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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY -

HOCHIMINH CITY
INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER 1. FUNCTIONS, LIMITS AND CONTINUITY


CALCULUS I
Lecturer: Nguyen Minh Quan, PhD
Department of Mathematics
E-mail: quannm@hcmiu.edu.vn

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 1 / 68
CONTENTS

1 Functions
An introduction to Calculus
Review of set theory
Functions and graphs

2 Limits
Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

3 Continuity
Continuity: Definitions and properties
The Intermediate Value Theorem

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 2 / 68
1.1. An introduction to Calculus

What is Calculus and why Calculus is useful?


Calculus give us a way to construct quantitative models in
practice, and to deduce the predictions of such models.
Calculus is the best way to describe most of the ’laws of nature’.
Calculus are used in many fields: Mathematics, Physics,
Engineering, Biology, Chemistry, Economics, Computing science,
and other sciences.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 3 / 68
1.1. An introduction to Calculus

The two basic operations of calculus are differentiation and


integration. Both are based on the concept of limits.

In Calculus 1 we study
(a) basic concepts of functions and limits,
(b) techniques of differentiation and integration,
(c) applications to a wide range of practical situations.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 4 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

If X is a set, the relation x ∈ X means x is an element of X , or


belongs to X , the negation of that relation is written x ∈
/ X.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 5 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

If X is a set, the relation x ∈ X means x is an element of X , or


belongs to X , the negation of that relation is written x ∈
/ X.

For two sets X , Y , the relation X ⊂ Y means every element of


X is an element of Y and we say X is contained in Y , or that X
is a subset of Y . The negation of X ⊂ Y is written X 6⊂ Y .

A special empty set ∅ contains no element.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 5 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

If X is a set, the relation x ∈ X means x is an element of X , or


belongs to X , the negation of that relation is written x ∈
/ X.

For two sets X , Y , the relation X ⊂ Y means every element of


X is an element of Y and we say X is contained in Y , or that X
is a subset of Y . The negation of X ⊂ Y is written X 6⊂ Y .

A special empty set ∅ contains no element.

The intersection of two sets X and Y , X ∩ Y , is the set of


common elements that belongs to both sets. The union of two
sets X , Y , X ∪ Y , is the set of elements that belongs to at least
one of the sets.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 5 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

To every A ⊂ X , we define the complement of A to be the set


Ac = {x ∈ X |x ∈
/ A}.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 6 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

To every A ⊂ X , we define the complement of A to be the set


Ac = {x ∈ X |x ∈
/ A}.

Real numbers are used to measure continuous quantities. A real


number may be either rational or irrational. Denote R by the set
of all real numbers.

Open and closed intervals:

(a, b) =]a, b[= {x ∈ R|a < x < b}

[a, b] = {x ∈ R|a ≤ x ≤ b}

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 6 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

Triangle inequality: For all real numbers a and b

|a + b| 6 |a| + |b| .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 7 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

Triangle inequality: For all real numbers a and b

|a + b| 6 |a| + |b| .

Open and closed intervals may be described by inequalities. For


example, |x| < r ⇔ −r < x < r ⇔ x ∈ (−r , r ) .

Example

Describe the set S = x : 21 x − 3 > 4 in terms of intervals

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 7 / 68
1.2. Review of set theory

Solution 
Consider the complement: S c = x : 12 x − 3 ≤ 4


1
x − 3 6 4 ⇔ −4 6 1 x − 3 6 4 ⇔ −2 6 x 6 14.

2 2
Thus
S c = [−2, 14] ⇒ S = (−∞, −2) ∪ (14, ∞)

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 8 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
Coordinates and Graphs: O is the origin, Ox is the x-axis, Oy is
the y-axis (x, y ) are the x- and y -coordinates.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 9 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
Coordinates and Graphs: O is the origin, Ox is the x-axis, Oy is
the y-axis (x, y ) are the x- and y -coordinates.
Consider any two points (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) on a straight line.
On the interval [x1 , x2 ]. We call ∆x = x2 − x1 and ∆y = y2 − y1
the change in x and y , respectively.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 9 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
Coordinates and Graphs: O is the origin, Ox is the x-axis, Oy is
the y-axis (x, y ) are the x- and y -coordinates.
Consider any two points (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) on a straight line.
On the interval [x1 , x2 ]. We call ∆x = x2 − x1 and ∆y = y2 − y1
the change in x and y , respectively.
The slope (or gradient) of the line is
∆y y2 − y1
m = tan α = =
∆x x2 − x1
m tell us the rate of change of y with respect to x.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 9 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Example
For the graph shown below, state the slope
(a) for 0 < x < 1
(b) for 5 < x < 9

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 10 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
Suppose a straight line crosses the y -axis at y = c. We call c
the y-intercept.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 11 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
Suppose a straight line crosses the y -axis at y = c. We call c
the y-intercept.
For any point (x, y ) on the line, the slope is defined by
y −c
m=
x −0

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 11 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
Suppose a straight line crosses the y -axis at y = c. We call c
the y-intercept.
For any point (x, y ) on the line, the slope is defined by
y −c
m=
x −0

This leads to the most common way of writing the equation of a


straight line, which is called the slope-intercept form:
y = mx + c

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 11 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
The slope-intercept form is very convenient for graph-sketching.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 12 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
The slope-intercept form is very convenient for graph-sketching.

Other forms
Point-Slope Form: y = y1 + m(x − x1 ).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 12 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.
The slope-intercept form is very convenient for graph-sketching.

Other forms
Point-Slope Form: y = y1 + m(x − x1 ).
Two Point Form: For a line passing through points (x1 , y1 ) and
(x2 , y2 ):
y − y1 y2 − y1
= (= m)
x − x1 x2 − x1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 12 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Linear model

Example
Find the equation of the straight line passing through points (1, 0)
and (0, 4).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 13 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Linear model

Example
Find the equation of the straight line passing through points (1, 0)
and (0, 4).

Example
At a certain place, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere was
measured to be 339 ppm in the year 1980 and 373 ppm in 2002.
Assume a linear model. Find an equation for the CO2 concentration
C (in ppm) as a function of time t (in years). Use your equation to
predict the CO2 concentration in 2015.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 13 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Example
Table 1 lists the average carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere,
measured in parts per million at Mauna Loa Observatory from 1980
to 1998. Use the data in Table 1 to find a model for the carbon
dioxide level.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 14 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 15 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Solution
We use the data in Table 1 to make the scatter plot as in the figure
above where t represents time (in years) and C represents the CO2
level. We find the equation of the line that passes through the first
and last data points.
The slope is m = 366.7−338.5
1998−1980
= 1.56667.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 15 / 68
1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Solution
We use the data in Table 1 to make the scatter plot as in the figure
above where t represents time (in years) and C represents the CO2
level. We find the equation of the line that passes through the first
and last data points.
The slope is m = 366.7−338.5
1998−1980
= 1.56667. Thus,
C − 338.5 = 1.56667 (t − 1980) or C = 1.56667t − 2763.51.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 15 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs
Definition
A function of a variable x is a rule f that assigns to each value of x
in a set D a unique number f (x) in a set E , called the value of the
function at x. [We read "f(x)" or "f of x".]

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 16 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs
Definition
A function of a variable x is a rule f that assigns to each value of x
in a set D a unique number f (x) in a set E , called the value of the
function at x. [We read "f(x)" or "f of x".]

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 16 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs
Definition
A function of a variable x is a rule f that assigns to each value of x
in a set D a unique number f (x) in a set E , called the value of the
function at x. [We read "f(x)" or "f of x".]

The set D is called the domain and the range is the set of all possible
values of of f (x) as x varies throughout the domain.
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 16 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set
D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)
(why?).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set
D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)
(why?).

Definition
f is surjective (or onto, or a subjection) if for every y ∈ E ,
there is at least an element x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set
D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)
(why?).

Definition
f is surjective (or onto, or a subjection) if for every y ∈ E ,
there is at least an element x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .
f is injective (or one-to-one, or an injection) if for every y ∈ E ,
there is at most one x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set
D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)
(why?).

Definition
f is surjective (or onto, or a subjection) if for every y ∈ E ,
there is at least an element x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .
f is injective (or one-to-one, or an injection) if for every y ∈ E ,
there is at most one x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .
f is bijective or a bijection iff it is both surjective and injective.

Example The function f (x) = x 2 , x ∈ R is not one-to-one because


both f (−2) = 4 and f (2) = 4. However, we can turn f (x) = x 2 into
a one-to-one function if we restrict ourselves to 0 6 x < ∞.
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition
Given two functions f and g , the composite function (also called the
composition of f and g ) is f ◦ g defined by (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 18 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition
Given two functions f and g , the composite function (also called the
composition of f and g ) is f ◦ g defined by (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 18 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).
(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).
(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).
Solution
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 3 (x − 1)2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).
(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).
Solution
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 3 (x − 1)2
(b) (g ◦ f ) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (3x 2 ) = 3x 2 − 1.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).
(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).
Solution
(a) (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 3 (x − 1)2
(b) (g ◦ f ) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (3x 2 ) = 3x 2 − 1.

In general, f ◦ g 6= g ◦ f . Note that the notation (f ◦ g ) (x) means


that the function g is applied first and then f is applied second.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition
Given two one-to-one functions f (x) and g (x) if

f ◦ g (x) = g ◦ f (x) = x

then we say that f (x) and g (x) are inverses of each other.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 20 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition
Given two one-to-one functions f (x) and g (x) if

f ◦ g (x) = g ◦ f (x) = x

then we say that f (x) and g (x) are inverses of each other.

More specifically we will say that g (x) is the inverse of f (x) and
denote it by
g (x) = f −1 (x)

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 20 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition
Given two one-to-one functions f (x) and g (x) if

f ◦ g (x) = g ◦ f (x) = x

then we say that f (x) and g (x) are inverses of each other.

More specifically we will say that g (x) is the inverse of f (x) and
denote it by
g (x) = f −1 (x)
Given f (x), how to find f −1 (x)?

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 20 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x − 2. Find f −1 (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 21 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x − 2. Find f −1 (x).
Solution
1 1
y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)
3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 21 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example
Given f (x) = 3x − 2. Find f −1 (x).
Solution
1 1
y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)
3 3
Check:
   
−1
 1 1
f f (x) = f (x + 2) =3 (x + 2) − 2 = x
3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 21 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = x − 3. Find f −1 (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 22 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = x − 3. Find f −1 (x).
Solution
1 1
y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)
3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 22 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = x − 3. Find f −1 (x).
Solution
1 1
y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)
3 3
Check:
   
−1
 1 1
f f (x) = f (x + 2) =3 (x + 2) − 2 = x
3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 22 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

The graph of a function


The graph of a function f (x) consists of the points in the Cartesian
plane whose coordinates are the input-output pairs for f . Namely, it
is the set {(x, f (x)) : x ∈ D}.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 23 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

The graph of a function


The graph of a function f (x) consists of the points in the Cartesian
plane whose coordinates are the input-output pairs for f . Namely, it
is the set {(x, f (x)) : x ∈ D}.
The graph of a function f is a useful picture of its behavior. If (x, y )
is a point on the graph, then f (x) is the height of the graph above
the point x. The height may be positive or negative, depending on
the sign of f (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 23 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example: the graph of a function


Graph the function y = x 2 on [−2, 2].

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 24 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example: the graph of a function


Graph the function y = x 2 on [−2, 2].
Solution
Make a table of xy-pairs that satisfy the equation y = x 2 . Plot the
points (x, y ) whose coordinates appear in the table, and draw a
smooth curve through the plotted points.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 24 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs

Example: the graph of a function


Graph the function y = x 2 on [−2, 2].
Solution
Make a table of xy-pairs that satisfy the equation y = x 2 . Plot the
points (x, y ) whose coordinates appear in the table, and draw a
smooth curve through the plotted points.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 24 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions
Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple
transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related
functions.
y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions
Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple
transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related
functions.
y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.
y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions
Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple
transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related
functions.
y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.
y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.
y = f (x + c), shift the graph of y = f (x) left c units.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions
Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple
transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related
functions.
y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.
y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.
y = f (x + c), shift the graph of y = f (x) left c units.
y = f (x − c), shift the graph of y = f (x) right c units

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions
Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple
transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related
functions.
y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.
y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.
y = f (x + c), shift the graph of y = f (x) left c units.
y = f (x − c), shift the graph of y = f (x) right c units

Example
Sketch the graphs
(a) y = x 2 ,
(b) y = x 2 − 3,
(c) y = (x − 1)2 − 3.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions

To obtain the graph of


y = cf (x), stretch y = f (x) vertically by a factor c,

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 26 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions

To obtain the graph of


y = cf (x), stretch y = f (x) vertically by a factor c,
y = f (cx), compress y = f (x) horizontally by a factor c.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 26 / 68
New Functions from Old Functions

To obtain the graph of


y = cf (x), stretch y = f (x) vertically by a factor c,
y = f (cx), compress y = f (x) horizontally by a factor c.

Example
Sketch the graphs
(a) y = 2sinx,
(b) y = sin(πx).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 26 / 68
Symmetry. Even Functions. Odd Functions

Definition
If f satisfies f (−x) = f (x) for every number x in its domain, then f
is called an even function.
For example, the function f (x) = x 2 is even.
The graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the
y -axis.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 27 / 68
Symmetry. Even Functions. Odd Functions

Definition
If f satisfies f (−x) = f (x) for every number x in its domain, then f
is called an even function.
For example, the function f (x) = x 2 is even.
The graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the
y -axis.

Definition
If f satisfies f (−x) = −f (x) for every number x in its domain, then
f is called an odd function.
For example, the function f (x) = x 3 is odd
The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 27 / 68
Symmetry. Even Functions. Odd Functions

An even function (left) and an odd function (right):

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 28 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs
The Vertical Line Test for a Function
Not every curve in the coordinate plane can be the graph of a
function! A curve in the xy −plane is the graph of a function iff no
vertical line intersects the curve more than once.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 29 / 68
1.3. Functions and graphs
The Vertical Line Test for a Function
Not every curve in the coordinate plane can be the graph of a
function! A curve in the xy −plane is the graph of a function iff no
vertical line intersects the curve more than once.

Figure: (a) The circle is not the graph of √


a function. (b) The upper
semicircle is the graph of a function y = √1 − x 2 (c) The lower
semicircle is the graph of a function y = 1 − x 2
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 29 / 68
Parametric Curves

Imagine that a particle moves along the curve C . C might not be


described by an equation of the form y = f (x) (why not?).

But the x− and y − coordinates of the particle are both functions of


time: x = f (t) and y = g (t). t is called a parameter. C is called a
parametric curve. x = f (t) and y = g (t) are the parametric
equations of C . We can also write c(t) = (f (t), g (t)).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 30 / 68
Parametric Curves

Example
Sketch the curve defined by x = t 2 − 2t , y = t + 1.
We construct a table of values and thus plot the curve:

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 31 / 68
Parametric Curves

Example
Sketch the curve defined by x = t 2 − 2t, y = t + 1, 0 ≤ t ≤ 4.

Note: The parametric equations not only describe the curve but also
tell us how it is traced.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 32 / 68
Some Common Functions
Polynomials: P(x) = an x n + an−1 x n−1 + . . . + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0 .
Power function: y = x a .
Trigonometric functions:
sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan), .... And
1 1 1
cosec x = , sec x = , cot x = ...
sin x cos x tan x
Exponential function: y = ax (a is the base). The most common
exponential function (often called the exponential function) is
f (x) = e x . e is an irrational number called the exponential
constant, e = 2.7182818. We will study e in detail later on.
If x = ay then y = loga x. This is a logarithmic function. a is
again called the base.
Note: lnx = loge x.
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 33 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

In this section, we define limits and study them using numerical and
graphical techniques. We begin with the following question: How do
the values of a function f (x) behave when x approaches a number c,
whether or not f (c) is defined?

Example: Numerical and Graphical Approach


Consider the function f (x) = sinx x .
Note that f (0) is not defined (undefined) but f (x) can be computed
for values of x close to 0.
We use the phrases “x approaches 0” or “x tends to 0” to indicate
that x takes on values (both positive and negative) that get closer
and closer to 0. Notation: x → 0.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 34 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Example (Cont.)
The following table gives the impression that f (x) gets closer and
closer to 1 as x approaches 0 through positive and negative values
(from both sides: the left or the right).

We say that f (x) approaches or converges to 1 as x → 0 and write:

sin x
lim f (x) = lim = 1.
x→0 x→0 x
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 35 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Definition: Graphical Approach
Suppose is f (x) defined when x is near the number a. Then we write

lim f (x) = L
x→a

and say “the limit of f (x), as x approaches a, equals L”


if we can make the values of f arbitrarily close to L (as close to L as
we like) by taking x to be sufficiently close to a (on either side of a )
but not equal to a.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 36 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example: Numerical and Graphical Approach


Investigate graphically and numerically
x −9
lim √
x→9 x −3

Solution
The graph of f (x) has a gap at x = 9 since f (9) is NOT defined.

Numerical evidence and the graph indicate that f (x) → 6 as x → 9.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 37 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Example: A limit that does not exist
Investigate graphically and numerically
1
lim sin
x→0 x
Solution
The function (x) is NOT defined at x = 0.

Numerical evidence and the graph suggests that the values of f (x)
bounce around and do not tend toward any limit L as x → 0.
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 38 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Example
Use the definition above to verify the following limits:
a. lim 5 = 5. b. lim (3x + 1) = 13.
x→7 x→4
Solution
a. Let f (x) = 5. We need to show that f (x) arbitrarily close to 5
when x is sufficiently close to 7. Since f (x) = 5, for all x, so what
we are required to show is automatic.
b. Let f (x) = 3x + 1. We want to show that |f (x) − 13| becomes
arbitrarily small when x is sufficiently close (but not equal) to 4. We
have |f (x) − 13| = 3|x − 4|, i.e., |f (x) − 13| is a multiple of |x − 4|,
thus we can make |f (x) − 13| arbitrarily small by taking x sufficiently
close to 4.
Q: How can we make |f (x) − L| arbitrarily small by taking x
sufficiently close to a?
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 39 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: δ −  approach
We say that f (x) converges to L as x → a

lim f (x) = L
x→a

if, for every  > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that

|f (x) − L| < 

for all x such that 0 < |a − x| < δ.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 40 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Example: δ −  approach
x 2 −1
Show that lim = 2.
x→1 x−1
Solution
Choose δ = , for 0 < |1 − x| < δ,
2
x − 1

x −1 − 2 = |1 − x| < 

Hence
x2 − 1
lim =2
x→1 x − 1

Example: δ −  approach
Show that lim (3x + 1) = 13. Hints: Choose δ = /3.
x→4

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 41 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Exercise
Find δ > 0 such that,

1 1
− < , for 0 < |x − 3| < δ.
x 3

Exercise
Show that √
lim x + 2 = 2.
x→2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 42 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: Limit at infinity


We say f (x) converges to L as x → ∞ and write

lim f (x) = L
x→∞

if, for every  > 0, there exists a number M such that |f (x) − L| < 
for all x > M.
In other words, limx→∞ f (x) = L means the values of f (x) can be
made arbitrarily large by taking x sufficiently close to a, but not
equal to a.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 43 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example: Limit at infinity


3x−1
Show that lim = 3/2.
x→∞ 2x+5
Solution
Choose M = 5 , then for x > M

3x − 1
= 8.5 < 8.5 < 

− 1.5
2x + 5 2x + 5 2 5 + 5

Hence
3x − 1
lim = 1.5
x→∞ 2x + 5

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 44 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: Limit at infinity


We say f (x) converges to L as x → −∞ and we write

lim f (x) = L
x→−∞

if, for every  > 0, there exists a number M such that |f (x) − L| < 
for all x < M.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 45 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example: Limit at infinity


Show that lim √ x = −1.
x→−∞ x 2 +1
Solution
Choose M = −1 
, for x < M

√ x

= √ 1 1
+ 1 √ < <
x2 + 1 2 2
x + 1( x + 1 − x) |x|

Hence
x
lim √ = −1.
x→−∞ x2 + 1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 46 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: Limit at one side


We say f (x) converges to L as x tends to a from the left and write

lim f (x) = L
x→a−

if, for every  > 0, there exists a number M < a such that

|f (x) − L| < 

for all x such that M < x < a.


This number M is often expressed as a − δ for some δ > 0.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 47 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example: Limit at one side



Show that lim− 1 − x 2 = 0.
x→1
Solution
2
Choose δ = 2
, for 1 − δ < x < 1
√ p √
1 − x2 < 1 − (1 − δ)2 < 2δ = 

Hence √
lim− 1 − x 2 = 0.
x→1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 48 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits
Definition: Limit at one side
We say f (x) converges to L as x tends to a from the right and write

lim f (x) = L
x→a+

if, for every  > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that

|f (x) − L| < 

for all x such that a < x < a + δ.

Exercise: Limit at one side


Show that √
lim + 1 − x2 = 0
x→−1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 49 / 68
2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Theorem
lim f (x) = L ⇔ lim+ f (x) = L = lim− f (x)
x→a x→a x→a

Exercise
Show that √
lim x2 = 0
x→0

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 50 / 68
2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Properties
lim x = a, lim k = k
x→a x→a

lim (f (x) + g (x)) = lim f (x) + lim g (x)


x→a x→a x→a

lim (f (x) − g (x)) = lim f (x) − lim g (x)


x→a x→a x→a

lim (f (x)g (x)) = ( lim f (x))( lim g (x))


x→a x→a x→a

f (x) limx→a f (x)


lim = , if lim g (x) 6= 0
x→a g (x) limx→a g (x) x→a

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 51 / 68
2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Example
Show that lim (3t − 5) = 1.
t→2
Solution

lim (3t − 5) = lim {(3)(t) + (−5)}


t→2 t→2
= (lim 3)(lim t) + (lim (−5))
t→2 t→2 t→2
= 3 · 2 − 5 = 1.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 52 / 68
2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Example: Multiplying by the Conjugate


√ √ √
x −6−2 ( x − 6 − 2)( x − 6 + 2)
lim = lim √
x→10 x − 10 x→10 (x − 10)( x − 6 + 2)
(x − 6) − 4
= lim √
x→10 (x − 10)( x − 6 + 2)

1
= lim √
x→10 x −6+2
1 1
= √ = .
10 − 6 + 2 4

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 53 / 68
2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Exercise
1. Evaluate
−2t − 4
lim
t→2 t +1
2. Assume
lim f (x) = 2, lim g (x) = 3
x→−4 x→−4

Evaluate
lim f (x)g (x), lim (2f (x) + 3g (x),
x→−4 x→−4

g (x) f (x) + 1
lim 2
, lim
x→−4 x x→−4 3g (x) − 2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 54 / 68
2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem
Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Theorem
If for 0 < |x − a| <  (i.e. for x is near a):

f (x) 6 g (x) 6 h(x)

and
lim f (x) = L = lim h(x).
x→a x→a

Then
lim g (x) = L.
x→a

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 55 / 68
2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Example
Show that lim x 2 sin x1 = 0.
x→0
Solution
Applying the Sandwich Theorem, note that:
1
−x 2 6 x 2 sin 6 x2
x
and lim x 2 = lim −x 2 = 0. Therefore lim x 2 sin x1 = 0.
x→0 x→0 x→0

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 56 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Definition
Suppose f is defined in an open interval that contains a, then f is
continuous at a if and only if

lim f (x) = f (a).


x→a

In other words, f (a) must be defined and, for any  > 0, there exists
δ > 0 such that
|f (x) − f (a)| < .
whenever |x − a| < δ and f (x) is defined.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 57 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 58 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Example
Show that f (x) = x and g (x) = k (constant) are continuous
everywhere.
Solution:
Choose δ = 
|f (x) − f (a)| = |x − a| < .
whenever |x − a| < δ.

|g (x) − g (a)| = |k − k| = 0 < .

whenever |x − a| < δ.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 59 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Example
Another Proof:
At any point a
lim f (x) = lim x = a = f (a)
x→a x→a

Therefore f is continuous everywhere

lim g (x) = lim k = k = g (a)


x→a x→a

Therefore g is continuous everywhere

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 60 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Example (Cont.)
Show that 
1 x >0
f (x) =
0 x ≤0
is not continuous at 0.
Solution:
Given  = 1 and any δ > 0,

|f (x) − f (0)| = |1 − 0| <


6 
1
for
1 x = n and n is chosen such that nδ > 1 which implies
− 0 < δ.
n

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 61 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties
Exercise
1. Show that
1

x
x=6 0
f (x) =
0 x =0
is not continuous at 0.
2. Show that
x sin( x1 ) x 6= 0

f (x) =
0 x =0
is continuous at 0.
Hints: Choose δ = 
 
1
|f (x) − f (0)| ≤ x sin ≤ |x| < .
x

whenever |x − 0| < δ.
Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 62 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Theorem
Suppose f , g are continuous at a. Then

f + g , f − g , fg

are continuous at a. So are the functions kf , if k is a constant, and


f /g if g (a) 6= 0.
In particular, every polynomial P(x) is defined and continuous at
P(x)
every point. If Q(x) is another polynomial and Q(a) 6= 0, then Q(x) is
also continuous at a.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 63 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Theorem
If f is a continuous bijection from an interval I onto an interval J,
then f −1 is continuous on J.

Example
n
The functions
√ x√ are continuous bijections from [0, ∞) onto itself.
Therefore x, n x √ are defined and continuous at every non-negative
points. If n is odd, n x is continuous at every point.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 64 / 68
3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Theorem
The exponential functions ax and their inverses loga x are continuous
at every point of their domains.

Theorem
Let F (x) = f (g (x)) be a composite function. If g is continuous at a
and f is continuous at g (a), then F (x) is continuous at a.

Example
√ √
x 2 + 1 and 3 x 5 + 4x 2 − 7x + 3 are composite functions of
continuous functions and therefore defined and continuous
everywhere.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 65 / 68
3.2. The Intermediate Value Theorem

The Intermediate Value Theorem


Suppose f is continuous on an interval that contains two points a, b
and f (a) 6= f (b). Then for every value N between f (a) and f (b),
there exists c between a and b such that f (c) = N.

Note: If f (a)f (b) < 0, equation f (x) = 0 has a solution c ∈ (a, b).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 66 / 68
3.2. The Intermediate Value Theorem

Example: Using the IVT to show the existence of a root


Show that there is a root of the equation f (x) = 5x − 6x = 0
between 0 and 1.

Solution
f is continuous on [0, 1], f (0) = 1 > 0 and f (1) = −1 < 0. Hence,
by the IVT, there exists a solution c ∈ (0, 1) of the equation
5x − bx = 0.

Example: Using the IVT to show the existence of a root


Show that there is a root of the equation x 4 + x 2 − x − 3 = 0 on
[1, 2].

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 67 / 68
3.2. The Intermediate Value Theorem

Exercise
1. Evaluate the limit
√ √
1+x − 1−x
lim
x→0 x
2. Show that the equation
1
x2 − x − 1 =
x +1
has a solution in (1, 2).
3. Prove that the equation 2x = bx has a solution if b > 2. Find an
1
approximate solution of the equation 2x = 5x with an error < 16 .
√ √
4. Show that c + c − 1 = 2 for some number c between 1 and 2.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 68 / 68