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Chapter 11
Kinematics of
Particles
1 Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
2 1/31/2014 8:29 PM

Introduction
Mechanics

 Mechanics = science which

describes and predicts the
conditions of rest or motion of
bodies under the action of forces
 It is divided into three parts:
1. Mechanics of rigid bodies
2. Mechanics of deformable bodies
3. Mechanics of fluids
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Introduction
Mechanics of rigid bodies is
subdivided into:
1. Statics: deals with bodies at rest
2. Dynamics: deals with bodies in
motion

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Introduction
Dynamics is subdivided into:
1. Kinematics
 study of geometry of motion.
 relating displacement, velocity,
acceleration, and time without reference
to the cause of motion
2. Kinetics
 study of the relation existing between the
forces acting on a body, the mass of the
body, and the motion of the body
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Introduction
A dynamic study could be done on
two levels:
1. Particle
 an object whose size and shape can
be ignored when studying its motion.
2. Rigid Body
 a collection of particles that remain at
fixed distance from each other at all
times and under all conditions of
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Motion of Particles
Motion of Particles:
1. Rectilinear Motion
2. Curvilinear Motion

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Rectilinear Motion of Particles

Position

Velocity

x
Average velocity 
t
Instantaneous x
 v  lim
t 0 t
velocity
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Rectilinear Motion of Particles

Acceleration

v
Average acceleration 
t
Instantaneous v
 a  lim
acceleration t 0 t
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Rectilinear Motion of
Particles
• Consider particle with motion given by
dx
x  6t  t
2 3 v  12t  3t 2
dt
dv d 2 x
a  2  12  6t
dt dt
• at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2
• at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0
• at t = 4 s, x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2
• at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = -36 m/s, a = 24 m/s2
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Determination of Motion of a
Particle
• Typically, conditions of motion are specified by
type of acceleration experienced by the particle.
• Determination of velocity & position requires two
successive integrations.

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Determination of Motion of a
Particle
Three classes of motion may be defined:
1.acceleration is a function of time, a = f(t)
2.acceleration is a function of position, a = f(x)
3.acceleration is a function of velocity, a = f(v)

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Determination of the Motion of

a Particle
1. Acceleration is a function of time, a = f(t)
 a  f t  dv  f t  dt
dv
dt
v t  t t

 dv   f t  dt
v0 0
vt   v0   f t  dt
0

 vt  dx  vt  dt
dx
dt
x t  t t

 dx   vt  dt
x0 0
xt   x0   vt  dt
0 Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Determination of the Motion of

a Particle
2. Acceleration is a function of position, a = f(x)

or a  v  f x 
dx dx dv dv
v or dt  a
dt v dt dx
vx  x
v dv  f  x dx  v dv   f x dx
v0 x0
x
v x   12 v02   f x dx
1 2
2
x0 Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Determination of the Motion of

a Particle
3. Acceleration is a function of velocity, a = f(v)

 a  f v 
dv dv
 dt
dt f v 
v t  t v t 
dv dv

v0
  dt
f v  0 
v0
f v 
t

 a  f v 
dv v dv
v dx 
dx f v 
x t  v t  v t 

xt   x0 
v dv v dv
 dx  
x0 v0
f v  
v0
f v  Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Sample 11.2
Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical
velocity from window 20 m above
ground.
Determine:
a. velocity & elevation above ground
at time t
b. highest elevation reached by ball
and corresponding time
c. time when ball will hit the ground
and corresponding velocity
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Sample 11.2
Solution:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
dv
 a  9.81 m s 2
dt
v t  t
 dv    9.81 dt vt   v0  9.81t
v0 0
m  m
vt   10   9.81 2  t
s  s 
dy
 v  10  9.81t
dt
y t  t
 dy   10  9.81t dt y t   y0  10t  12 9.81t 2
y0 0
 m  m
y t   20 m  10 t   4.905 2 t 2
 s  s 
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Sample 11.2

Solve for t at which velocity equals zero

and evaluate corresponding altitude.
m  m
vt   10   9.81 2  t  0
s  s  t  1.019 s

 m  m
y t   20 m  10 t   4.905 2 t 2
 s  s 
 m  m
y  20 m  10 1.019 s    4.905 2 1.019 s 2
 s  s 
y  25.1 m
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Sample 11.2
Solve for t at which altitude equals zero
and evaluate corresponding velocity.
 m  m
y t   20 m  10 t   4.905 2 t 2  0
 s  s 
t  1.243 s meaningles s 
t  3.28 s
m  m
 
v t  10   9.81 2  t
s  s 
m  m
v3.28 s   10   9.81 2  3.28 s 
s  s 
m
v  22.2
s Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Sample 11.3
Brake mechanism used to reduce gun recoil consists of piston
attached to barrel moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil. As
barrel recoils with initial velocity v0, piston moves and oil is
forced through orifices in piston, causing piston and cylinder to
decelerate at rate proportional to their velocity; that is a = -kv
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).

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Sample 11.3
Solution:
Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t)
v t  t
dv dv
a
dt
 kv 
v0
v
 k  dt
0

ln
vt 
 kt vt   v0 e kt
v0
Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t)
dx
vt    v0 e  kt
dt
x t  t t
 1 
 dx  v0  e
 kt
dt xt   v0  e  kt 
0 0  k 0

xt  
v0
k

1  e  kt 
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Sample 11.3
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).
dv
av  kv dv  k dx
dx
v x

 dv  k  dx
v0 0
v  v0  kx

v  v0  kx

k

xt   1  e kt
v0
 vt   v0e  kt
or
v0  vt  
xt   1   v  v0  kx
k  v0 
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1, 6, 11, 17, 22, 29

Due Sunday 9/2/2014

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Uniform Rectilinear Motion

Acceleration is zero and velocity is constant
dx
 v  constant
dt
x t
 dx  v  dt
x0 0
x  x0  vt
x  x0  vt Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Uniformly Accelerated
Rectilinear Motion
Acceleration of the particle is constant
v t
dv
 a  constant  dv  a  dt v  v0  at
dt v0 0
v  v0  at
x t
dx
dt
 v0  at  dx   v0  at dt x  x0  v0t  12 at 2
x0 0

x  x0  v0t  12 at 2

v 2  v02   ax  x0 
v x
dv
v  a  constant  v dv  a  dx 1
2
dx v0 x0

v 2  v02  2a x  x0  Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.

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Motion of Several Particles

Relative Motion
For particles moving along the same line, time should be
recorded from the same starting instant and displacements
should be measured from the same origin in the same direction.
xB A  x B  x A  relative position of B wrt A
xB  x A  xB A

vB  v A  vB A

aB A  a B  a A  relative acceleration of B wrt A

aB  a A  aB A Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Sample 11.4
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m
level in elevator shaft with initial
velocity of 18 m/s. At same
instant, open-platform elevator
passes 5 m level moving upward
at 2 m/s.
Determine
a. when and where ball hits the
elevator
b. relative velocity of ball and
elevator at contact
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Sample 11.4 Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.

Solution:
 ball moves with uniformly accelerated
rectilinear motion.
m  m
v B  v0  at  18   9.81 2 t
s  s 
 m  m
y B  y0  v0t  12 at 2  12 m  18 t   4.905 2 t 2
 s  s 
 elevator moves with uniform
rectilinear motion.
m
vE  2
s
 m
y E  y0  v E t  5 m   2 t
 s
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Sample 11.4
 Write equation for relative position of
ball wrt elevator & solve for zero
relative position (impact)
 
y B E  12  18t  4.905t 2  5  2t   0
t  0.39 s meaningles s 
t  3.65 s
 Substitute impact time into equations for position of
elevator & relative velocity of ball wrt elevator.
y E  5  23.65 y E  12.3 m
v B E  18  9.81t   2 m
vB  19.81
 16  9.813.65 E
s
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Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion

 Position of a particle may depend
on position of one or more other
particles.
 Position of block B depends on
position of block A.
 Since rope is of constant length, it
follows that sum of lengths of
segments must be constant.
x A  2 x B  constant (one DOF)
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Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion

 Positions of three blocks are dependent.
2 x A  2 x B  xC  constant (2 DOF)

 For linearly related positions,

similar relations hold between
velocities & accelerations.
dx A dx B dxC
2 2   0 or 2v A  2v B  vC  0
dt dt dt
dv dv dv
2 A  2 B  C  0 or 2a A  2a B  aC  0
dt dt dt
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Sample 11.5 Pulley D is attached to a collar

which is pulled down at 3 cm/s.
At t = 0, collar A starts moving
down from K with constant
acceleration and zero initial
velocity. Knowing that
velocity of collar A is 12 cm/s
as it passes L, determine the
change in elevation, velocity,
and acceleration of block B
when block A is at L.

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Sample 11.4
Solution:
• Define origin at upper horizontal
surface with +ve displacement
downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated
rectilinear motion. Solve for
acceleration and time t to reach L.
v 2A  v A 02  2a A x A   x A 0 
2
 cm  cm
12   2a A 8 cm  aA  9
 s  s2
v A  v A 0  a At
cm cm
12 9 2 t t  1.333 s
s s
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Sample 11.4
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.

x D   x D 0  v D t
 cm 
x D   x D 0   3 1.333 s   4 cm
 s 

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Sample 11.4
Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar A
& pulley D. Write motion relationship and solve for
change of block B position at time t.
x A  2 x D  x B   x A 0  2 x D 0   x B 0
x A   x A 0   2xD   xD 0   xB   xB 0   0
8 cm  24 cm  x B   x B 0   0

xB  xB 0  16 cm
xB  xB 0  16 cm 

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Sample 11.4
Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
x A  2 x D  x B  constant
v A  2v D  v B  0
 cm   cm 
12   2 3   v B  0
 s   s 
cm
vB  18
cm s
a A  2aD  aB  0 a B  9 cm
s2 vB  18 
 cm  s
 9 2   aB  0 cm
 s  aB  9 2 
s Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
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Home Work Assignment #11.2

33, 38, 42, 47, 52, 57
Due Tuesday 11/2/2014

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Graphical Solution of
Rectilinear-Motion Problems

• Given x-t curve, v-t curve = x-t curve slope

• Given v-t curve, a-t curve = v-t curve slope
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Graphical Solution of
Rectilinear-Motion Problems

 Given a-t curve, change in velocity between t1 &

t2 = area under a-t curve between t1 & t2.
 Given v-t curve, change in position between t1 &
t2 = area under v-t curve between t1 & t2.
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Sample Problem 11.6

A subway car leaves station A; it gains speed at
the rate of 4 ft/s2 for 6 s and then at the rate of
6 ft/s2 until it has reached the speed of 48 ft/s.
The car maintains the same speed until it
approaches station B; brakes are then applied,
giving the car a constant deceleration and
bringing it to a stop in 6 s. The total running time
from A to B is 40 s. Draw the a−t, v−t, and x−t
curves, and determine the distance between
stations A and B.
(Rewrite)
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61, 67, 73, 79, 87

Due Sunday 16/2/2014

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Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Curvilinear motion: Particle moving along a curve
other than a straight line
• Position vector of a particle at time t = a vector
between origin O of a fixed reference frame &
position occupied by particle.

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Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider particle which occupies position P defined
 
by r at time t and P’ defined by r  at t + t,
 
 r dr
v  lim 
t 0 t dt
 instantaneous velocity (vector)
s ds
v  lim 
t 0 t dt
 instantaneous speed (scalar)
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Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Consider velocity v of particle at
time t and velocity v at t + t,
 
 v dv
a  lim 
t 0 t dt
 instantaneous acceleration
(vector)

• In general, acceleration vector is

not tangent to particle path &
velocity vector.
Derivatives of Vector Functions
 
• Let Pu , Qu  be a vector function
of scalar variable u
• Let f u  be a scalar function of
scalar variable u
   
dP P Pu  u   Pu 
 lim  lim
du u 0 u u 0 u
• Derivative of vector sum,
   
d P  Q  dP dQ
 
du du du
Derivatives of Vector Functions
• Derivative of product of scalar
and vector functions,
 
d  f P  df  dP
 P f
du du du
• Derivative of scalar product and
vector product,
   
d P  Q  dP   dQ
 Q  P
du du du
   
d P  Q  dP   dQ
 Q  P
du du du
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
 Position vector of particle P,
   
r  xi  y j  zk
 Velocity vector,
 dx  dy  dz    
v  i  j  k  xi  y j  zk
dt dt dt
  
 vx i  v y j  vz k
 Acceleration vector,
 d 2 x d 2 y  d 2 z    
a  2 i  2 j  2 k  xi  y j  zk
dt dt dt
  
 ax i  a y j  az k
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
Motion of a projectile
a x  x  0 a y  y   g a z  z  0

initial conditions:
x0  y0  z0  0
Integrating twice:
v x  v x 0 v y  v y   gt vz  0
0
x  v x 0 t y  v y  y  12 gt 2 z0
0

 Motion in horizontal direction is uniform

 Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
 xyz = fixed frame of reference
 moving frames of reference: frames not rigidly
attached to the fixed reference frame
 Position vectors for particles A and B wrt to the
 
fixed frame of reference Oxyz are rA and rB .

 rB : position of B wrt
A
moving frame Ax’y’z’
  
rB  rA  rB A
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Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
   
vB  v A  vB A vB A  velocity of B relative to A
   
a B  a A  aB A a B A  acceleration of B relative to A

Absolute motion of B = combined

motion of A and relative motion of
B wrt moving reference frame
attached to A.

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Sample Problem 11.7

A projectile is fired from edge of a 150-m cliff with
an initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of 30°
with the horizontal. Neglecting air resistance,
find:
a. horizontal distance from the gun to the point
where the projectile strikes the ground,
b. greatest elevation above the ground reached
by the projectile.

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Sample Problem 11.9

Automobile A is traveling east
at the constant speed of 36
km/h. As automobile A crosses
the intersection shown,
automobile B starts from rest 35
m north of the intersection and
moves south with a constant
acceleration of 1.2 m/s2.
Determine the position,
velocity, and acceleration of B
relative to A 5 s after A crosses
the intersection.
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Homework Assignment #11.4

89, 95, 101, 107, 113, 120, 126
Due Tuesday 18/2/2014

Tangential and Normal Components
 Velocity vector is tangent to path.
 Generally, acceleration vector is
not.
 
 et and et = tangential unit
vectors for particle path at P &
  
P’ et  et  et
et  2 sin 2 

et sin 2   
lim  lim en  en
 0   0  2

 de
en  t Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
d
Tangential and Normal Components
  
 dv dv  de dv  de d ds
a  et  v  et  v
dt dt dt dt d ds dt

det  ds
 en  d  ds v
d dt

 dv  v 2  dv v2
a  et  en at  an 
dt  dt 
Tangential and Normal Components
 Tangential component of acceleration reflects
change of speed
 Normal component reflects change of direction.
 Tangential component may be positive or negative.
 Normal component always points toward center of
path curvature.

Tangential and Normal Components
 Relations for tangential & normal acceleration
also apply for particle moving along space curve.
 dv  v 2  dv v2
a  et  en at  an 
dt  dt 
 Osculating plane: Plane containing
tangential & normal unit vectors
  
eb  et  en

en  principal normal

eb  binormal
 No Acceleration component along
binormal. Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
The particle velocity vector is

 d  dr  de dr  d 
v  rer   er  r r  er  r e
dt dt dt dt dt
 
 r er  r e

   
der  de 
r  rer  e  er
d d
 
der der d  d
  e
dt d dt dt
 
de de d  d
  er
dt d dt dt Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
The particle acceleration vector is
 d  dr  d  
a   er  r e 
dt  dt dt 
 
d 2 r  dr der dr d  d 2  d de
 2 er   e  r 2 e  r
dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt
 
 r  r er  r  2r e
 2    

Radial and Transverse Components – 3D
• Position vector,
  
r  R e R z k
• Velocity vector,
 
 dr   
v  R eR  R e  z k
dt
• Acceleration vector,

 dv
a
dt
 R  2
  

  R eR  R  2 R  e  z k
 

Sample 11.10
A motorist is traveling on
curved section of highway at 88
m/s. The motorist applies
brakes causing a constant
deceleration rate.
Knowing that after 8 s the speed
has been reduced to 66 m/s,
determine the acceleration of
the automobile immediately
after the brakes are applied.
Sample 11.10
Solution:
 Calculate tangential & normal
components of acceleration.
v 66  88 m s m
at    2.75
t 8s s2
v2 88 m s 2 m
an    3.10
 2500 m s2
 Determine acceleration magnitude & direction wrt tangent
to curve.
m
a at2  an2   2.75  3.10
2 2 a  4.14
s2
an 3.10
  tan 1  tan 1   48.4
at 2.75 Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, P.E.
Sample 11.12 The rotation of the 0.9 m arm OA about
O is defined by the relation   0.15t2
where  is expressed in radians and t in
seconds. Collar B slides along the arm
in such a way that its distance from O
is r = 0.9-0.12t2, where r is expressed in
meters and t in seconds. After the arm
OA has rotated through 30o , determine
a. total velocity of the collar
b. total acceleration of the collar
c. relative acceleration of the collar
wrt the arm
Sample 11.12 Solution:
Evaluate time t for  = 30o.
  0.15 t 2
 30  0.524 rad t  1.869 s

r  0.9  0.12 t 2  0.481 m

r  0.24 t  0.449 m s
r  0.24 m s 2
  0.15 t 2  0.524 rad
  0.30 t  0.561 rad s
  0.30 rad s 2
Sample 11.12
vr  r  0.449 m s
v  r  0.481m 0.561rad s   0.270 m s
1 v
v vr2 2
 v   tan
vr

v  0.524 m s   31.0

Sample 11.12
ar  r  r 2
 0.240 m s 2  0.481m 0.561rad s 2
 0.391m s 2
a  r  2r
 
 0.481m  0.3 rad s 2  2 0.449 m s 0.561rad s 
 0.359 m s 2
a
a  ar2  a2   tan 1 
ar

a  0.531m s   42.6

Sample 11.12 Evaluate acceleration wrt arm.
Motion of collar wrt arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA  r  0.240 m s 2