September | October 2010 Feature title: Technical design and equipment: Key to improving feed quality and nutrition

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

F: Equipment
adjusted or the materials should be added after pelleting. As the core process of feed production, batching accuracy has a direct impact on feed composition and nutrition absorption of the animals. As a result, the feed nutrition can be balanced only with appropriate batching system. The batching process has a important effect on batching accuracy and composition. The major technical improvements lie in following aspects: 1: The batching scale must be checked regularly so as to ensure measurement accuracy of batching equipment 2: The formula should be right and the raw materials can be replaced 3: The materials should be fed at proper speed 4: The control system should be correct 5: The batching equipment must be operated in correct way 6: The batching equipment should be clean so as to avoid cross contamination 7: The batching process especially the use of medicine should be carefully recorded No-error computer control technology is adopted to manipulate batching accuracy. Micro additives can be premixed and batched and high accurate batching system can be adopted. duction of premix feed 3: In case of change of formula, the mixer should be thoroughly cleaned to avoid cross contamination 4: Premix should be separated from major mixing process in order to prevent cross contamination 5: The transportation distance and height of materials after batching should be as short as possible and no conveying equipment like pneumatic device should be adopted as it would cause separation of materials

F: Equipment

Technical design and equipment

Key to improving feed quality and nutrition
by Shao Jianxin, Engineer, ZCME, China
With the same level of raw material and formula, the quality of feed only depends on process technology and equipment performance. As the digest system of chicken, pig, fish, shrimp and pet varies, feed of different size and degree of ripeness are demanded. It is one of the important methods for the Choosing skilled feed engineering conmodern feed companies to improve prodstructors and comprehensive solutions uct quality by upgrading process technology. providers are also vital for the success of Impact of grain size on feed nutrition a company. Generally, grain size should take conThe factors affecting feed quality can be sideration of many factors like feeding summed up in three aspects, namely: method, process costs, capacity and growing • The quality of raw material characteristics of animals. • The feed formula Its empirical value should be no more • The process technology than 1/3 of the diameter of pellet. Table 1: International best grinding particle size Appropriate grain size Best size can improve digestion recommended rate of the nutritious Animal Raise stage (µm) element. Research has shown that if the even Ablactation 0~14d 300 size of corn feed for sow is reduced from 1200um Pork Ablactation 14~35d 400 to 400um, its digestion Grice ≤500�Corn� rate could be raised by Fattening pig 500~600�Corn� 14 percent, dry materiSow 500~600�Corn� als in manure could be Growing pig 15~30kg 323(batch) reduced by 21 percent and the nitrogen would Dorking 700~900�Corn� be lowered by 31 percent. 900 Over grind could lead Beef cattle 1~1.5cm�straw�corn stalk� to more consumption of 2~7cm�corn energy, less capacity and stock�hay� destroy of nutrition of Fish ≤0.5mm�batch� feed. The research data Shrimp 150~175 proves that VA of pellet hy do some feed factories earn profits while others don’t? Why do feed of some factories sell well? The reason behind is technical design and equipment selection.

Impact of pelleting on feed nutrition
1. Pellet quality control: pellet must be unsaturated steam, free from conquality is the precondition of feed nutridensed water so as to ensure enough ‘pasting’ tion which must be strictly manipulated. of starch and prevent machine blockage due The conditioning quality is the primary to too much moisture. The steam must go control point of pellet quality which through a water trap and a pressure reducing includes temperature, time, water and valve before entering the conditioner. ‘pasting degree’ of starch. A secondary control point covers powder rate, cooling temperature, moisture, bladeeven degree and water durability of the feed. VI INTERNATIONAL To meet AQUACULTURE the above EXHIBITION requirements manufacturers need proper steam supply and control systems, conditioning, pelleting, October 20th to 23rd cooling and Puerto Montt - Chile screening www.aqua-sur.cl equipment with all control Last available stands: book now! parameters María Paz / mpfernandez@aqua.cl / +56-2 756 5402 / +56-9 9547 7589 scientifically adjusted. Our hydrolysates have a superior concentration of Natural Active Nutrients SponSorS organizerS Thanks to their biological action on fish and shrimp growth mechanisms, The steam they boost your feed performance and help you substituting fish meal. fed into concontact@aquativ-diana.com - www.aquativ-diana.com ditioning units

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after repeated grind would decrease 40 percent. The key point of grain size control technology is to grind each raw material to the best size suitable for digestion so as to ensure the batch feed can acquire best raising efficiency and economic profit. It is mandatory to study the best digestion size of each raw material for different animals as shown in Table 1. Pulverization and micro-pulverization must be applied for aquatics feed. Research has shown that carp feed ratio could raise 5-10 percent if the screen of grinder has been reduced from 1.5mm, 1.2mm to 1.0mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. As a result, grain size has a markable influence on variation of nutrition. Grain with excessive small or big diameter could break into layers which would affect the digestion rate of feed nutrition. It is only by selecting proper technical design, professional company and equipment can good quality feed be made.

Impact of mixing conformity on nutrition
Conformity is vital for feed quality as it will determine whether the animal can get full nutrition from the feed. The air balance between mixing bin and mixer also has an impact on nutrition. Too big finish product bins and pellet bins and too long transportation lines will destroy conformity of feed and reduce the conversion rate of the animal. It is critical to choose the right mixer, mixing period and feeding method in order to ensure conformity and nutrition. The control of mixing conformity covers mixing feed, concentrated feed, additives, premix feed and liquid feed. The technical improvements in batching process have the following aspects: 1: Proper mixer must be selected to ensure conformity 2: The materials should be added in correct order with big materials added at first and small ones added later. All materials should be added in proper amount and order especially for pro-

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Impact of batch on feed nutrition
Formula is a major impact factor for feed nutrition and pellet quality. Formula with high content of grain like corn and soybean cannot produce high quality pellet feed due to the lack of natural bond. Addition of highly cohesive wheat can improve pellet quality. It is necessary to combine each element in the formula and keep fat to lowest limit. In case of large proportion of adding materials, the condition process should be

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F: Equipment
Table 2: Anti-nutritional factors of common raw materials of feed

F: Equipment F: Binders
of security, Results and nutrition of sanitation of anti-nutrition factory and keep vitaTable 2: Leaching rate enzymes uptake of test diets it animals.Ingredientdenaturation hasDiet PBP feed,UF is necessary h i n g Protein little mins; and water preparation cannot only L e a c to equip residueDiet WG Diet free conveyor and bins, apply scientific Sample influence on amino acid but improves erase toxicWG of feed but also provide rate and water Diet effect Diet PBP Diet UF technology uptake - Analysis sequencing. of cleaning and its absorption rate greatly so that a health function. Corn gluten 11 11 12,5 Heat treatment technology should be protein can be highly utilised. Getting rid of anti-nutrition factors in for leaching rates Fish meal 20 20 20 89,89% applied which includes cooking atWater uptake materials has 105,13% vital in selechigh 6. The impact of post-cooking: after raw 107,63% become and water uptake Wheat the 31 31 31 temperature, extrusion, at conditioning,flour ‘paste’ degree and tion were done high-pressure rate of process technology and equipment. Leaching 7,75% 8,29% 6,75% treatment and ultraviolet irradiation, etc. water durability of pellet should be Feed quality and nutrition can be only the laboraPro-Bind Plus 2 With the comprehensive application of ibility as verifiable in Lemos et al. technolimproved, however, some thermal be guaranteed using professional (2009). tory of CreveTec. Wheat gluten 2 the above technology, the finish pellet Feed and equipment. With the development alert vitamins are destroyed. As a ogy samples with PPD (Predicted Protein Leaching was done during one Urea-formaldehyde 0,5 feed can obtain in fresh water. result, it is better to use- formulations of nutrition, technicians 92.0% may be hour satisfactory quality and Digestibility) from 90.7 to of professional Other * 7,5 7,5 7,5 nutrition. with sound thermal stability or apply company of high to better methods to As could be expected consideredcan work out very high protein the Crude protein improved coating technology so eliminate diets. from previous results, the digestibility anti-nutrition factors and make 37,74 38,01 38,05 as to Crude lipid nutrition values 8,66 preserve of more contribution in improving feed quality inclusion of ureumformalImpact of technical process 8,61 8,63 the feed as much as possible; which and nutrition. dehyde reduces in feed can Growth trial the water The anti-nutrition factors Crude fibers 2,92 2,91 2,94 is mostly used in the production of uptake that turn reduces cause disease of pigs andinpets and retard Experimental system - Shrimp were put Ash content 6,44 6,48 6,47 aquatics feed or special aquatics feed the growth the leaching rate. The values process. As they are closely in 12 nets of 150 liters each. The nets were * Canola, Soybeanexample. oil, Soybean lecithin, for shrimp for meal, Fish related with for the three diets are within process technology, nutrition- submerged in a bigger tank, which is conpremix More inforMation: 7. Impact of storage and transportation: standards. ists have developed many methods to elimi- nected to a biofloc reactor. Water quality ZCME cross contamination usually takes nate anti-nutrition factors. is maintained through bioflocs and is the Floor all nets. There were four replicates place during storage and transportaHowever, the nutrition elements same in 25th, Friendship Building No.159 binders or natural binders on the digestDigestibility Zhao Jia Bang Rd Shanghai in The three samples of at the same time. for each diet. feed would lose feed were analysed ibilitytion. Residue growth of shrimp vehiof the feeds in transportation PC:200032 cles, bins, buffer hoppers and process Extrusion digestibility with the pH stat for in vitroand expansion at high temperaPR China equipment could cause cross ture can improve by Lemos et and limit Shrimp21 64188282 method, as described feed quality al (2009). Material and Methods contamiTel:+86 Fax:+86 21 was stocked with 25 shrimp nation. Harmful microbe and pests forlost of nutrition; anoxia sterilisation could DH values were used to predict protein Diets - Three different diets were are Each net 64163299 also source of Feeds were pelleted kill bacteria effectively models relating digestibility by separateand keep vitamins; (Litopenaeus vannamei) of 12-13g each. mulated (see table). cross contamination. on To meet increasingly high demand ingredients or could eliminate vivo digestfermentation diet DH to in toxic effect They were acclimatised in the nets during a 2mm die.
Table 1: Composition of test dietsfor specific material of specific size

Antinutritional factors

ing of feed with vitamins is as following: temperature ≥90°C, Distribution Inhibit function moisture≥15%, time ≥60 seconds. As a result, it is necessary to choose formulation with sound Protease Pea seed, beet Restrain activity of trypsin and pepsin, facilitate secrete of thermal stability. A good pellet inhibitor broomcorn pancreas conditioner, correct air admission Rapeseed, cabbage, and mixing methods are also the Glucoside Kale, etc Prohibit growth, increase cardiolipin and reduce appetite vital factors for pelleting process. Impair intestinal wall, lose more endogenous protein, inhibit 3. Feed enzymes: pellet procLectin Pea seed growth ess also affects feed enzyme and Pea seed and cake, other microbials. Tannin etc Weaken absorption of protein, carbohydrates Enzyme and microbial are bioinjures gastric mucous membrane, destroy metabolization of logical products, the activity of Gossypol Cottonseed and cake protein and iron which are usually damaged under Interfere biological effectiveness of mineral elements, form protein the comprehensive function of Phytic acid Pea seed complex high temperature, humidity and Saponine Soybean Destroy absorption of nutrition, reduce appetite pressure. It is reported that the Lignin Pasture Destroy absorption of nutrition, reduce appetite activity of phytase drops by 87.5 Alkaloid Pasture Reduce appetite, inhibit growth percent at temperatures of over 80�. Facilitate pasting of materials inside enteron, weaken absorption NSP Grain feed of nutrition So the utilisation rate of N.P. will be affected. The microbe addiMeanwhile, the flow rate of steam must High temperature conditioner with short tives in the feed is especially reactive be matched to the feeding rate. As a result, time (60-160 seconds) can kill bacteria. to high temperature so that its activity steam with proper characteristics is a Many conditioners of this type have been will be lost completely if the pellet precondition of pellet quality. developed in several countries. The durabiltemperature exceeds 85�. It is better Technical improvements of steam presity of feed at high temperature should also to coat enzyme after pelleting or sure and flow rate covers following aspects be considered during conditioning. to use enzymes with better thermal to ensure high quality of feed: 1: Materials with bad durability under stability. 1: Control the conditioning of meals, high temperature and poor ‘strength’ 4. Impact on anti-nutrition factors: including the adding of steam and oil, should avoid conditioning at high part of anti-nutrition factors and and check the quality of steam and temperature. Instead, they should be harmful substances will be killed keep a good record of it coated later so as to ensure pellet during the conditioning of pellet. 2: Control the product from the pellet quality. Anoxia sterilisation before pelleting mill and keep record of it 2. The impact on vitamins: it is vulnercan kill various bacteria effectively 3: Control the cooling time, moisture able to increase conditioning time and improve feed quality. It has been and temperature of feed in accordand raise temperature as the vitamins a key research subject for profesance with the room temperature and with poor thermal stability would be sional technicians. moisture easily lost during the pelleting process. Animals have different reactions to the 4: Control the fat coated on the surface Vitamins like A, E, C, thiamine hydrosame anti-nutrition factors as its speof feed chloride, etc will be killed rapidly cies and age vary. The anti-nutrition 5: Check the hardness of pelleted feed as the temperature and conditioning factors can be divided into positive and keep good records time is raised. inhibitors for carbohydrate, minerConditioning process is vital for pellet The critical condition for conditionals and prolease, etc. The pelleting quality. The mixed materials with process adopts conditioning, high content of grain usually stay high temperature extrusion for at least 40-60 seconds in the methods to weaken the anticonditioner. nutrition factors as listed in Meanwhile, the temperature Table 2 to maximum limit. inside the conditioner should be 5. Impact of pellet on starch kept between 85-98� to improve and protein: the starch would ‘pasting’ of starch. Materials with become ‘pasted’ and protein high fibers must stay for shorter would be denaturated after time in the conditioner. In case of conditioning so that the aniaddition of liquids like molasses, mal can digest and aborb the the materials should stay longer in starch and protein better. conditioner (maximum 30 minutes) However, it is the technical so that it would absorb molasses issue of a professional comfully. pany to determine the raw

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