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Copy 3II FM 29-27

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY FI ELD MANUAL

ARMY CALIBRi'TI!1. COMPANY

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


SEPTEMBER 1 965
FM 29-27

FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS


DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
No. 29-27 WASHINGTON, D. C., 20 September 1965

ARMY CALIBRATION COMPANY

Paragraph Page
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Purpose and scope ........................................ ........ 1 3
Applicability ........................................ ........ 2 3
Definitions .................................................................................... 3 3

2. ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND EMPLOYMENT


Mission, assignment, and allocation ...................................... 4 4
Capabilities ........................................ ........ 5 4
Organization and functions ................................................ 6 4
Duties and responsibilities of unit personnel ...................... 7 6
Employment ........................................ ......... 8 6

3. TECHNICAL OPERATIONS
Section I. Responsibilities
Introduction ........................................ ........ 9 -8
Army calibration company ..................................................... 10 8
Maintenance support units ........................................ 11 12
Using units ........................................ 12 12
All units ........................................ 13 13
II. Facility organization, layout, and requirements
Secondary reference facility requirements .......................... 14 13
Secondary transfer section requirements ............................ 15 14
Company and reference facility organization and layout.... 16 16
III. Conduct of operations
General ........................................ 17 18
Control office ......................................... 18 22
Calibration platoon headquarters ........................................ 19 23
Secondary reference sections ........... ............................. 20 21
Secondary transfer sections ........................................ 21 24
Shop supply ........................................ 22 26
Technical library ........................................ 23 26
Packaging, shipping, and marking ........................................ 24 26
Instructions on new procedures, techniques, and
modifications ........................................ 25 26

CHAPTER 4. TACTICAL OPERATIONS


Section I. General
Introduction ........................................ 26 28
Movement SOP's ........................................ 27 28
Loading plans ........................................ 28 29

CHAPTER 5. COMMUNICATIONS
Communications methods ......................................... 29 30
Installation and operation of facilities ................................. 30 30
Transfer section communications ......................................... 31 30

.TAGO '5635A-August
APPENDIX I. REFERENCES .................................................................................... 31
II. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS .................................. 34
III. ELECTRICAL SAFETY ANNEX TO COMPANY SOP
~(SAMPLE)j- 536

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~2 ~~~~~AGO 6685A


CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1. Purpose and Scope line of the text affected. Reasons should be


a. The information contained in this manual provided for' each comment to insure complete
is to serve as a guide for the training and understanding and thorough evaluation. Com-
employment of the Army Calibration Com- ments should be sent to the Commanding Offi-
pany, TOE 29-227. The text and illustrations cer, US Army Combat Developments Command
provide the commander and key personnel of Ordnance Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground,
the company with information required to Md. 21005.
manage and conduct company operations in a
manner that will permit efficient mission ac- 2. Applicability
complishment. This manual is also intended The material presented herein is applicable,
to provide guidance to commanders, staff offi- without modification, to both nuclear and non-
cers, and other interested individuals on the nuclear warfare. Provisions of this manual
organization and procedures for providing cali- are applicable to calibration companies oper-
bration support for test and measuring equip- ating in the field, both in the continental United
ment used with Army materiel in a theater of States and in oversea commands. Calibration
operations. company commanders and higher level com-
b. This manual describes the mission, or- manders concerned with the provision of cali-
ganization, capabilities, employment, responsi- bration support, when acting within their
bilities, and functions of the company; its oper- designated authority, may vary the operational
ating procedures and special problems affect- procedures contained herein when it is evident
ing mission performance. This manual does that such variations will result in improved
not provide details on unit administration, or- service.
ganization supply, unit mess, organizational
maintenance, and related administrative oper- 3. Definitions
ations of the company. The nontechnical terms used throughout this
c. Users of this manual are encouraged to manual can be found in AR 320-5. Technical
submit recommended changes or comments to terms used herein will be found in AR 750-20,
improve the manual. These comments should AR 750-25, TM 38-750, TM 38-750-1, or ap-
specify the particular page, paragraph, and pendix II of this manual.

AGO 5635A 3
CHAPTER 2

ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND EMPLOYMENT

4. Mission, Assignment, and Allocation tration, and organizational supply and main-
a. The mission of the Army calibration corn- tenanc
pany is to provide secondary reference and f. This unit provides secondary reference
secondary transfer calibration service for all and secondary transfer calibration service.
test and measuring equipment requiring cali- Two calibration platoons are provided at full
bration which is used with Army materiel in strength so that two secondary reference facili-
ties may be established at locations convenient
depots and general and direct support units, ties may be established at locations convenient
and, where required, to tactical units and other
units. ate over a large geographical area. Adequate
b. This company
b. comp'ny isis normally
normally assigned to the
assigned to the facilities for the
facilities for performance of
the performance of secondary
secondary
of the communica-
major logistical
command reference calibration services must be provided
tions zone, and attached to maintenance facili- by the theater commander. Facility require-
ties in the forward section of the communica- ments include environmental control and stable
tions zone (COMMZ). A complete calibration power sources. When only one such facility is
platoon or any combination of sections may be provided, both
provided, both calibration platoons will
calibration platoons will oper-
oper-
attached to independent corps or USAR- ate therefrom.
g. The secondary transfer sections are 100
STRIKE units when required; however, sec- percent mobile. The secondary reference facil-
ondary transfer sections, if provided sepa-
rately, must be based on a secondary reference ity(ies) are considered fixed after establish-
facility. The company is allocated on the basis
of one or more p'er theater. 'units and the calibration platoons becomes too
great to permit efficient and, timely service by
5. Capabilities secondary transfer sections using ground
a. At full strength this unit ·provides sec- transportation, air transportation will be made
ondary reference and secondary transfer cali- available.
bration support for units in one field army 6. Organization and Functions
slice of the theater. The scope of this calibra-
tion support encompasses the calibration of all a. Organization. The major organizational
electrical, radiac, electronic, mechanical, hy- elements of the company (fig. 1) include a
draulic, and optical components of test and company headquarters, a control office, and
two calibration platoons each consisting of a
measuring equipment requiring calibration. platoon headquarters, a secondary reference
platoon headquarters, a secondary reference
b. The reduced strength column of the TOE section and five secondary transfer sections.
adapts this unit to the lesser requirements for b. Functions.
personnel and equipment required during pro- (1) Company headquarters. The head-
longed noncombat periods and for a limited
period of combat. When the unit is operating ment and overhead personnel to pro-
under reduced strength, the support capacity vide the necessary administration,
is reduced by 50 percent. personnel service, food service, com-
c. This unit is not adaptable to a Type B munications, unit supply, and organi-
organization. See AR 320-5 for an explana- zational maintenance.
tion of type B organization. (2) Control office. This office is the
d. Individuals of this organization can en- central coordinating element of the
gage in effective coordinated defense of the company. It directs all calibration
unit's area or installation. activities of the company; coordinates
e. The company is administratively self- related efforts of the secondary refer-
sufficient,, to include mess, personnel adminis- ence and secondary transfer calibra-

4 AGO 5635A
ARMY
CALIBRATION
COMPANY

COMPANY CONTROL CALIBRATION


HEADQUARTERS OFFICE PLATOON

PLATOON SECONDARY SECONDARY


REFERENCE TRANSFER
HEADQUARTERS SECTION SECTION

[ - - ] NOT INCLUDED IN
L - - -J REDUCED STRENGTH

Figure 1. Organizationaldiagram, Army Calibration Company, TOE 29-227.

tion activities; maintains rosters, secondary reference sections and


records, and reports; makes arrange- wherein secondary reference func-
ments for the calibration and certifi- tions are performed). If adequate
cation of the company's secondary facilities are provided, two separate
reference standards in accordance secondary reference facilities may be
with established schedules; and noti- established, each operated by one of
fies supported units and higher head- the calibration platoons. The func-
quarters of the non-closure of cali- tions of platoon sections are as fol-
bration loops. Additionally, it pro- lows:
vides personnel and equipment to (a) Secondary reference sections.
support company mission operations 1. These sections provide support for
by the issue of repair parts and ma- secondary transfer standards and
teriel associated with calibration lower echelon equipment not sup-
standards and equipment. The con- ported at field level. Certification
trol office should be located within or of secondary reference stand-
near the building housing the second- ards is accomplished by rotation
ary reference equipment. of selected items to a primary
(3) Calibrationplatoon. The platoon head- reference laboratory and utilizing
quarters directs and supervises pla- inherent capabilities to calibrate
toon operations, performs required the remaining standards. These
clerical duties, and maintains admin- sections will be responsible for
istrative records involved in platoon confronting with conditions cited
operations. This includes maintenance in the Secondary Reference Audit
of calibration rosters, tabulating tech- Package. Repair of standards and
nical information, and preparing nec- test and measuring equipment
essary reports. Both platoons may will be made by these sections
operate from the same secondary within maintenance capabilities.
reference facility (the building hous- Standards that have been re-
ing the secondary reference standards paired and require primary certi-
and other equipment utilized by the fication will be rotated accord-

AGO 5635A 5
ingly. Calibration data cards will accordance with TM 38-750 and
be annotated in accordance with forward them to the platoon head-
TM 38-750 and forwarded to pla- quarters.
toon headquarters for review and
further submission to the control 7. Duties and Responsibilities of Unit
office. These sections also furnish Personnel
technical support and advice to Specifics relating to the performance of indi-
supported agencies as required. vidual jobs may be found in the appropriate
2. The secondary reference sections regulations or technical publications dealing
maintain and operate the secon- with the operation or function concerned. Pub-
dary reference standards housed lications indexes (DA Pam 310-series) should
within the company. Each Sec- be consulted to determine pertinent regula-
ondary reference section has the tions, technical manuals, and technical bul-
capability for 24-hour operation letins. For the exact number, types, and spec-
with one calibration shift on duty ialties of personnel assigned to the company,
around-the-clock under the super- see the table of organization and equipment.
vision of a calibration technician. Military occupational specialties (MOS) are
Personnel of these sections cali- described in detail in AR's 611-101, 611-112,
brate the transfer standards used and 611-201.
by the transfer sections, and
certify the validity of these stand- 8. Employment
ards by using the company's ref- a. This company is assigned to the major
erence standards. Personnel of logistics command of the Communications Zone
these sections also provide tech- and establishes its base of operations in the
nical advice to members of the forward section of the COMMZ. From this
transfer sections. location it provides calibration services for
(b) Secondary transfer sections. These Army materiel for the entire theater of opera-
sections perform secondary transfer tions, or a major portion thereof, depending on
calibration of test and measuring the size of the theater and the total calibration
equipment within the area of re- requirements of the theater.
sponsibility of the company and
furnish technical advice and assist- b. The company provides secondary refer-
ance to supported units as required. ence and secondary transfer calibration serv-
These sections can perform mainte- ice to depots, general support, and direct sup-
port units and to tactical and other units as
tenance
tenance consists
consists of
of minor
minor rep.Ts
ai-r
repair required. In accomplishing its mission it will
consisiting of direct replacement of certify the accuracy of all test and measuring
plug-in-type assemblies (e.g., ampli- equipment used with Army materiel hich
fiers) and replacement of other type requires such service.
components (resistors and capaci- c. The organization of the company permits
tors) when the defective component operations over a large geographical area. The
is obvious, replacement parts are secondary transfer sections are mobile to per-
immediately available, and effecting mit operations over a wide area. The head-
these repairs will not jeopardize the quarters elements of the calibration platoons
calibration section's schedule. When direct and coordinate the efforts of their re-
equipment is beyond the repair cap- spective secondary reference and secondary
ability of these sections, it is red- transfer sections. Platoon leaders maintain
tagged in accordance with TM 38- liaison with supported units. Supervision of
750 for repair at the proper main- calibration scheduling is affected by the con-
tenance activity and arrangements trol office.
are made for calibration after re- d. There are two calibration platoons so
pair is completed. These sections that two secondary reference facilities may
annotate calibration data cards in be established at separate locations convenient

6 AGO 5635A
to the secondary transfer sections. The calibra- and stable power sources required for such
tion company provides the necessary person- operations must be provided by the theater
nel and secondary reference standards to op- or major area commander. If facilities for the
erate the secondary reference facilities, but is establishment of two separate secondary ref-
incapable of providing the required environ- erence facilities are not provided, both calibra-
mental-controlled facilities. Therefore, the tion platoons will operate from the same fa-
temperature and humidity controlled facilities cility.

AGO 5635A 7
CHAPTER 3

TECHNICAL OPERATIONS

Section I. RESPONSIBILITIES
9. Introduction responsibilities of the Army calibration com-
a. Purpose and Policies-Army Calibration pany. Emphasis is placed on the responsibil-
System.The
calibratin
purpse
f theArmy
ities of the control office and the calibration
system is to insure the accuracy of test and platoons. Functions of company headquarters
measuring equipment used in support of Army are indicated in paragraph 6b(1).
materiel. The system is based on a funda- a. Control Office.
mental policy which requires that the accuracy (1) Plans, directs, and coordinates all
of all Army test and measuring equipment and calibration efforts of the company.
calibration standards be traceable to the Na- (2) Interprets and implements regula-
tional Bureau of Standards (NBS). This has tions pertaining to calibration sup-
resulted in the establishment of a single De- port.
partment of the Army calibration system with (3) Performs site reconnaissance, as nec-
accuracy referenced to the fundamental mea- essary.
surement standards maintained by the NBS. (4) Initiates action to obtain required
Technical direction of the Army calibration facilities for operations (para 14).
system is exercised by a central Army metrol- (5) Obtains data pertaining to support
ogy engineering activity (the Army Metrology requirements, units, and their loca-
and Calibration Center (AMCC) located at tions from field army for army units
the US Army Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, and from TALOG for COMMZ units.
Pennsylvania). The Army calibration com- (6) Maintains required rosters, records,
pany is a key element of the system. For a and reports, to include calibration
complete listing of the policies upon which the rosters and schedules.
system is based, see AR 750-25. (7) Makes arrangements for the periodic
b. Responsibilities. Responsibilities for estab- certification of secondary reference
lishment, maintenance, supervision, and control standards against primary standards
of the Army calibration system; the provision and assures that established calibra-
of required measurement equipment; the pub- tion periods and schedules are adhered
lication of calibration procedures; the develop- to.
ment and publication of operational and pro- (8) Insures that all test and measuring
cedural doctrine; and the provision of appro- equipment calibrated with a standard
priate military calibration organizations and that is out of tolerance is again cali-
personnel are as indicated in AR's 750-20 and brated. Notifies each activity affected
750-25. This section is limited to the mission when the calibration loop is not valid.
responsibilities of the Army calibration com- (9) Refers problems which cannot other-
pany and the responsibilities of units sup- wise be resolved to the Army Metrol-
ported by the company. ogy and Calibration Center, U. S.
c. Certification Channels. Figures 2 and 3 Army Frankford Arsenal, Philadel-
depict the certification channels for calibra- phia, Pa. 19137.
tion standards and test and measuring equip- (10) In conjunction with the calibration
ment and the field standardization system em- platoon headquarters, schedules sec-
ployed by the Army calibration company in ondary transfer calibration loops to
the conduct of its mission operations. assure the periodic certification of
field test and measuring equipment
10. Army Calibration Company as specified in the pertinent calibra-
This paragraph is devoted to the calibration tion procedures.
8 AGO 5665A
NBS - - NATIONAL BUREAU
OF STANDARDS,
WASHINGTON, D.C
· I BOULDER, COLORADO
PRIMARY
STANDARDS \
LABORATORIES
-4-- PRE-AND POST-LOOP
OF SECONDARY
SECONDARY REFERENCE STANDARDS
REFERENCE CALIBRATION \
SECTIONS
,+#s~- t ' + 4--- PRE- AND POST-LOOP
_ " OF SECONDARY
/I / SECONDARY \ TRANSFER STANDARDS
i / TRANSFER CALIBRATION
SECTIONS

/-- CALIBRATION LOOP


/ I PERFORMED
// MAINTENANCE SUPPORT TRANSFER SECTIONS-
ACTIVITIES TEST EQUIPMENT

/ 4--- FOR MAINTENANCE


/I/! I~// CALIBRATION OF USING
! ~/ \ UNITS' TEST AND
USING UNIT TEST EQUIPMENT MEASURING EQUIPMENT.

NORMAL CHANNELS
ALTERNATE CHANNELS -----

The triangular representation indicates:


(1) The increasing density of equipment requiring calibration
at each level from the apex.
(2) The rigidity of accuracies required at each level from
the apex

Figure 2. Certification channels for calibrationstarndards and test and measuring equipment.

(11) Maintains liaison with area corn- (b) The electrical accounting machine
manders to keep informed of materiel (EAM) facility supporting the com-
deployment and movement of test and pany (TM 38-750).
measuring equipment requiring cali- (c) Maintenance support unit or the
bration. the using unit to be serviced.
(12) Informs the following of secondary (13) In conjunction with the calibration
transfer section itineraries in suffi- platoon headquarters, schedules sec-
cient time to provide adequate ad-, ondary transfer sections to perform
vance notice: on-call calibration services when so
(a) Major commanders of the area con- required by emergency or priority
taining the units being supported. situations which cannot await the

AGO 5635A 9
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next periodic loop schedule. (5) Provide a single secondary reference
(14) Maintains, in a manageable form, calibration service for all equipment
data on company mission operations requiring calibration under its as-
and prepares and submits technical signed mission within its assigned
reports required by higher head- geographical area.
quarters. (6) Apply certification labels or red tags
(15) Forwards Calibration Data Cards (TM 38-750), as required.
(DA Form 2416) and calibration (7) Annotate correction charts to indi-
schedules to the supporting EAM fa- cate certified readings.
cility in accordance with TM 38-750. (8) Annotate and process Calibration
(16) Assures that calibration personnel Data Cards (DA Form 2416) in ac-
are properly utilized and cross- cordance with TM 38-750.
trained. Provides or arranges for (9) Provide secondary reference calibra-
the training of personnel in new or tion service for those items within
revised calibration techniques or an assigned area that cannot be certi-
equipment, as necessary. fied by lower level standards.
(17) Maintains a complete technical li- (10) Comply with all requirements of the
brary. audit package system.
(18) Provides personnel for the accomp- (11) Calibrate and certify each secondary
lishment of shop supply functions. transfer standard at the beginning
b. Calibration Platoon Headquarters. The and end of a calibration loop.
platoon headquarters supervise and direct ac- (12) Calibrate and certify all test equip-
tivities of the calibration platoons. They ment referred to the facility(ies)
work closely with the control office in develop- after repairs have been accomplished.
ing calibration schedules and itineraries. They (13) Submit equipment improvement rec-
are also responsible for providing assistance ommendations (TM 38-750) based
in the training and cross-training of person- on past experience and other available
nel, for insuring that organizational mainte- information for the purpose of rec-
nance is performed on platoon equipment and ommending valid product improve-
that required records are maintained, for ef- ment of standards and test equip-
fecting dispatch of secondary transfer teams ment.
in accordance with established schedules, and d. Secondary Transfer Sections.
for insuring the preparation of required rec- (1) Calibrate all test and measuring
ords and reports, to include calibration data equipment requiring calibration with-
cards, equipment improvement recommenda- in an assigned area.
tions, and reports required by the control
(2) Perform minor repairs on a limited
office.
basis for test and measuring equip-
c. Secondary Reference Sections.
(1) Operate secondary reference facility ment being calibrated.
(ies) and perform all calibration func-tate correction charts to di-
tions attendant to such operations.
(2) Maintain secondary reference stand-- (4) Apply certification labels or red tags
ards and insure that a minimum of in accordance with TM 38-750.
one set is maintained in the stand- (5) Annotate a calibration data card in
ards facility in a state of certified accordance with TM 38-750 for each
accuracy at all times. piece of test and measuring equipment
(3) Repair, or cause to be repaired, sec- that is checked.
ondary reference and secondary trans- (6) Furnish the commander of each ac-
fer standards, as required. tivity visited with a list of items re-
(4) Provide assistance in other than as- paired and those in need of repair
signed areas as requested by the (red-tagged, DA Form 2417). Furn-
Army Metrology and Calibration Cen- ish similar information to the platoon
ter. headquarters upon return to the com-
AGO 5635A 11
pany area for further submission to c. Items of test and measuring equipment
the control office. which require calibration by the use of sec-
(7) Submit equipment improvement rec- ondary transfer standards, and which have
ommendations (TM 38-750) based been repaired by a maintenance support unit
on past experience and other available prior to or during a visit by a secondary trans-
information for the purpose of rec- fer section, will be calibrated by the transfer
ommending valid product improve- section during its visit (provided the item is
ment of standards and test equip- one that requires calibration by use of a sec-
ment. ondary transfer standard). The calibration
company will also provide on-call calibration
11. Maintenance Support Units support for items requiring calibration by the
a. Direct support units are responsible for calibration company which have been repaired
assuring the accuracy of their own organiza- between visits by secondary transfer sections
tional test and measuring equipment, and that when operational requirements preclude cali-
of their supported units. These responsibilities bration delay until the next scheduled visit
extend to all items of test and measuring by the transfer section.
equipment that do not require calibration by
the calibration company (e.g., some items, as 12. Using Units
indicated in pertinent technical manuals and a. "Using units," as discussed in this manual,
technical bulletins, require only a mainte- include tactical units and other users of test
nance calibration check by the maintenance and measuring equipment that are provided
unit against an organic item of test and mea- direct support maintenance by a maintenance
suring equipment which has been calibrated support unit. The term "supported units" per-
and certified by a secondary transfer section). tains to all units and activities supported by
Maintenance calibration checks are accomp- the company, to include maintenance support
lished by direct support units in accordance units and activities as well as using units.
with the frequency established in pertinent b. These units are responsible for providing
technical publications and after the repair of maximum assistance to accomplish calibration
supported unit test and measuring equipment. of site test equipment in an efficient manner;
Maintenance calibration by a direct support for adhering to schedules established by cali-
unit requires certification and documentation bration activities for on-site calibration; for
as indicated in TM 38-750. Direct support transporting or shipping test and measuring
units are also responsible for coordinating cali- equipment requiring calibration by the cali-
bration scheduling with their supported units, bration company to their supporting mainte-
for providing these units requiring calibration nance units; for adhering to schedules estab-
service by secondary transfer sections with at lished by the supporting maintenance unit
least a 7-day advance notice of scheduled trans- for maintenance calibration checks of test and
fer section visits, and for evacuating, to the measuring equipment and for transporting or
calibration company, items, requiring calibra- shipping the equipment to and from the sup-
tion by a secondary reference section. porting maintenance units as scheduled; for
b. General and depot support maintenance insuring that all test and measuring equipment
units have responsibilities similar to direct requiring maintenance calibration is checked
support units, except that these units normally by the supporting maintenance unit; and for
repair test and measuring equipment for re- informing the supporting maintenance unit
turn to supply stocks rather than to using units. when established calibration schedules inter-
These units accomplish maintenance calibra- fere with the operational mission. When sched-
tion on repaired items, as appropriate, and are uled calibration interferes with the operational
responsible for assuring the accuracy of organic mission, rescheduling will be accomplished. The
test and measuring equipment by performing required frequency for calibration or mainte-
maintenance calibration or having items cali- nance calibration checks is published in tech-
brated by the calibration company, as appro- nical manuals and technical bulletins pertain-
priate. Again the provisions of TM 38-750 re- ing to the equipment involved and indexed in
garding certification and documentation apply. DA Pamphlet 310-4.

12 AGO 5635A
13. All Units out of the unit for repair or calibration; and
to supply the necessary repair parts required
a. It is the responsibility of all users of test by visiting secondary transfer sections to effect
or measuring equipment to take necessary minor repair or adjustment of test equipment.
action to obtain the required repair or adjust- b. Users are responsible for repairing items
ment of red-tagged test equipment items; to that are within their maintenance capabilities.
abide by the provisions of TM 38-750 when Due to scheduling, a secondary transfer sec-
initiating maintenance requests, effecting evac- tion may not be able to perform minor re-
uation, or documenting maintenance per- pairs; in such cases, items will be repaired by
formed; to render all assistance possible to maintenance personnel of the unit, preferably
secondary transfer sections providing services before the secondary transfer section leaves
at the unit location; to properly package items the area, to permit calibration and certification
of test and measuring equipment being shipped of the repaired item.

Section II. FACILITY ORGANIZATION, LAYOUT, AND REQUIREMENTS


14. Secondary Reference Facility Require- c. Environmental Control Requirements.
ments (1) Temperature range: 68°F to 73°F
a. General. with less than 1°F change per hour.
(1) The primary purpose of a secondary (2) Humidity: 50 percent maximum.
reference standards facility (labora- (3) Dust: Filtered air supply.
tory) is to provide calibration service (4) Vibration: Special isolation mounts
for the secondary transfer standards for critical standards.
and for higher accuracy test and mea- (5) Additional environmental controls will
suring equipment that cannot be cali- be coordinated with the Army Metrol-
brated by secondary transfer stand- ogy and Calibration Center.
ards. The Army calibration company d. Power. Power requirements for opera..
is capable of operating two such fa- tion of a secondary reference facility are de-
cilities, at -separate locations, if re- pendent upon the types of test and measuring
quired buildings with controlled hu- equipment supported within the assigned area
midity and temperature and stable and calibration standards. Typical power re-
power sources are provided. quirements are as follows:
(2) Secondary reference standards will be (1) Total minimum input power is a 25kw
located in work areas separated from (kilowatt) peak load, including con-
production and maintenance functions sideration for expansion.
so that they will be used as calibra-
tion standards
standards only, and not as main- (2) 115v regulated ±0.1%/o, 60 cps ±2 cps,
tenance test and measuring equipment. single-phase, 20-amp circuit.
Since temperature, humidity, dust, (3) 115v regulated ± 1%, 400 cps ±+12 cps,
vibration, etc., affect the reliability of 20-amp circuit.
the standards, the atmospheric condi- (4) 115v unregulated, 60 cps ±2 cps,
tions of the facilities will be controlled single-phase, 20-amp circuit.
within specified limits. (5) 220v unregulated, 60 cps +2 cps, 20-
(3) This paragraph lists general facility amp, 3-phase, 4-wire. Y-connected cir-
requirements. Detailed specifications cuit.
for reference facilities are provided (6) 115v unregulated, 60 cps +2 cps,
by the Army Metrology and Calibra- single-phase, 30-amp circuit for the
tion Center. Bogart high power source.
b. Facility Size. A single facility should have (7) The power requirements as stipulated
at least 8,000 square feet of working area, of above do not include requirements for
which 4,000 square feet must be environment- operation of environmental control
ally controlled. equipment or lighting.
AGO 5635A 13
15. Secondary Transfer Section ondary transfer calibration operations. De-
Requirements tails on the expansible van are found in TB
9-2320-209-12/1. Figures 4 through 7 show
a. Secondary transfer standards are mobile dimensions and various views of the van, in-
to permit their transport by ground vehicle cluding type mounting arrangements for equip-
(or by air when required) to supported units' ment.
sites. Each transfer section is equipped with b. Within the secondary reference facility
necessary tools, one set of secondary transfer itself, and area should be provided for trans-
standards; and two expansible vans in which fer section loading, unloading, checkout, and
equipment is transported and calibration func- storage. This area should provide convenient
tions can be performed. The vans, when ex- access to the various standards laboratories
panded, provide a suitable work area for sec- within the reference facility.

RA PD 385011

Figure 4. M292 van' in expanded position, left front view.

1144 AGO 5635A


AGO 5635A
Jbll&~~~'il

j l

Figure 6. A typical mounting arrangement for secondary standards in the calibration van. Work benches provide
an area to set up instruments to be calibrated.

16. Company and Reference Facility toon, itself, must be used on another unit for
Organization and Layout administrative support. Each facility is cap-
a. General. At full strength the calibration able of round-the-clock operation, when neces-
company is capable of operating two secondary sary. Under reduced strength, one reference
reference facilities (laboratories), each of facility is established to support five transfer
which provides support to five secondary trans- sections. Both reference facilities may operate
fer sections. The secondary reference facility from the same building, size and facility re-
(ies) is/are established in the forward portion quirements permitting; they may operate from
of the COMMZ, and are centrally located, in- separate buildings in the same general area;
sofar as possible, within the area supported. or they may be widely separated, geographi-
Factors governing precise location of facilities cally, so as to better facilitate effective sec-
include availability of buildings to house the ondary reference and secondary transfer cali-
reference facility (ies), road nets, proximity bration support over a wide geographical area.
to supporting electrical accounting machine Major oversea commanders are responsible for
(EAM) facilities, and security requirements. insuring that proper facilities are available to
If two geographically-separated reference fa- support calibration services (AR 750-25).
cilities are established, shop supply personnel b. Organization and Layout.
are provided to the separately-operating cali- (1) It must be emphasized here that the
bration platoon. The separately-operating pla- organization and modes of operation

16 AGO 5685A
Pi?!: : I A - . 1̧

Figure 7. A typical mounting arrangement showing storage cabinets and drawers. Physical standards are
normally carried in these containers.

are flexible. Organization for opera- in tentage provided by TOE.


tions and layout will be developed by (2) Internal organization of the calibra-
the company commander, assisted by tion platoons is also dependent, pri-
the operations officer. Layout is d3- marily, on operational requirements;
pendent on facilities available and op- e.g., the scheduled time of return and
erational requirements. In planning dispatch of transfer sections, the
the company layout, the secondary necessity for 24-hour operation.
reference facility is laid out first, with (3) The following types of organization
the control office housed in or near the and layout are merely intended to
same building. If the building is large guide the commander in determining
enough, other company elements may the type layout and internal organi-
be housed therein, provided layout can zation that will best facilitate efficient
be so arranged so as not to adversely and effective accomplishment of the
affect the secondary reference opera- company mission.
tion. Other elements of the company (a) Each calibration platoon contains a
will be housed in other buildings in the platoon headquarters, a secondary
area, if available, or they will operate reference section, and five secondary
AGO 5635A 17
] 7
transfer sections. To permit 24-hour receive reports as required (limited
operations, a shift arrangement is to those necessary for overall com-
normally employed whereby one- pany operations and those neces-
half of the secondary reference sec- sary to keep track of the detached
tion is operating at one time while platoon's activities, progress, and
the other section is off. This ar- problems).
rangement facilitates coordination (e) Type layouts of a secondary refer-
and control of operations by platoon ence facility are depicted in figures
headquarters, facilitates continuity 8 and 9. The facility should con-
of operations, and permits the pro- tain a physical and pressure stand-
cessing of transfer sections in the ards laboratory, an electrical/elec-
minimum possible time through tronics standards laboratory, a
round-the-clock operation. shielded enclosure for microwave
(b) If operating conditions are such measurements (screen room), a ra-
that continuous round-the-clock op- diac laboratory, a room or area for
erations are not required, the en- the performance of maintenance on
tire reference section may be em- test and measuring equipment, a
ployed at the same time, with a technical library, a transfer section
portion of the section designated to checkout and storage area, and a
be on-call at night to handle un- storage area for duplicate items of
anticipated requirements. standards equipment. The control
office and calibration platoon head-
(c) Two-platoon operation at the same quarters should also be housed
location merely duplicates the orga- within or near the facility. If the
nizations indicated above. building is of sufficient size and in-
(d) If one of the reference facilities is ternal construction permits, other
located at a great distance from the company elements may be housed
company headquarters, it will have in the facility, provided no conflict
to be provided administrative and with reference section activities ex-
vehicular maintenance support by ists. The layouts depicted in figures
the nearest maintenance unit. Even 8 and 9 are provided only as a
so, the facility will have to be pro- guide. Because of facility availabil-
vided augmentation in the form ity, (e.g., types, sizes, and number
of supply and clerical personnel. of buildings available) it is unlikely
Platoon headquarters will handle that any two reference facilities will
operations functions. The'facility, be alike in configuration.
in conjunction with the secondary (f) If two secondary references facil-
transfer sections it supports, will ities are established in the same
operate much as an independently- general area, consideration must be
operating, reduced-strength com- given to dispersion, availability of
pany. The control office at the main facilities permitting, to prevent loss
company location will exercise of both facilities in the event of
broad direction of activities and will attack.
Section III. CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS
17. General to tactical units. Most of the support required
a. The calibration company is designed, pri- is provided by the mobile secondary transfer
marily, to provide secondary reference and sections which operate on a scheduled basis
secondary transfer calibration service for all in accordance with required frequency of cali-
test and measuring equipment used with Army bration established in calibration procedures
materiel which requires such service. This (published in technical bulletins indexed in
service is provided to depots, general support DA Pam 310-4). The calibration platoons
units, direct support units, and, when required, establish and operate a secondary reference

18 AGO 5635A
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AGO 5635A 00I19


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20
AGO 5685A
facility (or two such facilities may be estab- transfer standards, and furnish technical sup-
lished if the necessary building requirements, port and advice to other agencies as required.
controlled humidity, controlled temperature, f. The secondary transfer sections use sec-
and stable power source are provided by the ondary transfer standards, which are mobile,
major area commander) to calibrate and and which are used to certify the accuracy of
certify all secondary transfer standards to test and measuring equipment of supported
the required tolerances of accuracy. units. All secondary transfer standards are
b. The secondary reference standards fa- calibrated and certified prior to the start of a
cility must accept responsibility for the con- calibration loop. They are again checked upon
sistency of its measurement and the accuracy their return to the secondary reference stand-
of its calibration service. The secondary refer- ards facility to insure that they have not devi-
ence standards are housed in permanent or ated beyond specified tolerances. These trans-
semipermanent buildings having controlled hu- fer standards are calibrated and certified
midity and temperature, a stable power source, against secondary reference standards main-
and provision for filtering air (para 14). The tained by the secondary reference sections. It
facility relies on a primary standards facility should be noted here that although at full
for periodic certification and technical guid- strength the company is authorized 10 sets of
ance. secondary transfer standards, some of these
c. Secondary reference standards must be sets may be provided less certain items. For
certified at prescribed intervals with primary example, a microwave set is included in the
reference standards and calibrated, as neces- secondary transfer standards set, but the
sary. Primary reference facility support of quantity and types of systems provided sup-
secondary reference facilities located overseas, port by the calibration company may not
where no Army primary reference facility is require use of 10 microwave sets. The deter-
available, is obtained through rotation of sec- mining factors are the types of systems sup-
condary reference standards to a primary ref- ported, the number of units to be provided sup-
erence facility in CONUS for calibration, or port, and the geographical spread of these
through cross-servicing from primary refer- units. Actual requirements are determined
ence laboratories of other services in the the- during planning stages before the unit is com-
ater. All such cross-servicing transactions mitted and its mission and assignment estab-
must be preceded by authorized agreements or lished. These requirements are coordinated
orders and will be financed in accordance with with the Army Metrology and Calibration
theater policies and AR 35-273. Center.
d. The primary reference facility establishes g. Normally, the accuracy of tactical or other
schedules for the calibration of secondary using unit equipment is certified by a mainte-
reference standards equipment, and provides nance calibration check against instruments
technical guidance. Secondary reference stand- of its supporting maintenance unit that have
ards are normally calibrated on an annual been calibrated and certified by secondary
basis. To assure continuity of operations while transfer section personnel of the calibration
secondary reference equipment is being cali- company. When it is necessary for the calibra-
brated, duplicate items are provided in the tion company to calibrate items of using unit
secondary reference standards sets. These du- equipment, these items will normally be cali-
plicate items are also calibrated and certified brated at the site of the unit's supporting main-
by primary reference standards facilities, but tenance unit. Maintenance units are normally
on alternating and non-interfering schedules. provided 14 days advance notice of scheduled
These duplicates are frequently cross-checked visits by secondary transfer sections; they, in
against their counterparts between calibration turn, are required to provide their supported
periods. This provides an indication of the re- units with at least 7 days advance notice. When
liability and operability of both items. established schedules conflict with using unit
e. The secondary reference sections, in addi- operational requirements, the unit informs its
tion to providing secondary reference support supporting maintenance unit so that mainten-
for the transfer sections, repair organic sec- ance calibration checks by the maintenance unit
ondary reference standards and secondary may be rescheduled, and so that the mainte-
AGO 5635A
21
nance unit may be able to coordinate reschedui- may be provided a list of equipment, by type
ing with the calibration company for those and quantity, that is to be supported. Data
items requiring secondary transfer section sup- pertaining to support requirements, units, and
port. Such rescheduling, though, must be held locations will be obtained from the field army
to the minimum, both from the standpoint of headquarters for field army units and from
maintaining accuracy of using unit test and TALOG for COMMZ units. If an equipment
measuring equipment and because of the im- density list is not provided, the control office
pact of such rescheduling on calibration com- will develop one by referring to the TOE's of
pany operations. supported units to determine equipment inf
h. Under certain conditions, the transfer their possession and the appropriate technical
sections will find it necessary to provide cali- bulletin or technical manual that denotes the
bration service at the using unit's site, for it items requiring calibration. From this list, an
is not practical to bring certain items requir- equipment density chart listing units sup-
ing calibration to the maintenance facility sup- ported, equipment in their possession requiring
porting the unit. Conversely, there are some calibration, and required frequency of cali-
items that cannot be calibrated by either the bration (obtained from technical bulletins
maintenance support unit or the secondary which are indexed in DA Pam 310-4) will be
transfer sections; the using unit ships such developed.
items to its supporting maintenance unit which b. Liaison is then established with supported
evacuates the items to the secondary reference units (fig. 3). One or more liaison teams are
facility for necessary calibration. dispatched to visit supported units. Usually
i. In addition to providing calibration serv- the control office will dispatch personnel of
ices, the secondary transfer sections may per- the transfer sections, since they will be dealing
form minor repairs on a limited basis. These directly with supported units. Initial contact
repairs consist of direct replacement of plug- (liaison) though, is established by a team nor-
in type assemblies and replacement of other mally headed by the control officer. This team
type components (resistors and capacitors) will notify supported units of the services that
when the defective item is obvious, replace- will be provided by the calibration company,
ment parts are immediately available, and pro- will select sites within supported unit areas
viding these repairs will not jeopardize the that will best facilitate transfer section op-
transfer section's schedule. The transfer sec- erations, and will inform supported units of
tion may carry a small quantity of repair parts what is expected of them in the way of materiel
to facilitate such repairs, but the supported and facilities when the transfer section makes
unit should be required to provide the neces- its visit.
sary repair parts and assist in the maintenance c. After liaison is established with supported
if possible. If required repairs cannot be ac- units, the calibration schedule may be estab-
complished easily and in a short time, the lished and an itinerary developed for each
equipment will be red-tagged'for repair in ac- transfer section in conjunction with the cali-
cordance with TM 38-750. Responsibility for bration platoon headquarters. Each transfer
making arrangements for necessary repair falls section is provided a list of units it will visit,
on the using unit. Transfer sections also pro- the equipment within each unit that must be
vide technical assistance to supported units calibrated, the location of units, necessary
by providing guidance on the care and use of maps, available information on road conditions
equipment. Test and measuring equipment cali- or other factors that may impede operations,
bration and certification channels are indi- dates of visits to each unit, duration of such
cated in figures 2 and 3. visits, and such other information and instruc-
tions deemed necessary.
18. Control Office d. The calibration schedule will be supplied
a. When the company is established and to the supporting EAM facility as required by
ready to conduct operations TALOG, field army TM 38-750 to insure scheduling of equipment
headquarters, and the supporting EAM facility to be calibrated and the preparation of calibra-
are notified. The calibration company will be tion data cards by the EAM facility. The cali-
furnished a list of units to be supported and bration will indicate the location code number

22 AGO b635A
of the units that will be calibrated, and the be made in sufficient time to permit the EAM
dates for five successive calibration loops. activity to reproduce, interpret, and forward
Location codes are provided by the Army the required cards prior to the initiation of the
Metrology and Calibration Center (TM 38- calibration loop. These cards are used to com-
750). pile, process, and submit data developed as a
e. Calibration scheduling and the itinerary result of calibrating test equipment. These
of each section's trip is dependent on the cards are prepared and submitted as indicated
density and types of equipment supported, the in TM 38-750.
distance between units or activities to be i. Two weeks before a calibration loop is
served, the calibration interval and the time initiated, the control office will notify units to
involved to calibrate equipment at each stop, be visited of the scheduled dates of transfer
the geographical area to be covered, and the section visits. The control office will also insure
number of units or activities within the area that all secondary transfer standards are cali-
requiring calibration service. The frequency brated and certified prior to embarkation of
of calibration for each type of equipment sup- transfer sections on calibration loops.
ported must be determined from technical bul- j. Upon return of each transfer section, the
letins detailing the calibration procedures for control office will assure that the secondary
the specific items, and from instructions from transfer standards are again calibrated to
higher echelon calibration facilities. determine whether they have deviated boyond
f. Trips of transfer sections are scheduled their specified tolerances. If a standard does
so that no two sections return to the reference not remain within its specified tolerance, the
facility at the same time. This facilitates trans- loop is not considered closed and all equipment
fer section processing and the checking and calibrated with that standard must be recali-
certification of secondary transfer standards brated. All units serviced by a defective stand
by the secondary reference facility since it bal- ard will be notified that specific test and mea-
ances the reference facility's workload. suring equipment will be considered unreliable
g. When a transfer section arrives at a until recalibrated.
scheduled stop on its calibration loop it is ex- k. The control office will also collect and tabu-
pected to inform the control office by using late information received from transfer sec-
communications facilities of the supported unit. tions and is responsible for obtaining, assur-
Any delay en route between units should also ing the preparation of, and submission of Cali-
be reported. The section will also notify the bration Data Cards (DA Form 2416) to the
control office when it is ready to leave the supporting EAM facility in accordance with
area of a supported unit for the next scheduled TM 38-750.
stop. Such communication permits the control
office to keep track of progress and problems 19. Calibration Platoon Headquarters
of the transfer sections and permits the con- Platoon headquarters supervises and directs
trol office to relay any additional information activities of the calibration platoons. This
or instructions that become necessary; e.g., headquarters works closely with the control
relocation of supported units, danger areas, office in developing calibration schedules and
etc. If a transfer section fails to report in to transfer section itineraries, and performs the
the control office after a reasonable delay to functions of the control office for the calibra-
allow time for such things as breakdowns on tion platoon when the platoon is geographically
the road, the control office will inform higher separated from the rest of the company. Pla-
headquarters so that a search may be started, toon headquarters insures that all calibration
and will prepare to dispatch another section personnel are rotated through all phases of
to start the calibration loop over again. calibration activities, collects and tabulates in-
h. Prior to initiation of a calibration loop, formation developed by the reference sections
however, the control office will obtain calibra- and the transfer sections for submission to the
tion working cards (DA Form 2416) from its control office, and prepares and maintains
supporting EAM activity. The request will be necessary records and reports. Platoon head-
in accordance with location numbers assigned quarters personnel, less the clerk, will spend
to the units scheduled for calibration, and will most of their time within the secondary refer-
AGO 5635A 23
ence facility, supervising and taking part in ence, primary transfer, or associated second-
the performance of calibration and repair func- ary reference standards. The Army Metrology
tions. and Calibration Center provides information
on which items must be calibrated and at what
20. Secondary Reference Sections intervals. Specifics on how and when this serv-
a. The secondary reference sections maintain ice will be provided to the calibration company
and operate the secondary reference facility- will be obtained from the primary reference
(ies) and utilize and maintain the secondary facility supporting the company. Items to be
reference standards equipment used by the calibrated will be carefully packaged according
company. These sections calibrate the second- to military specifications and will either be
ary transfer standards of supported transfer shipped, or transported (depending on the dis-
sections prior to the initiation of a calibration tance involved) to the primary reference fa-
loop and again when the transfer sections re- cility. The company may be required to ship
turn. Calibration and certification as to ac- items requiring recalibration to its supporting
curacy are essential to calibration loop closure. primary reference facility in CONUS or it may
If a secondary transfer standard does not re- be provided the necessary support by a pri-
main within its specified tolerance, the loop is mary reference facility of one of the other
not considered closed and all equipment cali- services (Air Force, Navy) operating in the
brated with that standard must be recalibrated. theater, or from an Army facility, if estab-
b. The secondary reference sections maintain lished (para 17c).
and repair, when necessary, the calibration Note. Barometers must be calibrated within the sec-
company's secondary reference and secondary ondary reference facility by primary transfer teams
transfer standards. Repaired items are cali- dispatched from the primary reference facility and
brated to insure accuracy. If the standards using portable primary transfer standards.
cannot be repaired locally, unserviceable items
are evacuated for repair by a facility possess-
ing the required capability. Such evacuation a. Each of the transfer sections is assigned
may be to a depot maintenance activity or to to provide calibration services to a certain
the Army Metrology and Calibration Center number of units. Workload is determined by
(depending on repair facilities in the theater the control office in accordance with the factors
and instructions furnished by the Army Metrol- listed in paragraph 18e. Visits are made in
ogy and Calibration Center). Concurrently accordance with an itinerary provided by the
with turn-in and evacuation of an unservice- control office. It is essential that transfer sec-
able item, replacement items are requisitioned. tions adhere to these itineraries. The sections
For information on forms and records used in travel in and work from the vans indicated
maintenance operations and details on their in paragraph 15; but, when better service can
preparation, see TM 38-750. For details on be afforded, or when distance, condition of
field command use of maintenance data gener- roads, or other factors exist which may pre-
ated at using unit and support unit levels, see dude completion of a calibration loop within
TM 38-750-1. the prescribed time period, the control office
c. These sections also calibrate certain items will arrange for air transportation for the
of lower echelon test and measuring equipment transfer sections.
that cannot be calibrated by the secondary b. The secondary transfer sections perform
transfer sections, provide technical support calibration at the direct and general support
and advice to other agencies as required, an- level. The test and measuring equipment lo-
notate calibration data cards, and compile cated at using unit sites and requiring second-
and submit information to the platoon head- ary transfer calibration is evacuated to the
quarters for screening and submission to the supporting maintenance unit for calibration.
control office. The supporting maintenance unit is respon-
d. The secondary reference standards must sible for providing its supported units with
also be calibrated periodically to assure that 7 days advance notice of transfer section
they have not deviated from established toler- visits so that their test and measuring equip-
ances. They are calibrated by primary refer- ment requiring calibration may be evacuated

24 AGO 5635A
to the supporting maintenance unit. Under labels in accordance with TM 38-750, certify-
exceptional circumstances, the secondary trans- ing that the instrument has been calibrated and
fer sections perform calibration at sites of is within prescribed accuracy. Correction
using units. charts will be annotated to indicate certified
c. Prior to leaving the company on its sched- correction figures. Equipment beyond the scope
ule of visits, the transfer section's secondary of the team to repair or calibrate is red-tagged
transfer standards are calibrated and certified in accordance with TM 38-750.
by the secondary reference facility. This pro- g. During its visit, the transfer section will
cess is called "opening the loop" (fig. 3). also provide technical advice to supported units
d. Before starting its loop, each transfer on the use and maintenance of test and mea-
section is provided a prepunched calibration suring equipment.
working card (Calibration Data Card, DA h. When the calibration of a supported unit's
Form 2416, see TM 38-750) for each item of equipment is completed, the chief of the trans-
test and measuring equipment it will calibrate. fer section will inform the commander of the
These cards are provided to the transfer sec- organization or facility whose test and mea-
tions by the control office, which obtains them suring equipment was calibrated and will pro-
from the supporting EAM activity. The cali- vide a list of items that were repaired or red-
bration working cards will have certain data tagged. A similar list will be provided to the
annotated thereon; therefore, on its first visit platoon headquarters upon return of the trans-
to a supported unit the transfer section will fer section to the calibration company area.
verify accuracy of the data. The pertinent Before leaving the supported unit's area, the
calibration working card will be completed by section will again communicate with the cali-
calibration personnel of the section at the time bration company control office. It will then
the equipment is being calibrated. When new proceed to the next unit on its itinerary, or
equipment is encountered or when a working will return to the secondary reference facility
card has not been provided, a blank card will to complete the calibration loop.
be filled out and annotated. Completed cards i. Before returning to the secondary refer-
are returned to the control office (through ence facility, the transfer section may be re-
platoon headquarters) for further processing. quired to revisit a specific unit or units to
For details on obtaining, completing, and sub- calibrate equipment that had been red-tagged
mitting these cards, see TM 38-750. on its earlier visit and which has subsequently
e. Immediately upon arrival at the direct or been repaired. Supported units notify the con-
general support maintenance unit (or, the trol office of the repair of such items and the
using unit, if appropriate), the transfer sec- control office will direct a revisit by the servic-
tion notifies the control office of the calibration ing transfer section, if practicable.
company of its arrival by utilizing communica- j. After all supported units on its intinerary
tions facilities of the supported unit. Calibra- have been visited, the transfer section returns
tion is performed within the calibration vehicles to the secondary reference facility. The sec-
using external power sources, or by removing tion's secondary transfer standards are once
standards from the vehicles and performing again calibrated by the secondary reference fa-
calibration within the maintenance shop of cility to insure that they have not deviated be-
the direct or general support maintenance unit. yond their specified tolerance. If the calibra-
For each piece of equipment calibrated, a cali- tion determines that the secondary transfer
bration data card (working card) will be an- standards have not deviated beyond specified
notated to indicate the condition of equipment tolerances, the calibration loop is considered
prior to calibration, corrective action taken, valid and is "closed" (fig. 3).
and the results of calibration. When test and k. If calibration reveals that a certain stand-
measuring equipment cannot be calibrated, and ard has not remained within its specified toler-
repairs are necessary, calibration personnel ance, the loop is not considered closed and all
may assist maintenance personnel of the sup- equipment calibrated with that standard will
ported unit in performing minor repairs on a have to be recalibrated. All units serviced by a
limited basis. defective standard are notified that specific
f. Calibration personnel attach certification test and measuring equipment will be consid-
AGO 5636A 25
ered unreliable until recalibrated. The control c. Requisitioning, receipt, and accounting for
office will arrange for necessary recalibration supplies and equipment will be effected in ac-
and will inform units involved. cordance with the procedures of AR 735-35,
I. Usually closure of the loop and opening of and AR 711-17.
a new loop are simultaneous occurrences. The
calibration and certification of secondary 23. Technical Library
transfer standards upon return of the transfer A complete and up-to-date technical library
section satisfies the requirement for calibration is essential to company operations. This li-
and certification prior to embarking on a new brary should be established by the control office
loop. Normally, the transfer standards will not and in a location convenient to calibration per-
be recalibrated unless there is a long delay be- sonnel. It should contain directives from
fore the transfer section goes out again, or a higher headquarters and instructions from
change in environmental conditions occurs. The higher echelon calibration facilities relative to
decision as to whether this equipment must be calibration, regulations governing calibration
again calibrated is made by the control officer, operations, technical bulletins listing proced-
and must be based on common sense and exper- ures and frequency of calibration, appropriate
ience. technical manuals, copies of TOE's of sup-
m. While the transfer section awaits comple- ported units, and copies of latest publications
tion of processing and redispatch on another indexes.
loop, section members attend to personal needs
and perform any company duties as may be as- 24. Packaging, Shipping, and Marking
signed. During this period, necessary mainten- a. Standards will be shipped in the original
ance is performed on the section's organic containers in which they were received. In
equipment. instances where original containers are not
available or are inadequate, packaging and
22. Shop Supply shipment of standards and associated equip-
a. Shop supply functions are performed by ment will be in accordance with specification
supply personnel organic to the control office. MIL-C-45686 or MIL-F-45687, applicable
These personnel comprise the shop supply ele- technical bulletins, and with the appropriate
ment which provides the repair parts and main- TM 39-series publication for individual mark-
tenance materials required by the secondary ing. Special and precautionary handling
reference sections and secondary transfer sec- markings will be applied strictly in accordance
tions in the conduct of their operations. It re- with the above specifications and MIL-STD-
quisitions supplies; examines incoming ship- 129.
ments to verify correctness of quantity, classi- b. All shipping documentation and instruc.
fication, and nomenclature; maintains records tions will also be annotated to the effect that
pertaining to receipt, storage, and issue of ma- special and precautionary handling is neces-
teriel; and prepares reports as required. Al- sary as indicated above.
though the functions performed by this ele-
ment are essentially organizational supply 25. Instruction on New Procedures,
functions, they are separated from other or- Techniques, and Modifications
ganizational supply functions to provide rapid Because of the development of new equip-
response to calibration platoon repair parts re- ment requiring calibration and the resulting
quirements. development of calibration procedures, changes
b. Since this company has no external supply to existing procedures or frequencies of cali-
mission, shop supply will issue items only to bration, modifications of equipment, and the
other company elements. Requisitions from issuance of other technical or regulatory ma-
the operating sections may be submitted to terial on calibration, it is necessary to establish
shop supply on a Parts Requisition, DA Form an effective system for the analysis, interpre-
9-79. Specific procedures for requesting re- tation, and dissemination of this material and
pair parts from shop supply should be made a instructions to personnel engaged in calibra-
matter of company SOP. tion functions. Moreover it is necessary to ef-

26 AGO 5635A
fect cross-training of personnel to add flexibil- niques, procedures, or equipment modification.
ity and versatility to company operations. For They assist in interpreting and implementing
this reason, training is one of the most impor- directives and instructions, supervise the cross-
tant functions of the company. To facilitate training of personnel, and prepare and deliver
this training, the platoon sergeants of the cali- instruction as necessary. Overall training re-
bration platoons serve as calibration instruc- quirements and arrangements for school train-
tors and screen all incoming technical and reg- of calibration personnel are the responsibilities
ulatory material relating to calibration tech- of the control office.

AGO 5635A 27
CHAPTER 4

TACTICAL OPERATIONS

Section I. GENERAL
26. Introduction plementing previously established plans to
a. The calibration company is a category III limit the effects of such attacks if they do
unit. A category III unit is one whose mission occur.
includes service and operations in support of a e. Even with its limited capabilities, the com-
combat area and the operating agencies of a pany will establish a perimeter and interior
COMMZ. guard system. If additional security is re-
b. Because of its category and location in a quired, assistance will be sought from higher
theater of operations, the company is not pro- headquarters. Depending on the area of oper-
vided sufficient personnel or armament to es- ations and the units located therein, such as-
tablish and maintain a complete company de- sistance may be provided by adjacent units in
fensive system comprised of outposts, defen- the area. Since the company commander is
sive positions, defensive works, and exterior responsible for security and defense of his com-
and interior guards. The company's defensive pany, he must be alert to security requirements
armament is limited to small arms. It is cap- and must develop plans accordingly.
able of defending itself against limited ground f. The transfer sections, more than other
attack, but even such action is at the expense company elements, are apt to encounter ground
of the company's mission. attack. Since their operations take them with-
c. Even though the company has a limited in the combat zone, they may encounter am-
defensive capability, the commander must bushes, guerrilla action, or opposition from by-
make the most of this capability by assuring passed pockets of enemy ground forces. When
that personnel are trained in the basic skills it is known, or suspected, that the transfer
of the soldier and by developing plans for de- sections may encounter such opposition on the
fense against any type of attack. Because of routes they will utilize (intelligence agencies
its mission, assignment, and facility require- or military police may provide such informa-
ments, the company will usually operate from tion), alternate routing should be effected, if
permanent or semi-permanent type structures practicable, or higher headquarters must be re-
located in cities or towns. In such an area, quested to provide the necessary security. If
attack by enemy ground troops is improbable; security of the transfer sections becomes too
but, the possibility of aerial attack must be much of a problem, consideration should be
considered, as well as airborne attack and sab- given to movement of the sections by air.
otage or guerrilla attack, if operating in oc-
cupied territory where enemy sympathizers are 27. Movement SOP's
known or suspected to exist. Certain aspects of movement become routine,
d. When operating from a built-up area, like either by their nature or because the com-
a town or city, the biggest threat lies in the mander wishes to make them so. This includes
possibility of air attack by planes or missiles such things as composition of march units;
using conventional explosives or chemical bio- duties of reconnaissance, advance, and rear
logical, radiological, or nuclear weapons. The parties; and convoy security. Some changes
company's only defense against such an attack may be required, but basically, the procedures
is a passive one, using dispersion to the maxi- vary little from movement to movement. There-
mum extent consistent with operational re- fore, the preparation of SOP's to cover these
quirements; camouflage; preventing disclo- aspects of operations relieves the commander
sure, to the local inhabitants of the area, of the of the necessity for repeated planning and is-
activities and mission of the company; and im- suance of directives for the conduct of opera-
28 AGO 5635A
tions that follow an established pattern. For the M292 van must be given special considera-
details on motor movements, see FM 55-30. tion. If the aircraft is not large enough to ac-
cept the M292 in its entirety, the M4 body
28. Loading Plans must be removed and air-lifted. This entails
a. Movement planning also requires the having an M46C, 21/2-ton chassis at the new lo-
preparation of loading plans. Plans for the cation or transporting the chassis in another
loading of personnel and equipment must be aircraft.
made for every type of transport that may be c. FM 101-10 contains valuable information
utilized in the move. Plans must be made as on movement of personnel and equipment, in-
far in advance as possible to provide time for cluding tonnages that can be handled by vari-
any necessary packaging and preservation. ous modes of transport, loading procedures, the
Plans are based on the type of transport to be number of trucks required for motor move-
used; the number of men involved; and the ments, etc. Detailed instructions on packing,
type, size, weight, and quantity of supplies and boxing, and loading materiel are contained in
equipment to be moved. appropriate technical bulletins, which are in-
b. When long distance moves are made and dexed in DA Pam 310-4 and in pertinent mili-
airlifting of equipment is to be accomplished, tary specifications.

AGO 5686A 29
CHAPTER 5

COMMUNICATIONS

29. Communications Methods This permits communications with higher,


a. The calibration company is equipped with adjacent, and other units as may be necessary.
a switchboard, telephones, and associated Telephonic communications are used to coord-
equipment to facilitate installation, operation, inate the operations of the various elements of
and maintenance of a company wire net (fig. the company; to expedite the transmission of
10). The company is not equipped with radios. information, orders, and requests among the
The bulk of communications within the com- various elements of the company; and to fa-
pany and to and from higher headquarters and cilitate control and direction of the company by
other units will be handled by telephone. Tele- higher headquarters. Once established, the
phone calls at night will probably be routed to communications system must be employed in
the secondary reference sections where per- accordance with prescribed communications
sonnel maintain around-the-clock operations. operating procedures.
30. Installation and Operation of Facilities
TO BATTALION HEADQUARTERS
EITHER DIRECTLY OR THROUGH The installation and operation of the com-
NEAREST SWITCHING POINT OF pany's wire equipment will be in conformance
THE AREA COMMUNICATIONS with the signal operation instructions (SOI)
SYSTEM. and standing signal instructions (SSI) of
higher headquarters. These instructions may
be supplemented by company communications
COMPANY procedures which are incorporated in the com-
pany SOP. Procedures which are outlined in
SWITCHBOARD the company SOP must not violate or conflict
with those instructions listed in official publi-
cations distributed by higher headquarters.
FM 24-16 will assist the unit communications
SUPPLY SGT officer in preparing orders, records, and re-
_ CONTROL OFFICE ports pertaining to communications. Also see
CONTROL OFFICE FM 24-20.
o MOTOR SGT
o CALIB PLAT 31. Transfer Section Communications
o CALIB PLAT Each transfer section is required to report to
the calibration company control office when ar-
Figure 10. Wire net, Army calibration company.
riving and before leaving a scheduled stop on
its calibration loop. Since these sections are
b. These telephones are tied in to the switch- not equipped with radios, communication must
board at company headquarters. The company be effected by utilizing facilities of the sup-
switchboard is connected to the nearest switch- ported unit to communicate with the control
ing point of the area communications system. office through the area communications system.

AGO 5635A
30
APPENDIX I

REFERENCES

The references listed below should be checked listed below, publications indexes (DA Pam
frequently for latest revisions relating to ma- 310-series) should be screened to determine
terial covered in this text. In particular, the and obtain all Army and Special Regulations,
publications indexes (DA Pam 310-series) Technical Bulletins, Technical Manuals, Supply
should be checked. Note also that a complete Bulletins, Supply Manuals, Lubrication Orders,
list of references applicable to all elements of and Modification Work Orders pertaining to
the company would be too voluminous for in- equipment supported by the company or gov-
clusion here. In addition to the references erning procedures and techniques.
1. Army Regulations (AR)
1-200 Inspections and Staff Visits
10-16 United States Army Nuclear Weapon Systems Surety Group
11-14 Materiel Readiness
35-273 Accounting Policy and Procedures for Intragovernment, Intradefense,
and Intradepartment Transactions
55-113 Movement of Units Within Continental United States
220-1 Unit Readiness
220-10 Preparation for Oversea Movement of Units (POM)
220-58 Organization and Training for Chemical, Biological, and Radioiogical
Operations
220-160 Tactical and Training Inspections
320-5 Dictionary of United States Army Terms
320-50 Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes
380-5 Safeguarding Defense Information
380-150 Security of Restricted Data
385-10 Army Safety Program
385-40 Accident Reporting and Records
600-55 Motor Vehicle Driver-Selection, Testing, Licensing
611-101 Manual of Commissioned Officer Military Occupational Specialties
611-112 Manual of Warrant Officer Military Occupational Specialties
611-201 Manual of Enlisted Military Occupational Specialties
700-52 Licensing and Control of Radioactive Materials
700-58 Report of Damaged or Improper Shipment
(0) 700-65 Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Weapons Material
711-17 Utilization and Processing of DA Forms 2765 and 2765-1, Request for
Issue or Turn-In (Punched Card Series)
735-5 Property Accountability: General Principles and Policies
735-35 Supply Procedures for TOE Units, Organizations, and Non-TOE
Activities
750-1 Maintenance Concepts
750-5 Organization, Policies, and Responsibilities for Maintenance Operations
750-6 Maintenance Support Planning
750-8 Command Maintenance Management Inspections
750-10 Materiel Readiness
750-20 Maintenance Calibration System Procedures
750-25 Army Calibration System
750-45 Materiel Readiness of Selected Equipment
755-380 Disposal of Unwanted Radioactive Material
AGO 563SA 31
2. Field Manuals (FM)
3-10 Chemical and Biological Weapons Employment
3-12 Operational Aspects of Radiological Defense
5-20 Camouflage, Basic Principles and Field Camouflage
5-21 Camouflage of Fixed Installations
5-22 Camouflage Materials
9-5 Ordnance Ammunition Service
21-5 Military Training Management
21-11 First Aid for Soldiers
21-40 Small Unit Procedures in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR)
Operations
21-41 Soldier's Handbook for Chemical and Biological Operations and Nuclear
Warfare
21-48 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) and Nuclear Defense
Training Exercises
24-16 Signal Orders, Records, and Reports
24-20 Field Wire and Field Cable Techniques
31-15 Operations Against Irregular Forces
31-16 Counterguerrilla Operations
54-1 The Logistical Command
55-30 Motor Transportation Operations
100-10 Field Service Regulations, Administration
101-10 (Part 1) Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data, Part 1-Unclassified
Data

3. Technical Manuals (TM)


3-210 Fallout Prediction
3-220 Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Decontamination
11-6665-204-12 Calibrators, Radiac TS-784/PD and TS-784A/PD
38-750 Army Equipment Record Procedures
38-750-1 Maintenance Management, Field Command Procedures
(S) 39-0-1 Numerical Index to Joint Atomic Weapons Publications (Including Re-
lated Publications) (U)

4. Supply Manuals (SM)


9-4-4931-J38 Electronic Equipment Calibration Standards Set; Secondary Reference
(4931-621-7878)
9-4-4931-J39 Electronic Equipment Calibration Standards Set; Secondary Transfer
(4931-621-7877)

5. Technical Bulletins (TB)


9-296-series Calibration Procedure for Test Equipment Used with Ordnance Materiel
9-342 Calibration and Comparison Checks of Test Measuring Equipment
(NIKE-AJAX/HERCULES/Improved HERCULES Air Defense
Guided Missile System)
11-6665-204-12 Safe Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Calibrators, Radiac,
TS-784/PD and TS-784A/PD
TB ORD 1026-series Calibration Procedures for Test Equipment Used with Army Materiel
TB IG 5 Inspector General Technical Proficiency Inspection
TB SIG 225 Identification and Handling of Radioactive Signal Items

32 AGO 5635A
6. Department of the Army Pamphlets (DA Pam)
108-1 Index of Army Motion Pictures, Film Strips, Slides, and Phono-Re-
cordings
310-1 Index of Administrative Publications
310-2 Index of Blank Forms
310-3 Index of Doctrinal, Training, and Organizational Publications
310-4 Index of Technical Manuals, Technical Bulletins, Supply Manuals, Supply
Bulletins, Lubrication Orders, and Modification Work Orders
310-21 through Indexes of Supply Manuals
310-30
7. Miscellaneous Publications
MIL-STD-129B Marking for Shipment and Storage
MIL-C-45686 Cases, Fire Control, Electronic Calibration Standards-; Reusable, Metal
MIL-F-45687 Fire Control, Electronic Calibration Standards; Packaging of
MIL-M-20800 Manuals, Technical, Special Weapons (Nuclear)
Manufacturer's Manuals for Calibration Standards

AGO 5635A 33
APPENDIX II
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

This appendix contains a list of definitions indicated reading to obtain the actual value of the
and abbreviations commonly associated with parameter being measured.
calibration and related procedures. This list Calib7ation facility. That part or adjunct of an in-
stallation or a unit which provides calibration
is not all-inclusive. A complete listing of tech- services.
nical terms would be too large and voluminous Calibration loop. An operation wherein certified stand-
for publication herein. For this reason, this ards are transported to one or more locations for
appendix is restricted to those terms most corn- the purpose of certifying the accuracy of reference
mon to calibration company operations. The standards or test equipment, and are returned to their
terms and definitions listed in this appendix points of origin.
Certified test instruments. Test or measuring instru-
are intended to be used only as a handy, gen- ments which have been certified as to accuracy by
eral reference. It is not intended that, these comparison with calibrated standards or test equip-
definitions be used as a yardstick to establish ment.
military policy or doctrine, nor to conflict with Certification label. A label (DA Label 80) affixed to a
the provisions of pertinent Army Regulations primaly or secondary standard or to an item of
test and measuring equipment to certify that the
and other regulatory publications. For defini- item has been calibrated or maintenance calibrated
tions of terms or explanations of abbreviations to required accuracy, to indicate the date of cali-
not listed herein, see AR's 320-5, 320-50, and bration or maintenance calibration, to indicate the
the regulations and technical publications per- date the next calibration or maintenance calibration
taining to the item or procedure involved is due, to identify the individual item of equipment
calibrated, and to identify the individual and cali-
Audit packCag7e. A package containing standards and.
bration facility performing the service. Certfication
reports which are forwarded to a standards facility of the item is valid only between the dates indicated
where calibration is performed. The completed re- on the label.
port of this calibration (environmental conditions, Ce
techniques, etc.) is transmitted, with the standard tified as being within certain tolerances.
or standards, to the point of origin for evaluation. Closed loop. A calibration loop wherein a transfer
Calibrated
Calibrated test
test equipment. That direct
equipment. That direct support,
support, gen-
gen- standard, after being returned to its point of origin,
eral support,,or organizational test equipment which is confirmed as valid.
has been calibrated by a secondary transfer or if
has been calibrated
by a secondary transfer or if Cross-checking. A method by which two or more
necessary, a secondary reference section. standards of equal, or near equal, accuracy are com-
Calibration. The comparison of a lower echelon stand- pared with each other. It is intended to act as an
ard or a measuring instrument with a standard of interim check on the stability and operability of a
known accuracy to determine variations in accuracy. standard between regularly scheduled calibrations
As a result of comparison, lower echelon' standards or certifications by a higher level laboratory.
or measuring instruments are adjusted to improve Maintenance calibration. That operation performed by
their accuracy when there are inaccuracies or rec- users of test and measuring equipment, utilizing
ords of any inaccuracies are furnished to permit calibrated test and measuring equipment, to detect
compensation for them. The functions of calibra- and adjust any variation in uncalibrated test and
tion also include "maintenance calibration" which measuring equipment.
is also defined in this appendix. Metrology. The science of measurement including the
Direct method of calibration. Periodic rotation of development of measurement standards and systems
a standard or test and measuring equipment for for absolute and relative measurements.
direct comparison with a higher level standard. Measurement standard. An item of known accuracy
Transfer method (closed loop). An operation which is established by authority as a basis for
wherein certified standards are used at one or reference measurements. Measurement standards in-
more locations for the purpose of certifying the elude: national standards, primary reference stand-
accuracy of measurement standards or test and ards, primary transfer standards, secondary refer-
measuring equipment, and when compared again ence standards, and secondary transfer standards.
with the original standards confirm that their Minor repair on a limited basis. Repair that consists
validity has not been affected. of direct replacement of plug-in type components
Calibration correction chart. A chart or graph pre- and replacement of other types of components (re-
pared for specific test and measuring equipment to sistors and capacitors) when the defective compo-
show the correction which must be applied to the nent is obvious, replacement parts are immediately

34 AGO 5635A
available, and effecting these repairs will not jeop- Standards, when such certification services are
ardize the calibration section's schedule. provided, and are housed in an adequately-
NBS. The abbreviation for the National Bureau of controlled environment.
Standards. Primary transfer standards. Standards maintained
OSM. An abbreviation for outer setting marker, a by a primary reference laboratory, with ac-
correction adjustment for altimeters showing the curacy certified as a result of comparison to
amount of correction. primary reference standards, and used to certify
Postloop. Confirming calibration following transfer the accuracy of secondary reference standards.
section movement. These standards may be transferred to sec-
Red-tag. This form (Unserviceable Test Instrument ondary reference facilities to certify the accu-
or Standard, DA Form 2417) is attached to an racy of secondary reference standards.
unserviceable test instrument or standard indicating Secondary reference standards. Standards with
that repair is required. The tag consists of a pink accuracy certified as a result of a comparison to
frontal sheet, a carbon paper throwaway insert, and primary reference standards, and authorized for
a red cardboard backing. The cardboard backing use to certify the accuracy of subordinate stand-
remains attached to the instrument or standard until ards. They are housed in a controlled environ-
such time as the corrective action has been com- ment.
pleted. The pink frontal sheet is furnished to the Secondary transfer standards. Standards with ac-
responsible property or maintenance officer and curacy certified as a result of comparison to
serves as a memorandum of action required. secondary reference standards, and used to
certify the accuracy of test or measuring equip-
Repeatability. The quality of a series of like readings ment.
remaining within certain allowable tolerances be- SRS. An abbreviation for secondary reference standard.
tween the lowest and highest readings. STS. An abbreviation for secondary transfer standard.
Self-calibrating equipment. That equipment having Surveillance. All actions necessary to assure constant
certified internal references which are capable of adherence to the policies and procedures of the cali-
calibrating parameters, ranges, and accuracies of bration program.
the equipment, either manually or automatically. Test and measuring equipment. Those devices which
Standard. An item of known accuracy which is estab- are used to measure the characteristics of materiel.
lished by authority as a basis for reference measure- Special-type test and measuring equipment. Test and
ments. measuring equipment designed for, and applicable to,
National reference standards. Standards main- a specific end item, component, or select group
tained by the National Bureau of Standards thereof.
(Washington, D.C., and Boulder, Colorado) Standard-type test and measuring equipment. Test and
which constitute the highest level of accuracy measuring equipment, usually of commercial design,
and the legal basis for measurement in the having universal application without limitation as to
United States. specific commodity, item, or component.
Primary reference standards. Standards repre- Transfer method. A calibration method wherein cer-
senting the highest level of accuracy within the tain standards are used at one or more locations for
Army calibration system or a standard of the purpose of certifying the accuracy of standards
equivalent accuracy maintained by the Navy or or test and measuring equipment, and when com-
Air Force. These standards are the only Army pared again with the original standards confirms
standards certified by the National Bureau of that their validity has not been affected.

AGO 5635A 35
APPENDIX III

ELECTRICAL SAFETY ANNEX TO COMPANY SOP


(SAMPLE)

CALIBRATION COMPANY

5 August 1964

SUBJECT: ELECTRICAL SAFETY


TO: All Personnel

1. PURPOSE: To prescribe minimum safe operating procedures and pre-


cautions relative to operations involving all types of electrical and elec-
tronic equipment.

2. APPLICABILITY: To all personnel operating or associated with the


operation of electrical or electronic equipment.

3. RESPONSIBILITY: Responsibility for safety rests with everyone.


All personnel working with electrical or electronic equipment will comply
with the electrical safety measures contained in this annex.

4. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: The following safety precautions will be


observed at all times:
a. Electrical Equipment:
(1) No electrical or power equipment will be operated, repaired, or
modified by persons other than those qualified by proper train-
ing to do so.
(2) Personnel operating equipment utilizing or containing high
voltages will stand on dry rubber floor matting and/or will
wear nonconductive-soled safety shoes.
(3) Safety devices such as interlocks, fuses, circuit breakers and
limit switches will remain in the circuit at all times except
during repairs or maintenance. Power will NEVER be ap-
plied to a circuit in which the safety devices have been elim-
inated or bypassed except when necessary for the proper per-
formance of maintenance. Extreme caution should be exer-
cised by personnel performing maintenance on circuits whose
safety devices or interlocks have been bypassed.
(4) Should a power failure occur during the operation of any
electrical test equipment, the test equipment will be turned
off and connecting cables removed from the power outlets.
(5) Cables will ALWAYS be connected or disconnected by means
of end connectors, never by pulling the cable leads.
(6) All electrical wall outlets will be plainly marked as to voltage,
frequency, and current type (e.g., 120 V, 60 cycle, AC).
(7) All outlets and plugs will be polarized to preclude the existence
of dangerous potentials between standards and test equipments.
b. Troubleshooting Equipment.

36 AGO 5685A
(1) In troubleshooting electrical equipment in which there exists
high voltage, extreme care will be exercisd not to place one
hand on an energized component and the other on an electrical
ground such as the chassis of the equipment. A suggested
method of working on such equipment is to use only one hand
for probing while keeping the other hand in pocket or behind
the back., When performing operations requiring the use of
both hands (e.g., when making voltage measurements with a
voltmeter), both leads should be firmly held and solidly placed
on test points.
(2) The following precautions should be observed when trouble-
shooting high voltage equipment:
(a) Stand on a rubber mat or wear rubber-soled shoes.
(b) Keep one hand free and clear of equipment, when feasible,
to reduce the possibility of electrical shock.
(c) Inspect all interlock safety switches and fuses and be sure
that they are in good condition. Bypass circuit devices only
when indicated in repair procedure. Use extreme caution
when working on equipment whose circuit devices have
been bypassed.
(d) Be certain that' high voltage capacitors are discharged before
working in the circuit. Capacitors may hold a dangerous
charge long after power has been removed.
(e) Work in pairs, wherever possible.
(f) Remove bracelets, watches or other dangling objects on the
arms or wrists that might make accidental contact with a
live circuit.
(g) Do not hurry any operation.
(3) Under no circumstances will fuses be-
(a) Removed or replaced by means other than fuse pullers,
except in the case of removable fuse holders, which can
be removed or replaced by hand.
(b) Electrically bypassed.
(c) Replaced while power is being applied to the circuit under
test.
(d) Replaced by fuses of high, current rating or improper type.
c. Grounding of Equipment.
(1) All items of electrical equipment connected to a source of
power will be grounded, with the exception of small hand
meters or items for which special instructions prohibit
grounding.
(2) Noncurrent-carrying frames of electrically-powered equipment
and tools such as hand-held power tools will be connected to
a grounding conductor.
(3) A grounding system consists of a conductor i(electrode) buried
in the earth to provide a low resistance electrical path to
ground. Resistance to ground from a buried electrode should
not exceed 25 ohms.
(4) If a cold water piping system is not available as a grounding
electrode, a driven rod or buried plate may be used.
(5) Conductors used in the ground system will have a current-
carrying capacity at least equal to but preferably greater than
AGO 5635A 37
the rating or setting of the automatic protective devices used
in the power supply system.
(6) Resistance measured from the leading end of the most remote
grounding electrode will be less than two ohms.
(7) Grounding conductors will be terminated with battery or
spring-loaded alligator clamps or spade connectors as ap-
plicable. Clamps will be attached to clean, bare metal surfaces
only.
(8) Flexible metal braid straps may be used for power and static
grounding of all electronic and electrical test and measuring
equipment.
d. Fire Extinguishers.
(1) Carbon dioxide (CO/2) is the preferred fire extinguisher for
use on electrical fires, although carbon tetrachloride (CCL/4)
fire extinguishers may also be used.
(2) Soda-acid, water, or foam extinguishers will not be used on
electrical fires as the water and foam may be conductive and
subject the user to electrical shock.
e. High Voltage.
(1) "High Voltage" signs will be prominently posted at all test
stations and on equipment where high voltages are present.
(2) High voltage equipment will be shielded or isolated so as to
minimize the possibility of accidental personal contact with
exposed energized parts.
(3) Upon completion of test or use of power, all power cables
will be disconnected from the power source.
(4) Removal of personnel in contact with high potential.
(a) To remove a person in contact with high potential, find
the main power switch and turn it off, but do not waste
time looking for it.
(b) Treatment of persons who are unconscious and not breath-
ing:
1. Send for medical assistance.
2. Start artifical respiration immediately (mouth-to-mouth
preferred, see FM 21-11) and continue until normal
breathing is resumed or until competent medical per-
sonnel assume responsibility.
3. Keep the patient warm and quiet.
4. Administer hot liquids and other mild stimulants after
normal consciousness returns.
f. Tubes and Lamps.
(1) Electron tubes will be removed from equipment only by use
of appropriate type tube pullers. Tubes will not be removed
with bare hands.
(2) Fluorescent-type tubes used in the lighting system will not be
handled or changed by other than properly trained personnel.
(3) Cathode ray tubes will not be handled by the neck since this
is the weakest part and the most easily damaged or broken.
(4) If a tube does break causing small cuts, such cuts will be
washed carefully to insure that all dirt and foreign matter
is removed. The material used for coating tubes is not con-
sidered toxic, but there is a possibility of unusual personal
sensitivity or allergy in some persons.

38 AGO 5635A
(5) Tubes should never be removed from an energized circuit
without first determining if it is safe to do so.
g. Microwave and X-Ray Radiation.
(1) Microwave radiation may cause damage to the eyes when
personnel are working around equipment which emits radia-
tion. Care should be taken not to look directly at the source
of radiation.
(2) Certain cathode ray tubes, when operated at high voltages,
emit X-Rays. Shielding may be necessary to protect against
possible danger of personal injury resulting from prolonged
exposure.
h. Fire Prevention Precautions.
(1) All electrical equipment will be operated in strict compliance
with appropriate technical publications.
(2) Rated loads will not be exceeded for any electrical equipment.
i. Selenium Rectifiers.
(1) Improper handling or malfunctions of selenium rectifiers can
result in serious injuries and illness. These rectifiers are
normally very reliable when operated within rated voltage
and current limits. However, a circuit or rectifier malfunc-
tion causing failure of the rectifier will cause liberation of
selenium dioxide fumes.
(2) If selenium rectifier failure occurs and selenium dioxide fumes
are given off:
(a) Hold your breath.
(b) Disconnect power.
(c) Evacuate the immediate area.
(a) Prevent entry to area.
(e) Thoroughly ventilate the area.
(f) Use gloves when repairing damage.

PATRICK F. GREER
Capt, OrdCorps
Commanding

AGO 5635A .39


By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

HAROLD K. JOHNSON,
General, United States Army,
Official: Chief of Staff.
J. C. LAMBERT,
Major General, United States Army,
The Adjutant General.

Distribution:
Active Army:
DCSPER (10) USAMC (15) Bn (3)
ACSI (10) USAECOM (28) USAMCC (5)
DCSLOG (10) USAMICOM (18) USACDCIAS (1)
DCSOPS (Oj · USAMOCOM (60) USACDCEC (10)
ACSFOR (10) USAMUCOM (5) USACDCSWCAG (5)
CORC (10) USACDC Agcy (5) USACDCNG (1)
CRD (5) ARADCOM (10) USACDCCCISG (1)
COA (5) ARADCOM Rgn (10) USACDCCSSG (5)
CINFO (5) OS Maj Comd (5) except USACDCCAG (5)
TIG (5) USARPAC (30) USAADS (4)
TJAG (5) LOGCOMD (5) USAAVNS (2)
TPMG (3) Armies (25) USAES (10)
TSG (3) Corps (15) USAOGMS (5)
OPO (10) Div (10) USAQMS (2)
CofEngrs (3) Div Arty (5) USACMLCS (25)
CofCh (3) Bde (5) USASCS (4)
USCONARC (10) Regt/Gp (5) USATSCH (2)
USACDC (10) CC (5) Units org under fol TOE:
29-227 (16)

NG: State AG (3).


USAR: Units-same as active Army except allowance is one copy to each unit.
For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.

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