于区分同一家族内部的家庭。譬如著
名的 Claudius 一族就有 Claudius Caecus 和 Claudius Pulcher 两个大家庭。家
名随着年月的推移演变成固定的姓氏。

绰号(别名)主要用于收养关系和战功等荣誉称号。其中收养关系一般是收养者
本人原有族名-ius 变为-ianus 之后加于收养者名字之后,成为自己的第四个名
字。最著名的例子就是 Gaius Octavius(屋大维)被 Gaius Julius Caesar(凯
撒)收养后,更名为 Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus。

历史上著名的绰号(别名)有 Africanus 、
Augustus、Caligula、Germanicus、Nero。

古罗马历史上女性使用全名的例子较少。一般如果重名,就是添加 Maior,Minor
以及父名来区分。西塞罗有过一个称呼女性的完整例子:Annia P. Anni
senatoris filia (元老 P. Annius 的女儿 Annia)。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 11 )

  Sed sicut tu amasti me,sic amo et amabo te.(就像你爱过我,我同
样会爱你和将爱上你)

  本次讲座着重点是 amasti。这个单词涉及拉丁语动词变位的语音省略现象,
或者称之为双重变位形式。这些变化在较古的拉丁语文献中存在着。主要有以下
变异形式:

  1. 单数第二人称被动式词尾-ris 缩略为-re

  amaberis => amabere (陈述式未完成时)

  amabaris => amabare (陈述式将来时)

  2. 复数第三人称主动式词尾–erunt 缩略为–ere

  fuerunt => fuere

  amaverunt => amavere
  monuerunt => monuere

  rexerunt => rexere

  audiverunt => audivere

  3. 完成时标志–v-经常被其前后元音中约(或称省略,“中约”乃术语)。
–v 后的元音通常也被缩略掉。

  amavisti => amasti

  amaverunt => amarunt

  amavisse => amasse

  amavissem => amassem

  amavero => amaro

  audivero => audiero

  audivisti => audisti

  4. 完成时的–ivi- 之中的–v-也被中约掉,但其后的元音不被缩略掉。

  audivi => audii

  amavi => amai.

  5. 如果完成时词干有–s-,那么它通常省略–si-,–sis-,-iss-等变化
部分,而保留为缩略形式。

  misisti => misti

  intellexissem => intellexem

  scripsistis => scriptis

  duxisse => duxe

  6. 动词 dicere, ducere, facere 和 ferre 等单数第二人称命令是应该
省略词尾–e。如 dic,duc,fac,fer。
  7. 第三第四变位法动词被动态将来时分词用–und-替代–end-。如
legundus, scribundus, audiundus。

  8. 古典作家在使用将来时形式时,经常在第三变位法动词中加入–s-和–
ss-音节。

  dicere : dixo

  capere : capso

  servare : servasso

  9. 我们偶然也会在动词虚拟式的变为中发现加入的–si-音节。

  facere : faxim, faxis, faxit, faximus, faxitis, faxint

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 12 )

拉丁语 900 句讲座

作者:瓦罗

 12. CONFVCIVS AIT:STVDERE SAPIENTIAE ET IVGITER EXERCERE
HOC,NONNE QVIDEM IVCVNDVM? ET SI ERVNT SODALES EX LONGINQVO LOCO
VENIENTES,NONNE QVIDEM LAETABERIS? SI NON,AB ALIIS NESCIRI ET NON
INDIGNARI,NONNE ETIAM SAPIENTIS EST?

这句话瓦罗特地不作翻译,所有有文化的中国人都会背诵《论语》中最有
名的一句话。这一讲瓦罗想说说中西文化交流中的拉丁文。诸位知道,最早将中
华文化系统介绍给西方的是传教士。至于传教士的功过,这里不讨论。西人在中
国传教一开始并不注重对中华传统文化的研习。其大量研习中华文化是在传教过
程中经历礼仪之争后,才改变策略,专心攻读中土士大夫所熟悉的四书五经,
并将这些经书节选翻译成拉丁文介绍给西方的。其中论语是最先翻译的,版本也
最伙。

拉丁文版的论语最早叫“CONFVCIVS SINARVM PHILOSOPHVS,
SIVE SCIENTIA SINENSIS LATINE EXPOSITA ”(中国智者孔子--用拉丁
文解释中国人的智慧),以后逐渐固定译为“DISSERTAE SENTENTIAE ”。值
得注意的是,此书首次将孔子称呼音译成 Confucius,遂成为固定名称为西方
所熟知。几乎所有非汉字语言均音译成相同或相似发音。德语为 Konfuzius。相应
地孟子为 Mencius,老子为 Laocius 或 Laotius。

关于最早的拉丁文版《论语》的出版,有一则中外交流的佳话。由于此书扉页有一
段献给法国太阳王路易十四对该书出版支持的颂词。法王破天荒在凡尔赛宫与王
太子、王太子妃夫妇一起接见中国教徒沈福宗,并一起欣赏中国的筷子文化和书
法,以及聆听汉语祷告。最后,法王高兴之于下令打开凡尔赛宫花园内所有的喷
泉,让这位来自孔子家乡的中国人随意观赏。这是莫大的恩宠。可见以法国为代
表的欧洲对中华文化的向往或曰好奇。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 13 )

  13.Legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rog tum auxilium

  这一讲是关于拉丁语比较特殊的语法现象 SUPINE 动名词。Supine 是一种第
四变位法的动名词。它只有受格和夺格两种变化,以及仅限于以下两种用法。

  I. 词尾为-um 的 Supine

  A. 词尾为-um 的 Supine 主要用于有“移动”意义的动词之后表达目的:

  Legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rog tum auxilium. (他们向凯撒派遣使
者请求援助)

  Stultitia est venatum ducere invit s canes. (放出不愿干活的狗狗
去打猎太愚蠢了)

  我们可以找到很多例子,就是动词 ire 和 venire 后面经常跟随短语
cubitum, dormitum, sessum, salutatum 等等。

  词尾为-um 的 Supine 可以要求直接宾语,但这样的结构不太常见。

  Hannibal patriam defensum revocatus est. (汉尼拔被召回以御敌于国
门)

  词尾为-um 的 Supine 在早期拉丁文中非常普遍,但不为西塞罗和凯撒所偏
好。它在萨鲁图斯和利维的著作中使用较多。在晚期拉丁语中,他们逐渐被便是
目的的不定式所取代。

  B. 词尾为-um 的 Supine 常使用动词 ire(或 iri)来构成较少见的将来时
被动不定式。

  Has litteras redditum iri putabam. (我想这封信可能已被送回)

  这样的结构始终不常见,并且经常被一个 futurum esse (fore) ut 结构所
取代。

  Nuntiat fore ut foedus fieret. (他报告说一个谈判已经完成)
  II. 词尾为-u 的 Supine

  词尾为-u 的 Supine 只有几个形容词(和名词 fas, nefas 以及 opus)来
说明一个表示关系或特征的夺格。

  mirabile dictu(不可思议地讲述着)

  facilis factu(很容易地做着)

  si hoc fas est dictu(似乎很对地在说着)

  nihil dignum dictu(毫无价值地提及)

请诸位批评指正。

拉丁语 900 句讲座( 14 )

  14.Puer qui cecidit frater meus est

  本次讲座,瓦罗想用最直观的方法讲述一下关系代词的用法。相信学过欧语
的人都明白。在汉语中也有这个语法现象。如“明犯强汉者,虽远必诛(之)”,
“我就是喜欢那个叫小蜜蜂的人改编的拉丁语讲义”等句子中的“明犯强汉者
”、“叫小蜜蜂的”与“之”、“人”相对应的语法现象。只不过汉语词类不变化,
以至不能出现类似欧语的长句。汉语的特点决定了它的句子构成相对简洁。五四
运动以后西学东渐,汉语逐渐出现了模仿欧语长句的现象。虽然这丰富了汉语的
表达方法,但瓦罗觉得原味的汉语是能力表达要想表达的意思。尽可能在汉语修
养上下功夫,不要让别人听着不知所云。普罗大众的语言是最原味的。

  再扯远一些,瓦罗以为中国古籍中《史记》

《聊斋志异》两书可以称为古典 汉
语的代表,颇类于拉丁语文献中的《凯撒战记》和以 Eramus 等学者为代表的文艺
复兴以来的新拉丁文。
《聊斋志异》和新拉丁文都是力求复古恢复古典时代文风 的。

  下面详细说明关系代词(又称先行词)的作用,瓦罗将抽空翻译句子,诸
位先将就着。

  主格先行词:(那个怎样怎样的男孩是什么什么)

  Puer qui cecidit frater meus est.那个摔倒的男孩是我兄弟。

  Puer cuius pater cras veniet nun valet.那个其父明天要来的男孩不咋
样。

  Puer cui librum dedi te vocat.我给他书的那个男孩在叫你。
  Puer quem puellae vitant stultus est.女孩子都回避的那个男孩真是笨
死了。

  Puer a quu illae currunt ibi stat. 那个跟在别人后面跑的男孩站在那
里。

  属格先行词: (这是怎样怎样的男孩的什么什么)

  Ibi est dunum pueri qui meus frater est.那里是我兄弟(/与我是兄弟
的那个男孩)的礼物。

  Quid est numen pueri cuius pater cras veniet?

  Hoc est dunum pueri cui librum heri dedi.

  Ea est amica pueri quem heri vidimus.

  Hoc est dunum pueri de quu illa puella semper cugitat.

  与格先行词:(给那个怎样怎样的男孩什么什么)

  Da signum pueru qui stat in agru.

  Da aquam pueru cuius fratres vidimus.

  Da tuum librum pueru cui meam pecuniam commisi.

  Da gratias pueru quem hodie invenimus.

  Da gluriam pueru quucum civitatem servaverunt.

  受格先行词:(干掉那个怎样怎样的男孩)

  Puerum qui te saepe laudat illa puella semper culpat.

  Puerum cuius pater cras veniet nemu adiuvabit.

  Puerum cui pecuniam commisi ad Asiam mittent.

  Puerum quem heri vidi nunc nun videu.

  Puerum quucum nunc remanes ad urbem cras ducent.

  夺格先行词:(做关于那个怎样怎样的男孩的什么什么)
  De pueru qui animalia timet medica cugitat.

  Pru pueru cuius labor patriam servavit faciemus multa bona.

  Cum pueru cui gratias egimus eam regina mittet.

  a pueru quem timet currit illa puella.

  De pueru quucum se iunxerat mihi multa dixit.

牛津 拉丁 练习 集( 全三 册) 的网 址

找到了坛子里“牛津拉丁”系列的练习题。

http://www.umsl.edu/~phillips/oldrills/index.html

这里有全三册书的目录,以及一些练习:

http://artemis.austincollege.edu/acad/cml/rcape/latin/

原教材共有三册,这里就是原英文版的教材:

http://www.oxford-latin.net/OLC_main.htm

偶一边翻译一边学,也好让大家看起来方便些。谢谢你们的支持噢 =^_^=

牛津 拉丁 第 一课

Scintilla and Horatia at home [Scintilla 和 Horatia 在家里]

VOCABULARY [词汇]
Verbs[动词]:
ambulat 他/她步行
cēnat 他/她用餐
festīnat 他/她匆匆忙忙
intrat 他/她走进
labōrat 他/她忙碌

Adverbs[副词]:
mox 不久
nōn 不是

Nouns[名词]:
casa, f. 家,住宅
cēna, f. 正餐
fēmina, f. 女性
puella, f. 女孩

Adjectives[形容词]:
fessa, f. 劳累
laeta, f. 快乐
parāta, f. 准备

Conjunctions[连词]:
et, and 和,并且
sed, but 但是

阅读:
Scintilla in casā labōrat; fessa est. Horātia in casam intrat; iēiūna est.
sed cēna nōn parāta est. Scintilla festīnat et mox cēna est parāta.

"ecce!" inquit. "cēna est parāta." puella laeta est; ad mēnsam festīnat et
avidē cēnat.

postrīdiē Scintilla ad tabernās ambulat. Horātia in casā labōrat. mox

Scintilla redit et in casam intrat. ecce, parāta est cēna. Scintilla laeta est.

短语及词组:
in casam = 进屋
iēiūna = 饥饿
ecce! = 看!
inquit = 她说
ad mēnsam = 到桌边
avidē = 贪婪地
postrīdie = 第二天
ad tabernās = 去商店
redit = 回来

读后请回答问题:

1. quis est Quīntus?
2. ubi habitat Quīntus?
3. quis est Scintilla?
4. quid facit Scintilla? (quid facit - What does . . . do? or What is . . . doing?)
5. ubi habitat Scintilla?
6. quis est Horātia?
7. cur est Scintilla fessa? (cur = why)
8. est cēna parāta?
9. cur est puella laeta?
10. postrīdiē, quid facit Scintilla?
11. postrīdiē, quid facit Horātia?
12. cur est Scintilla laeta?

解答

3.Scintilla est puella una.

4.Ea parat cenam.

5.Ea habitat in casa.

6.Ea est soror Scintillae.

7.Nam ea laborat.

8.Ita.

9.Cum cena parata fuit.

10.Ea ambulat ad tabernas.

11.Ea laborat in casa et parat cenam.

12.Nam soror cuius facit cenam prius.

这里有这篇课文的词汇练习:

(1)http://www.quia.com/custom/8370main.html
(2)http://www.quia.com/servlets/quia.activities.common.ActivityPlayer?AP_rand=909537650&AP
_activityType=8&AP_urlId=1894&playHTML=1&AP_atSessionStart=true

牛津 拉丁 第 二课

动词:(包括复习部分第一课词汇)

ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātum = 步行

cēnō, cēnāre, cēnāvī, cēnātum = 用餐

festīno, festīnāre, festīnāvī, festīnātum = 匆忙

intrō, intrāre, intrāvī, intrātum = 进入

iuvo, iuvāre, iuvāvī, iūtum = 帮忙

labōrō, labōrāre, labōrāvī, labōrātum = 忙碌

laudo, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātum = 称赞

nārro, nārrāre, nārrāvī, nārrātum = 说,叙述

paro, parāre, parāvī, parātum = 准备

porto, portāre, portāvī, portātum = 携带

salūto, salūtāre, salūtāvī, salūtātum = 招呼

voco, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātum = 呼喊

副词:

mox = 不久

nōn = 不

subitō = 忽然
名词:

aqua, aquae, f. = 水

casa, casae, f. = 家,住宅

cēna, cēnae, f. = 正餐

fābula, fābulae, f. = 故事

fēmina, fēminae, f. = 女性

fīlia, fīliae, f. = 女儿

puella, puellae, f. = 女孩

via, viae, f. = 路,道路

形容词:

fessus, fessa, fessum = 劳累

irātus, irāta, irātum = 愤怒,生气

laetus, laeta, laetum = 快乐

parātus, parāta, parātum = 准备

介词:

in (当下一个名词为直接受格时使用) = 进入=into

Conjunctions:

et = 和

sed = 但是

阅读: Argus Steals the dinner

提示:

1) 反复地写以下的拉丁单词。
2) 至少大声地阅读以下故事一次。

(或许这可以帮助你理解口音和重读).

n.b.: Flaccus 是 Quīntus' 的父亲, Scintilla 是他母亲, Horātia 是他姐姐, Argus 是家里的狗.

生词::

in casā = 在屋内
cessat = 逗留 [谚语:Ubi maior minor cessat(大人物在,小人物不复存在)”。]
ecce! = 看!
audit = 听

spectat = 他看着
inquit = 他/她/它说

eam rapit = 抓住它
fugit = 出逃

aliam = 另一个
postrīdiē = 第二天

ad tabernās = 去商店
redit = 回来

阅读:
Scintilla in casā labōrat; cēnam parat. fessa est. Horātia in viā cessat. Scintilla
filiam vocat. puella casam intrat et Scintillam iuvat; aquam in casam portat. Scintilla
fīliam laudat.

cēna parāta est. "ecce!" inquit. "cēna est parāta." Scintilla fīliam vocat et fābulam
nārrat. Horātia fbulam laeta audit.

mox Argus casam intrat. cēnam spectat; subitō eam rapit et dēvorat. Scintilla īrātā est;
Argus in viam fugit. Scintilla aliam cēnam parat.

postrīdiē Scintilla ad tabernās ambulat. Horātia in casā labōrat. mox Scintilla redit et
in casam intrat. ecce! parāta est cēna. Scintilla laeta est.
牛津 拉丁 第 三课

词汇

动词:

maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsum, 呆着,保持

sedeō, sedēre, sēdī, sessum, 坐

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum, 看

ascendō, ascendere, ascendī, ascēnsum, 爬

cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsum, 落下

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursum, 落下

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum, 领导

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum, 落下(又是落下)

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum, to hear 听

redeō, redīre, redī, reditum, 回来,返回

inquit, 他/她说

名词:

terra, terrae, f., 土地,大地

cibus, cibī, m., 食物

colōnus, colōnī, m., 农夫

fīlius, fīlī, m., 儿子

ager, agrī, m., 领域

puer, puerī, c. (c = 普通的), 男孩,小孩子

形容词:
ānxius,ānxia, ānxium, 焦急的

代词:

eum (accusative singular), 他

eam (accusative singular), 她

方位词:

ad (followed by noun in acc.), 去,朝向

连词

nam, (=for)

指导:

1) 浏览所列的单词,预测故事概要。

2) 反复写以上的拉丁单词.

3) 请再读一遍文章,标出:

动词词尾

主格词尾

对格词尾

4) 回答故事结尾处的问题。

阅读:

Quīntus 帮助他的父亲

postrīdiē Scintilla Quīntum vocat; mittit eum ad agrum. Quīntus cibum ad Flaccum portat;
nam Flaccus dīu in agrō labōrat et fessus est. puer ad agrum festīnat; Argum sēcum
dūcit. mox Quīntus agrum intrat; Flaccum videt et vocat. Flaccus fīlium audit et ad eum
ambulat; in terrā sedet et cibum cōnsūmit.
Quīntus domum nōn redit sed in agrō manet et Flaccum iuvat. olīvam ascendit et
olīvās dēcutit. Flaccus olīvās colligit. subitō lāpsat Quīntus et ad terram
cadit. Flaccus ānxius est et ad eum currit, sed Quīntus nōn saucius est; surgit et domum
redit.

问题:

1. Scintilla 要 Quīntus 去做什么?

2. 为什么 Scintilla 想让 Quīntus 去做这个差事?

3. 谁和 Quīntus 一起去的?

4. Quīntus 回家了吗? 为什么/为什么不?

5. Quīntus 是怎样帮助 Flaccus 的?

请用拉丁语回答:

1. cūr (why?) Quīntus in agrō manet? 在你的答案里用 quod (= because)

2. quōmodō (how?) Quīntus Flaccum iuvat?

3. cūr ānxius est Flaccus?

牛津 拉丁 第 四课

词汇

动词:

cūro, cūrāre, cūrāvī, cūrātum 照顾,照料

accēdō, accēdere, accessī, accessum 接近

prōcēdō, prōcēdere, prōcessī, prōcessum 走,去
surgō, surgere, surrēxī, surrēctum 起来,起床

dormīō, dormīre, dormīvī, dormītum 睡

venīō, venīre, vēnī, ventum = 来

adsum, adesse, adfuī = 在席

副词:

cūr? = 为什么?

diū = 很长一段时间

iam = 现在,已经

lentē = 慢慢地

saepe = 通常

tandem = 最终,最后

名词:

amīcus, amīcī, m. = 朋友们

lūdus, lūdī, m. = 学校

形容词:

magnus, magna, magnum = 巨大的

miser, misera, miserum = 凄惨

multus, multa, multum = 很多的

代词

eōs, eās = 他们 (acc. pl.)

ille, illa, illud = 他/她/它
连词

quod = 因为

ubi = 什么时候,当。。 。

阅读:

Scintilla 和 Horātia 在喷泉边

cotīdiē ubi Flaccus ad agrum prōcēdit, Scintilla et Horātia ad fontem festīnant. magnās
urnās portant. ubi ad fontem veniunt, multae fēminae iam adsunt. aliae aquam dūcunt, aliae
urnās plēnās portant. Scintilla eās salūtat et diū colloquium cum amīcīs facit. Horātia
cum puellīs lūdit. tandem Scintilla aquam dūcit et domum redit. Horātia quoque aquam dūcit
et post Scintillam festīnat.

urna magna est; Hōrātia eum aegrē portat. subitō lāpsat; urna ad terram cadit; aqua in
terram effluit. Hōrātia in terrā sedet; “heu, heu,” inquit, “urna frācta est.”
Scintillam vocat; illa redit et “ō fīlia,” inquit, “cūr in terrā sedēs? surge* et aliam
urnam ā casā portā.*” Horātia surgit; ad casam redit et aliam urnam ad fontem
portat. aquam dūcit et domum festīnat.

ubi Horātia domum redit, Quīntus iam ad lūdum prōcēdit. lentē ambulat et saepe

cōnsistit. Horātia festīnat et mox eum videt. “manē* Quīnte,” inquit. manet Quīntus;

Horātia ad eum currit. ad lūdum ūnā prōcēdunt.

* surge (起来!), portā (带上!), manē (等等!) → 适当形式的动词。 表示祈使语气时要使用适当形
式的动词。

阅读理解 (用英语,或母语回答=^_^=):

1. 谁第一个离开家的?

2. Scintilla 和 Horātia 遇到了谁?

3. Scintilla 在喷泉边干什么 (第三行)?

4. Horātia 在喷泉边干什么 (第四行)?

5. Horātia 回家的时候遇到了什么麻烦?
6. Horātia 怎么了 (第六~七行)?

7. Scintilla 告诉 Horātia 什么?

8. 当 Horātia 遇到 Quīntus 的时候,刚从哪儿回来?

9. 你认为哪个词(或句子)描述了 Qūintus 的性格? 给出这些拉丁词并解释以及相关理由。

牛津 拉丁 第 五课

词汇

动词:

clāmō, clāmāre, clāmāvī, clāmātum = 大喊

dō, dāre, dedī, datum = 给予

rogō, rogāre, rogāvī, rogātum = 询问,要求

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātum = 看着

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī, iactus = 放弃

respondeō, respondēre, respondī, respōnsum = 回答

dīcō, dīcere, dīcī, dictum = 说

emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptum = 买

pōnō, ponere, posuī, positum = 放置,定位

trādō, trādere, trāxī, tractum = 拖,拉

faciō, facere, fēcī, factum = 做,制造

adveniō, advenīre, advēnī, adventum = 到达
副词:

statim = 立刻

名词:

hortus, hortī, m. = 花园

形容词:

ūnus, ūna, ūnum = 一

duo, duae, duo = 二

trēs, trēs, tria = 三

alius, alia, aliud = 其它,另一个

bonus, bona, bonum = 好

malus, mala, malum = 坏

代词:

quid? = 什么

方位词:

cum + ablative = 和

in = ablative = 在。。。 里/上

per + accusative = 贯穿,整个地

连词:

nec / neque = 也不

阅读指导:
反复写单词。(这个就不用多说了吧)

反复读整个故事,把结局用下划线标出来。

再通读全文, 这次在动词下方写出第三人称单数/复数的现在形式。

集市上的一天(好象是这意思)

postrīdiē Flaccus et Scintilla māne surgunt; nam nūndinae sunt. Flaccus magnum saccum lānae
portat; Scintilla olīvās et fīcōs in calathōs pōnit. Horātia in hortō sedet. mox Scintilla
Horātiam vocat, "quid facis, Horātia?" inquit, "parāta es? ad forum prōcēdimus." Horātia
respondet, "parāta sum; venō statim." Flaccus lānam portat, Scintilla olīvās, Horātia
fīcōs; festīnant ad forum.

ubi ad forum adveniunt, multī vīrī et fēminae iam adsunt; per tōtum forum tabernae
sunt. colōnī clāmant et mercēs suās laudant. aliī ūvās vendunt, aliī lānam, aliī
fīcōs. Flaccus Scintillam et fīliam dūcit ad locum vacuum; tabernam ērigunt et mercēs
expōnunt.

mox amīcus ad tabernam accēdit et Flaccum salūtat; lānam spectat. Flaccus "lāna bona est"
inquit "nec cāra. tōtum saccum tribus dēnāriīs vendō." amīcus "nimium rōgās, Flacce,"
inquit, "duōs dēnāriōs dō." Flaccus concēdit et saccum trādit."

intereā fēmina ad Scintillam accēdit et "quantī" rogat "olīvae sunt?" illa respondet "ill

ās olīvās ūnō dēnāriō vendō." fēmina olīvās emit. alia fēmina accēdit et fīcōs diū

spectat; Horātia rogat "cūr fīcōs sīc spectās?" illa "illōs ficōs ficōs sīc spectō," inquit

"quod malī sunt." Horātia īrāta est et respondet, "quid dīcis? malōs ficōs nōn
vendimus. fīcī bonī sunt." sed fēmina fīcōs nōn emit.

mox omnēs mercēs vendunt. Scintilla laeta est, "omnēs mercēs vendidimus," inquit, "iam ad
tabernam piscātōriam prōcēdō."

牛津 拉丁 第 六课
词汇:
动词:

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitum, 必须,应该

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctum, 教

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussum, 命令

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum, 决定

dīmittō, dīmittere, dīmīsī, dīmissum, 送, 遣散

lūdō, lūdere, lūsī, lūsum, 玩

scribō, scrībere, scrīpsī, scrīptum, 写,画

cupiō, cupere, cūpīvī, cupītum, 想,渴望

eō, īre, iī, itum, 走

exeō, exīre, exiī, exitum, 出去

副词:

celeriter, 迅速地

dīligenter, 仔细地,努力地

iterum, 再一次

名词:

iānua, iānuae, f., 门

littera, litterae, f., 一封信

domus dōmī, f., 家

domum (accusative), f., 回家

magister, magistrī, m., 主人,老师

形容词:
cēterī, cēterae, cētera, 其它的,其余的

meus, mea, meum, 我的

tuus, tua, tuum, 你的

代词:

ego, 我

mē (对格), 我

tū, 你

tē (对格), 你

介词:

prope + 对格, 在。。。的附近 (* pro-、prae-、prope-都有在。。。之前,与。。。有关的意思 )

连词:

itaque, 因此

nec (neque) . . . nec (neque), 既不。。。。也 不

阅读指导:

1 反复写单词

2 大声朗读整个故事

3 把整个故事再读一遍,标出所有你读到名词的词尾。

4 在每段后的空白处总结概要。

Flavius 的学校

Quīntus ad lūdum lentē ambulat et saepe cōnsistit, sed Horātia celeriter prōcēdit; prior ad
lūdum advenit et puellās salūtat quae prope iānuam manent; longum colloquium cum Iūliā
facit, puellā valdē pulchrā. Quīntus in viā amīcum videt, nōmine Gāium; eum vocat. Gāius
ad lūdum festīnat sed ubi Quīntum audit, cōnsistit et "quid facis, Quīnte?" inquit,
"festīnāre dēbēs. sērō ad lūdum venīs. ego festīnō." Quīntus respondet, "nōn sērō
venīmus, Gāī." Gāium iubet manēre. ille ānxius est sed manet. itaque Quīntus et Gāius
lentē ad lūdum prōcēdunt.

cēterī puerī iam adsunt. magister ē iānuā exit et eōs iubet intrāre et sedēre; puerī
lūdere cupiunt, puellae labōrāre. magister ubi nec Quīntum nec Gāium videt, īrātus est et
clāmat, "cūr nōn adsunt Quīntus et Gāius? cūr sērō veniunt?" tandem intrant Quīntus et
Gāius et magistrum salūtant. sed ille clāmat, "cūr sērō venītis? malī puerī estis." iubet
eōs celeriter sedēre.

diū sedent puerī et magistrum audiunt; diū clāmat magister et litterās docet. puerī
litterās in tabulīs scrībunt; magister tabulās spectat et litterās corrigit.

Decimus, puer magnus et stultus, literās aegrē discit. magister eum iubet tabulam ad sē
ferre; tabulam spectat. "Decime," inquit, "asinus es; literās nōn rēctē scrībis." Decimus
"errās, magister," inquit, "asinus nōn sum. litterās rēctē scrībō. ecce!" litterās iterum
scrībit. sed Flāvius "impudēns es, Decime," inquit "et asinus; litterās nōn rectē scrībis."

diū labōrant puerī. tandem Iūlia "dīligenter labōrāmus, magister," inquit, "litterās bene
scrībimus; fessī sumus. itaque dēbēs nōs domum dīmittere."

Flāvius eam benignē spectat. "ita vērō," inquit, "dīligenter labōrātis, puerī. itaque
vōs iubeō domum abīre." cēterī laetī domum festīnant, sed Flāvius Decimum iubet in lūdō
manēre. "tū, Decime," inquit, "dēbēs litterās iterum scrībere." itaque Decimus in lūdō
miser sedet dum cēterī in viā lūdunt.

牛津 拉丁 第 七课

词汇

动词::
convocō, convocāre, convocāvi, convocātum, 叫到一起

nāvigō, nāvigāre, nāvigāvī, nāvigātum, 航行

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātum, 战斗

oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātum, 袭击
iaceō, iacēre, iacuī, 躺下来

dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsum, 保卫

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsum, 杀死

resistō, resistere, resistitī + dative, 抵抗

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victum,克服

capiō, capere, cēpī, captum, 带上

fugiō, fugere, fūgī, fugitum, 出逃

iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactum, 扔,抛

副词:

fortiter, 勇敢地

名词:

īra, īrae, f., 生气

pugna, pugnae, f., 战斗

canis, canis, c., 狗

comes, comitis, c., 同志

frāter, frātris, m., 兄弟

nāvis, nāvis, f., 船

pater, patris, m., 父亲

prīnceps, prīncipis, m., 王子

rēx, rēgis, m., 国王

urbs, urbis, f., 城市
形容词:

cārus, cāra, cārum, 亲爱的

fortis, fortis, forte, 勇敢的

omnis, omnis, omne, 所有的,一切的

介词:

ā/ab + abl., 来自。。 。

阅读指导:

1 反复写生词。

2 通读故事全文,标出你读到的名词和动词词尾。

3 再读一遍课文,把名词、形容词和相关的介词连接起来。

Flavius' story: The siege(围困)of Troy

Agamemnōn, rēx Mycēnārum, omnēs prīncipēs Graecōrum convocat; iubet eōs bellum in Trōiānōs
parāre. frāter eius, Menelāus, adest; Achillēs, hērōum fortissimus, venit ā Thessaliā;
adest Ulixēs ab Ithacā cum comitibus, et multī aliī. magnum exercitum parant et multās
nāvēs. ad urbem Trōiam nāvigant et Trōiānōs oppugnant.

sed Trōiānī urbem fortiter dēfendunt. decem annōs Graecī urbem obsident sed eam
capere nōn possunt. tandem Agamemnōn et Achillēs in rixam cadunt. Achillēs īrātus est; nōn
diūtius pugnat sed prope navēs manet ōtiōsus. Trōiānī iam Graecōs vincunt et pellunt ad
nāvēs.

Agamemnōn amīcōs ad Achillem mittit quī eum iubent ad pugnam redīre. illī "ō
Achillēs," inquiunt, "Trōiānī nōs vincunt et pellunt ad nāvēs. in magnō perīculō sumus. tū
dēbēs ad pugnam redīre et comitēs dēfendere." sed ille amicōs nōn audit neque ab īrā
dēsistit.

mox Trōiānī nāvēs oppugnant et incendunt. Patroclus, amīcus cārus, ad Achillem
accēdit et "Trōiānī iam nāvēs incendunt," inquit. "dēbēs ab īrā dēsistere et amīcōs
iuvāre. sī tū pugnāre nōn vīs, dēbēs mē cum comitibus tuīs in pubnam mittere." itaque
Achillēs invītus Patroclum in pugnam mittit. ille arma Achillis induit et comitēs in pugnam
dūcit.
Trōiānī, ubi arma Achillis vident, territī sunt et ad urbem fugiunt. Patroclus in
eōs currit et multōs occīdit. sed Hector, fortissimus Trōiānōrum, resistit et Patroclum in
pugnam vocat. hastam iacit et Patroclum interficit.

牛津 拉丁 第 八课

词汇
动词:

expectō, expectāre, expectāvī, expectātum, 等候

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātum, 拯救

timeō, timēre, timuī, to fear, 恐惧

reddō, reddere, reddidī, redditum, 回来,取回

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictum,把。。。留在后 面

vertō, vertere, vertrī, versum, 转动

coniciō, conicere, coniēcī, coniectum, 猛力投掷

possum, posse, potuī, 能,可以

副词:

bene, 好的

hīc, 这里

hūc, 到这里来, hither

名词:

hasta, hastae, f., 矛
porta, portae, f., 门

mūrus, mūrī , m., 墙

māter, mātris, f., 母亲

mors, mortis, f. , 死

形容词:

mortuus, mortua, mortuum, 死去的

sōlus, sōla, sōlum, 孤单的

territus, territa, territum, 害怕

incolumis, incolume, 安全的,无伤害的

介词:

circum + acc., 在附近

ē/ex + ablative, 出于,从

连词:

-que* (enclictic), 和 *连接的紧密性比 “et"要强

阅读 OLC Chapter VIII: 1st reading

指导:

1 反复写生词。

2 通读、领悟全文。

3 划出名词和动词的词尾,给它们的名词和形容词间加入介词。

Hector 之死
Achillēs, ubi Patroclus mortuus est, eum diū lūget; Hectorem vindicāre cupit. redit ad
pugnam et comitēs in Trōiānōs dūcit. illī, ubi Achillem vident, territī sunt; in urbem
fugiunt. Hector sōlus extrā mūrōs manet.

pater Priamus, rēx Trōiae, et māter Hecuba eum vident ē mūrīs; fīlium vocant;
Priamus clāmat: "Hector, nōlī Achillem in pugnam vocāre; nōn potes eum vincere. urbem
intrā; festīnā." māter clāmat: "fīlī cāre, nōlī extrā mūrōs manēre; nōlī mortem obīre;
māter tua misera tē ōrat."

sed Hector eōs nōn audit; urbem intrāre nōn vult. Trōiānōs vocat et "portās
claudite, Trōiānī," inquit. "festīnāte. egō sōlus maneō extrā mūrōs et Achillem ad pugnam
vocō."

Trōiānī invītī portās claudunt. Hector sōlus Achillem exspectat. ille propius
accedit. tum Hector subitō timet. tergum vertit et fugit.

Achillēs celeriter currit sed eum capere nōn potest. ter circum mūrōs fugit
Hector, sed tandem resistit; sē vertit et Achillem in pugnam vocat. ille prōcēdit et hastam
in Hectorem conicit. sed Hector hastam vītat. deinde Hector hastam conicit et Achillis
parmam percutit. sed Achillēs incolumis est; nam parma eum servat.

deinde Achillēs hastam summā vī conicit; volat hasta per auram et Hectorem
trānsfīgit. ille ad terram cadit mortuus.

accurrit Achillēs et dīrum facinus facit. Hectorem mortuum ad currum alligat et
circum mūrōs trahit. pater et māter ē mūrīs spectant. Hecuba clāmat: "ō Achillēs,"
inquit, "tandem ab īrā dēsiste; fīlium nōbīs redde." sed Achillēs eam nōn audit; Hectorem
ad nāvēs trahit et eum relinquit in terrā iacentem.

牛津 拉丁 第 九课

词汇
动词:

gaudeō, gaudēre, gāvīsus sum, 使欣喜,使高兴

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum, 拥有
moneō, monēre, monuī, monitum, 警告, 劝告

taceō, tacēre, tacuī, tacitum, 沉默

bibō, bibere, bibī, 喝

conscendō, cōnscendere, cōncendī, cōnscēnsum,上(船)

accipiō, accipīre, accēpī, accipitum, 接受

conveniō, convenīre, convēnī, conventum, 一起来, 见面

副词:

sīc, 因而

名词:

insula, īnsulae, f., 海岛

equus, equī, m., 马

vir, virī, m., 男人,人

labor, labōris, m., 工作, 困难, 遭受

nox, noctics, f., 夜晚

uxor, uxōris, f., 妻子

形容词:

novus, n ova, novum, 新的

parvus, parva, parvum, 小

paucī, paucae, pauca, 少数的

tacitus, tacita, tacitum, 安静的

tōtus, tōta, tōtum, 整个的

ingēns, ingentis, 巨大的
介词:

inter + acc.,在。。。之中,在。。。中 间

阅读:
The Fall of Troy

decem annōs Graecī Trōiānōs obsident sed urbem capere nōn possunt. tandem Agamemnōn, rex

Graecōrum, dēspērat; omnēs prīncipēs convenīre iubet et "decem annōs iam Trōiam obsidēmus,"

inquit, "saepe Trōiānōs in pugnā vincimus sed urbem capere nōn possumus. ego dēspērō. quid

facere dēbēmus? domumne redīre dēbēmus? quid vōs monētis?"

cēterī prīncpēs tacent, sed Ulixēs "ego nōn dēspērō," inquit, "cōnsilium novum habeō,
audīte m

ē."

omnēs prīncipēs cōnsilium Ulixis attentē audiunt; cōnsilium laetī accipiunt. equum
ligneum

faciunt, ingentem; multōs virōs fortēs in equum immittunt. illī in equum ascendunt et in
ventre equī

sē cēlant. cēterī nāvēs cōnscendunt et nāvigant ad īnsulam vīcīnam.

prīmā lūce Trōiānī nāvēs Graecōrum vident abeuntēs; gaudent quod Graecī nōn adsunt,

gaudent quod pugnae tandem cōnfectae sunt. ē portīs urbis currunt ad ōram dēsertam; equum

ingentem spectant in ōrā stantem. aliī "equum dēbēmus in urbem dūcere," inquiunt. alii
"equō

nōlīte crēdere," inquiunt, "timēmus Graecōrum dōna. fortasse Graecī in eō cēlātī
sunt." tandem cō

nstituunt eum in urbem dūcere. omnēs laetī eum per portās trahunt et in arce
pōnunt. deinde epulā

s faciunt et multum vīnum bibunt.
nox adest. dormiunt Trōiānī. Graecī quī in īnsulā sunt nāvēs cōnscendunt et
celeriter ad

urbem Trōiam redeunt. eī, quī in equō cēlātī sunt, tacitī exeunt et festīnant ad portās.

vigilēs Trōiānōrum dormiunt; ēbriī sunt. Graecī eōs occīdunt; portās celeriter
apperiunt et

comitēs accipiunt. omnēs in viās urbis currunt. paucī Trōiānōrum resistunt. mox Graecī
tōtam

urbem capiunt. tandem rēgiam Priamī oppugnant; Priamum et fīliōs eius occīdunt. paucī
ēvādunt.

sīc Graecī tandem Trōiam capiunt et urbem dēlent.

牛津 拉丁  第 十课

词汇
动词:

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātum, 居住

ōrō, ōrāre, ōrāvī, ōrātum, 祝祷, 乞求

quaerō, quaerere, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum, 询问,寻找

quiēscō, quiēscere, quiēvī, quiētum, 休息

tollō, tollere, sustulī, sublātum, 上升

副词:

prīmum, 第一

vix, 缺乏地

名词:
nauta, nautae, m., 水手

silva, silvae, f., 木头

unda, undae, f., 波浪

caelum, caelī, n., 天空,天堂

perīculum, perīculī, n., 危险

saxum, saxī, n., 岩石

verbum, verbī, n., 词

clāmor, clāmoris, m., 叫喊

homō, hominis, c., 人,人类

lītus, lītoris, n., 岸

mare, maris, n., 海

mōns, montis, m., 高山

形容词:

primus, prima, primum, 首位的

介词:

dē + abl., 从。。。下 来

sub + abl., 在。。。下 面

阅读:

OLC Chapter X: Polympēmus

Aenēās et Trōiāni nāvēs cōnscendunt; ab urbe Trōiā in terrās ignōtās nāvigant. diū
terram quaerunt ubi novam Trōiam condere possunt; multōs labōrēs, multa perīcula subeunt;
saepe dēspērat Aenēās. tandem cōnstituunt ad Italiam nāvigāre.
sed ubi ad Siciliam accēdunt, magnum perīculum vix vītant, nam saxa vident ubi habitat
Scylla, mōnstrum horribile, et sonitum ingentem audiunt verticis ubi Charybdis undās
ēvomit. pater Anchīsēs magnā vōce clāmat: "fugite; nāvēs ē perīculō ēripite; nam in illīs
saxīs habitat Scylla." Aenēās patris verba audit et saxa vītat. sīc vix incolumēs ē
perīculō ēvādunt.

ubi ad Siciliam veniunt, montem Aetnam vident; nāvēs ad terram dīrigunt et sub noctem ad
lītus īnsulae adveniunt. sub monte in lītore quiēscunt. mōns Aetna per noctem tonat;
flammās et saxa in caelum prōicit. Trōiānī territī sunt et ānxiī diem exspectant.

festīnant nāvēs cōnscendere cum hominem vident, quī ad lītus currit. Trōiānōs vocat;
accurrit ad eōs et "servāte mē," inquit, "vōs ōrō. ego Graecus sum, comes Ulixis. cēterī
fūgērunt. ego sōlus maneō. fugite, miserī, fugite. Cyclōpēs hīc habitant, gigantēs
immānēs, quī hominēs edunt. nōlīte mē Cyclōpibus trādere. servāte mē, accipite mē in
nāvem."

subitō Trōiānī Polyphēmum vident, gigantem ingentem. ille ovēs dē monte dūcit. caecus
est; lentē dēscendit; in viā saepe lāpsat. Aenēās teritus est. "currite ad nāvēs," inquit,
"festīnāte!" Trōiānī comitem Ulixis accipiunt et fugiunt ad nāvēs.

Polyphēmus iam ad lītus advenit et in mare prōcēdit. Trōiānōs vidēre nōn potest sed
audit eōs rēmigantēs. clāmōrem ingentem tollit. cēterī Cyclōpēs clāmōrem audiunt et
currunt dē montibus ad lītus. saxa ingentia in nāvēs coniciunt; sed Trōiānī iam ē lītore
rēmigant. Cyclōpēs eōs contingere nōn possunt.

有适当的范例:

singular
 m. & f. neuter
nom. omnis omne
gen. omnis omnis
acc. omnem omne
abl. omni omni

plural
m. & f. neuter
nom. omnēs omnia
gen. omnium omnium
acc. omnēs omnia
abl. omnibus omnibus
牛津 拉丁 第 十一 课

词汇
动词:
aedificō, aedificāre, aedificāvī, aedificātum, 建造,建立

errō, errāre, errāvī, errātum, 漫步; 犯错, 是错误的

imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātum + dative, 命令

stō, stāre, stetī, stātūrum, 站立

cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitum, 明白,学会

occurrō, occurrere, occurrī (occucurrī), occursum + dative, 遇见

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentum, 展示

succurrō, succurrere, succurrī, succursum + dative, 帮助

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventum, 寻找

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum, 运载, 负担

副词:
semper, 经常地

名词:

fāma, fāmae, f., 名望, 报告, 名誉

patria, patriae, f., 祖国

rēgīna, rēgīnae, f., 皇后

somnus, somnī, m., 睡

ventus, ventī, m., 风

bellum, bellī, n., 战争
cōnsilium, cōnsiliī, n., 计划

templum, templī, n., 寺庙

vīnum, vīnī, n., 酒

arma, armōrum, n. pl., 阵营

collis, collis, m., 小山

hostis, hostis, c., 敌人

nōmen, nōminis, n., 名字

形容词:
nōtus, nōta, nōtum, 知道的

ignōtus, ignōta, ignōtum, 未知的

介词:

dum, 当。。 。

牛津拉丁系列之(II)

牛津 拉丁 II 第一课

词汇
动词:

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātum 克服

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessum 走开,离去

legō, legere, lēgī, lectum 阅读
crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, creditum + dative 相信,信任

prōmittō, prōmittere, prōmīsī, prōmissum 许诺

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectum 影响, 执行

sum, esse, fuī, futūrum 是

副词:

deinde 随即,然后

名词:

hōra, hōrae, f. 小时

pecūnia, pecuniae, f. 金钱

dīvitiae, dīvitiārum, f. pl. 富人

candidātus, candidātī, m. 侯选人

numerus, numerī, m. 数字

ōrātiō, ōrātiōnis, f. 演说

vulnus, vulneris, n. 创伤

形容词:

candidus, candida, candidum 白色的

optimus, optima, optimum 最好的

pessimus, pessima, pessimum 最糟的

vērus, vēra, vērum 正确的

gravis, gravis, grave 严重的,重的

介词:

cum 当。。。 时
*enim =for

*igitur 因此,因而

*tamen 然而,但是

词组:

ōrātiōnem habēre ( 发表演说)

vēra dīcere (道出真理)

* enim, igitur, and tamen are postpositive (i.e., 在句中,它们通常是第二个词)

阅读指导:

*读课文之前,预览所列单词,猜测故事脉路概要;

*反复写下列故事中出现的生词;

*大声地通篇朗读课文;

*重读课文,标出所有的动词词尾;

*回答故事结尾处的问题。

Comitia
comitia iam aderant. cīvēs novōs duovirōs creāre dēbēbant. per omnēs viās in mūrīs casārum
nūntiī candidātōrum pictī erant, sīcut:

ORO VOS M. EPIDIUM SABINUM DUOVIRUM FACIATIS. CANDIDATUS

DIGNUS EST, COLONIAE VESTRAE DEFENSOR.

cīvēs in viās festīnābant et candidātōs spectābant. illī per viās ambulābant;
togās candidās gerēbant; turba fautōrum eōs comitābat. ōrātiōnēs habēbant; multa
prōmittēbant quae efficere nōn poterant; cīvēs eōs audiēbant, paucī tamen eīs crēdēbant.

Flaccus in tabernā sedēbat et colloquium cum amīcīs faciēbat. Ganymēdēs, senex
querulus et miser, "candidātīs crēdere nōn possumus" inquit. "cum enim magistrātum petunt,
omnia prōmittunt. cum duovirī sunt, nihil faciunt. nihil cūrant nisi pecūniam suam."

Philērus "vēra dīcis, Ganymēdēs," inquit. "omnēs candidātī putidī sunt, sīcut
Chrysanthus, homō pessimus. ōlim pauper erat, quī parātus fuit quadrantem dē stercore
dentibus tollere. nunc dīvitiās innumerābilēs habet. quōmodo illās dīvitiās sibi
comparāvit? furcifer est."

Flaccus tamen amīcōs invītus audīvit: "nōlī nūgās nārrāre, amīce," inquit. "iam
dēbēmus ad comitium īre et suffrāgia ferre. surgite, amīcī, et mēcum venīte." omnēs igitur
ad forum prōcessērunt et festīnāvērunt ad comitium. in triviīs duōbus candidātīs
occurrērunt quī ad comitium prōcēdēbant. pistōrēs alterī favēbant; alba ferēbant cum hāc
inscrīptiōne:

C. IULIUM POLYBIUM DUOVIRUM ORO VOS FACIATIS; PANEM BONUM FACIT.

alterī favēbant mūliōnēs.

aliī aliōs vituperābant. mox saxa per aurās volābant. multī vulnera
accēpērunt, multī timuērunt domumque rediērunt. tandem candidātus quīdam, vir gravis et
spectātus, ōrātiōnem ad cīvēs habuit tumultumque sēdāvit. omnēs ad comitium prōcessērunt,
suffrāgia tulērunt, novōs duovirōs creāvērunt. fautōrēs eōrum laetī clāmāvērunt victōrēsque
triumphantēs fomum dūxērunt. Flaccus domum festīnāvit Scintillaeque omnia nārrāvit.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

回答问题:

1. 这些公民“不得不”做的事是什么?

2. 选举时选择 M. Epidius Sabinus 的理由是?

3. 当公民望着候选人的时后,他们看到、听到了什么?

(提示:说出四点较好)

4. Ganymedes 相信,候选人们关心的事情之一是?

5. 从 Philerus 所说的故事当中你可以推断出关于 Chrysanthus 的一些什么呢?

6. Flaccus 告诉他的朋友们要做什么?

7. Flaccus 和他的朋友在十字路口看到了两个候选人。这些候选人带着什么?

8. 谁受伤了?

9. 是谁平息了暴乱,又是怎样平息的?
10. 你觉得为什么 Flaccus 不得不告诉 Scintilla 一切?

用拉丁语回答:

1. cūr cīvēs candīdātīs nōn crēdēbant?

2. quid dīxit Ganymēdēs dē candidātīs?

3. quid dīxit Philērus de Chrysanthō?

4. quid respondit Flaccus?

5. quid accidit (happened) in triviīs?

牛津 拉丁 II 第一课

词汇
动词:

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātum 克服

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessum 走开,离去

legō, legere, lēgī, lectum 阅读

crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, creditum + dative 相信,信任

prōmittō, prōmittere, prōmīsī, prōmissum 许诺

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectum 影响, 执行

sum, esse, fuī, futūrum 是

副词:

deinde 随即,然后
名词:

hōra, hōrae, f. 小时

pecūnia, pecuniae, f. 金钱

dīvitiae, dīvitiārum, f. pl. 富人

candidātus, candidātī, m. 侯选人

numerus, numerī, m. 数字

ōrātiō, ōrātiōnis, f. 演说

vulnus, vulneris, n. 创伤

形容词:

candidus, candida, candidum 白色的

optimus, optima, optimum 最好的

pessimus, pessima, pessimum 最糟的

vērus, vēra, vērum 正确的

gravis, gravis, grave 严重的,重的

介词:

cum 当。。。 时

*enim =for

*igitur 因此,因而

*tamen 然而,但是

词组:

ōrātiōnem habēre ( 发表演说)

vēra dīcere (道出真理)
* enim, igitur, and tamen are postpositive (i.e., 在句中,它们通常是第二个词)

阅读指导:

*读课文之前,预览所列单词,猜测故事脉路概要;

*反复写下列故事中出现的生词;

*大声地通篇朗读课文;

*重读课文,标出所有的动词词尾;

*回答故事结尾处的问题。

Comitia
comitia iam aderant. cīvēs novōs duovirōs creāre dēbēbant. per omnēs viās in mūrīs casārum
nūntiī candidātōrum pictī erant, sīcut:

ORO VOS M. EPIDIUM SABINUM DUOVIRUM FACIATIS. CANDIDATUS

DIGNUS EST, COLONIAE VESTRAE DEFENSOR.

cīvēs in viās festīnābant et candidātōs spectābant. illī per viās ambulābant;
togās candidās gerēbant; turba fautōrum eōs comitābat. ōrātiōnēs habēbant; multa
prōmittēbant quae efficere nōn poterant; cīvēs eōs audiēbant, paucī tamen eīs crēdēbant.

Flaccus in tabernā sedēbat et colloquium cum amīcīs faciēbat. Ganymēdēs, senex
querulus et miser, "candidātīs crēdere nōn possumus" inquit. "cum enim magistrātum petunt,
omnia prōmittunt. cum duovirī sunt, nihil faciunt. nihil cūrant nisi pecūniam suam."

Philērus "vēra dīcis, Ganymēdēs," inquit. "omnēs candidātī putidī sunt, sīcut
Chrysanthus, homō pessimus. ōlim pauper erat, quī parātus fuit quadrantem dē stercore
dentibus tollere. nunc dīvitiās innumerābilēs habet. quōmodo illās dīvitiās sibi
comparāvit? furcifer est."

Flaccus tamen amīcōs invītus audīvit: "nōlī nūgās nārrāre, amīce," inquit. "iam
dēbēmus ad comitium īre et suffrāgia ferre. surgite, amīcī, et mēcum venīte." omnēs igitur
ad forum prōcessērunt et festīnāvērunt ad comitium. in triviīs duōbus candidātīs
occurrērunt quī ad comitium prōcēdēbant. pistōrēs alterī favēbant; alba ferēbant cum hāc
inscrīptiōne:

C. IULIUM POLYBIUM DUOVIRUM ORO VOS FACIATIS; PANEM BONUM FACIT.

alterī favēbant mūliōnēs.
aliī aliōs vituperābant. mox saxa per aurās volābant. multī vulnera
accēpērunt, multī timuērunt domumque rediērunt. tandem candidātus quīdam, vir gravis et
spectātus, ōrātiōnem ad cīvēs habuit tumultumque sēdāvit. omnēs ad comitium prōcessērunt,
suffrāgia tulērunt, novōs duovirōs creāvērunt. fautōrēs eōrum laetī clāmāvērunt victōrēsque
triumphantēs fomum dūxērunt. Flaccus domum festīnāvit Scintillaeque omnia nārrāvit.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

回答问题:

1. 这些公民“不得不”做的事是什么?

2. 选举时选择 M. Epidius Sabinus 的理由是?

3. 当公民望着候选人的时后,他们看到、听到了什么?

(提示:说出四点较好)

4. Ganymedes 相信,候选人们关心的事情之一是?

5. 从 Philerus 所说的故事当中你可以推断出关于 Chrysanthus 的一些什么呢?

6. Flaccus 告诉他的朋友们要做什么?

7. Flaccus 和他的朋友在十字路口看到了两个候选人。这些候选人带着什么?

8. 谁受伤了?

9. 是谁平息了暴乱,又是怎样平息的?

10. 你觉得为什么 Flaccus 不得不告诉 Scintilla 一切?

用拉丁语回答:

1. cūr cīvēs candīdātīs nōn crēdēbant?

2. quid dīxit Ganymēdēs dē candidātīs?

3. quid dīxit Philērus de Chrysanthō?

4. quid respondit Flaccus?
5. quid accidit (happened) in triviīs?

牛津 拉丁 II 第三课

词汇
动词:

appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, apellātum = 呼唤(某人的名字)

recitō, recitāre, recitāvī, recitātum = 大声读,复述

rīdeō, rīdere, rīsī, rīsum = 笑

agō, agere, ēgī, actum = 驾驶; 做, 主持

claudō, claudere, clausī , clausum = 关闭

induō, induere, induī, indūtum = 穿上(衣裳)

intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellēctum =理解

aperīō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum = 打开

副词:

continuō = 马上,迅速地

facile = 简单地

hūc . . . illūc = 这种方法 . . . 以及

paene = 几乎

rēctē = 确实, 正确地

ubīque = 任何地方
名词:

aedificium, aedificiī, n. = 大厦

discipulus, discipulī, m. = 学生

gradus, gradūs, m. = 步伐

grātiae, grātiārum, f. pl. = 谢谢

Iuppiter, Iovis, m. = 木星

liber, librī, m. = 书

manus, manūs, f. = 手

poēta, poētae, m. = 诗人

schola, scholae, f. = 学校, 教室

versus, versūs, m. = 诗歌

vestīmenta, vestīmentōrum, n. pl. = 衣裳

vultus, vultūs, m. = 面孔, 表示

Iuppiter, Iovis, m. = 木星

形容词:

altus, alta, altum = 高的

apertus, aperta, apertum = 打开的

cōnfectus, cōnfecta, cōnfectum = 结束的

difficilis, difficilis, dificile = 困难的

facilis, facilis, facile = 容易的

invītus, invīta, invītum = 不情愿的

medius, media, medium = 中间的
rēctus, rēcta, rēctum = 笔直的

sacer, sacra, sacrum = 神圣的

sevērus, sevēra, sevērum = 严厉的

vacuus, vacua, vacuum = 空的

介词:

extrā + accusative = 外面

连词:

ubi = 那里

词组:

grātiās agō + dative = 致谢于。。 。

阅读指导:

* 读这些单词,在空白处写一段对情节的预测。

* 反复写这些单词。

* 大声通读全文至少一次。

* 在所有的动词下方,标上人物、数字,时态和语气

Rōma

dum Scintilla et Horātia Venusiae ānxiae manent, Quīntus paterque iam novem diēs Rōmam
contenderant; montēs et flūmina trānsierant; iter difficile fuerat et labōriōsum. tandem
Rōmā nōn longē aberant. Quīntus valdē fessus erat, sed pater "nōlī dēspērāre, fīlī,"
inquit. "iter paene cōnfectum est. Rōmā nōn longē absumus." postrīdiē moenia urbis
conspexērunt et festīnāvērunt ad portās.

nox iam vēnerat cum urbem intrāvērunt. parvam caupōnam invēnērunt; cēnāvērunt et
post cēnam continuō dormīvērunt. prīmā lūce Flaccus Quīntum excitāvit et "venī, Quīnte,"
inquit. "dēbēmus lūdum Orbiliī quaerere." lentē prōcēdēbant per viās urbis.
tandem in Viā Sacrā ambulābant et mox ad forum vēnerant. nec Quīntus nec pater
umquam vīderant aedificia tam magnifica. diū stābant attonitī; deinde omnia
spectābant. hīc erat templum Vestae, ubi Virginēs Vestālēs ignem perpetuum cūrābant; illīc
erat Basilica Aemilia, ubi magistrātūs iūs dīcēbant; hīc erant rōstra, ubi magistrātūs
ōrātiōnēs ad populum habēbant. illīc steterat cūria; iam ruīnīs iacēbat, in tumultū
ambusta. ā fronte erat mōns Capitōlīnus, ubi stābat ingēns templum Iovis.

omnia diū spectāverant, cum Flaccus "venī, fīlī," inquit. "Rōmae diū
manēbimus. omnia haec saepe vidēbis." ā forō discessērunt collemque ascendērunt; mox ad
lūdum Orbiliī advēnerant. extrā iānuam lūdī stetērunt. puerōs audīre poterant recitantēs
et Orbilium eōs corrignetem; nōn tamen intrāvērunt. Flaccus "venī, Quīnte,"
inquit. "domicilium dēbēmus invenīre et nova vestīmenta emere."

Quīntus paterque ē mediā urbe discessērunt et prōcēdēbant ad Subūram, ubi pauperēs
habitābant. ibi nūllae erant aedēs magnae sed altae īnsulae, in quibus habitābant multae
familiae. viae sordidae erant et artae. multī hominēs hūc illūc currēbant; ubīque clāmor
et tumultus. mox ad vestiārium vēnērunt; flaccus Quīntō togam praetextam et tunicam
candidam ēmit; Quīntus, quī vestīmenta tam splendida numquam habuerat, patrī grātiās
ēgit. deinde in Subūram prōcessērunt et domicilium quaerēbant. tandem Flaccus īnsulam
intrāvit cuius iānua aperta erat iānitōremque quaerēbat. invēnit eum in aulā
dormientem. ēbrius erat. Flaccus eum excitāvit et dīxit: "ego fīliusque domum
quaerimus. habēsne domicilium vacuum?" ille non surrēxit sed Flaccō respondit, "nūllum
domicilium habeō vacuum. abī." sīc dīxit; oculōs clausit iterumque dormīvit.

pater fīliusque in viam trīstēs exierant, cum aliquis eōs revocāvit. fēmina quaedam
ē iānuā festīnāvit, anus rūgōsa, quae "manēte" inquit. "marītus meus caudex est et semper
ēbrius. errāvit. ūnum cēnāculum habēmus vacuum. venīte."

dūxit eōs anhēlāns ad summum tabulātum. ibi erat cēnāculum parvum et
sordidum. iānitōris uxor "ecce," inquit. "vīsne hoc cēnāculum condūcere? quīnque dēnāriōs
tantum rogō." Flaccus īrātus erat. "nimium rogās," inquit. "cēnāculum parvum est et
sordidum. trēs dēnāriōs tibi dare volō." illa "trēs dēnāriōs dīcis, furcifer? dā mihi
quattuor dēnāriōs, sī cēnāculum condūcere vīs." Flaccus invītus concessit et quattuor
dēnāriōs eī trādidit. abiit fēmina ad iānitōrem. Quīntus novam domum trīstis spectāviit.

牛津 拉丁 II 第四课

(本课官方学习网上空缺,不好意思。以下是该课单词,其实主要是复习前一课内容)
appellō, appellāre, appellāvī 呼唤,喊(名字)
rīdeō, rīdere, rīsī 笑
recitō, recitāre, recitāvī 背诵,大声读
induō, induere, induī 穿上
agō, agere, ēgī 做,驾驶
intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī 理解
poēta, -ae (m.) 诗人

grātiae, -ārum (f.pl.) 感谢
schola, -ae (f.) 学校,教室
discipulus, -ī (m.) 学生
liber, librī (m.) 书
gradus, gradūs (m.) 步伐
manus, manūs (f.) 手
vultus, vultūs (m.) 面孔,表示
vulnus, vulneris (n.) 创伤

versus, versūs (m.) 诗歌
rēctus, -a, -um 直接
sevērus, -a, -um 严厉
facilis, facile 容易的
difficilis, difficile 困难的

牛津 拉丁 II 第五 课

词汇

动词:

salvē, salvēte! (打招呼)好日子! 告别!

sinō, sinere, sīvī, situm, 安置, 放下; 准许

vīsō, vīsere, vīsī, vīsum, 仔细地看, 参观

cōnficiō, cōnficere, cōnfēcī, cōnfēctum, 准备,完成

intersum, interesse, interfuī, (加上与格) 不同; 在。。。之中,参 与
副词:

praetereā 而且

cotīdiē 每天

名词:

epistola, epistolae, f., 信件

dominus, dominī, m., 大师

ātrium, ātriī, n., 大厅

ingenium, ingeniī, n., 字符, 天分

studium, studiī, n., 研究, 热忱, 渴望

tablīnum, tablīnī, n., 研究(这间屋子)

aedēs, aedium, f.pl., 房子

merīdiēs, merīdiēī, m., 午间

ōrātor, ōrātōris, m., 演说者, 报告人

soror, sorōris, f., 姐妹

diēs, diēī, m., 天

rēs, reī, f., 事, 问题, 物产

rēspūblica, reīpūblicae, f., 共和国

spēs, speī, f. 希望

形容词

clārus, clāra, clārum, 清楚的, 明亮的, 著名的

ingeniōsus, ingeniōsa, ingeniōsum, 有天份的, 聪明的

lātus, lāta, lātum, 宽, 宽广的
代词:

aliquis, aliquid, 某人/物

短语:

sine 随其自然

rē vērā, 真相,真的,事实上

阅读指导:

大声朗读材料,尽量做到正确发音。
再次阅读课文,寻找语感。
在动词的时态表现形式下划线,以确保你能正确地翻译动词。
根据要求,分别用拉丁文和英文回答后面的问题。

Marcus Quīntum domum suam invītat

cotīdiē Flaccus fīlium ad lūdum Orbiliī dūcēbat. Quīntus celeriter discēbat, et mox Graecē
et dīcere et scrībere poterat. Orbilius eum laudābat, quod bonus discipulus erat. prīmum
Quīntus valdē miser erat. cēterī enim puerī eum vītābant nec cum eō lūdere volēbant; tandem
tamen is quī prīmō diē eum salūtāverat accessit et "Quīnte," inquit, "mihi nōmen est
Marcus. nōn dēbēs sōlus hīc stāre. venī mēcum comitēsque salūtā." Quīntum ad comitēs
dūxit et "amīcī," inquit. "volō vōbīs commendāre Quīntum Horātium Flaccum. salūtāte eum et
sinite eum lūdīs nostrīs interesse." cēterī puerī Marcum suspiciēbant, quod puer erat
magnus et lautus; praetereā pater sius erat vir īnsignis, quī cōnsul fuerat et clārus
ōrātor. itaque omnēs Quīntum salūtāvērunt et eum sīvērunt lūdīs suīs interesse.

paucīs post diēbus ubi Orbilius puerōs dīmīsit, Quīntus domum ambulābat, cum
accurrit Marcus. "Quintē," inquit, "vīsne domum mēcum venīre patremque meum
vīsere?" Quīntus verēcundus erat. "rē vērā," inquit. "mē domum tuam vocās? nōnne pater
tuus rēbus occupātus est?" ille respondit, "pater meus semper occupātus est. semper tamen
cupit amīcōs meōs vidēre. trīstis est; hōc annō soror mea, Tullia, dēliciae patris,
periit. adhūc eam lūget sed ubi amīcīs meīs occurrit, hilarior fit. venī."

forum trānsiērunt et montem Palātīnum ascendērunt. mox ad Marcī aedēs
advēnērunt. Marcus iānuam pulsāvit; iānitor iānuam aperuit et Marcum salūtāvit. "salvē,
domine," inquit. "intrā." Marcus eum rogāvit, "ubi est pater?" ille "pater tuus," inquit
"est in tablīnō. occupātus est. epistolās enim scrībae dictat."
Marcus Quīntum in ātrium dūxit. ille numquam aedēs tam magnificās
vīderat. ātrium erat et lātum et altum; in omnibus lateribus erant magnae iānuae. Marcus
Quīntum dūxit ad iānuam quae ā fronte stābat et pulsāvit. aliquis vōce blandā "intrā"
inquit. Marcus iānuam aperuit et Quīntum in tablīnum dūxit.

用拉丁语回答:

1. cūr Orbilius Quīntum laudāvit?

2. cūr miser erat Quīntus?

3. cūr Marcum suspiciēbant (looked up to) cēterī puerī?

4. ubi erant aedēs Marcī?

5. ubi ad aedēs advēnērunt, quid faciēbat Marcī pater?

Respondē Anglicē:

1. Flaccus 是什么时候带 Quīntus 去学校的?

2. Orbilius 为什么要表扬 Quīntus?

3. 为什么 Quīntus 非常可怜?

4. 谁向 Quīntus 进行自我介绍?

5. 为什么其他男孩最后都接纳了 Quīntus?

6. 在第二段的开头, 过了多少时间?

7. Marcus 问了 Quīntus 什么?

8. Marcus 向 Quīntus 说了关于他父亲和家庭的什么事?

9. Marcus 住在哪里?

10. 当 Marcus 问到父亲, iānitor 是怎么回答的?

11. Quīntus 对 Marcus 的房子有什么反应?

12. 你觉得 Marcus' father 是个怎么样的人?
牛津 拉丁 II 第六课

动词:
spērō, spērāre, spērāvī, spēratum =希望

volō, volāre, volāvī, volātum = 飞翔

faveō, favēre, fāvī, fautum + dative = 倾向, 支持

pāreō, pārēre, pāruī, pāritum (+ 间接), 遵守

frangō, frangere, frēgī, frāctum = 打破

perdō, perdere, perdidī, perditum = 丢失, 浪费, 毁坏

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptum = 夺走, 窃取

副词:
quō? , where to?

名词:
turba, turbae, f., 人群

lūdī, lūdōrum, m. pl., 游戏

signum, signī, n., 标志, 信号

vesper, vesperis, m., 晚上

cāsus, cāsūs, m. , 不幸,事故

currus, currūs, m., 战车

cursus, cursūs, m., 跑,路程

形容词:
contentus, contenta, contentum, 满足的,满意的,可接受的(?)

frāctus, frācta, frāctum, 打破的

maximus, maxima, maximum, 最伟大的, 非常伟大的

plūrimus, plūrima, plūrimum, 许多

nōbilis, nōbilis, nōbile, 贵族的, 着名的

tālis, tālis, tāle, 如此

vetus, veteris, 老的 (3rd declension adjective with one ending)

阅读:
Directions:
* 大声阅读课文.
* 划出所有的名词词尾.
* 标出动词: 1s/1p, 2s/p, 3s/3p pr, imp, per, plp

lūdī circēnsēs

1 paucīs post diēbus Quīntus cum patre ad lūdum Orbiliī ambulābat; iam ad
forum advēnerat

calling

2 cum aliquem sē vocantem audīvit. respēxit et Marcum vīdit ad sē
currentem. ille, ubi

of course
nonsense

3 accessit, "quō īs, Quīnte?" inquit. Quīntus "ad lūdum nīmīrum
festīnō." Marcus "nōlī nūgās

It is a holiday.

4 nārrāre," inquit, "fēriae sunt. hodiē nēmō ad lūdum īre dēbet. venī
mēcum ad Circum

5 Maximum. praetor lūdōs magnificōs populō dat." Quīntus, quī lūdōs
circēnsēs numquam
cautious criminals

6 vīderat, Marcō pārēre volēbat, sed pater cautus erat; "multī scelestī"
inquit "tālibus lūdīs

dangerous

7 adsunt. perīculōsum est." sed Marcus Quīntum trāns forum iam
ducēbat. Flaccus sē vertit

8 et domum rediit.

9 ubi ad Circum advēnērunt, ingēns turba aderat; multa mīlia cīvium,
virī, fēminae, puerī ad

10 portās concurrēbant. Quīntus Marcusque intrāre vix poterant; tandem
loca vacua invēnērunt

procession flute
players

11 et sēdērunt. maxima pompa iam per circum contendēbat; tībīcinēs
pompam dūcēbant,

images lastly chariot
drivers four-horsed

12 deinde mīlitēs imāginēs deōrum ferēbant, postrēmō plūrimī agitātōrēs
currūs quadriiugōs

13 lentē agēbant.

procession twelve starting cages

14 tandem pompa cōnfecta erat. duodecim currūs in carceribus stābant ad prīmum cursum
parātī.

from his chair

15 praetor soliō surrēxit signumque dedit. continuō ē carceribus ēvolāvērunt equī. omnēs
spectātōrēs

the
turning
urged on lashed post

16 clāmābant et agitātōrēs incitābant. illī equōs verberābant mētamque petēbant. prīmus mētam

rounded interior wheel crashed

17 incolumis circumiit; alter mētae interiōrem rotam īnflīxit; currus frāctus est; ipse ad terram cecidit,

freed himself

caught in the reins from the reins

18 habēnīs involūtus; habēnīs sē expedīvit fūgitque ē cursū. cēterī cursum septiēns circumvolāvērunt

the Blue team

19 sine cāsū; vīcit Venetus. gaudēbat Marcus, quī illī factiōnī favēbat.

20 tōtum diem Quīntus Marcusque cursūs spectābat. vesper iam aderat cum Marcus "venī,

without a

doubt

21 Quīnte," inquit, "tempus est domum redīre; sine dubiō parentēs nostrī ānxiī sunt." dum surgit,

purse pocket

22 crumēnam ē sinū togae tollere temptābat; sed nihil sinū inerat; crumēnam perdiderat. "dī
imortāles!"

23 inquit, "aliquis crumēnam meam rapuit." Quīntus valdē commōtus erat, sed Marcus,

of no importance

24 "nūllīus mōmentī est," inquit; "aliam crumēnam domī habeō."

牛津 拉丁 II 第七课
动词:

retineō, retinēre, retinui, retentum, 忍住,抑制,踌躇

referō, referre, rettulī, relātum, 带回,携带

īnsum, inesse, īnfuī, 在。。。之 中

mālō, mālle, māluī, 宁可,宁愿选择

副词:

paulīsper,一会儿

unde? whence? 从哪里。。。 ?

undique, 从四面八方

名词:

morea, morae, f.,耽搁,延迟

nimium, nimiī, n. + 属格, 太多

e.g., nimium vinī = 太多的酒

balnea, balneōrum, n. pl., 浴场

ānxietās, ānxietātis, f., 忧虑

celeritās, celeritātis, f., 速度

形容词:

aeger, aegra, aegrum, 生病的,病态的

牛津 拉丁 II 第八课
动词:

numerō, numerāre, numerāvī, numerātum, 记数

caveō, cavēre, cavī, cautum, 小心

prōvideō, prōvidēre, prōvīdī, prōvisum, 预见

vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectum, 携带

praetereō, praeterīre, praeterī, praeteritum, 路过

fiō, fierī, factus, 成为

副词:

dēnique, 最后的,最终的

magnopere, 巨大的

quam, 更

名词:

victōria, victōriae, f., 胜利

inimīcus, inimīcī, m., 敌人

praemium, praemiī, n., 奖励

spectāculum, spectāculī, n., 展示

cliēns, clientis, m., 客户

ōrdō, ōrdinis, m., 队伍,行列,命令

spectātor, spectātōris, m., 旁观者

genus, generis, n., 种族、种类

cōnspectus, cōnspectūs, m., 看法,观点

形容词:
superbus, superba, superbum, 骄傲的

crūdēlis, crūdēlis, crūdēle, 残忍的

ferōx, ferōcis, 猛烈的,激烈的

连词:

quamquam , 尽管

阅读:

OLC Chapter XXIV: Caesaris triumphī

tempus celeriter fūgit. Quīntus iam quīnque annōs Rōmae mānserat. plūrēs amīcōs habēbat
quam numere poterat; in diēs laetior fīebat. mēnse Quīntīlī C. Iūlius Caesar ab Africā
Rōmam tandem rediit. quattuor iam annōs bellum cīvīle per tōtum orbem terrārum
gesserat. omnēs inimīcōs vīcerat, tōtum imperium Rōmānum regēbat. cōnstituit igitur
triumphōs agere ob victōriās quās reportāverat in Galliā, in Aegyptō, in Pontō, in
Africā. fēriās prōnūntiāvit quīndecim diērum. spectācula omnis generis ēdidit, mūnera
gladiātōria, vēnātiōnēs, lūdōs scaenicōs et tragicōs et comicōs. nēmō unquam lūdōs
splendidiōrēs ēdiderat quam illōs.

prīmō diē fēriārum Quīntus māne surrēxit. patrem valēre iussit festīnāvitque ad
scholam Orbiliī, ubi amīcō cuidam, Pūbliō nōmine, occurrit. sine morā ad forum
contendērunt. ubi advēnērunt, iam aderat ingēns multitūdō, virī, fēminae, puerī, et cīvēs
et servī; Quīntus numquam maiōrem turbam vīderat quam illam. interdum senātor per mediam
turbam cum comitātū clientium perrūpit. interdum mulier nōbilis ad Capitōlium prōcēdēbat
lectīcā imposita, quam ferēbant octō servī. crustulāriī botulāriīque per turbam ambulābant
quī mercēs suās maximā vōce venditābant. Quīntus ad botulārium praetereuntem accessit
plūrimōsque botulōs ēmit; in gradibus templī cum amīcō sēdit botulōsque avidē dēvōrāvit.

mox pompa triumphālis accedēbat. Quīntus Pūbliusque clāmōrēs plausūsque
spectātōrum audīre poterant. in prīmum ōrdinem sē trūsērunt pompamque accēdentem
spectābant. pompam dūxērunt legiōnārī, armīs fulgentibus indūtī. deinde plaustra
innumerābilia praeteriērunt, quae spolia bellī vehēbant: plaustra titulōs ferēbant quī
nōmina urbium captārum exhibēbant. plaustrum quod spolia Ponticī bellī vehēbat hunc titulum
sōlum exhibēbat: VENI, VIDI, VICI.
post plaustra captīvī contendēbant, catēnīs gravātī, inter quōs erat
Vercingetorix, Gallōrum fortissimus; nēmō Caesarī hostis ferōcior fuerat quam ille; etiam
nunc superbē sē gerēbat, quamquam mortem crūdēlissimam mox obitūrus erat.

dēnique Caesar ipse in cōnspectum veniēbat. palūdāmentum purpureum gerēbat et in
capite corōnam lauream. currū quadriiugō vectus manum dextram identidem tollēbat, turbam
spectātōrum salūtāns. currus Quīntum praeterībat cum subitō axis frāctus est; Caesar ipse
paene ad terram cecidit sed sine morā surrēxit montemque Capitōlīnum pedibus ascendit inter
duōs ōrdiēs elephantōrum.

牛津 拉丁 II 第九课

动词:

lūceō, lūcēre, lūxī = 闪光的;清楚的,明显的

sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsī, sūmptum = 开始;假设;挑选;获得

副词:

quam + superlative, 尽可能地。。 。

例如:quam celerrimē, 尽可能快地

名词:

dīligentia, dīligentiae, f.仔细,勤奋

litterae, litterārum, f. pl.信,书信;文学

toga virīlis 托加,古罗马男人穿的长衣

campus, campī, m., 平原,开阔的场地

facilitās, facilitātis, f., 方便;设施;彬彬有礼;准备

lēx, lēgis, f.原则,法律
multitūdō, multitūdinis, f.巨额数字;人群

iūs, iūris, n.法律;权利,义务;司法

tumultus, tumultūs, m.暴乱,骚动

形容词:

brevis, brevis, breve, 短的

īnsignis, īnsignis, insigne, 优秀的,杰出的

puerīlis, puerīlis, puerīle, 男孩的,孩子的

virīlis, virīlis, virīle, 男人的;有男人味的

阅读部分:

Quīntus togam virīlem sūmit

Quīntus iam nōn puer erat sed iuvenis, togam virīlem sūmere parātus. amīcōrum plūrimī ā
lūdō Orbiliī discesserant et rhētoricae studēbant. ipse nōlēbat diūtius in lūdō studēre;
cupiēbat lātiōrem campum inīre. hiems praeterierat, vēr iam aderat. Quīntus in scholā
sedēbat dum Orbilius dē poētā quōdam vetere disserēbat; Quīntus nūllī poētae studuerat
frīgidiōrī quam illī. Orbilium nōn audiēbat, sed carmen ipse scrībēbat; hōs versūs iam
fēcerat quī eī maximē placēbant:

diffūgērunt nivēs, redeunt iam grāmina campīs arboribusque comae . . .
Orbilius eum vīdit scrībentem. "Quīnte," inquit, "quid facis?" Quīntus respondit, "ego,
magister? nihil faciō. tē audiō." Orbilius "nōn tibi crēdō, Quīnte," inquit. "venī hūc
et dā mihi illam tabulam."

Quīntus invītus magistrō pāruit. surrēxit tabulamque eī trādidit. Orbilius īrātus
erat, sed ubi tabulam eius īnspexit, etiam magis īrātus erat. nam in angulō tabulae Quīntus
imāginem scrīpserat magistrī.

ille Quīntum ferōciter īnspexit et maximā vōce "quid?" inquit. "quid? dum ego poētam
optimum expōnō, tū imāginēs magistrī scrībis et versūs pessimōs? vidē! hī versūs nē rēctī
quidem sunt. venī hūc." haec dīxit et ferulam sūmpsit; sex plāgās Quīntō dedit, trēs quod
magistrum nōn audīverat, trēs quod malōs versūs scrīpserat. Quīntus ad sēdem rediit, et
dolēns et īrātus.

Quīntus, ubi domun rediit, patrī omnia nārrāvit. Flaccus, ubi omnia cognōvit,
"Quīnte," inquit, "paene quīnque annōs in lūdō Orbiliī mānsistī; dīligentissimē
studuistī. iam iuvenis es. tempus est togam virīlem sūmere et studia puerīlia
dēpōnere. iam dēbēs ad rhētorem īre." postrīdiē Quīntus, quī vīgintī annōs nātus erat,
togam virīlem sūmpsit.

paucīs post diēbus Flaccus fīlium ad Hēliodōrum dūxit. ille optimus erat rhētorum, quī
iuvenēs ōrātiōnēs facere īnsituēbat ac multa docēbat dē iūre et lēgibus. discipulōrum eius
plūrimī in rēpūblicā insignēs fiēbant. Hēliodōrus pauca eum rogāvit; Quīntus ad omnia
facillimē respondit. ille Flaccō dīxit: "iuvenis est magnō ingeniō. paucōs libentius in
numerum discipulōrum meōrum accēpī."

牛津 拉丁 II 第十课

动词:

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsum, 着火地,燃烧地;发光;愤怒

feriō, ferīre, 撞击;闲置;杀死

perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventum, 到达,来到

副词:

num? 肯定不?(希望得到预期的回答)

numquam, 从不

satis + 所有格, 足够

名词:

causa, causae, f., 原因,起源

gladius, gladiī, m., 剑
tyrannus, tyrannī, m., 暴君,绝对的专制

theātrum, theātrī, n., 剧院

pars, partis, f., 地区;(一)片,(一)边;功能,职责

timor, timōris, m., 恐惧,害怕

caput, capitis, n., 头部;首要;顶部

形容词:

armātus, armāta, armātum, 全副武装的,武装的

quantus, quanta, quantum, 多强?多少/多大的规模/数量/价值?

ultimus, ultima, ultimum, furthest, 最终的/最强大的

介词:

prō + 夺格, 在。。。之 前, (=for)

阅读部分:

Idūs Martiae

Quīntus, ubi multitūdinem hominum vīdit prō theātrō Pompeī stantem, cognōscere cupiit causam
tantī conventūs. itaque per turbam ad prīmum ōrdinem sē īnsinuāvit, unde omnia vidēre
poterat. plūrimī senātōrēs aliīque virī iīnsignēs theātrum inībant. deinde Quīntus vīdit
Gāium Iūlium Caesarem cum magistrātibus intrantem. togam purpuream gerēbat et in capite
corōnam lauream. omnēs senātōrēs surrēxērunt Caesaremque salūtāvērunt.

dum sēdet, multī senātōrēs eum circumstant. deinde senātor quīdam eum aliquid
rogat et togam eius manibus tenet. eō ipsō tempore alter senātōrum eum pugiōne ferit;
tertius brācchium vulnerat. Caesar surgere temptāvit, sed coniūrātī eum undique
oppugnābant.

inter aliōs Caesar Brūtum vīdit amīcum suum intimum in sē currentem; "et tū,
Brūte?" inquit. tum caput togā obvolvit et dēcidit ad terram, tribus et vīgintī vulneribus
cōnfossus.
coniūrātī Caesarem relīquērunt in terrā iacentem ante statuam Pompēiī. ē
theātrō ērūpērunt et populō clāmāvērunt; "mortuus est tryannus; populum Rōmānum
līberāvimus." sed omnēs tacitī stābant, rē dīrā obstupefactī.

Quīntus sē vertit et domum cucurrit. ubi domum advēnit, patrem
vocāvit. Flaccus eum ānxius audīvit omnia nārrantem. paulīsper tacuit. tandem "quid iam
futūrum est?"

inquit; "rēspūblica in magnō perīculō est. sine dubiō tumultūs vidēbimus. tū, Quīnte,
cavēre dēbēs.
quīntō diē post mortem Caesaris, ubi Quīntus ad forum advēnit, ingentem turbam
vīdit tōtum forum complentem. nōn poterat pervenīre ad viam quae ad scholam Hēliodōrī
ferēbat. itaque in ultimā parte forī manēbat qradūsque templī ascendit, unde omnia vidēre
poterat.

牛津 拉丁 II 第十一 课

动词:
vexō, vexāre, vexāvī, vexātum, 焦急;恼怒
augeō, augēre, auxī, auctum, 增加;扩大,蔓延
accendō, accendere, accentī, accensum, 点燃;纵火;点亮
colligō, colligere, collēgī, collēctum, 收集,聚集
ruō, ruere, ruī, rutum, (急速地)摧毁;快

副词:
crās, 明日,今后
ergō, 因而
māne, (上午的)早些时候

名词:
philosophia, philosophiae, f., 哲学
exitium, exitiī, n., 销毁,摧毁
imperium Rōmānum, n., 罗马皇帝
ōtium, ōtiī, n., 休闲,空闲时光;假日
orbis, orbis, m., 圆圈,球状物
potestās, potestātis, f., 力量;能力,机会
形容词:
benignus, benigna, benignum, 和蔼可亲的
plēnus, plēna, plēnum +夺格, f 充盈的,丰润的
scelestus, scelesta, scelestum, 臭名昭著的,犯罪的;灾祸的
ūllus, ūlla, ūllum, 任何
civīlis, civīlis, cīvīle, 公民的;公共的
prūdēns, prūdentis, prudent, 明智的,充满智慧的,有远见的

短语:
orbis terrārum, 全球,世界