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Module 1

Material Preparation- Purification, Crystal growth (CZ and FZ process),

wafer preparation
Thermal Oxidation- Growth mechanisms, Dry and Wet oxidation, Deal Grove

Diffusion- Fick‘s Laws, Diffusion with constant surface concentration and from
a constant source, diffusion techniques.
Ion implantation-Technique, Range Theory, annealing.

Material Preparation:
Silicon is the most important semiconductor for the microelectronics industry.
When compared to germanium, silicon excels for the following reasons:
(1) Si has a larger bandgap (1.1 eV for Si versus 0.66 eV for Ge).
(2) Si devices can operate at a higher temperature (150o C vs 100o C).
(3) Intrinsic resistivity is higher (2.3 x 105 Ω-cm vs 47 Ω-cm).
(4) SiO2 is more stable than GeO2 which is also water soluble.
(5) Si is less costly.

The first step in integrated circuit (IC) fabrication is preparing the

high purity single crystal Si wafer. This is the starting input to the fab.

Si wafer refers to a single crystal of Si with a specific orientation,

dopant type, and resistivity.

Typically, Si (100) or Si (111) wafers are used. The numbers (100)

and (111) refers to the orientation of the plane parallel to the surface.

Traditionally, bipolar devices are fabricated in oriented crystals

whereas materials are preferred for MOS devices. Real crystals are imperfect
and contain point defects, line defects or dislocations, area or plane defects, and
volume defects.

The wafer should have structural defects like point defects, line
defects or dislocations, area or plane defects, and volume defects they are in the
order of ppb (parts per billion).

Defects in Si

Point defects manifest themselves in several forms, as shown in Figure 1.1. Any
non-silicon atoms incorporated into the lattice at either a substitutional or
interstitial site are considered point defects

Figure 1.1 Point defects in a simple lattice.

Dislocations in a lattice are dynamic defects as shown in Figure 1.2. That is,
they can diffuse under applied stress, dissociate into two or more dislocations,
or combine with other dislocations.

Figure 1.2 edge dislocation in a cubic lattice

Purification (Converting MGS to EGS - Seimens process)

EGS -Electronic grade Si

MGS- Metallurgical grade Si
Quartzite (SiO2) or sand

The starting material for Si wafer manufacture is called Electronic

grade Si (EGS). This is an ingot of Si.

To get EGS, the starting material is called Metallurgical grade Si (MGS). The
first step is the synthesis of MGS from the ore.

Ore ( quartzite (SiO2) or sand ) MGS (Si (l))  EGS(Ingot)

The starting material for Si manufacture is quartzite (SiO2)

or sand. The ore is reduced to Si by mixing with coke and heating in a
submerged electrode arc furnace. The SiO2 reacts with excess C to first form
SiC. At high temperature, the SiC reduces SiO2 to form Si. The overall reaction
is given by

SiC (s) + SiO2 (s) → Si (l) + SiO (g) + CO (g)


Coke (fuel) - Wikipedia
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content,
usually made from coal. It is the solid carbonaceous material
derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulphur
bituminous coal. Cokes made from coal are grey, hard, and
porous. While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly
used form is synthetic

The Si(l) formed is removed from the bottom of the

furnace. This is the MGS and is around 98% pure.

One of the techniques for converting MGS to EGS is called the Seimens
process. In this the Si is reacted with HCl gas to form tricholorosilane, which is
in gaseous form.

Si (s) + 3HCl (g)  SiHCl3 (g) + H2 (g) (2)

This process is carried out in a uidized bed reactor at 300 C, where the
trichlorosilane gas is removed and then reduced using H2 gas.

2SiHCl3 (g) + 2H2 (g)  2Si (s) + 6HCl (g) (3)


Fig 1.4 Process to purify MGS to obtain EGS

Fig 1.5 The Seimens deposition reactor


Impurities in EGS, after puri_cation from MGS. Tabulated below,

2. Crystal growth (CZ and FZ process) [Single crystal Si manufacture]

There are two main techniques for converting polycrystalline EGS into a single
crystal ingot,

1. Czochralski technique (CZ) - this is the dominant technique for

manufacturing single crystals. It is especially suited for the large wafers that are
currently used in IC fabrication.

2. Float zone technique - this is mainly used for small sized wafers.

The Foat zone technique is used for producing specialty wafers that

have low oxygen impurity concentration.

Czochralski technique (CZ)

The various components of the process are

1. Furnace
2. Crystal pulling mechanism
3. Ambient control - atmosphere
4. Control system

The starting material for the CZ process is electronic grade silicon, which is
melted in the furnace.

To minimize contamination, the crucible is made of SiO2 or SiNx. The

drawback is that at the high temperature the inner liner of the crucible also starts
melting and has to replaced periodically.

The silicon is melted and a single crystal seed is then used to nucleate a
single crystal ingot. The seed crystal controls the orientation of the single

The furnace is heated above 1500oC, since Si melting point is 1412 oC. A
small seed crystal, with the desired orientation of the final wafer, is dipped in
the molten Si and slowly withdrawn by the crystal pulling mechanism.
The seed crystal is also rotated while it is being pulled, to ensure
uniformity across the surface. The furnace is rotated in the direction opposite to
the crystal puller.
The molten Si sticks to the seed crystal and starts to solidify with the
same orientation as the seed crystal is withdrawn. Thus, a single crystal ingot is
To create doped crystals, the dopant material is added to the Si melt so
that it can be incorporated in the growing crystal. The process control, i.e. speed
of withdrawal and the speed of rotation of the crystal puller, is crucial to obtain
a good quality single crystal.
There is a feedback system that control this process. Similarly there is
another ambient gas control system. The final solidified Si obtained is the single
crystal ingot.
A 450 mm wafer ingot can be as heavy as 800 kg

Float zone technique [FZ]

The float zone technique is suited for small wafer production, with
low oxygen impurity.
A polycrystalline EGS rod is fused with the single crystal seed of desired
orientation. This is taken in an inert gas furnace and then melted along the
length of the rod by a traveling radio frequency (RF) coil. The RF coil starts
from the fused region, containing the seed, and travels up,

When the molten region solidies, it has the same orientation as the seed.
The furnace is filled with an inert gas like argon to reduce gaseous impurities.

Figure 1.8 Float zone technique


The polycrystalline ingot is fused with a seed

crystal and locally melted by a traveling radio frequency coil. As the ingot melts
and resolidifes it has the same orientation as the seed.

Also, since no crucible is needed it can be used to

produce oxygen 'free' Si wafers. The difficulty is to extend this technique for
large wafers, since the process produces large number of dislocations. It is used
for small specialty applications requiring low oxygen content wafers.

Wafer manufacturing

After the single crystal is obtained, this needs to be

further processed to produce the wafers. For this, the wafers need to be shaped
and cut. Usually, industrial grade diamond tipped saws are used for this process.

The shaping operations consist of two steps

1. The seed and tang ends of the ingot are removed.

2. The surface of the ingot is ground to get an uniform diameter across the
length of the ingot.

Before further processing, the ingots are checked for resistivity and
orientation. Resistivity is checked by a four point probe technique and can be
used to conform the dopant concentration. This is usually done along the length
of the ingot to ensure uniformity. Orientation is measured by x-ray diffraction
at the ends (after grinding).
After the orientation and resistivity checks, one or more flats are ground
along the length of the ingot. There are two types of flats.
1. Primary flat - this is ground relative to a specific crystal direction.
This acts as a visual reference to the orientation of the wafer.
2. Secondary flat - this used for identification of the wafer, dopant type
and orientation.

p-type (111) Si has only one flat (primary flat) while all other wafer types have
two flats (with different orientations of the secondary flats). The primary at is
typically longer than the secondary flat. Consider some typical specs of 150 mm
wafers, shown in table 4. Bow refers to the flatness of the wafer while t refers to
the thickness variation across the wafer.

Inner diameter (ID) slicing is the most commonly used technique. The

cutting edge is located on the inside of the blade, as seen in figure 8. Larger
wafers are usually thicker, for mechanical integrity. After cutting, the wafers are
chemically etched to remove any damaged

All orientations and doping types have a primary at, while there are different
secondary flats for different types (a) p(111) (b) n(111) (c) p(100) and (d) n(100).

Inner diameter wafer slicing, used for cutting the ingots into individual wafers. The thickness
is slightly higher than the final required thickness to account for material loss due to
polishing. Inner diameter wafer slicing, used for cutting the ingots into individual wafers. The
thickness is slightly higher than the final required thickness to account for material loss due

to polishing.
Wafers are typically single side or double side polished.
Smaller wafers (3" and 4" wafers) used in labs are usually single side polished. After
polishing, the wafers are subjected to a final inspection before they are packed and shipped to
the fab.

Thermal Oxidation- Growth mechanisms, Dry and Wet oxidation, Deal Grove

Utility of Thermal Oxidation

The function of a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a chip is multipurpose. SiO2 plays an important role in IC technology
because no other semiconductor material has a native oxide which is able to achieve all the properties of SiO2. The role of
SiO2 in IC fabrication is as below :

It acts as a diffusion mask permitting selective diffusions into silicon wafer through the window etched into oxide.

 It is used for surface passivation which is nothing but creating protective SiO2 layer on the wafer surface. It protects the
junction from moisture and other atmospheric contaminants.
 It serves as an insulator on the water surface. Its high relative dielectric constant, which enables metal line to pass over the
active silicon regions.
 SiO2 acts as the active gate electrode in MOS device structure.
 It is used to isolate one device from another.
 It provides electrical isolation of multilevel metallization used in VLSI.

It is fortunate that silicon has an easily formed protective oxide, for otherwise we should have to depend upon deposited
insulators for surface protection. Since SiO2 produces a stable layer, this has held back germanium IC technology.