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Due to the problems caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and
people, the automotive industry has turned to the electrical powered vehicle. This
report explains how an electric vehicle works and compares the electric vehicle to the
internal combustion engine and hybrid vehicle. The report provides some of the
advantages and disadvantages of the electric vehicle. In addition, a brief future view
of the technology is given..














Fig No Description of Figure Page


Figure 1. Parts of an electric vehicle

Figure 2 . Parts of a hybrid vehicle



The 1960s and 1970s saw a need for alternative fueled vehicles to reduce
the problems of exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines and to
reduce the dependency on imported foreign crude oil. During the years from 1960
to the present, many attempts to produce practical electric vehicles occurred and
continue to occur.
The purpose of this report is to describe the technology used to produce an
electric vehicle and explain why the electric engine is better than the internal
combustion engine. It includes reasons why the electric vehicle grew rapidly and
the reason it is a necessity to better the world today. The report describes the most
important parts in an electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle. It compares the electric
to the hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicle. It also includes the future of
the electric vehicle.
The overall impact of the electric vehicle ultimately benefits the people.
Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be
ninety-seven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe emissions that can place
particulate matter into the air. Particulate matter, carcinogens released into the
atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, “can increase asthma conditions, as well as
irritate respiratory systems”.
The paper begins with a history of the electric vehicle, specifically the
lows and highs of production and the reasons for the change. The next section
provides a technical description of an electric vehicle, including the parts, their
functions, and the theory of operation. The following section describes the
hybrid car, including parts, their functions and the theory of operation. Based on
this understanding, I then compare the internal combustion engine, the hybrid
engine, and the electrical engine in terms of efficiency, speed, acceleration,
maintenance, mileage, and cost. The paper concludes with sections on the4
advantages and disadvantages of the electric vehicle and its future.


Thomas Parker built the first practical production electric car in London in
1884, using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries.
The Flocken Elektrowagen of 1888 was designed by German inventor Andreas
Flocken. Electric cars were among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion
in the late 19th century and early 20th century, providing a level of comfort and
ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The
electric vehicle stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles at the turn of the
20th century. In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the USA.
Based on the design of the Electrobat II, a fleet of twelve hansom cabs and one
brougham were used in New York City as part of a project funded in part by the
Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia. During the 20th century, the
main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Baker,
Columbia, Anderson, Edison, Riker, Milburn, Bailey Electric and others. Unlike
gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were less fast and less noisy, and did
not require gear changes. Advances in internal combustion engines in the first
decade of the 20th century lessened the relative advantages of the electric car. The
greater range of gasoline cars, and their much quicker refueling times, made them
more popular and encouraged a rapid expansion of petroleum infrastructure, making
gasoline easy to find, but what proved decisive was the introduction in 1912 of the
electric starter motor which replaced other, often laborious, methods of starting the
ICE, such as hand-cranking.

In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began a push
for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a
move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers
developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup
truck, GM EV1, and S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan Altra
EV miniwagon, and Toyota RAV4 EV. These cars were eventually withdrawn from
the U.S. market.

California electric automaker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on

what would become the Tesla Roadster (2008), which was first delivered to
customers in 2008. The Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-
electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, and the first production all-electric car to
travel more than 320 km (200 miles) per charge. Models released to the market
between 2010 and December 2016 include the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Nissan
Leaf, Ford Focus Electric, Tesla Model S, BMW ActiveE, Coda, Renault Fluence
Z.E., Honda Fit EV, Toyota RAV4 EV, Renault Zoe, Roewe E50, Mahindra
e2o, Chevrolet Spark EV, Fiat 500e, Volkswagen e-Up!, BMW i3, BMW Brilliance
Zinoro 1E, Kia Soul EV, Volkswagen e-Golf, Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric
Drive, Venucia e30, BAIC E150 EV, Denza EV, Zotye Zhidou E20, BYD e5, Tesla
Model X, Detroit Electric SP.01, BYD Qin EV300, Hyundai Ioniq
Electric and Chevrolet Bolt EV.

Cumulative global sales of the Nissan Leaf, currently the top selling electric
car, passed 200,000 units in December 2015, five years after its introduction. The
same month, the Renault-Nissan Alliance, the top selling all-electric vehicle
manufacturer, passed the milestone of 300,000 electric vehicles sold worldwide.
The Tesla Model 3 was unveiled on March 31, 2016 and more than 325,000
reservations were made during the first week since bookings opened, each customer
paying a refundable US$1,000 deposit to reserve the car. Cumulative global sales of
all-electric cars and vans passed the 1 million unit milestone in September 2016.
Global Tesla Model S sales achieved the 150,000 unit milestone in November
2016. Norway achieved the milestone of 100,000 all-electric vehicles registered in
December 2016. Global Leaf sales passed 300,000 units in January 2018, keeping
its rank as the world's top selling electric car ever.


The electric vehicle (EV) is propelled by an electric motor, powered by

rechargeable battery packs, rather than a gasoline engine. From the outside, the
vehicle does not appear to be electric. In most cases, electric cars are created by
converting a gasoline-powered car. Often, the only thing that clues the vehicle is
electric is the fact that it is nearly silent .
Under the hood,
the electric car has:

1 An electric motor.
2 A controller.

3. A rechargeable battery.

The electric motor gets its power from a controller and the controller gets
its power from a rechargeable battery.

The electric vehicle operates on an electric/current principle. It uses a
battery pack (batteries) to provide power for the electric motor. The motor then
uses the power (voltage) received from the batteries to rotate a transmission and
the transmission turns the wheels . Four main parts make up the electric vehicle:
the potentiometer, batteries, direct current (DC) controller, and motor. See Figure



Potentiometer. It is circular in shape and it is hooked to the accelerator

pedal. The potentiometer, also called the variable resistor, provides the signal that
tells the controller how much power is it supposed to deliver.

Batteries. The batteries provide power for the controller. Three types of
batteries: lead-acid, lithium ion, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Batteries
range in voltage (power).
DC Controller. The controller takes power from the batteries and delivers
it to the motor. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped),
full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level in
between. If the battery pack contains twelve 12-volt batteries, wired in series to
create 144 volts, the controller takes in 144 volts direct current, and delivers it to
the motor in a controlled way .

The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the two
potentiometers and regulates the power accordingly. If the accelerator pedal is 25
percent of the way down, the controller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of
the time and off 75 percent of the time. If the signals of both potentiometers are
not equal, the controller will not operate .

Motor. The motor receives power from the controller and turns a
transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels, causing the vehicle to


When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometer activates and
provides the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to
deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The controller reads the setting
of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers, regulates the power accordingly,
takes the power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The motor receives
the power (voltage) from the controller and uses this power to rotate the
transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and causes the car to move
forward or backward.
If the driver floors the accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full
battery voltage to the motor. If the driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the
controller delivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the
controller chops the battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an
average voltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage.


The hybrid vehicle (HV) is powered by both a gasoline engine and electric
motor.The HV runs using power from an internal combustion engine and electric
motor. The engine provides most of the vehicle’s power, and the electric motor
provides additional power when needed, such as accelerating and passing . The
hybrid vehicle operates on a gasoline and electric energy principle. A hybrid car
features a small fuel-efficient gas engine combined with an electric motor that
assists the engine when accelerating. The electric motor is powered by batteries that
recharge automatically while you drive . Five main parts make up the hybrid
vehicle: the battery, internal combustion engine (ICE), generator, power split
device, and electric motor. See Figure 2. .

Figure 2. Parts of a hybrid vehicle

Battery. The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the
electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the
gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the
batteries as well as draw energy from them.

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The hybrid car has an ICE, also
known as a gasoline engine, much like the ones found on most cars. However, the
engine on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions
and increase efficiency. Receives its energy from the fuel tank where the gasoline
is stored.

Generator. The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to

produce electrical power for the battery.

Power Split Device. The power-split-device resides between the two
motors and together with the two motors creates a type of continuously variable

Electric Motor. The electric motor on a hybrid car acts as a motor as well
as a generator. For example, when needed, it takes energy from the batteries to
accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it slows the car down and returns
energy to the batteries.


When the driver steps on the pedal the generator converts energy from the
engine into electricity and stores it in the battery. The battery then provides power
to the electric motor. The internal combustion engine and electric motor work
simultaneously and each provide power to the power split device. The power split
device combines both powers and uses it to turn the transmission. The
transmission then turns the wheels and propels the vehicle.
The energy used when braking is converted into electricity and stored in
the battery. When braking, the electric motor is reversed so that, instead of using
electricity to turn the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create
electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slows the vehicle
down. When the vehicle is stopped, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut
off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. The battery continues to
power auxiliary systems, such as the air conditioning and dashboard displays.



The safety issues of BEVs are largely dealt with by the international
standard ISO 6469. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific

 On-board electrical energy storage, i.e. the battery

 Functional safety means and protection against failures
 Protection of persons against electrical hazards.


Figure 1Frontal crash test of a Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric to assess the safety
of the battery pack
Lithium-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if
overheated or overcharged, and in extreme cases this can lead to
combustion. Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since
the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2008. Most of them
have been thermal runaway incidents related to their lithium-ion battery packs, and
have involved the Zotye M300 EV, Chevrolet Volt, Fisker Karma, BYD e6, Dodge
Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Mitsubishi i-
MiEV and Outlander P-HEV. As of November 2013, four post-crash fires
associated with the batteries of all-electric cars—involving one BYD e6 and
three Tesla Model S cars—have been reported

The first modern crash-related fire was reported in China in May 2012, after
a high-speed car crashed into a BYD e6 taxi in Shenzhen. The second reported
incident occurred in the United States on October 1, 2013, when a Tesla Model S
caught fire over ten minutes after the electric car hit metal debris on a highway
in Kent, Washington state, and the debris punctured one of 16 modules within the
battery pack. A second reported fire occurred on October 18, 2013 in Merida,
Mexico. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a
roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree. The fire broke out many
minutes after the driver exited the vehicle. On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S
being driven on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee caught fire after it
struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle.

In the United States, General Motors ran in several cities a training program
for firefighters and first responders to demonstrate the sequence of tasks required to
safely disable the Chevrolet Volt’s powertrain and its 12 volt electrical system,
which controls its high-voltage components, and then proceed to extricate injured
occupants. The Volt's high-voltage system is designed to shut down automatically
in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect a loss of communication from an
airbag control module. GM also made available an Emergency Response Guide for
the 2011 Volt for use by emergency responders. The guide also describes methods
of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cut zone information. Nissan
also published a guide for first responders that details procedures for handling a
damaged 2011 Leaf at the scene of an accident, including a manual high-voltage
system shutdown, rather than the automatic process built-in the car's safety systems.


Great effort is taken to keep the mass of an electric vehicle as low as possible
to improve its range and endurance. However, the weight and bulk of the batteries
themselves usually makes an EV heavier than a comparable gasoline vehicle,
reducing range and leading to longer braking distances. However, in a collision, the
occupants of a heavy vehicle will, on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries
than the occupants of a lighter vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety
benefits despite having a negative effect on the car's performance. They also use up
interior space if packaged ineffectively. If stored under the passenger cell, not only
is this not the case, they also lower the vehicles's center of gravity, increasing
driving stability, thereby lowering the risk of an accident through loss of control. An
accident in a 2,000 lb (900 kg) vehicle will on average cause about 50% more
injuries to its occupants than a 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) vehicle. In a single car accident,
and for the other car in a two car accident, the increased mass causes an increase in
accelerations and hence an increase in the severity of the accident.

Some electric cars use low rolling resistance tires, which typically offer less
grip than normal tires. Many electric cars have a small, light and fragile body,
though, and therefore offer inadequate safety protection.The Insurance Institute for
Highway Safety in America had condemned the use of low speed vehicles and
"mini trucks," referred to as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) when powered
by electric motors, on public roads. Mindful of this, several companies (Tesla
Motors, BMW, Uniti) have succeeded in keeping the body light, while making it
very strong

At low speeds, electric cars produced less roadway noise as compared to

vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines. Blind people or the visually
impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing
streets, hence electric cars and hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard. Tests have
shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be
particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (30 km/h) for all types of road users and not
only the visually impaired. At higher speeds, the sound created by tire friction and
the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise.

The Government of Japan, the U.S. Congress, and the European

Parliament passed legislation to regulate the minimum level of sound for hybrids
and plug-in electric vehicles when operating in electric mode, so that blind people
and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect from which
direction they are approaching. The Nissan Leaf was the first electric car to use
Nissan's Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians system, which includes one sound for
forward motion and another for reverse.. As of January 2014, most of the hybrids
and plug-in electric and hybrids available in the United States, Japan and Europe
make warning noises using a speaker system. The Tesla Model S is one of the few
electric cars without warning sounds, because Tesla Motors will wait until
regulations are enacted.Volkswagen and BMW also decided to add artificial sounds
to their electric drive cars only when required by regulation.




1. No Gas Required: Electric cars are entirely charged by the

electricity you provide, meaning you don’t need to buy any gas ever again.
Driving fuel based cars can burn a hole in your pocket as prices of fuel have gone
all time high.

2. Savings: These cars can be fuelled for very cheap prices, and many
new cars will offer great incentives for you to get money back from the
government for going green.

3. Popularity: EV’s are growing in popularity. With popularity comes

all new types of cars being put on the market that are each unique, providing you
with a wealth of choices moving forward.

4. Cost Effective: Earlier, owing an electric car would cost a bomb.

But with more technological advancements, both cost and maintenance have gone

5. Low Maintenance: Electric cars runs on electrically powered

engines and hence there is no need to lubricate the engines. Other expensive
engine work is a thing of past. Therefore, the maintenance cost of these cars has
come down. You don’t need to send it to service station often as you do a normal22
gasoline powered car.

1. Recharge Point: Electric fuelling stations are still in the development

stages. Not a lot of places you go to on a daily basis will have electric fuelling stations
for your vehicle, meaning that if you’re on a long trip and run out of a charge, you may
be stuck where you are.
2. Electricity isn’t Free: Electric cars can also be a hassle on your
energy bill if you’re not considering the options carefully. If you haven’t done your
research into the electric car you want to purchase, then you may be making an unwise
3. Short Driving Range and Speed: Electric cars are limited by range
and speed. Most of these cars have range about 50-100 miles and need to be recharged
again. You just can’t use them for long journeys as of now, although it is expected to
improve in future.
4. Longer Recharge Time: While it takes couple of minutes to fuel your
gasoline powered car, an electric car take about 4-6 hours to get fully charged.
Therefore, you need dedicated power stations as the time taken to recharge them is quite
5. Silence as Disadvantage: Silence can be a bit disadvantage as people
like to hear noise if they are coming from behind them. An electric car is however silent
and can lead to accidents in some cases.
6. Battery Replacement: Depending on the type and usage of battery,
batteries of almost all electric cars are required to be changed every 3-10 years.



Future electric cars will most likely carry lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4)
batteries that are now becoming popular in other countries. The LiFePO4 batteries
are rechargeable and powerful and are being used in electric bikes and scooters.
Electric cars will most likely adopt this technology in the future. Another
technology that is likely for future electric cars is the increased use of
supercapacitors and ultracapacitors for storing and delivering electrical charge. Many of
these batteries are currently being used in conjunction with hybrid car prototypes, so
these are expected in the electric car future markets as well. If the developers of future
electric cars can create vehicles with a range of 300 miles per charge, a charging
time of five to ten minutes, and safety in operating the vehicles, the market is wide
open for them. Researchers are working on improved battery technologies to
increase driving range and decrease recharging time, weight, and cost. These factors
will ultimately determine the future of EVs.



As seen in this report, the electric vehicle has many advantages and
benefits over the internal combustion engine and hybrid vehicle. It is cleaner and
much more efficient; however, it also has disadvantages. It is heavier, limited to
the distance it can travel before recharge, and costs more. The future of the EV
relies on its battery. If researchers can produce or find the “super battery”, the
EV’s future is promising. As of today, each vehicle has its own characteristic that
makes it better than the other. Only time and technological improvements will tell
which vehicle will excel in the future.