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HOCHIMINH CITY

INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

CALCULUS I

Lecturer: Nguyen Minh Quan, PhD

Department of Mathematics

E-mail: quannm@hcmiu.edu.vn

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 1 / 68

CONTENTS

1 Functions

An introduction to Calculus

Review of set theory

Functions and graphs

2 Limits

Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

3 Continuity

Continuity: Definitions and properties

The Intermediate Value Theorem

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 2 / 68

1.1. An introduction to Calculus

Calculus give us a way to construct quantitative models in

practice, and to deduce the predictions of such models.

Calculus is the best way to describe most of the ’laws of nature’.

Calculus are used in many fields: Mathematics, Physics,

Engineering, Biology, Chemistry, Economics, Computing science,

and other sciences.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 3 / 68

1.1. An introduction to Calculus

integration. Both are based on the concept of limits.

In Calculus 1 we study

(a) basic concepts of functions and limits,

(b) techniques of differentiation and integration,

(c) applications to a wide range of practical situations.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 4 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

belongs to X , the negation of that relation is written x ∈

/ X.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 5 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

belongs to X , the negation of that relation is written x ∈

/ X.

X is an element of Y and we say X is contained in Y , or that X

is a subset of Y . The negation of X ⊂ Y is written X 6⊂ Y .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 5 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

belongs to X , the negation of that relation is written x ∈

/ X.

X is an element of Y and we say X is contained in Y , or that X

is a subset of Y . The negation of X ⊂ Y is written X 6⊂ Y .

common elements that belongs to both sets. The union of two

sets X , Y , X ∪ Y , is the set of elements that belongs to at least

one of the sets.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 5 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

Ac = {x ∈ X |x ∈

/ A}.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 6 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

Ac = {x ∈ X |x ∈

/ A}.

number may be either rational or irrational. Denote R by the set

of all real numbers.

[a, b] = {x ∈ R|a ≤ x ≤ b}

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 6 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

|a + b| 6 |a| + |b| .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 7 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

|a + b| 6 |a| + |b| .

example, |x| < r ⇔ −r < x < r ⇔ x ∈ (−r , r ) .

Example

Describe the set S = x : 21 x − 3 > 4 in terms of intervals

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 7 / 68

1.2. Review of set theory

Solution

Consider the complement: S c = x : 12 x − 3 ≤ 4

1

x − 3 6 4 ⇔ −4 6 1 x − 3 6 4 ⇔ −2 6 x 6 14.

2 2

Thus

S c = [−2, 14] ⇒ S = (−∞, −2) ∪ (14, ∞)

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 8 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Coordinates and Graphs: O is the origin, Ox is the x-axis, Oy is

the y-axis (x, y ) are the x- and y -coordinates.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 9 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Coordinates and Graphs: O is the origin, Ox is the x-axis, Oy is

the y-axis (x, y ) are the x- and y -coordinates.

Consider any two points (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) on a straight line.

On the interval [x1 , x2 ]. We call ∆x = x2 − x1 and ∆y = y2 − y1

the change in x and y , respectively.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 9 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Coordinates and Graphs: O is the origin, Ox is the x-axis, Oy is

the y-axis (x, y ) are the x- and y -coordinates.

Consider any two points (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) on a straight line.

On the interval [x1 , x2 ]. We call ∆x = x2 − x1 and ∆y = y2 − y1

the change in x and y , respectively.

The slope (or gradient) of the line is

∆y y2 − y1

m = tan α = =

∆x x2 − x1

m tell us the rate of change of y with respect to x.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 9 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Example

For the graph shown below, state the slope

(a) for 0 < x < 1

(b) for 5 < x < 9

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 10 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Suppose a straight line crosses the y -axis at y = c. We call c

the y-intercept.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 11 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Suppose a straight line crosses the y -axis at y = c. We call c

the y-intercept.

For any point (x, y ) on the line, the slope is defined by

y −c

m=

x −0

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 11 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Suppose a straight line crosses the y -axis at y = c. We call c

the y-intercept.

For any point (x, y ) on the line, the slope is defined by

y −c

m=

x −0

straight line, which is called the slope-intercept form:

y = mx + c

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 11 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

The slope-intercept form is very convenient for graph-sketching.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 12 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

The slope-intercept form is very convenient for graph-sketching.

Other forms

Point-Slope Form: y = y1 + m(x − x1 ).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 12 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

The slope-intercept form is very convenient for graph-sketching.

Other forms

Point-Slope Form: y = y1 + m(x − x1 ).

Two Point Form: For a line passing through points (x1 , y1 ) and

(x2 , y2 ):

y − y1 y2 − y1

= (= m)

x − x1 x2 − x1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 12 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Linear model

Example

Find the equation of the straight line passing through points (1, 0)

and (0, 4).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 13 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Linear model

Example

Find the equation of the straight line passing through points (1, 0)

and (0, 4).

Example

At a certain place, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere was

measured to be 339 ppm in the year 1980 and 373 ppm in 2002.

Assume a linear model. Find an equation for the CO2 concentration

C (in ppm) as a function of time t (in years). Use your equation to

predict the CO2 concentration in 2015.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 13 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Example

Table 1 lists the average carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere,

measured in parts per million at Mauna Loa Observatory from 1980

to 1998. Use the data in Table 1 to find a model for the carbon

dioxide level.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 14 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 15 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Solution

We use the data in Table 1 to make the scatter plot as in the figure

above where t represents time (in years) and C represents the CO2

level. We find the equation of the line that passes through the first

and last data points.

The slope is m = 366.7−338.5

1998−1980

= 1.56667.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 15 / 68

1.2 Functions and graphs: Straight Lines.

Solution

We use the data in Table 1 to make the scatter plot as in the figure

above where t represents time (in years) and C represents the CO2

level. We find the equation of the line that passes through the first

and last data points.

The slope is m = 366.7−338.5

1998−1980

= 1.56667. Thus,

C − 338.5 = 1.56667 (t − 1980) or C = 1.56667t − 2763.51.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 15 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

A function of a variable x is a rule f that assigns to each value of x

in a set D a unique number f (x) in a set E , called the value of the

function at x. [We read "f(x)" or "f of x".]

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 16 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

A function of a variable x is a rule f that assigns to each value of x

in a set D a unique number f (x) in a set E , called the value of the

function at x. [We read "f(x)" or "f of x".]

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 16 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

A function of a variable x is a rule f that assigns to each value of x

in a set D a unique number f (x) in a set E , called the value of the

function at x. [We read "f(x)" or "f of x".]

The set D is called the domain and the range is the set of all possible

values of of f (x) as x varies throughout the domain.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 16 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

√

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set

D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)

(why?).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

√

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set

D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)

(why?).

Definition

f is surjective (or onto, or a subjection) if for every y ∈ E ,

there is at least an element x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

√

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set

D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)

(why?).

Definition

f is surjective (or onto, or a subjection) if for every y ∈ E ,

there is at least an element x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

f is injective (or one-to-one, or an injection) if for every y ∈ E ,

there is at most one x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

√

Example The domain of the function y = f (x) = x is the set

D = {x ∈ R : x > 0}, and the range of this function is [0, ∞)

(why?).

Definition

f is surjective (or onto, or a subjection) if for every y ∈ E ,

there is at least an element x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

f is injective (or one-to-one, or an injection) if for every y ∈ E ,

there is at most one x ∈ D such that f (x) = y .

f is bijective or a bijection iff it is both surjective and injective.

both f (−2) = 4 and f (2) = 4. However, we can turn f (x) = x 2 into

a one-to-one function if we restrict ourselves to 0 6 x < ∞.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 17 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

Given two functions f and g , the composite function (also called the

composition of f and g ) is f ◦ g defined by (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 18 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

Given two functions f and g , the composite function (also called the

composition of f and g ) is f ◦ g defined by (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 18 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).

(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).

(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).

Solution

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 3 (x − 1)2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).

(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).

Solution

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 3 (x − 1)2

(b) (g ◦ f ) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (3x 2 ) = 3x 2 − 1.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 19 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x 2 , g (x) = x − 1 find each of the following:

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x).

(b) (g ◦ f ) (x).

Solution

(a) (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 3 (x − 1)2

(b) (g ◦ f ) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (3x 2 ) = 3x 2 − 1.

that the function g is applied first and then f is applied second.

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

Given two one-to-one functions f (x) and g (x) if

f ◦ g (x) = g ◦ f (x) = x

then we say that f (x) and g (x) are inverses of each other.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 20 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

Given two one-to-one functions f (x) and g (x) if

f ◦ g (x) = g ◦ f (x) = x

then we say that f (x) and g (x) are inverses of each other.

More specifically we will say that g (x) is the inverse of f (x) and

denote it by

g (x) = f −1 (x)

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 20 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Definition

Given two one-to-one functions f (x) and g (x) if

f ◦ g (x) = g ◦ f (x) = x

then we say that f (x) and g (x) are inverses of each other.

More specifically we will say that g (x) is the inverse of f (x) and

denote it by

g (x) = f −1 (x)

Given f (x), how to find f −1 (x)?

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 20 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x − 2. Find f −1 (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 21 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x − 2. Find f −1 (x).

Solution

1 1

y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)

3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 21 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

Given f (x) = 3x − 2. Find f −1 (x).

Solution

1 1

y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)

3 3

Check:

−1

1 1

f f (x) = f (x + 2) =3 (x + 2) − 2 = x

3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 21 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

√

Given f (x) = x − 3. Find f −1 (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 22 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

√

Given f (x) = x − 3. Find f −1 (x).

Solution

1 1

y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)

3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 22 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Example

√

Given f (x) = x − 3. Find f −1 (x).

Solution

1 1

y = 3x − 2 ⇒ x = (y + 2) ⇒ f −1 (x) = (x + 2)

3 3

Check:

−1

1 1

f f (x) = f (x + 2) =3 (x + 2) − 2 = x

3 3

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 22 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

The graph of a function f (x) consists of the points in the Cartesian

plane whose coordinates are the input-output pairs for f . Namely, it

is the set {(x, f (x)) : x ∈ D}.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 23 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

The graph of a function f (x) consists of the points in the Cartesian

plane whose coordinates are the input-output pairs for f . Namely, it

is the set {(x, f (x)) : x ∈ D}.

The graph of a function f is a useful picture of its behavior. If (x, y )

is a point on the graph, then f (x) is the height of the graph above

the point x. The height may be positive or negative, depending on

the sign of f (x).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 23 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Graph the function y = x 2 on [−2, 2].

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 24 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Graph the function y = x 2 on [−2, 2].

Solution

Make a table of xy-pairs that satisfy the equation y = x 2 . Plot the

points (x, y ) whose coordinates appear in the table, and draw a

smooth curve through the plotted points.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 24 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

Graph the function y = x 2 on [−2, 2].

Solution

Make a table of xy-pairs that satisfy the equation y = x 2 . Plot the

points (x, y ) whose coordinates appear in the table, and draw a

smooth curve through the plotted points.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 24 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple

transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related

functions.

y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple

transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related

functions.

y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.

y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple

transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related

functions.

y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.

y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.

y = f (x + c), shift the graph of y = f (x) left c units.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple

transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related

functions.

y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.

y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.

y = f (x + c), shift the graph of y = f (x) left c units.

y = f (x − c), shift the graph of y = f (x) right c units

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

Suppose we know the graph of a certain function. By some simple

transformations, we can quickly obtain the graphs of some related

functions.

y = f (x) + c, shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units.

y = f (x) − c, shift the graph of y = f (x) down c units.

y = f (x + c), shift the graph of y = f (x) left c units.

y = f (x − c), shift the graph of y = f (x) right c units

Example

Sketch the graphs

(a) y = x 2 ,

(b) y = x 2 − 3,

(c) y = (x − 1)2 − 3.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 25 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

y = cf (x), stretch y = f (x) vertically by a factor c,

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 26 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

y = cf (x), stretch y = f (x) vertically by a factor c,

y = f (cx), compress y = f (x) horizontally by a factor c.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 26 / 68

New Functions from Old Functions

y = cf (x), stretch y = f (x) vertically by a factor c,

y = f (cx), compress y = f (x) horizontally by a factor c.

Example

Sketch the graphs

(a) y = 2sinx,

(b) y = sin(πx).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 26 / 68

Symmetry. Even Functions. Odd Functions

Definition

If f satisfies f (−x) = f (x) for every number x in its domain, then f

is called an even function.

For example, the function f (x) = x 2 is even.

The graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the

y -axis.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 27 / 68

Symmetry. Even Functions. Odd Functions

Definition

If f satisfies f (−x) = f (x) for every number x in its domain, then f

is called an even function.

For example, the function f (x) = x 2 is even.

The graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the

y -axis.

Definition

If f satisfies f (−x) = −f (x) for every number x in its domain, then

f is called an odd function.

For example, the function f (x) = x 3 is odd

The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 27 / 68

Symmetry. Even Functions. Odd Functions

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 28 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

The Vertical Line Test for a Function

Not every curve in the coordinate plane can be the graph of a

function! A curve in the xy −plane is the graph of a function iff no

vertical line intersects the curve more than once.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 29 / 68

1.3. Functions and graphs

The Vertical Line Test for a Function

Not every curve in the coordinate plane can be the graph of a

function! A curve in the xy −plane is the graph of a function iff no

vertical line intersects the curve more than once.

a function. (b) The upper

semicircle is the graph of a function y = √1 − x 2 (c) The lower

semicircle is the graph of a function y = 1 − x 2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 29 / 68

Parametric Curves

described by an equation of the form y = f (x) (why not?).

time: x = f (t) and y = g (t). t is called a parameter. C is called a

parametric curve. x = f (t) and y = g (t) are the parametric

equations of C . We can also write c(t) = (f (t), g (t)).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 30 / 68

Parametric Curves

Example

Sketch the curve defined by x = t 2 − 2t , y = t + 1.

We construct a table of values and thus plot the curve:

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 31 / 68

Parametric Curves

Example

Sketch the curve defined by x = t 2 − 2t, y = t + 1, 0 ≤ t ≤ 4.

Note: The parametric equations not only describe the curve but also

tell us how it is traced.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 32 / 68

Some Common Functions

Polynomials: P(x) = an x n + an−1 x n−1 + . . . + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0 .

Power function: y = x a .

Trigonometric functions:

sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan), .... And

1 1 1

cosec x = , sec x = , cot x = ...

sin x cos x tan x

Exponential function: y = ax (a is the base). The most common

exponential function (often called the exponential function) is

f (x) = e x . e is an irrational number called the exponential

constant, e = 2.7182818. We will study e in detail later on.

If x = ay then y = loga x. This is a logarithmic function. a is

again called the base.

Note: lnx = loge x.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 33 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

In this section, we define limits and study them using numerical and

graphical techniques. We begin with the following question: How do

the values of a function f (x) behave when x approaches a number c,

whether or not f (c) is defined?

Consider the function f (x) = sinx x .

Note that f (0) is not defined (undefined) but f (x) can be computed

for values of x close to 0.

We use the phrases “x approaches 0” or “x tends to 0” to indicate

that x takes on values (both positive and negative) that get closer

and closer to 0. Notation: x → 0.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 34 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example (Cont.)

The following table gives the impression that f (x) gets closer and

closer to 1 as x approaches 0 through positive and negative values

(from both sides: the left or the right).

sin x

lim f (x) = lim = 1.

x→0 x→0 x

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 35 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: Graphical Approach

Suppose is f (x) defined when x is near the number a. Then we write

lim f (x) = L

x→a

if we can make the values of f arbitrarily close to L (as close to L as

we like) by taking x to be sufficiently close to a (on either side of a )

but not equal to a.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 36 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Investigate graphically and numerically

x −9

lim √

x→9 x −3

Solution

The graph of f (x) has a gap at x = 9 since f (9) is NOT defined.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 37 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example: A limit that does not exist

Investigate graphically and numerically

1

lim sin

x→0 x

Solution

The function (x) is NOT defined at x = 0.

Numerical evidence and the graph suggests that the values of f (x)

bounce around and do not tend toward any limit L as x → 0.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 38 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example

Use the definition above to verify the following limits:

a. lim 5 = 5. b. lim (3x + 1) = 13.

x→7 x→4

Solution

a. Let f (x) = 5. We need to show that f (x) arbitrarily close to 5

when x is sufficiently close to 7. Since f (x) = 5, for all x, so what

we are required to show is automatic.

b. Let f (x) = 3x + 1. We want to show that |f (x) − 13| becomes

arbitrarily small when x is sufficiently close (but not equal) to 4. We

have |f (x) − 13| = 3|x − 4|, i.e., |f (x) − 13| is a multiple of |x − 4|,

thus we can make |f (x) − 13| arbitrarily small by taking x sufficiently

close to 4.

Q: How can we make |f (x) − L| arbitrarily small by taking x

sufficiently close to a?

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 39 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: δ − approach

We say that f (x) converges to L as x → a

lim f (x) = L

x→a

|f (x) − L| <

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 40 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Example: δ − approach

x 2 −1

Show that lim = 2.

x→1 x−1

Solution

Choose δ = , for 0 < |1 − x| < δ,

2

x − 1

x −1 − 2 = |1 − x| <

Hence

x2 − 1

lim =2

x→1 x − 1

Example: δ − approach

Show that lim (3x + 1) = 13. Hints: Choose δ = /3.

x→4

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 41 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Exercise

Find δ > 0 such that,

1 1

− < , for 0 < |x − 3| < δ.

x 3

Exercise

Show that √

lim x + 2 = 2.

x→2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 42 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

We say f (x) converges to L as x → ∞ and write

lim f (x) = L

x→∞

if, for every > 0, there exists a number M such that |f (x) − L| <

for all x > M.

In other words, limx→∞ f (x) = L means the values of f (x) can be

made arbitrarily large by taking x sufficiently close to a, but not

equal to a.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 43 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

3x−1

Show that lim = 3/2.

x→∞ 2x+5

Solution

Choose M = 5 , then for x > M

3x − 1

= 8.5 < 8.5 <

− 1.5

2x + 5 2x + 5 2 5 + 5

Hence

3x − 1

lim = 1.5

x→∞ 2x + 5

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 44 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

We say f (x) converges to L as x → −∞ and we write

lim f (x) = L

x→−∞

if, for every > 0, there exists a number M such that |f (x) − L| <

for all x < M.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 45 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Show that lim √ x = −1.

x→−∞ x 2 +1

Solution

Choose M = −1

, for x < M

√ x

= √ 1 1

+ 1 √ < <

x2 + 1 2 2

x + 1( x + 1 − x) |x|

Hence

x

lim √ = −1.

x→−∞ x2 + 1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 46 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

We say f (x) converges to L as x tends to a from the left and write

lim f (x) = L

x→a−

if, for every > 0, there exists a number M < a such that

|f (x) − L| <

This number M is often expressed as a − δ for some δ > 0.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 47 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

√

Show that lim− 1 − x 2 = 0.

x→1

Solution

2

Choose δ = 2

, for 1 − δ < x < 1

√ p √

1 − x2 < 1 − (1 − δ)2 < 2δ =

Hence √

lim− 1 − x 2 = 0.

x→1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 48 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Definition: Limit at one side

We say f (x) converges to L as x tends to a from the right and write

lim f (x) = L

x→a+

|f (x) − L| <

Show that √

lim + 1 − x2 = 0

x→−1

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 49 / 68

2.1. Limits. Definitions. One-sided Limits

Theorem

lim f (x) = L ⇔ lim+ f (x) = L = lim− f (x)

x→a x→a x→a

Exercise

Show that √

lim x2 = 0

x→0

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 50 / 68

2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Properties

lim x = a, lim k = k

x→a x→a

x→a x→a x→a

x→a x→a x→a

x→a x→a x→a

lim = , if lim g (x) 6= 0

x→a g (x) limx→a g (x) x→a

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 51 / 68

2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Example

Show that lim (3t − 5) = 1.

t→2

Solution

t→2 t→2

= (lim 3)(lim t) + (lim (−5))

t→2 t→2 t→2

= 3 · 2 − 5 = 1.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 52 / 68

2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

√ √ √

x −6−2 ( x − 6 − 2)( x − 6 + 2)

lim = lim √

x→10 x − 10 x→10 (x − 10)( x − 6 + 2)

(x − 6) − 4

= lim √

x→10 (x − 10)( x − 6 + 2)

1

= lim √

x→10 x −6+2

1 1

= √ = .

10 − 6 + 2 4

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 53 / 68

2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Exercise

1. Evaluate

−2t − 4

lim

t→2 t +1

2. Assume

lim f (x) = 2, lim g (x) = 3

x→−4 x→−4

Evaluate

lim f (x)g (x), lim (2f (x) + 3g (x),

x→−4 x→−4

g (x) f (x) + 1

lim 2

, lim

x→−4 x x→−4 3g (x) − 2

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 54 / 68

2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Theorem

If for 0 < |x − a| < (i.e. for x is near a):

and

lim f (x) = L = lim h(x).

x→a x→a

Then

lim g (x) = L.

x→a

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 55 / 68

2.2. Evaluating Limits. The Squeeze Theorem

Example

Show that lim x 2 sin x1 = 0.

x→0

Solution

Applying the Sandwich Theorem, note that:

1

−x 2 6 x 2 sin 6 x2

x

and lim x 2 = lim −x 2 = 0. Therefore lim x 2 sin x1 = 0.

x→0 x→0 x→0

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 56 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Definition

Suppose f is defined in an open interval that contains a, then f is

continuous at a if and only if

x→a

In other words, f (a) must be defined and, for any > 0, there exists

δ > 0 such that

|f (x) − f (a)| < .

whenever |x − a| < δ and f (x) is defined.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 57 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 58 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Example

Show that f (x) = x and g (x) = k (constant) are continuous

everywhere.

Solution:

Choose δ =

|f (x) − f (a)| = |x − a| < .

whenever |x − a| < δ.

whenever |x − a| < δ.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 59 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Example

Another Proof:

At any point a

lim f (x) = lim x = a = f (a)

x→a x→a

x→a x→a

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 60 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Example (Cont.)

Show that

1 x >0

f (x) =

0 x ≤0

is not continuous at 0.

Solution:

Given = 1 and any δ > 0,

6

1

for

1 x = n and n is chosen such that nδ > 1 which implies

− 0 < δ.

n

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 61 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Exercise

1. Show that

1

x

x=6 0

f (x) =

0 x =0

is not continuous at 0.

2. Show that

x sin( x1 ) x 6= 0

f (x) =

0 x =0

is continuous at 0.

Hints: Choose δ =

1

|f (x) − f (0)| ≤ x sin ≤ |x| < .

x

whenever |x − 0| < δ.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 62 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Theorem

Suppose f , g are continuous at a. Then

f + g , f − g , fg

f /g if g (a) 6= 0.

In particular, every polynomial P(x) is defined and continuous at

P(x)

every point. If Q(x) is another polynomial and Q(a) 6= 0, then Q(x) is

also continuous at a.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 63 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Theorem

If f is a continuous bijection from an interval I onto an interval J,

then f −1 is continuous on J.

Example

n

The functions

√ x√ are continuous bijections from [0, ∞) onto itself.

Therefore x, n x √ are defined and continuous at every non-negative

points. If n is odd, n x is continuous at every point.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 64 / 68

3.1. Continuity: Definitions and properties

Theorem

The exponential functions ax and their inverses loga x are continuous

at every point of their domains.

Theorem

Let F (x) = f (g (x)) be a composite function. If g is continuous at a

and f is continuous at g (a), then F (x) is continuous at a.

Example

√ √

x 2 + 1 and 3 x 5 + 4x 2 − 7x + 3 are composite functions of

continuous functions and therefore defined and continuous

everywhere.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 65 / 68

3.2. The Intermediate Value Theorem

Suppose f is continuous on an interval that contains two points a, b

and f (a) 6= f (b). Then for every value N between f (a) and f (b),

there exists c between a and b such that f (c) = N.

Note: If f (a)f (b) < 0, equation f (x) = 0 has a solution c ∈ (a, b).

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 66 / 68

3.2. The Intermediate Value Theorem

Show that there is a root of the equation f (x) = 5x − 6x = 0

between 0 and 1.

Solution

f is continuous on [0, 1], f (0) = 1 > 0 and f (1) = −1 < 0. Hence,

by the IVT, there exists a solution c ∈ (0, 1) of the equation

5x − bx = 0.

Show that there is a root of the equation x 4 + x 2 − x − 3 = 0 on

[1, 2].

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 67 / 68

3.2. The Intermediate Value Theorem

Exercise

1. Evaluate the limit

√ √

1+x − 1−x

lim

x→0 x

2. Show that the equation

1

x2 − x − 1 =

x +1

has a solution in (1, 2).

3. Prove that the equation 2x = bx has a solution if b > 2. Find an

1

approximate solution of the equation 2x = 5x with an error < 16 .

√ √

4. Show that c + c − 1 = 2 for some number c between 1 and 2.

Dr. Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 1. FUNCTS., LIMITS AND CONT. 10-03-2012 68 / 68

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