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Engineering Standard

SAES-A-210 12 April 2011

Management of Pyrophoric Wastes
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................ 2
2 Background................................................... 2
3 Conflicts and Deviations................................ 2
4 References.................................................... 3
5 Requirements................................................ 4
6 Responsibilities.............................................. 5
7 Acronyms and Definitions............................. 6

Previous Issue: New Next Planned Update: 12 April 2016

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Primary contact: Findley, James Eric on 966-3-8760387

Copyright©Saudi Aramco 2011. All rights reserved.

Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-210
Issue Date: 12 April 2011
Next Planned Update: 12 April 2016 Management of Pyrophoric Wastes

1 Scope

1.1 This standard establishes acceptable practices and responsibilities for the
handling and disposal of waste materials containing pyrophoric iron sulfide
scale from process equipment and piping, including pipelines, tanks, and
vessels. This standard applies to all onshore and offshore activities.

1.2 This standard does not address the cleaning of process equipment and piping that
potentially contains pyrophoric iron sulfide. For guidance on cleaning petroleum
storage tanks, refer to ANSI/API Recommended Practice 2016, “Guidelines and
Procedures for Entering and Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks.”

2 Background

2.1 Pyrophoric iron sulfide is considered to be hazardous due to its reactive nature.
Pyrophoric materials may react spontaneously with oxidizing materials, such as
air, generating heat. If flammable materials or vapors are present, pyrophoric iron
sulfide can act as a source of ignition, potentially causing a fire or explosion.

2.2 Pyrophoric iron sulfide scale is a product of corrosion and may form in process
equipment or piping by reaction of sulfur-bearing hydrocarbons with iron or
steel in a reducing environment, in other words, in the absence of oxygen or
other oxidants. Process equipment and piping used to handle sour crude, high-
sulfur fuel oil, asphalt, sour gas, or similar products are potential sources of
pyrophoric iron sulfide.

2.3 Iron sulfide scale is typically removed using high-pressure water streams.
Iron sulfide scale is sometimes treated in place with aqueous potassium
permanganate solutions, or other oxidizing agents such as sodium hypochlorite
and hydrogen peroxide. Use of oxidizing solutions can potentially produce
excessive heat of reaction and undesirable byproducts. Treatment with
oxidizing solutions shall be performed only by persons that are knowledgeable
and experienced in these techniques.

2.4 Waste materials that are suspected to contain pyrophoric iron sulfide are
considered hazardous due to their reactive characteristic and shall be managed
as hazardous wastes. Pyrophoric waste materials may have additional hazardous
characteristics such as toxicity. In this case, these materials may still be
hazardous even though the reactive characteristic is eliminated by treatment.

3 Conflicts and Deviations

3.1 Any conflicts between this standard and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards (SAESs), Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs),

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-210
Issue Date: 12 April 2011
Next Planned Update: 12 April 2016 Management of Pyrophoric Wastes

Standard Drawings (SASDs), or industry standards, codes, and forms shall be

resolved in writing by the Company or Buyer Representative through the
Manager, Environmental Protection Department, Dhahran.

3.2 Direct all requests to deviate from this standard in writing to the Company or
Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302
and forward such requests to the Manager, Environmental Protection
Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

4 References

The selection of material and equipment, and the design, construction, maintenance, and
repair of equipment and facilities covered by this standard shall comply with the latest
edition of the references listed below unless otherwise noted.

4.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures

SAEP-302 Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a Mandatory
Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement
SAEP-358 Management of Technologically Enhanced Naturally
Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard

SAES-A-104 Wastewater Treatment, Reuse and Disposal

Saudi Aramco Materials Instruction

CU 22.03 Processing and Handling of Hazardous Material

Saudi Aramco General Instruction

GI-0430.001 Waste Management

4.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Petroleum Institute

ANSI/API RP 2016 Guidelines and Procedures for Entering and
Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks

National Fire Protection Code

NFPC, Chapter 40 Liquid and Solid Pyrophoric Materials

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-210
Issue Date: 12 April 2011
Next Planned Update: 12 April 2016 Management of Pyrophoric Wastes

5 Requirements

5.1 Handling Potentially Pyrophoric Wastes

5.1.1 Recommended personal protective equipment for personel handling

pyrophoric materials includes: safety goggles, face shields, non-
flammable clothing and gloves.

5.1.2 Once potentially pyrophoric iron sulfide scale, dust, deposits, or sludge
have been removed from process equipment and/or piping, the waste
material shall be kept from contact with air by wetting with water, or by
inerting, until they have been treated or removed to a safe area. Water
dissipates any heat generated and isolates the materials from contact with
air. Once these materials begin to dry, they may ignite spontaneously in

5.1.3 Potentially pyrophoric waste materials shall be handled in non-

combustible containers such as steel drums or lugger bins.

5.1.4 Potentially pyrophoric materials shall be handled and/or stored in

quantities of no more than 225 kgs (500 pounds). Larger amounts shall be
segregated into containerized piles separated by at least 3 meters (10 feet).
A minimum distance of 8 meters (25 feet) shall be maintained between
pyrophoric materials and other hazardous materials. Pyrophoric materials
must be isolated from oxidizing and combustible materials.

5.1.5 Refer to U.S. National Fire Protection Code, Chapter 40, “Liquid and
Solid Pyrophoric Materials” for further guidance on storage of
pyrophoric materials.

5.2 Treatment of Pyrophoric Wastes

Pyrophoric wastes may be treated to eliminate the reactive characteristic by

controlled oxidation in air as follows:

5.2.1 Prepare a suitable treatment area such as an earthen pit or bermed area.
Access to the treatment area shall be controlled throughout the treatment
period. The area shall be isolated from any oxidizing or combustible
materials. A water supply should be on hand to control any excessive
reaction or heat generation.

5.2.2 If the waste materials are potentially toxic, as well as pyrophoric, the
treatment area shall be lined with a suitable non-combustible,
impermeable liner material such as compacted marl, in accordance with
Section 14 of SAES-A-104.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-210
Issue Date: 12 April 2011
Next Planned Update: 12 April 2016 Management of Pyrophoric Wastes

5.2.3 Discharge waste materials into the treatment area while keeping the
materials thoroughly wet.

5.2.4 Carefully spread the materials into as thin a layer as practical, using a
non-combustible rake or similar device, or a water hose.

5.2.5 Allow waste materials to completely dry.

5.2.6 Once the materials have completely dried, allow one day for oxidation to
take place, then rake to ensure that all material surfaces are exposed to
the air. Allow an additional day for oxidation, then repeat as necessary.

5.2.7 Pyrophoric materials may be treated with oxidizing chemicals such as an

aqueous solution of potassium permanganate, but this should be done
only by those with experience and specialized training in these
techniques. Typically, the concentration of permanganate solutions is
limited to 1%.

5.3 Disposal of Pyrophoric Wastes

Untreated, potentially pyrophoric wastes shall be managed and disposed of as a

reactive hazardous waste. Only approved waste disposal contractors with the
capability to handle reactive wastes shall be used for disposal of these materials.
A waste manifest is required in accordance with GI-0430.001, Waste

Pyrophoric wastes that have been treated to eliminate the reactive characteristic
and that are not otherwise hazardous may be disposed of to a Class II landfill.
Treated materials that are otherwise hazardous, e.g., toxic, must be disposed of
to a Class I landfill once the reactive characteristic has been eliminated If the
treated materials are NORM-contaminated, they must be disposed in accordance
with SAEP-358 once the reactive characteristic has been eliminated.

6 Responsibilities

6.1 Facility Operating Department

6.1.1 Identify potentially pyrophoric waste materials and manage these in

accordance with this standard.

6.1.2 Ensure that all personnel that handle pyrophoric waste materials are
familiar with this standard and are aware of the hazards.

6.1.3 Prepare and distribute waste manifests for waste shipments in

accordance with GI-0430.001, Waste Management.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-210
Issue Date: 12 April 2011
Next Planned Update: 12 April 2016 Management of Pyrophoric Wastes

6.2 Environmental Protection Department (EPD/EED)

6.2.1 Provide consultation services to operating facilities in the interpretation

and application of this standard.

6.2.2 Maintain this standard.

7 Acronyms and Definitions

7.1 The following acronyms apply to this standard:

ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
EPD Environmental Protection Department
EED Environmental Engineering Division

7.2 The following definitions apply to this standard:

Disposal: The final deposition of waste that is not reused.

Hazardous Waste: Wastes that are hazardous to public health and detrimental
to the environment. These include materials that are flammable, corrosive,
reactive, toxic, radioactive, infectious, or carcinogenic (cancer causing).

Inerting: To displace the vapor space with an inert gas, such as nitrogen, to
prevent the formation of a combustible gas mixture.

Oxidant or Oxidizing Agent: A chemical or substance that brings about an

oxidation reaction.

Pyrophoric Material: Any material that generates heat or ignites

spontaneously, or emits sparks when rubbed, scratched, or struck in air.
Iron sulfide is an example of a pyrophoric material generated by the Company.

Spontaneously: Happening or arising without apparent external cause; self-


Reactive Characteristic: The tendency of a substance to undergo chemical

reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with the release of energy.

Treatment: A process in which the physical and/or chemical characteristics of

a waste are modified to make it acceptable for reuse or disposal.

Revision Summary
12 April 2011 New Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard.

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