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FIG. 558– The veins
of the neck, viewed from in front. (Spalteholz.)
The veins of the neck (Fig. 558), which return the blood from the head and face, are: External Jugular. Anterior Jugular. Posterior External Jugular. Internal Jugular. Vertebral. The external jugular vein (v. jugularis externa) receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the posterior facial with the
In its course it crosses the Sternocleidomastoideus obliquely. There are no valves in this vein. the venous jugular arch. the posterior external jugular. most frequently there are two anterior jugulars. It runs down the back part of the neck. and ends in the subclavian vein. 557. in some instances. and from the neck. and runs perpendicularly down the neck. and anterior jugular veins. The portion of vein between the two sets of valves is often dilated. At its origin it is somewhat dilated. which receive tributaries from the inferior thyroid veins. bearing usually an inverse proportion to the external jugular. and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. it is occasionally double. and. and occasionally a small thyroid vein. the superficial fascia. and then . Tributaries. and this dilatation is called the superior bulb. lying at first lateral to the internal carotid artery. lateral to or in front of the Scalenus anterior. jugularis anterior) begins near the hyoid bone by the confluence of several superficial veins from the submaxillary region. at the lower part of the neck. It is separated from the Sternocleidomastoideus by the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia. The external jugular vein varies in size. jugularis posterior) begins in the occipital region and returns the blood from the skin and superficial muscles in the upper and back part of the neck. These valves do not prevent the regurgitation of the blood. and is covered by the Platysma. jugularis interna) collects the blood from the brain. It varies considerably in size. the transverse cervical. on a level with the angle of the mandible. from the superficial parts of the face. and is termed the sinus.—This vein receives the occipital occasionally. or. lying between the Splenius and Trapezius. transverse scapular. It runs down the side of the neck in a vertical direction. It descends between the median line and the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus. near its termination. in the direction of a line drawn from the angle of the mandible to the middle of the clavicle at the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus. Its tributaries are some laryngeal veins. and the integument. passes beneath that muscle to open into the termination of the external jugular. at the base of the skull. the upper in most cases about 4 cm. It commences in the substance of the parotid gland. and opens into the external jugular vein just below the middle of its course. above the clavicle. Just above the sternum the two anterior jugular veins communicate by a transverse trunk. or the passage of injection from below upward. it crosses the cutaneous cervical nerve. the lower pair being placed at its entrance into the subclavian vein. and begins in the posterior compartment of the jugular foramen.posterior auricular vein. into the subclavian vein (Figs. but sometimes only one. bearing an inverse proportion to the other veins of the neck. It is provided with two pairs of valves. 558). The anterior jugular vein (v. a large branch of communication from the internal jugular joins it. a right and left. in the substance of the parotid. It is directly continuous with the transverse sinus. The posterior external jugular vein (v. and in the subclavian triangle perforates the deep fascia. each also communicates with the internal jugular. and. The internal jugular vein (v.
559– Veins of the tongue. linguales) begin on the dorsum. lower down.5 cm. behind the internal carotid artery and the nerves passing through the jugular foramen. superficial or deep to the vein. the vein and artery lie upon the same plane. the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves passing forward between them. sides. The hypoglossal nerve has been displaced downward in this preparation.lateral to the common carotid. and each contains a pair of valves. and joins the superior bulb of the internal jugular vein. end in the internal jugular vein. Above. superior and middle thyroid veins. The left vein is generally smaller than the right. At the root of the neck the right internal jugular vein is placed at a little distance from the common carotid artery. which are placed about 2. and crosses the first part of the subclavian artery. FIG. The vena comitans of the hypoglossal . lingual.) Tributaries. pharyngeal. the common facial. a little above its termination is a second dilatation. the vagus descends between and behind the vein and the artery in the same sheath. and the accessory runs obliquely backward. and under surface of the tongue. (Testut after Hirschfeld. passing backward along the course of the lingual artery. and at the root of the neck unites with the subclavian vein to form the innominate vein. and. it lies upon the Rectus capitis lateralis. and sometimes the occipital.—This vein receives in its course the inferior petrosal sinus. The Lingual Veins (vv. The thoracic duct on the left side and the right lymphatic duct on the right side open into the angle of union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. the inferior bulb. while the left internal jugular vein usually overlaps the common carotid artery. above the termination of the vessel. The Inferior Petrosal Sinus (sinus petrosus inferior) leaves the skull through the anterior part of the jugular foramen.
and form a vessel which enters the foramen in the transverse process . ends in the lower part of the internal jugular vein. and joins the common facial. pharyngeæ) begin in the pharyngeal plexus on the outer surface of the pharynx. after receiving some posterior meningeal veins and the vein of the pterygoid canal. 561. It receives the superior laryngeal and cricothyroid veins. lingual. it passes backward on the Hyoglossus. from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas. The Superior Thyroid Vein (v. by tributaries corresponding with the branches of the superior thyroid artery. end in the internal jugular. generally.nerve (ranine vein). They unite with small veins from the deep muscles at the upper part of the back of the neck. thyreoidea superioris) (Fig. and. or superior thyroid vein. a branch of considerable size. They occasionally open into the facial. and may join the lingual. 562) collects the blood from the lower part of the thyroid gland. begins below the tip of the tongue. The Pharyngeal Veins (vv. The vertebral vein (v. and after being joined by some veins from the larynx and trachea. vertebralis) is formed in the suboccipital triangle. The Middle Thyroid Vein (Figs. however. The common facial and occipital veins have been described. 560) begins in the substance and on the surface of the thyroid gland. and ends in the upper part of the internal jugular vein. FIG. 560– The veins of the thyroid gland.
It receives branches from the occipital vein and from the prevertebral muscles. it crosses the first part of the subclavian artery. (Kocher.—The vertebral vein communicates with the transverse sinus by a vein which passes through the condyloid canal. its mouth being guarded by a pair of valves. which emerges from the foramen transversarium of the sixth cervical vertebra. Tributaries. This plexus ends in a single trunk.of the atlas. 561– Diagram showing common arrangement of thyroid veins. when that canal exists. forming a dense plexus around the vertebral artery. On the right side. FIG.) . close to its termination it is sometimes joined by the first intercostal vein. and opens at the root of the neck into the back part of the innominate vein near its origin. from the internal and external vertebral venous plexuses. and descends. in the canal formed by the foramina transversaria of the cervical vertebræ. from the anterior vertebraland the deep cervical veins.
562– The fascia and middle thyroid veins. descends in company with the ascending cervical artery between the Scalenus anterior and Longus capitis muscles. and opens into the terminal part of the vertebral vein.FIG. . (Poirier and Charpy. The veins here designated the inferior thyroid are called by Kocher the thyroidea ima.) The Anterior Vertebral Vein commences in a plexus around the transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebræ.
(Poirier and Charpy.FIG. It receives tributaries from the plexuses around the spinous processes of the cervical vertebræ. It begins in the suboccipital region by communicating branches from the occipital vein and by small veins from the deep muscles at the back of the neck. and terminates in the lower part of the vertebral vein. 563– The vertebral vein. .) The Deep Cervical Vein (v. posterior vertebral or posterior deep cervical vein) accompanies its artery between the Semispinales capitis and colli. cervicalis profunda.