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1 National Institute of Geological Sciences, College of Science
2 National Institute of Geological Sciences, College of Science
University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
Date Submitted: 21 June 2017
Date Performed: 19 June 2017



1. Write the net ionic reaction for the precipitation of Ca(OH)2 and give Ksp expression of
the reaction.
Ca2+ + 2OH- Ca(OH)2
(rxn 1)
Since the titrant HCl was added to the solution containing Ca(OH)2, we get the follow reaction:
Ca(OH)2 (s)+2 HCl(aq) CaCl2 (aq)+2 H2O(l)
net ionic reaction for the precipitation of Ca(OH)2
(rxn 2)
From the reverse of the equation 1, we get the the RICE table to solve for the Ksp expression of
the precipitation of Ca(OH)2.
R Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) 2OH-(aq)
I - 0 0
C - +x +2x
E - x 2x
Table 1. RICE table of the reverse reaction of rxn 1.
The Ksp expression is:

Ksp = [OH-]2[Ca2+]
(eqn 1)
2. What is the working equation for the determination of the [Ca2+] in the saturated
solution of Ca(OH)2?
First, get the concentration of [H+] using stoichiometry:

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1

[𝐻 +] = 0.1𝑔 𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 × × ×
105.99𝑔 𝑁𝑎2𝐶𝑂3 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 𝑉𝐻𝐶𝑙
(eqn 2 )
Then, solve for [OH-] using the dilution equation:

𝑉𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 [𝐻 + ]
[𝑂𝐻 − ] =
Finally, using the relationship of the concentration of [𝑂𝐻 − ] and [𝐶𝑎2+ ] in table 1, we
get the following equation:

[𝑂𝐻 − ]
[𝐶𝑎2+ ] =

(eqn 4)
3. Write the Ksp if Ca(OH)2 in terms of (a) molar solubility s, (b) [OH-] and (c) [Ca2+].
(a) Using table 1 to get x=s and eqn 2, we get
Ksp = [OH-]2[Ca2+] = [2s]2[s] = 4s3
(b) Using eqn 4 and eqn 2 in terms of [OH-] , we get
[𝑂𝐻 − ]
Ksp = [OH-]2 2
= [8s3/2] = 4s3

(c) Using eqn 4 and eqn 2 in terms of [Ca2+]., we get

Ksp = 4[Ca2+]2 [Ca2+]= 4s3
4. Discuss the effects of common ions and increasing ionic strength on the solubility of
the Ca(OH)2 precipitate . Do they coincide with theoretical effects? Explain.
Le Chatelier’s principle is basically what the common ion effect follows. When a common
ion is added into the mixture, the equilibrium will shift towards the opposite side of where the
ion was added to relieve the stress. In this experiment, when the common ion was added to the
products of dissociated solids, the equilibrium shifted towards the precipitation of the reactants.
This lowers the solubility of the reaction. On the other hand, increasing the ionic strength
increases solubility. Also known as diverse ion effect, when ions are introduced to the solution,
the ionic strength increases. The interaction between these ions and the dissociated solids
increase. This prevents precipitation to happen as the diverse ions block the dissolved solids to
precipitate again. Thus, solubility is favored.
5. What are the possible sources of errors and their effect on calculated parameters?
Human errors from measuring and transferring solids may have occurred. The accuracy
of the solutions may be uncertain due to this. In calculating values, possible errors from rounding
up the values before the final answers may occur. When titrating, the color of the solution may be
subjective to the observer, making the results different per person. Another error is instrumental
error. The machine may be subject to incorrect calibration leading to incorrect measurements.
Another example of a source of error are faulty instruments. The burette, for example, may be
leaking. This will lead to spills and inaccurate burette readings. Lastly, uncontrollable
environmental errors may affect the experiment. The theoretical Ksp is given at 25°C. The room
temperature may be hotter thus, the results will be different from the theoretical value.

[1] Brown, Theodore L., Bruce Edward. Bursten, James C. Hill, and Harold Eugene LeMay.
‘[[Chemistry: the central science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2012. Print. Pp 237-238
[2] Skoog, D. A., & West, D. M. (2014). Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. Hampshire:
Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning pp 86-89

[3] Harris, Daniel C. Quantitative chemical analysis. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2010. Print.