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Application of DSP in Audio Signal

Processing, Echo Location, Sonar,

Radar &Reflection Seismology
AbdulAzam V.V.Jagadeesh Naidu
3/4 EEE 3/4EEE

Abstract: line, or perhaps by a radio wave. More

generally, however, a signal is a stream
Digital signal processing is one of the of information representing anything
brightest spots in the semiconductor from stock prices to data from a remote-
business today, and one of the few
deserving the title "breakthrough”.
DSP is the processing of signal by Sensing satellite. The term "digital"
digital means. This paper describes comes from "digit", meaning a number
introduction to DSP, background, (you count with your fingers - your
evolution. Now a days DSP is used in digits), so "digital" literally means
audio signal processing, control numerical; the French word for digital is
engineering, digital image processing, numerique. A digital signal consists of a
and in speech processing. The paper stream of numbers, usually (but not
includes a brief discussion of its necessarily) in binary form. The
applications highlighting audio signal processing of a digital signal is done by
processing, radar, sound navigation performing numerical calculations.
and ranging and reflection seismology.
1.Analog and digital signals
Keywords In many cases, the signal of interest is
Transducer, Embedded controller,
initially in the form of an analog
Quantization, Psychoacoustics
electrical voltage or current, produced
INTRODUCTION for example by a microphone or some
other type of transducer. In some
DSP, or Digital Signal Processing, as the situations, such as the output from the
term suggests, is the processing of readout system of a CD (compact disc)
signals by digital means. A signal in this player, the data is already in digital
context can mean a number of different form. An analog signal must be
things. Historically the origins of signal converted into digital form before DSP
processing are in electrical engineering, techniques can be applied. An analog
and a signal here means an electrical electrical voltage signal, for example,
signal carried by a wire or telephone can be digitized using an electronic
circuit called an analog-to-digital The introduction of the microprocessor
converter or ADC. This generates a in the late 1970's and early 1980's made
digital output as a stream of binary it possible for DSP techniques to be used
numbers whose values represent the in a much wider range of applications.
electrical voltage input to the device at However, general-purpose
each sampling instant. microprocessors such as the Intel x86
family are not ideally suited to the
2.Signal processing numerically-intensive requirements of
DSP, and during the 1980's the
Signals commonly need to be processed increasing importance of DSP led
in a variety of ways. For example, the several major electronics manufacturers
output signal from a transducer may well (such as Texas Instruments, Analog
be contaminated with unwanted Devices and Motorola) to develop
electrical "noise". The electrodes Digital Signal Processor chips -
attached to a patient's chest when an specialized microprocessors with
ECG is taken measure tiny electrical architectures designed specifically for
voltage changes due to the activity of the the types of operations required in digital
heart and other muscles. The signal is signal processing. (Note that the
often strongly affected by "mains acronym DSP can variously mean
pickup" due to electrical interference Digital Signal Processing, the term used
from the mains supply. Processing the for a wide range of techniques for
signal using a filter circuit can remove or processing signals digitally, or Digital
at least reduce the unwanted part of the Signal Processor, a specialized type of
signal. Increasingly nowadays, the microprocessor chip). Like a general-
filtering of signals to improve signal purpose microprocessor, a DSP is a
quality or to extract important programmable device, with its own
information is done by DSP techniques native instruction code. DSP chips are
rather than by analog electronics. capable of carrying out millions of
floating point operations per second, and
3.Development of DSP
like their better-known general-purpose
The development of digital signal cousins, faster and more powerful
processing dates from the 1960's with versions are continually being
the use of mainframe digital computers introduced. DSPs can also be embedded
for number-crunching applications such within complex "system-on-chip"
as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), devices, often containing both analog
which allows the frequency spectrum of and digital circuitry.
a signal to be computed rapidly. These
techniques were not widely used at that 5.DSPs vs. Microprocessors
time, because suitable computing
equipment was generally available only DSPs differ from microprocessors in a
in universities and other scientific number of ways. Microprocessors are
research institutions. typically built for a range of general
purpose functions, and normally run
4.Digital Signal Processors large blocks of software, such as
(DSPs) operating systems like UNIX.
Microprocessors aren't often called upon
for real-time computation. Usually, they single-chip MOS (Metal-Oxide
are at liberty to shuffle their workloads Semiconductor) DSPs. Cheaper and
around and choose their own course of easier to design-in than building blocks,
action, waiting to finish a printing job, these "monolithic" processors meant that
for instance, before responding to a user digital signal processing could be cost-
command. And though microprocessor effectively integrated into an array of
has some numeric capabilities, they're ordinary products. The early single-chip
nowhere near fleet enough for most DSP processors were relatively simple 16-bit
applications. Where a microprocessor is devices, which, teamed with 8- or 10-bit
well-rounded and versatile, the DSP is a ADCs, were suitable for low-speed
single-minded specialist, racing through applications,neral-purpcoders such as
a smaller range of functions at lightning talking toys, simple controllers, and
speed. DSPs are often used as a type of vocoders; (voice encoding devices used
"embedded controller," a processor that, in telecommunications). Since then, free
accompanied by all necessary software, scale has broadened the market
is built into a piece of equipment and is significantly. The company introduced
dedicated to a single group of tasks. In the first 24-bit DSP56000 in 1987 and
computer systems, DSPs may be the first 16-bit single-chip ADC in 1989.
employed as attached processors, These chips have since been joined by
assisting a general purpose host the 16-bit DSP56100 and DSP56800,
microprocessor. 24-bit DSP56300 and DSP56600, 32-bit
96002, and together make up the first
6.DSP Evolution and only architecturally compatible line
of 16-, 24- and 32-bit DSPs.
Just a decade and a half ago, digital
signal processing was more theory than 7.Applications of DSP
practice. The only systems capable of
doing signal processing were massive DSP technology is nowadays
mainframes and supercomputers and commonplace in such devices as mobile
even then, much of the processing was phones, multimedia computers, video
done not in real time, but off-line in recorders, CD players, hard disc drive
batches. For example, seismic data was controllers and modems, and will soon
collected in the field, stored on magnetic replace analog circuitry in TV sets and
tapes and then taken to a computing telephones. An important application of
center, where a mainframe might take DSP is in signal compression and
hours or days to digest the information. decompression. Signal compression is
The first practical real-time DSP systems used in digital cellular phones to allow a
emerged in the late 1970s and used greater number of calls to be handled
bipolar "bit-slice" components. Large simultaneously within each local "cell".
quantities of these building-block chips DSP signal compression technology
were needed to design a system, at allows people not only to talk to one
considerable effort and expense. Uses another but also to see one another on
were limited to esoteric high-end their computer screens, using small
technology, such as military and space video cameras mounted on the computer
systems. The economics began to change monitors, with only a conventional
in the early 80s with the advent of telephone line linking them together. In
audio CD systems, DSP technology is
used to perform complex error detection sequence of symbols, usually binary
and correction on the raw data as it is numbers, which permits digital signal
read from the CD. processing. It must be noted that all real
world audio signals are continuous-time
Although some of the mathematical analog signals. Therefore, sampling and
theory underlying DSP techniques, such quantization must be applied to convert
as Fourier and Hilbert Transforms, the continuous-time analog signal to a
digital filter design and signal discrete-time digital representation.
compression, can be fairly complex, the While such a conversion is lossy, most
numerical operations required actually to modern audio systems use this approach
implement these techniques are very as the techniques of digital signal
simple, consisting mainly of operations processing are much more powerful and
that could be done on a cheap four- efficient than analog domain signal
function calculator. The architecture of a processing.
DSP chip is designed to carry out such The focus in audio signal processing is
operations incredibly fast, processing most typically a mathematical analysis
hundreds of millions of samples every of which parts of the signal are audible.
second, to provide real-time For example, a signal can be modified
performance: that is, the ability to for different purposes such that the
process a signal "live" as it is sampled modification is controlled in the auditory
and then output the processed signal, for domain. Which parts of the signal are
example to a loudspeaker or video heard and which are not, is not decided
display. All of the practical examples of merely by physiology of the human
DSP applications mentioned earlier, hearing system, but very much by
such as hard disc drives and mobile psychological properties. These
phones, demand real-time operation. properties are analysed within the field
of psychoacoustics.
The major electronics manufacturers
Processing methods and application
have invested heavily in DSP
areas include storage, level compression,
technology. Because they now find
data compression, transmission,
application in mass-market products,
enhancement (e.g., equalization,
DSP chips account for a substantial
filtering, noise cancellation, echo or
proportion of the world market for
reverb removal or addition, etc.)
electronic devices. Sales amount to
billions of dollars annually, and seem
likely to continue to increase rapidly 7.2Echo Location
7.1Audio signal processing
Audio signal processing, sometimes A common method of obtaining
referred to as audio processing, is the information about a remote object is to
processing of a representation of bounce a wave off of it. For example,
auditory signals, or sound. The radar operates by transmitting pulses of
representation can be digital or analog. radio waves, and examining the received
An analog representation is usually signal for echoes from aircraft. In sonar,
electrical; a voltage level represents the sound waves are transmitted through the
air pressure waveform of the sound. water to detect submarines and other
Similarly, a digital representation submerged objects. Geophysicists have
expresses the pressure wave-form as a long probed the earth by setting off
explosions and listening for the echoes distance determination without reducing
from deeply buried layers of rock. While the operating range. Second, DSP can
these applications have a common filter the received signal to decrease the
thread, each has its own specific noise. This increases the range, without
problems and needs. Digital Signal degrading the distance determination.
Processing has produced revolutionary Third, DSP enables the rapid selection
changes in all three areas. and generation of different pulse shapes
and lengths. Among other things, this
7.3Radar allows the pulse to be optimized for a
Radar is an acronym for Radio
particular detection problem. Now the
Detection And Ranging. In the simplest
impressive part: much of this is done at a
radar system, a radio transmitter
sampling rate comparable to the radio
produces a pulse of radio frequency
frequency used, at high as several
energy a few microseconds long. This
hundred megahertz! When it comes to
pulse is fed into a highly directional
radar, DSP is as much about high-speed
antenna, where the resulting radio wave
hardware design as it is about
propagates away at the speed of light.
Aircraft in the path of this wave will
reflect a small portion of the energy back 7.4Sonar
toward a receiving antenna, situated near Sonar is an acronym for Sound
the transmission site. The distance to the Navigation and Ranging. It is divided
object is calculated from the elapsed into two categories, active and passive.
time between the transmitted pulse and In active sonar, sound pulses between 2
the received echo. The direction to the kHz and 40 kHz are transmitted into the
object is found more simply; you known water, and the resulting echoes detected
where you pointed the directional and analyzed. Uses of active sonar
antenna when the echo was received. include: detection & localization of
The operating range of a radar system is undersea bodies, navigation,
determined by two parameters: how communication, and mapping the sea
much energy is in the initial pulse, and floor. A maximum operating range of 10
the noise level of the radio receiver. to 100 kilometers is typical. In
Unfortunately, increasing the energy in comparison, passive sonar simply listens
the pulse usually requires making the to underwater sounds, which includes:
pulse longer. In turn, the longer pulse natural turbulence, marine life, and
reduces the accuracy and precision of the mechanical sounds from submarines and
elapsed time measurement. This result in surface vessels. Since passive sonar
a conflict between two important emits no energy, it is ideal for covert
parameters: the ability to detect objects operations. You want to detect the other
at long range, and the ability to guy, without him detecting you. The
accurately determine an object's most important application of passive
distance. sonar is in military surveillance systems
that detect and track submarines. Passive
DSP has revolutionized radar in three sonar typically uses lower frequencies
areas, all of which relate to this basic than active sonar because they propagate
problem. First, DSP can compress the through the water with less absorption.
pulse after it is received, providing better Detection ranges can be thousands of
DSP has revolutionized sonar in many of layers, giving rise to echoes of echoes
the same areas as radar: pulse being detected at the surface. These
generation, pulse compression, and secondary echoes can make the detected
filtering of detected signals. In one view, signal very complicated and difficult to
sonar is simpler than radar because of interpret. Digital Signal Processing has
the lower frequencies involved. In been widely used since the 1960s to
another view, sonar is more difficult than isolate the primary from the secondary
radar because the environment is much echoes in reflection seismograms. How
less uniform and stable. Sonar systems did the early geophysicists manage
usually employ extensive arrays of without DSP? The answer is simple:
transmitting and receiving elements, they looked in easy places, where
rather than just a single channel. By multiple reflections were minimized.
properly controlling and mixing the DSP allows oil to be found in difficult
signals in these many elements, the locations, such as under the ocean.
sonar system can steer the emitted pulse
to the desired location and determine the
direction that echoes are received from. Digital signal processing has become a
To handle these multiple channels, sonar widely accessible commercial
systems require the same massive DSP technology. In the last few years, a
computing power as radar. variety of high-performance, integrated
DSPs have made digital signal
7.5Reflection seismology processing technology easier and more
affordable to use. Digital signal
As early as the 1920s, geophysicists processing generates business
discovered that the structure of the communication at the user's fingertips
earth's crust could be probed with sound. and professional audio sound in real
Prospectors could set off an explosion time. The market for DSP chips is
and record the echoes from boundary growing at twice the rate of the
layers more than ten kilometers below semiconductor industry as a whole,
the surface. These echo seismograms according to Forward Concepts of
were interpreted by the raw eye to map Tempe, Arizona In the next few years,
the subsurface structure. The reflection digital signal processing will give rise to
seismic method rapidly became the hundreds of new products and change
primary method for locating petroleum what people expect from technology.
and mineral deposits, and remains so
today. References:
1.K.Nagoorkani:Digital Signal
In the ideal case, a sound pulse sent into Procesing,RBA publications
the ground produces a single echo for 2.Sanjit K.Mitra: Digital Signal
each boundary layer the pulse passes Procesing,Tata McGraw Hill.
through. Unfortunately, the situation is 3.Jhonny R.Jhonson:Introduction to
not usually this simple. Each echo Digital Signal Procesing,Prentice Hall
returning to the surface must pass 4.Ashfaq Khan: Digital Signal
through all the other boundary layers Processing Fundamentals, Charles River
above where it originated. This can Media.
result in the echo bouncing between .