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R U S S I A N M A R I T I M E REGISTER OF S H I P P I N G

Electronic version of printed


document approved on 03.10.17

Corr.

RULES
FOR THE CLASSIFICATION
AND CONSTRUCTION
OF SEA-GOING SHIPS

PART XIII
MATERIALS
ND No. 2-020101-104-E

Saint-Petersburg
E d i t i o n 2018
Rules f o r t h e Classification a n d Construction o f Sea-Going Ships o f Russian M a r i t i m e Register o f
Shipping have been approved i n accordance w i t h the established approval procedure a n d come i n t o force o n
1 January 2018.
The present edition o f t h e Rules is based o n t h e 2017 edition taking into account t h e a m e n d m e n t s
developed immediately before publication.
The unified requirements, interpretations a n d recommendations o f t h e International Association o f
Classification Societies ( I A C S ) a n d the relevant resolutions o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a r i t i m e O r g a n i z a t i o n ( I M O )
have been taken into consideration.
The Rules arepublished i nthe following parts:
Part I "Classification";
Part I I "Hull";
Part I I I"Equipment, Arrangements and Outfit";
Part I V "Stability";
Part V "Subdivision";
Part V I "Fire Protection";
Part V I I "Machinery Installations";
Part V I I I "Systems and Piping";
Part I X "Machinery";
P a r t X "Boilers, H e a t Exchangers a n d Pressure Vessels";
Part X I "Electrical Equipment";
Part X I I"Refrigerating Plants";
Part X I I I "Materials";
Part X I V "Welding";
Part X V "Automation";
Part X V I " H u l l Structure and Strength o f Glass-Reinforced Plastic Ships and Boats";
P a r t X V I I "Distinguishing M a r k s a n d Descriptive N o t a t i o n s i n the Class N o t a t i o n Specifying Structural
and Operational Particulars o f Ships";
P a r t X V I I I " C o m m o n S t r u c t u r a l R u l e s f o r B u l k C a r r i e r s a n d O i l T a n k e r s " . T h e t e x t o f t h e p a r t is i d e n t i c a l
to t h a t o f the I A C S C o m m o n S t r u c t u r a l Rules;
Part X I X " A d d i t i o n a l Requirements for Structures o f Container Ships and Ships, Dedicated P r i m a r i l y t o
C a r r y their L o a d i n Containers". T h e text o f the P a r t is identical t o I A C S U R S U A " L o n g i t u d i n a l Strength
Standard for C o n t a i n e r Ships" (June 2015) a n d S34 " F u n c t i o n a l Requirements o n L o a d Cases for Strength
Assessment o f Container Ships b y Finite Element Analysis" ( M a y 2015).
P a r t s I t o X V I I a r e p u b l i s h e d i n electronic f o r m a t a n d h a r d c o p y i n R u s s i a n a n d E n g l i s h . I n case o f
discrepancies between the Russian and E n g l i s h versions, t h eRussian version shall prevail.
Parts X V I I I t o X I X a r epublished i nEnglish and i nelectronic f o r m a t only.

ISBN 978-5-89331-346-8 © Российский морской регистр судоходства, 2 0 1 8


As compared to the 2 0 1 7 edition, the present edition of the Rules contains the f o l l o w i n g amendments.

R U L E S F O RT H ECLASSIFICATION A N D CONSTRUCTION O F SEA-GOING SHIPS

P A R T XIII. MATERIALS

1. P a r a s 1.1.3, 1.3.1.2, 1.3.2.3.3, 1.3.2.5, 1 . 4 . 1 , 1.5.2, 2.2.2.3 ( i n c l u d i n g T a b l e 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 ) , 2 . 2 . 2 . 8 , 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 ,


2.2.3.4, 2.2.5.1, 2.2.9.2, 2.2.9.4, 2.2.10.3, 2.3.1.3, 2.3.11.1, 2.4.1, 3.2.1.1, 3.2.1.3, 3.2.1.4, 3.2.2 ( i n c l u d i n g Tables
3.2.2-1, 3.2.2-2), 3.2.3, T a b l e 3.2.4-1, T a b l e 3.2.4-2, p a r a 3.2.5, T a b l e 3.2.6.4-1, p a r a s 3.2.8.1, 3.3.2.2, 3.3.2.3,
3.3.3, 3.3.6, 3.3.7, 3.4.2.2, 3.4.2.3, 3.4.3.2, 3.4.6, 3.5.1.2, 3.5.1.4, 3.5.1.6, 3.5.1.7, 3.5.2.5.6, 3.5.2.6, 3.5.3.2,
3.5.4.2, 3.5.5.3, 3.6.1.3, T a b l e 3.6.2.1, T a b l e 3.6.3, p a r a s 3.6.4.2, 3.6.5.3, 3.6.7, 3.6.8, 3.7.1.6, 3.7.1.8, 3.7.2.5,
3.7.4.6, 3.7.6.1.9, 3.7.6.1.12, 3.7.7.6, 3.8.1.3, 3.8.1.4, 3.8.4.1, 3.8.6.4, 3.8.7.5, 3.9.1.1, 3.9.1.3, 3.9.1.4, 3.9.2,
3.9.4.1, 3.9.5.1, 3.10.1.3, 3.10.1.4, 3.10.2, 3.10.4, 3.10.5.1, 3.11.3, 3.12.1.1, 3.12.3.2, 3.12.4.1, 3.12.8.3, 3.12.9.2,
3.12.9.5, 3.14.1, 3.15.4.4, 3.16.1.4, 3.16.1.6, 3.16.1.7, T a b l e 3.16.1.9.1, paras 3.16.2.3, 3.16.3.2, 3.16.3.3,
3.16.3.4, 3.17.1.3, 3.17.4.1.11, 3.17.4.1.12.3, 3.17.4.1.12.5, 3.17.4.2.2, 3.18.4.1, 3.18.4.3, 3.18.10.4.1, 3.18.15.3,
3.18.16.3, 3.18.16.4, 3.18.17.3.2.3, 3.18.17.3.3, 3.19.1.1.2, 3.19.1.2.2, T a b l e 3.19.2.2.1-1, T a b l e 3.19.2.2.1-2,
paras 3.19.2.4.2.1, 3.19.2.4.3.1, 3.20.4.1.3, 3.20.4.3.1, T a b l e 3.20.5.1, paras 4.1.3, 4.1.5, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.2.4,
4.2.7.3.1, 4.2.7.3.2, 4.2.8.1, 4.2.8.2, 4.2.8.5, 4.2.9.1, 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.1.8, 5.1.9, 5.2.2, 5.2.5, 5.2.6, 5.3.1.2, 5.3.2.2.2,
5.3.3.1, 6.2.2.2, 6.2.3.1, 6.2.3.2, 6.2.3.6, T a b l e 6.3.2.1, p a r a s 6.3.4.1, 6.7.4.1, 6.8.7.4, 7.1.1.1, 7.1.3.8, 7.1.3.11,
7.1.4.3.1, T a b l e 7.1.4.3.3, paras 7.1.5.1.4,7.1.5.1.5, 7.1.6.1, 7.2.1.2, 7.2.1.6.2, 7.2.2.2.3.2.5, 7.2.2.2.5.5,
7.2.2.2.6.1, 7.2.3.1.1, T a b l e 7.2.3.2.9.2-2, paras 7.2.3.2.10.1, 7.2.3.2.10.4, 7.2.4.6.2, 7.2.5.2.2, 7.2.5.2.5,
7.2.5.4.4, 8.2.1.2, 8.3.5, 8.4.2.1, 9.1.2, 9.2.9, T a b l e 9.4.3.3-1, p a r a 9.4.6: the r e q u i r e m e n t s h a v e been specified
to a v o i d a m b i g u o u s p h r a s e s s u c h as " o n / u p o n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r " , " i n w e l l g r o u n d e d cases o n
a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r " , "special c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( b y t h e R e g i s t e r ) " , etc.
2. S e c t i o n 1 : p a r a 1 . 4 . 2 . 2 h a s b e e n a m e n d e d a s r e g a r d s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a r k i n g .
3. S e c t i o n 2 : p a r a 2 . 5 . 6 . 4 h a s b e e n s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i c e - r e s i s t a n t c o a t i n g s o n t h e
basis o f practical e x p l o i t a t i o n .
4. S e c t i o n 3 : C h a p t e r 3 . 1 3 h a s b e e n f u l l y a m e n d e d c o n s i d e r i n g I A C S U R W 1 6 ( R e v . 3 M a r . 2 0 1 6 ) ;
T a b l e 3.16.1.6 ( R u s s i a n v e r s i o n o f the Rules) has been p u t i n t o accordance w i t h the E n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f the
Rules.
5. S e c t i o n 6: a n e w p a r a 6 . 5 . 1 . 1 . 1 h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n e w r e v i s i o n o f I A C S U R S C 2 2 7
(Rev.2 N o v . 2016);
a n e w p a r a 6.5.1.3, specifying the requirements f o r cargo h o l d s p r o t e c t i o n coatings, has been i n t r o d u c e d ;
(refer t o Circ. N o 314-56-974c f r o m 18.01.2017)
a n e w C h a p t e r 6.9 h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t o p o l y m e r c o m p o s i t e m a t e r i a l s f o r
gangways o f o i l tankers considering I M O M S C . l / C i r c . 1504 (5 June 2015).
6. S e c t i o n 7 : C h a p t e r 7 . 2 h a s b e e n a m e n d e d c o n s i d e r i n g I A C S U R W 2 2 ( R e v . 6 J u n e 2 0 1 6 ) :
paras 7.2.1.1, 7.2.1.2, 7.2.1.3.2, 7.2.1.3.3, 7.2.1.3.4, 7.2.1.5.2, 7.2.1.5.3, 7.2.1.6.2, 7.2.1.6.3, 7.2.1.6.6,
7.2.1.6.7, 7.2.2.2.1.1, 7.2.2.2.1.2, 7.2.2.2.1.3.1, 7.2.2.2.3.2, 7.2.2.2.5.1 - 7.2.2.2.5.4, 7.2.2.3.1.1, 7.2.2.3.1.2,
7.2.2.3.1.3.1, 7.2.2.3.1.3.3, 7.2.2.3.6, 7.2.2.3.6.1 - 7.2.2.3.6.3, 7.2.2.4.1.1 - 7.2.2.4.1.3, 7.2.2.4.6, 7.2.2.4.6.1 -
7.2.2.4.6.3, 7.2.3.2.1.1, 7.2.3.2.3.1, 7.2.3.2.3.2, 7.2.3.2.9.2.1, 7.2.3.2.9.2.2, 7.2.4.1.2, 7.2.4.2.4, 7.2.4.3.2. 7.2.4.5,
7.2.4.5.1 - 7.2.4.5.3, 7.2.4.6.2, 7.2.4.6.7, 7.2.4.6.8, 7.2.5.1.1, 7.2.5.2.2, 7.2.5.4.1, 7.2.5.4.4, 7.2.5.4.5, 7.2.5.5,
7.2.5.5.1 - 7 . 2 . 5 . 5 . 3 , 7.2.5.8.1 have been amended;
n e w paras 7.2.2.2.5.6, 7.2.2.3.5.2, 7.2.2.3.5.2.1 - 7.2.2.3.5.2.5, 7.2.2.3.6.4, 7.2.2.3.6.5, 7.2.2.4.6.4 -
7.2.2.4.6.9, 7.2.3.2.3.3, 7.2.3.2.5.4, 7.2.4.3.3, 7.2.4.4.4, 7.2.4.5.4, 7.2.4.5.5, 7.2.5.1.3, 7.2.5.2.5.3 , 7.2.5.2.5.4,
7.2.5.5.4, 7.2.6.4.6 have been introduced;
Fig. 7.2.2.2.3.2 has been replaced;
Table 7.2.2.2.4.1: values have been amended;
T a b l e 7.2.4.2.2 has been replaced.
7. S e c t i o n 8: p a r a s 8 . 1 . 2 a n d 8 . 1 . 3 h a v e b e e n a m e n d e d c o n s i d e r i n g I A C S U R 1 ( R e v . 6 O c t , 2 0 1 6 )
(Corr.l Dec 2016);
p a r a s 8.4.2.5 a n d 8.4.2.6: a reference t o o t h e r R e g i s t e r rules has b e e n specified;
p a r a 8.4.4: a reference t o a n o t h e r S e c t i o n o f P a r t X I I I has b e e n specified.
8. E d i t o r i a l a m e n d m e n t s h a v e b e e n m a d e .
CONTENTS

P A R T XIII. MATERIALS

1 General 5 5 Aluminium alloys 104


1.1 Application 5 5.1 W r o u g h t a l u m i n i u m alloys 104
1.2 Definitions and explanations 5 5.2 Cast a l u m i n i u m alloys 109
1.3 Survey 6 5.3 Aluminium-steel laminated composite
1.4 M a r k i n g and documentation 8 material 110
1.5 Laboratories engaged i n testing 9 6 Plastics a n d materials of organic origin . 115
2 Procedures o f testing 10 6.1 General 115
2.1 General 10 6.2 Materials for reinforced plastic
2.2 Testing procedures for metals 10 structures 116
2.3 Procedures o f testing non-metallic 6.3 L a m i n a t e d textiles 117
materials 18 6.4 F o a m plastics 117
2.4 W e l d a b i l i t y test 23 6.5 Protective coatings 118
2.5 Testing o f ice-resistant coatings 24 6.6 Ropes o f natural and synthetic fibre . . . . 119
3 Steel and cast iron 30 6.7 Retro-reflective materials for life-saving
3.1 General 30 appliances 120
3.2 H u l l structural steel 30 6.8 Plastic pipes and fittings 121
3.3 Steel for boilers, heat exchangers and 6.9 Polymer composite material for gangways
pressure vessels 41 o f o i l tankers 122
3.4 Steel tubes and pipes 42 7 Anchor a n d mooring chain cables 123
3.5 Steel f o r structures used at l o w 7.1 A n c h o r chain cables and accessories. . . . 123
temperatures 43 7.2 M o o r i n g chain and accessories 128
3.6 Steel f o r c h a i n cables a n d accessories . . . 48 8 Requirements for manufacture
3.7 Steel forgings 50 of anchors 145
3.8 Steel castings 56 8.1 General 145
3.9 Spheroidal or nodular graphite iron 8.2 Materials 145
castings 59 8.3 Manufacture o f anchors 146
3.10 G r e y i r o n castings 61 8.4 T e s t i n g a n d issue o f documents 147
3.11 M a l l e a b l e cast i r o n 62 9 Titanium alloys 149
3.12 Steel castings f o r propellers 62 9.1 General requirements 149
3.13 H i g h strength steel f o r w e l d e d 9.2 W r o u g h t titanium alloys 149
structures 66 9.3 T i t a n i u m alloys for nuclear p o w e r plants. . 153
3.14 Z-steel 70 9.4 Pipes 154
3.15 W i r e ropes 72 9.5 Cast t i t a n i u m allloys 156
3.16 Stainless steel 73 10 Materials used for cargo containment
3.17 C l a d steel 78 systems of gas carriers 159
3.18 N o r m a l and higher strength corrosion- 10.1 General requirements 159
resistant steels f o r cargo o i l t a n k s 83 10.2 M e t a l l i c materials for cargo containtment
3.19 A p p l i c a t i o n o f Y P 4 7 steel plates 87 s y s t e m s o f gas carriers 159
3.20 Requirements for use o f extremely thick 10.3 Plywood 159
steel plates 90 10.4 Glass w o o l 159
4 Copper and copper-basealloys 96 10.5 G l a s s f i b r e u s e d i n gas carrier m e m b r a n e s . 160
4.1 Semi-finished products o f copper and 10.6 Rubber technical goods 160
copper-base alloys 96 10.7 Perlite (volcanic glass) 160
4.2 Propeller castings 96 10.8 Anti-sticking film 160
10.9 Mastics, adhesives, paint coatings 160
P A R T XIII. M A T E R I A L S

1 GENERAL

1.1 APPLICATION
Certificates for M a n u f a c t u r e r were issued (refer
t o 1.1.1):
1.1.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r e s e n t P a r t o f t h e .1 r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o f h u l l s t r u c t u r a l steel, Z-steel
Rules apply t o materials a n d products that are a n d h i g h s t r e n g t h steel f o r w e l d e d structures;
subject, i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the o t h e r parts o f the .2 r o l l e d s t e e l f o r C l a s s I a n d C l a s s I I b o i l e r s a n d
Rules, to the survey by the Register during m a n u - pressure vessels;
facture. .3 s t e e l p i p e s f o r b o i l e r s , p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s a n d
Requirements pertaining to the choice and Class I a n d Class I I piping;
a p p l i c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o d u c t s shall be f o u n d .4 s t e e l f o r g i n g s a n d c a s t i n g s ;
in the relevant parts o f the Rules. .5 i r o n c a s t i n g s ;
R e q u i r e m e n t s t o the scope o f survey a n d testing at .6 c a s t i n g s o f n o n - f e r r o u s a n d l i g h t a l l o y s ;
the initial survey o f manufacture o f materials and .7 s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s o f n o n - f e r r o u s a n d l i g h t
p r o d u c t s , as w e l l as a t c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e R e g i s t e r alloys;
technical supervision i n course o f their m a n u f a c t u r e are .8 c h a i n c a b l e s a n d r o p e s ;
stipulated i n P a r t I I I "Technical Supervision during .9 c h a i n s t e e l ;
Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for Technical .10 s l a b s , b l o o m s a n d b i l l e t s f o r r o l l i n g o f
Supervision during Construction o f Ships and M a n u - s h i p b u i l - d i n g a n d b o i l e r , steel, i f t h e y are p r o d u c t e d
facture o f Materials and Products for Ships. at w o r k s n o t constituting a part o f a rolling mill;
1.1.2 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e .11 a n c h o r s ;
present Part, materials a n d products shall meet the .12 w i r e r o p e s ;
requirements o f the relevant parts o f the Rules. .13 r o p e s o f n a t u r a l a n d s y n t h e t i c f i b r e ;
1.1.3 M a t e r i a l s , b e i n g p a r t o f a s t r u c t u r e o r .14 p l a s t i c p i p e s a n d f i t t i n g s .
product, o n w h i c h the requirements n o t included i n 1.1.5 T h e m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o d u c t s s u b j e c t t o s u r v e y
the present P a r t are imposed, due to conditions o f b y t h e R e g i s t e r , w h i c h are listed b e l o w (refer t o 1.1.1),
t h e i r o p e r a t i o n , as w e l l as m a t e r i a l s n o t r e g u l a t e d b y m a y be supplied w i t h the m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s certificates,
the present Part, the chemical composition, mechan- provided the w o r k s have the quality system recognized
ical a n d service properties o f w h i c h w e r e n o t by an authorized national or international organization
considered by the Register for a particular applica- o r the Register and the T y p e A p p r o v a l Certificate for
t i o n , shall be considered b y the Register o n the basis the type o f products manufactured:
o f the n o r m a t i v e d o c u m e n t a t i o n , c a l c u l a t i o n a n d test .1 m a t e r i a l s f o r r e i n f o r c e d plastic structures;
results. These shall c o n f i r m the construction o r .2 l a m i n a t e d t e x t i l e s ;
p r o d u c t safety level t o be n o t l o w e r t h a t i t is r e q u i r e d .3 r e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s ;
by the corresponding Sections o f the Rules. .4 f o a m p l a s t i c s ;
Materials being manufactured according to .5 c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t c o a t i n g s .
i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o r specifica-
tions, o r o t h e r technical d o c u m e n t a t i o n m a y be
p e r m i t t e d b y the R e g i s t e r f o r a specific a p p l i c a t i o n , 1.2 D E F I N I T I O N S A N D E X P L A N A T I O N S
provided the requirements o f the Rules are followed.
I n so d o i n g standards, specifications o r o t h e r
technical d o c u m e n t a t i o n are recognized by the 1.2.1 D e f i n i t i o n s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e
Register by means o f its inclusion i n the appropriate general t e r m i n o l o g y o f the Rules are given i n P a r t I
Register document and/or by stamping. "Classification".
T h e Register m a y p e r m i t the delivery o f materials F o r the purpose o f the present P a r t the following
and products only according to the standards, definitions have been adopted.
specification o r special technical d o c u m e n t a t i o n . Z - s t e e l is steel w i t h g u a r a n t e e d t h r o u g h -
G i v e n the distinctions between the above doc- thickness properties, w h i c h is i n t e n d e d f o r w e l d e d
u m e n t a t i o n a n d the R u l e s , materials testings a n d s t r u c t u r e s a n d c a n w i t h s t a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e stresses
their assessment shall be carried o u t t a k i n g i n t o perpendicular t o the plate surface.
account the m o s t strict requirements. P r o d u c t — for the purpose o f the present
1.1.4 T h e m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o d u c t s s u b j e c t t o P a r t , s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s , c h a i n cables a n d acces-
survey by the Register, w h i c h are listed below, shall sories, a n d r o p e s as w e l l .
be s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r certificates a n d s h a l l be R e g i s t e r s t a m p means a brand, stamp or
manufactured by the w o r k s , for w h i c h Recognition p u n c h o f a c e r t a i n t y p e specified b y the Register a p p l i e d
6 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

to finished products, or to products during their certified by signature o f the person representing the
manufacture, t o c o n f i r m the fact o f survey b y the Quality Control Department.
Register a n d identify the products w i t h the documents R e g i s t e r C e r t i f i c a t e means a document
issued f o r t h e m . certifying the compliance o f a particular v o l u m e o f
A s p e c i m e n is a test piece o f specified shape the specific t y p e o f p r o d u c t w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
a n d size p r e p a r e d f r o m a s a m p l e a n d u s e d f o r t h e the Register rules or, i f agreed u p o n specifically, w i t h
determination o f mechanical, technological and other c o n d i t i o n s o f the order. T h e Certificate is issued b y
properties o f m a t e r i a l by testing. the surveyor to the Register surveying manufacture
A b a t c h is t h e l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f s e m i - f i n i s h e d o f the products.
products a n d products, to w h i c h the results o f A p p r o v a l o f q u a l i t y s y s t e m means an
s t a t u t o r y tests are extended. action o f the Register, o r other organization authorized
I n i t i a l t e s t s m e a n a particular scope o f b y the Register, certifying t h a t the necessary degree o f
c o n t r o l tests specified i n a special p r o g r a m a p p r o v e d certitude is o b t a i n e d t h a t the p r o p e r l y identified q u a l i t y
by the Register and performed during the w o r k s survey management system complies w i t h the Register require-
exercised b y the Register p r i o r t o issue o f the ments. T h e Register-confirmed compliance o f the
Recognition Certificate for Manufacturer to the w o r k s . w o r k s quality management system w i t h the require-
A s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t is a casting, m e n t s o f I S O 9 0 0 1 w i l l be considered acceptable.
f o r g i n g , p l a t e o r t u b e a n d etc. i n t e n d e d f o r m a c h i n i n g L a m e l l a r t e a r i n g is b r e a k i n g o f w e l d e d
a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t t o a c q u i r e t h e f i n i s h e d state. structure c o m p o n e n t s , m a d e o f r o l l e d plates o r pipes,
A s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t is a n i n g o t , d u e t o c o n s i d e r a b l e w e l d i n g stresses a n d / o r e x t e r n a l
slab, b l o o m , billet i n t e n d e d f o r f u r t h e r rerolling, loads applied i n the direction perpendicular to the
technological treatment. plate surface.
R e c o g n i z e d l a b o r a t o r y means a labora-
t o r y (center) included into the List o f laboratories
(centers) h a v i n g R e c o g n i t i o n Certificates o f T e s t i n g 1.3 SURVEY
Laboratories.
R e c o g n i z e d w o r k s m e a n a n enterprise 1.3.1 G e n e r a l .
included into the List o f recognized (approved) 1.3.1.1 G e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s , r e g u l a t i n g t h e s c o p e a n d
materials and manufacturers. the procedure o f survey shall be f o u n d i n the G e n e r a l
A s a m p l e is a p o r t i o n o f a s e m i - f i n i s h e d Regulations for the Classification and Other Activity.
p r o d u c t o r p r o d u c t o r a specially fabricated b l a n k o f 1.3.1.2 P r i o r t o c o m m e n c e m e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r e
w h i c h test specimens s h a l l be m a c h i n e d . o f the products under the technical supervision the
R e c o g n i t i o n Certificate for M a n u - f i r m , shall be recognized b y the Register. F o r this
f a c t u r e r means a document confirming the c o m - purpose the Register carries o u t survey o f the w o r k s ,
pliance o f the manufacturer's products a n d conditions which comprises the following:
o f their manufacturer w i t h the Register rules a n d .1 r e v i e w a n d r e c o g n i t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n -
warranting the introduction (entry) o f the w o r k s into tation specifying the properties a n d conditions o f
the List o f recognized materials a n d manufacturers. production.
A c c e p t a n c e ( c e r t i f i c a t i o n ) tests Review o f technical documentation o n materials
m e a n a test extent established b y the Register rules a n d p r o d u c t s , as a r u l e , is c a r r i e d o u t p r i o r t o t h e
or documentation agreed u p o n by the Register for testing o f materials;
the products delivered under survey by the Register; .2 d i r e c t s u r v e y o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e q u a l i t y
the test results serve the basis f o r issue o f the Register system o f the firm, conducting o f check testing.
certificates. I n course o f taking the above actions, a
T y p e A p p r o v a l C e r t i f i c a t e means a compliance o f the manufacture parameters and the
document confirming the compliance o f the products products w i t h the requirements o f the documentation
produced by the w o r k s w i t h the Register rules a n d s h a l l b e c o n f i r m e d ( r e f e r t o 1.3.1.2.1) a n d t h e R u l e s
certifying an entry o f the w o r k s into the List o f o f t h e R e g i s t e r , as w e l l as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f
approved (recognized) materials and manufacturers. quality stability;
M a n u f a c t u r e r C e r t i f i c a t e means a .3 i s s u e o f t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s :
document o f the w o r k s certifying the compliance o f issue o f the R e c o g n i t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e f o r M a n u -
a p a r t i c u l a r v o l u m e o f t h e specific t y p e o f p r o d u c t facturer o r T y p e A p p r o v a l Certificate, ( i f the results
w i t h the requirements o f the order and c o n f i r m i n g are satisfactory);
that the products are m a n u f a c t u r e d i n compliance preparation o f the conclusion o n impossibility o f
w i t h p r o d u c t i o n practice adopted at w o r k s . T h e issue o f the a b o v e m e n t i o n e d Register d o c u m e n t s , ( i f
C e r t i f i c a t e is issued b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d s h a l l be the results are unsatisfactory).
P a r t XIII. Materials 1

A l l t h e procedures necessary f o r obtaining t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s selected a d d i t i o n a l l y yields u n s a t i s -


Recognition Certificate f o r Manufacturer a n d Type factory results, t h e w h o l e b a t c h shall b e rejected.
A p p r o v a l Certificate a n d the documents, confirming 1.3.2.3.2 I m p a c t t e s t .
the recognition o f the firm a n d its products b y the T h e cases o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y test results i n c l u d e :
Register shall be executed i n accordance w i t h t h e w h e n t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f t h r e e i m p a c t t e s t s (KV)
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f Sections 2 a n d 3, P a r t I I I " T e c h n i c a l fails t o m e e t t h e prescribed requirements,
Supervision during Manufacture o f Materials" o f the or m o r e t h a n o n e result o u to fthree is below the
Rules f o rTechnical Supervision during Construction required average value,
o f Ships a n dManufacture o f Materials a n d Products or t h e result o n a n yo n eo f t h e specimens is m o r e
for Ships based o n t h e requests o f firms. t h a n b y 3 0 % b e l o w t h e required average value.
1.3.1.3 D u r i n g p r o d u c t i o n t h e s u r v e y o f m a t e r i a l s I n a n y o n e o f t h e cases listed, re-testing m a y b e
and products i n course o f t h e technical supervision carried o u t o n additional n u m b e r o f specimens
includes t h e following: machined f r o m t h e same semi-finished product a t t h e
.1 tests a n d i n s p e c t i o n ; locality nearest t o t h e area o f preceding cutting-out.
.2 i s s u e o f t h e d o c u m e n t s ( r e f e r t o 1 . 4 . 3 ) o n t h e T h e submitted semi-finished product a n d the
basis o f t h e results o f tests a n d inspection. batch m a y be accepted i f t h e n e w average value o f
1.3.2 T e s t i n g . test results (three i n i t i a l tests plus three a d d i t i o n a l
1.3.2.1 C h e c k t e s t i n g i n c o u r s e o f t h e f i r m tests) exceeds t h e r e q u i r e d average v a l u e a n d n o t
recognition is carried o u t according t o the p r o g r a m m o r e t h a n t w o results o u t o f six are b e l o w t h e
approved b y t h e Register. T h e p r o g r a m is compiled required average value a n d n o t m o r e t h a n o n e
o n t h e basis o f t h e respective requirements o f t h e specimen h a s yielded t h e result, w h i c h is b e l o w b y
present P a r t o f t h e Rules, n a t i o n a l o r international 30 % t h e required o n e .
standards a n d other technical documentation. W h e r e t h e results o f re-testing o f t h e semi-
Testing under t h e Register technical supervision finished product representing a batch are unsatisfac-
during manufacture o f products shall be conducted i n t o r y , this p r o d u c t shall be rejected, b u t t h e r e m a i n i n g
compliance w i t h the requirements o f the chapters o f semi-finished products o ft h e batch m a y be accepted
the present P a r t depending o n t h e materials a n d i n case w h e r e t h e results o f tests c a r r i e d o u t o n t w o
p r o d u c t s subjected t o t h e tests a n d / o r t h e s t a n d a r d s additional semi-finished products o f this batch are
a n d specifications recognized b y t h e Register. satisfactory. W h e r e t h e test results o f t w o a d d i t i o n a l
1.3.2.2 T h e s i t e a n d t i m e o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d t e s t s semi-finished products are unsatisfactory, t h e batch
shall be specified b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r i n advance. shall be rejected. T h e m e n t i o n e d a d d i t i o n a l semi-
S a m p l i n g , test procedures, specimen c u t o u t proce- finished products shall be t h e thickest a m o n g the
dures shall be effected i n compliance w i t h t h e products available i n t h e batch.
applicable requirements o f t h e Rules (according t o T h e test principle p r o p o s e d here f o r K V m a y b e
S e c t i o n 2 ) . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e Register's applicable t o U - n o t c h e d specimen.
representative shall b r a n d t h e samples a n d specimens 1.3.2.3.3 W h e r e t h e t e s t r e s u l t s a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
a n d t h e tests shall b e c a r r i e d o u t i n h i s presence. d u e t o l o c a l defects i n t h e s p e c i m e n m a t e r i a l , f a u l t y
1.3.2.3 W h e r e t h e t e s t r e s u l t s a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , m a c h i n i n g o r f a u l t y test e q u i p m e n t o r i n case o f
unless o t h e r w i s e specified i n t h erelevant chapters, r e - tensile test fracture occurs b e y o n d t h e design l e n g t h
testing shall be conducted w i t h t h e following condi- o f the specimen, t h e test shall b e repeated o n t h e s a m e
tions being observed. n u m b e r o f specimens.
1.3.2.3.1 T e n s i l e t e s t . A t t h emanufacturer's discretion, t h e semi-finished
F r o m t h e semi-finished product, w h i c h has failed products f r o m t h e b a t c h rejected m a y be s u b m i t t e d t o
t h e test, a d o u b l e n u m b e r o f specimens m a y b e tests i t e m - b y - i t e m a n d w h e r e t h e results a r e satisfactory,
m a c h i n e d f r o m t h e locality nearest t o t h e area, f r o m they m a y be accepted b y t h e Register f o r supply.
w h i c h samples have been originally c u t o u t . A t the manufacturer's discretion, the semi-
I n case t h e results o f tests c a r r i e d o u t o n this finished products f r o m t h e batch rejected m a y be
double n u m b e r o f specimens are satisfactory, t h e re-tested after heat treatment, repeated heat treat-
s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s u b m i t t e d t o tests, as w e l l as m e n t , o r m a y be submitted as a category other t h a n
the relevant batch m a y be accepted. t h a t i n i t i a l l y declared. W h e r e test results i n case o f
I f a t least o n e specimen ( f r o m t h e a d d i t i o n a l set) such repeated submission are satisfactory f o r supply,
yields unsatisfactory results, t h e semi-finished p r o d u c t the Register m a y accept t h e material.
s u b m i t t e d shall b e rejected. H o w e v e r , t h e Register m a y A n y m a t e r i a l t h a t yielded unsatisfactory results
accept t h e rest o f t h e batch, p r o v i d e d t h e test results during subsequent machining o r application shall be
obtained o n t w o other semi-finished products o ft h e rejected irrespective o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f records o f tests
same batch p r o v e satisfactory. I f o n e o f t w o semi- carried o u t p r e v i o u s l y o r a p p r o p r i a t e certificates.
8 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

1.3.2.4 I f c o n f u s i o n o f s p e c i m e n s o r t e s t r e s u l t s i s manufacturer's name o r trade m a r k ;


detected o r t h e test results d o n o t m a k e i t possible t o s t a m p o f t h e q u a l i t y c o n t r o l service o f t h e
assess t h e m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d d e g r e e manufacturer's;
o f accuracy, t h e Register m a y r e q u i r e a n y tests t o be Register's brand ( i f required);
repeated i n t h e presence o fits representative. .3 i f t h e s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t d o e s n o t w i t h s t a n d
1.3.2.5 M a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d , t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f the tests r e q u i r e d b y the R u l e s o r defects a r e revealed,
w h i c h d o n o t fully agree w i t h t h e requirements o f w h i c h m a k e its use i n accordance w i t h the purpose
this Part, t h e deviations being n o t essential f o r t h e impossible, theRegister brand a n dthe material grade
operation o f the structure o r product, m a y be used i n designation shall be r e m o v e d o r cancelled.
accordance w i t h the purpose o n l y subject t o r e v i e w o f A d d i t i o n a l requirements t o m a r k i n g are stated i n
the d e v i a t i o n s b y t h e Register a n d i n case a r e l e v a n t 2.4.6, P a r t I I I " T e c h n i c a l supervision d u r i n g M a n u -
application f r o m themanufacturer a n d agreement o f facture o f M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e Rules f o r Technical
the customer is available. Supervision during Construction o f Ships a n d
Manufacture o fMaterials a n d Products f o r Ships.
1.4.3 D o c u m e n t a t i o n .
1.4 M A R K I N G A N D D O C U M E N T A T I O N Every batch o f the materials a n d products, o r a
separate semi-finished p r o d u c t a n d a separate item, i f
the d e l i v e r y is p e r f o r m e d i n single pieces, w h i c h
1.4.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . passed t h e tests, s h a l l b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e R e g i s t e r
D u r i n g manufacture o f materials and products at certificate o r t h e manufacturer's d o c u m e n t certified
works, t h e system o f m o n i t o r i n g shall be applied, by t h e Register representative.
w h i c h enable t o check t h e products manufacture a t 1.4.3.1 M a n u f a c t u r e r Q u a l i t y C e r t i f i c a t e .
a n y stage, b e g i n n i n g f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l ladle o f m e t a l . T h e Register representative simultaneously w i t h
D o c u m e n t a t i o n confirming t h e availabilityo fsuch a the submission o f t h e final material o r i n advance
system at t h e w o r k s shall be submitted t o the shall be presented w i t h t h e M a t e r i a l Q u a l i t y Certifi-
Register. cate. T h e Certificate shall b e attested b y t h e w o r k s
1.4.2 M a r k i n g . quality division, witnessed b y the authorized person,
Prior t o submission t o theRegister representative a n d , as m i n i m u m , shall c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g data:
the materials shall be respectively m a r k e d . T h e name o fthe w o r k s a n d the order number;
m a r k i n g o f the materials, unless specified otherwise, project number, i f k n o w n ;
(the peculiarities o f m a r k i n g shall be agreed i n name, number, dimensions a n dmass o f the semi-
advance a n d shall reflect t h e particular products finished product w i t h indication o f the drawing
properties, f o r example, refer t o 3.2.8), shall be n u m b e r o r sketch, ( i f applicable);
carried o u t according t o the standards taking the m a r k , (grade) o f t h e material, type o f alloy,
following requirements i n consideration: n u m b e r o fladle a n d chemical composition;
.1 i n t h e case o f s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s d e l i v e r e d identification number;
i n single pieces each o n e o f t h e m shall be m a r k e d . F o r type a n d m o d e o fheat t r e a t m e n t ( i f necessary);
shipments i n bundles t w o weather-resistant labels m e c h a n i c a l test results;
containing them a r k i n g shall be provided a n d firmly non-destructive testing results, (satisfactory o r
fastened t o t h e opposite ends o f the bundle. unsatisfactory), i f applied.
W h e n a great n u m b e r o f semi-finished products 1.4.3.2 T h e R e g i s t e r C e r t i f i c a t e , a t l e a s t , s h a l l
is d e l i v e r e d a n d these a r e o f s m a l l size, t h e m a r k i n g contain t h e following data:
procedure a n d t h e content o f t h e m a r k i n g shall be order number;
agreed w i t h t h e Register. building project, i f k n o w n ;
Semi-finished products t o undergo further m a - name, number, dimensions a n d mass o f the
c h i n i n g shall be stamped, as f a r as possible, i n spots material;
shall n o tbe machined. m a r k , (grade) o f the m a t e r i a l a n d delivery status;
T h e stamp shall stand o u tclearly a n d be framed n u m b e r o fManufacturer Quality Certificate;
w i t h a bright paint resistant t o atmosphere; number o f batch o r semi-finished product o r
.2 a s a r u l e , t h e s t a m p s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g identification n u m b e r , w h i c h enables t o identify t h e
information: supplied material;
grade o r quality o f material; drawing number, ( i f applicable).
figures o r other designation t o indicate t h e origin The obligatory supplement t o the Register
o f the semi-finished product (number o f semi-finished certificate shall be t h e M a n u f a c t u r e r Q u a l i t y Certifi-
product, n u m b e r o fcast a n d t h e like); cates attested b y t h e a u t h o r i z e d representative o f the
Manufacturer.
P a r t XIII. Materials 9

I f the m a t e r i a l is s u p p l i e d o n l y w i t h the firms the competence o f the laboratory. I n the


m a n u f a c t u r e r certificates, attested b y the Register Certificate o r the d o c u m e n t the scope a n d conditions
representative, its f o r m a n d contents shall be agreed o f a p p l y i n g testing shall be defined. T o be recognized
w i t h the Register and the purchaser. for a p p l y i n g the u l t r a s o n i c testing, a request shall be
forwarded to the Register supplemented by the
following documents confirming that the laboratory
1.5 L A B O R A T O R I E S E N G A G E D I N T E S T I N G
is r e a d y t o c a r r y o u t t h e n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g :
documents i n confirmation o f availability o f
qualified personnel together w i t h the n a m e o f the
1.5.1 T h e p r e s e n t C h a p t e r a p p l i e s t o l a b o r a t o r i e s body having carried o u t the certification o f the
engaged i n testing o f m a t e r i a l s subject t o the survey personnel;
by the Register. technical characteristics o f relevant equipment
1.5.2 T e s t i n g o f m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d u n d e r t h e a n d the scope o f its application;
technical supervision o f the Register by the recog- instructions for personnel.
nized metallurgy w o r k s (holding the Recognition Tests shall be m a d e t o c o n f i r m reliability o f the
C e r t i f i c a t e o f M a n u f a c t u r e r ) m a y be c o n d u c t e d test results a n d the possibility o f t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i o n .
without obtaining a Recognition Certificate o f T h e test p r o g r a m shall be a p p r o v e d b y the
Testing L a b o r a t o r y by the said laboratories. Register.
Laboratories o f other firms or independent 1.5.5 T h e r e s u l t s o f m a t e r i a l t e s t i n g a n d i n v e s t i -
laboratories m a y determine chemical composition gations conducted are recorded i n the prescribed w a y
a n d c o n d u c t tests t o d e t e r m i n e m e c h a n i c a l a n d o t h e r (entered i n t h e test l o g , r e p o r t , etc.). T h e test l o g
properties o f the items o f supervision o n l y after being ( r e p o r t , etc.) s h a l l c o n t a i n a l l t h e d a t a necessary f o r
recognized by the Register. the assessment o f material quality and subsequent
1.5.3 T h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d p r o v i s i o n s f u l l y a p p l y issue o f certificate.
to the laboratories engaged i n testing o f items o f the A report o f testing o f products shall include at
Register supervision by non-destructive methods. least the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : k i n d o f p r o d u c t ,
1.5.4 L a b o r a t o r i e s e n g a g e d i n n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e material and m a j o r dimensions o f product, testing
testing o f materials and products shall have a m e t h o d , testing frequency, type o f u n i f i e d reference
R e c o g n i t i o n Certificate issued by the Register a n d / b l o c k , size a n d p o s i t i o n o f defects, n a m e o f o p e r a t o r
or any other appropriate document o f the authorized a n d date o f testing.
national or international organization, which con-
10 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

2 PROCEDURES O F TESTING

2.1 G E N E R A L
standards unless expressly p r o v i d e d otherwise i n the
subsequent sections a n d chapters o f t h e present Part.
2.1.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r e s e n t S e c t i o n c o v e r 2.2.2 T e n s i l e t e s t s .
the types a n d procedures o f testing materials, w h i c h are 2.2.2.1 W h e n c a r r y i n g o u t t e n s i l e t e s t s a t t h e
subject t o survey b y t h e Register d u r i n g their m a n u - a m b i e n t temperature t h e f o l l o w i n g tensile properties
facture. T h e n e e d t o c o n d u c t t h e tests a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f metals shall be determined:
criteria o f test results a r e defined i n t h e r e l e v a n t sections .1 y i e l d stress R i s t h e v a l u e o f stress m e a s u r e d a t
e

o f the present P a r t o r other parts o f the Rules. the c o m m e n c e m e n t o fplastic d e f o r m a t i o n at yield o r


2.1.2 T h e S e c t i o n g i v e s g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e v a l u e o f stress m e a s u r e d a t t h e first p e a k o b t a i n e d
testing c o n d i t i o n s , types a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f test d u r i n g y i e l d i n g e v e n w h e n t h a t p e a k i s e q u a l t o o r less
specimens, a n d their preparation. t h a n a n y subsequent peaks observed d u r i n g plastic
A l t e r n a t i v e testing procedures a n d types o f test deformation at yield.
specimens m a y be adopted, subject t o a p p r o v a l o f t h e E l a s t i c stress rate s h a l l be w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s
Register a n d o n condition that they provide adequate specified i n T a b l e 2.2.2.1.1;
accuracy, r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y a n d d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f tests T a b l e 2.2.2.1.1
carried o u t f o r determination o f material properties 2 1
M o d u l u s o f elasticity o ft h e Stress rate, N / m m s
required by the Rules. 2
m a t e r i a l E, N / m m min max
2.1.3 T y p e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s p e c i a l t e s t s f o r t h e
m a t e r i a l s i n t e n d e d f o r specific use a n d e v a l u a t i o n < 150000 2 20
criteria, i f n o instructions are contained i n the Rules, >150000 6 60

shall be agreed w i t h the Register.


2.1.4 W h e n t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s .2 w h e n n o w e l l d e f i n e d y i e l d p h e n o m e n o n e x i s t s ,
o f the standards o r other regulating documents t h e 0 , 2 % p r o o f s t r e s s Rpo,2 shall be determined
approved b y the Register shall be m e t . according t o the applicable specification.
2.1.5 S a m p l e s , f r o m w h i c h t e s t s p e c i m e n s a r e c u t F o r austenitic a n d d u p l e x stainless steel p r o d u c t s
shall h a v e u n d e r g o n e t h e same t r e a t m e n t as t h e the 1 % p r o o f stress R \ m a y be d e t e r m i n e d i n
p

m a t e r i a l , f r o m w h i c h t h e y h a v e been t a k e n (e.g. heat a d d i t i o n t o R o,2-


p

treatment). Test specimens shall be prepared i n such a T h e stress r a t e s h a l l be as stated i n 2 . 2 . 2 . 1 . 1 ;


m a n n e r t h a t properties o f t h e m a t e r i a l are n o t affected. .3 t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h R is t h e v a l u e o f stress
m

2.1.6 A l l t h e t e s t s s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t b y c o m p e t e n t corresponding t o the m a x i m u m strain rate directly


personnel o n testing machines o f adequate capacity before t h e test specimen fractures.
being maintained i n the appropriate operating condition. T o d e t e r m i n e t h e tensile s t r e n g t h R t h e test m

T h e measurement accuracy o f testing machines shall be specimen is subjected t o extension u p t o t h e fracture


w i t h i n + 1 %. T h e m a c h i n e s s h a l l b e r e g u l a r l y , a s a r u l e b y t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y rising strain rate. A f t e r reaching t h e
a t least once p e r year, checked a n d calibrated b y t h e d u l y y i e l d s t r e s s o r p r o o f stress, f o r d u c t i l e m a t e r i a l t h e
designated n a t i o n a l authorities. m a c h i n e speed d u r i n g t h e tensile test s h a l l n o t exceed
The results o f regular checks shall be submitted t h a t corresponding t o a strain rate o f 0,008 p e r second.
to the Register. F o r b r i t t l e m a t e r i a l s , s u c h as cast i r o n , t h e stress rate
2
C h a r p y m a c h i n e s f o r i m p a c t tests s h a l l be shall n o t exceed 10 N / m m p e r second;
verified i n accordance w i t h the requirements o f .4 f r a c t u r e e l o n g a t i o n A i s t h e r a t i o o f a n
I S O 148-2 o r another standard recognized b y t h e Register. increment o f the gauge length after fracture t o the
M a c h i n e s f o r t e n s i l e / c o m p r e s s i o n tests s h a l l b e v e r i f i e d o r i g i n a l g a u g e l e n g t h , e x p r e s s e d i n %.
i n accordance w i t h t h e requirements o f I S O 7500-1 o r The elongation value is, i n principle, valid o n l y i f
another standard recognized b y t h e Register. the distance between the fracture a n d the nearest
g a u g e m a r k i s n o t less t h a n o n e t h i r d o f t h e o r i g i n a l
g a u g e l e n g t h (L ). 0 H o w e v e r , the result is valid
2.2 T E S T I N G P R O C E D U R E S F O R M E T A L S irrespective o f the location o f the fracture i f the
elongation value is equal t o o r greater t h a n the
expected value.
2.2.1 T e m p e r a t u r e . E l o n g a t i o n A is usually determined o n t h e s m a l l
5

The temperature o f the ambient air during the p r o p o r t i o n a l test specimens w h e n a gauge l e n g t h is
tests s h a l l c o m p l y w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e 5 , 6 5 ^ / S o = 5d. A i s d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e n o n -
0
P a r t XIII. Materials 11

p r o p o r t i o n a l test specimens, f o r instance, with a Test specimens o f rectangular cross-section w i t h


gauge l e n g t h Z, = 2 0 0 m m a n d calculated b y t h e a g a u g e l e n g t h e q u a l t o L = 5,65y/S o r o f c i r c u l a r
0 0

formula c r o s s - s e c t i o n w i t h a g a u g e l e n g t h LQ = 5d a r e c a l l e d
0

40
p r o p o r t i o n a l test specimens.
0A = 2A (^)°' ,%.
5
P r o p o r t i o n a l test specimens a r e preferable f o r
N o n - p r o p o r t i o n a l test specimens a r e u s u a l l y used tensile tests. T h e m i n i m u m e l o n g a t i o n v a l u e s g i v e n i n
f o r f e r r i t i c t y p e steels o f l o w a n d m e d i u m s t r e n g t h this P a r t a r e specified f o r these specimens. T h e gauge
made without application o fcold working; length L o f t h e specimen shall preferably b e greater
0

.5 f r a c t u r e r e d u c t i o n i n a r e a Z i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e t h a n 2 0 m m .
difference between t h e o r i g i n a l a n d t h e m i n i m u m T h e value o f t h e specimen gauge length after its
cross-sectional areas o f t h e test specimen after measuring m a y b e r o u n d e d o f f t o t h e nearest 5 m m ,
fracture t ot h eo r i g i n a l cross-sectional area, expressed p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e difference between this length a n d
i n %. I t i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r test s p e c i m e n s o f c i r c u l a r L s h a l l b e less t h a n 1 0 % o f L .
0 0

cross-section; T e n s i l e tests f o r flats u p t o4 0 m m t h i c k shall b e


.6 w h e n t e n s i l e t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t a t a n e l e v a t e d carried o u tw i t h flat specimens o f full thickness. I t is
t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e test t e m p e r a t u r e shall b e i n d i c a t e d allowed t o reduce the specimen thickness b y m a c h i n ­
b y t h e i n f e r i o r f i g u r e , f o r i n s t a n c e Л /з5о, Л £/350>
т е i n g o n e o f the r o l l e d surfaces. T h e specimen thickness
^5/350> ^ 3 5 0 w h e r e t h e n u m b e r 3 5 0 i s t h e t e s t reduction shall becaused b y t h e insufficient capacity
t e m p e r a t u r e i n degrees Celsius. o f a testing machine.
2.2.2.2 F o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s p e c i m e n Tests shall be carried o u t o n t h e specimens
dimensions t h e f o l l o w i n g symbols are used, m m : according t o T a b l e 2.2.2.3.
d = d i a m e t e r o f t h e p a r a l l e l test length; T e s t specimens f o r a tensile test, a s a r u l e , s h a l l b e
a = thickness o f t h e p a r a l l e l test length; cut o u t so that their l o n g i t u d i n a l axes were aligned
b = w i d t h o f t h e p a r a l l e l test length; w i t h t h e m e t a l basic d e f o r m a t i o n . Test specimens
LQ = g a u g e l e n g t h ; m a y be c u t o u t transverse i fthere is t h e relevant
L = p a r a l l e l test l e n g t h ;
c
i n s t r u c t i o n i n sections o f the present Part. D u r i n g t h e
So = cross-section; w o r k s initial survey t h e rolled plates c a n b e tested
R = transition radius; u s i n g b o t h t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n d transverse test
D = external tube diameter; specimens.
t = rolled products thickness. 2.2.2.4 F o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h
2.2.2.3 T e n s i l e t e s t s s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t o n t h e t e s t R o f n o d u l a r c a s t i r o n , t e s t s p e c i m e n s o f c i r c u l a r
m

specimens o f the f o l l o w i n g types (refer t o F i g . 2.2.2.3): cross-section s h o w n i n F i g . 2.2.2.4 shall b e used.

т т
—Ен:--ез— Щ^г

~2d
a
s

F i g . 2.2.2.4

c) Drift

2.2.2.5 F l a t s p e c i m e n s s h a l l b e u s e d i n t e n s i l e t e s t s
o f semi-finished products o f w r o u g h t a l u m i n i u m
alloys f o r thicknesses u p t o a n d i n c l u d i n g 12,5 m m .
T h e tensile test specimens shall b e prepared s o t h a t
Л r
b o t h r o l l e d surfaces a r e m a i n t a i n e d . F o r semi­
finished p r o d u c t s o v e r 12,5 m m t h i c k , r o u n d tensile
test specimens a r e used. T e s t specimens f r o m semi­
finished products u p t o 4 0m m thick are c u to u t so
that their axis is located i n t h e middle o f t h e
thickness. Test specimens f r o m semi-finished p r o ­
F i g . 2.2.2.3 ducts over 4 0 m m t h i c k are c u t o u t so that their axis
12 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 2.2.2.3

Semi-finished product Specimen type Specimen dimensions

Forgings, c a s t i n g s , F i g . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 (a) Proportional round specimens


bars 1 0 < d < 2 0 , preferably 14 m m
L 0 = 5d
L C = L + 0 d/2
R = 1 0 m m ( f o r n o d u l a r c a s t i r o n a n d m a t e r i a l s w i t h Л < 1 0 %, / ? > l , 5 d ) .
5

F o r r o d s a n d p r o d u c t s o f s m a l l dimensions, test specimens o f full thickness a n d w i t h relevant


other dimensions m a y b e used.
T h e axes o ft h e r o u n d test specimens shall b elocated a ta p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e quarter o f t h e
thickness f r o m one o f the rolled surfaces

P r o p o r t i o n a l flat s p e c i m e n s
P l a t e s , s t r i p s , s e c t i o n s F i g . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 (b) a = t (t — p l a t e t h i c k n e s s )
b = 25 m m
L = 5,65^/^0
0

LC
=
A) + 2\/So
R = 25 m m
f o r p l a t e t h i c k n e s s t e q u a l t o o r less t h a n 12,5 m mt h e s p e c i m e n s m a y b e a l l o w e d :
b = 2t,
R = 2t

N o n - p r o p o r t i o n a l flat s p e c i m e n s
a = t (t — p l a t e t h i c k n e s s )
b = 25 m m
L Q = 200 m m
L C = 212,5 m m
R = 25 m m
W h e n t h e capacity o f t h e available testing m a c h i n e i s insufficient t o allow t h e u s e o f test
specimen o f full thickness, this m a y b e reduced b y m a c h i n i n g one o f the rolled surfaces.
D u r i n g weldability test the b u t t - w e l d a n d d e p o s i t e d m e t a l are tested a c c o r d i n g t o 2.2.2.8.
F o r materials o v e r a b o u t 4 0 m mthick, p r o p o r t i o n a l r o u n d test specimens w i t h d i m e n s i o n s a s
s p e c i f i e d i n F i g . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 (a) m a y b e u s e d

Fig. 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 (c) Full cross-section specimen with plugged ends


Tubes Lq = 5,65^/iSq
L ^5,65y/So
c + D/2, where L C is t h edistance between t h egrips o r t h e plugs, whichever is t h e
smallest

Fig. 2.2.2.3 (d) Strips cut longitudinally


a = t
fc> 1 2 m m
L = 5,65^/^0
0

L C = L + 2b Q

R o u n d test specimens m a y also b eu s e d p r o v i d e d that the w a l l thickness is sufficient t o allow the


m a c h i n i n g o f s u c h s p e c i m e n s t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s a s s p e c i f i e d i n F i g . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 (a) w i t h t h e i r a x e s
located a t the midwall thickness

S e m i - f i n i s h e d A c c o r d i n g t o 2.2.2.5
products o f wrought
aluminium alloys

Tgrough thickness direction Z


is l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m o n e o f t h e s u r f a c e s e q u a l Principal rolling direction
tone quarter o f the thickness. A (longitudinal direction L)

2.2.2.6 W h e n w i r e i s t e s t e d , i t s s p e c i m e n s o f f u l l
cross-section shall be o f t h e following dimensions:
L = 200 m m ,
0
Direction perpendicular to rolling
L = L + 50 m m .
c 0 direction (transverse direction T)
2.2.2.7 T h r o u g h t h i c k n e s s t e n s i l e t e s t s s h a l l b e
carried o u t o n test specimens t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l axis o f
w h i c h is perpendicular t o t h e rolling surface (direc­ Fig. 2.2.2.7-1
t i o n Z , refer t o Fig. 2.2.2.7-1).
Test procedures a n ddimensions o f the r o u n d international standards recognized b y t h e Register.
specimens shall comply w i t h t h e national a n d T h e testing scope is given i n 3.14.4.
P a r t XIII. Materials 13

F o r plates a n d w i d e flats, o n e test s a m p l e shall b e R^25 mm.


t a k e n close t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l centreline o f o n e e n d T h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r surfaces o f the flat specimen
o f r o l l e d piece representing t h e b a t c h as s h o w n i n w e l d shall b em a c h i n e d flush w i t h t h e surface o f t h e
Fig. 2.2.2.7-2. base m e t a l .
Specimens are permitted:
Test sample
position b = 2 t f o r f < 12,5
Principal rolling direction R = 2 t f o r f < 12,5
1 2 * b = 2 5 f o r г > 12,5
J * . R > 2 5 f o r г > 12,5.
Test specimen 2.2.2.9 T h e t o l e r a n c e s o n s p e c i m e n d i m e n s i o n s
position
given i n 2.2.2 shall b e i n accordance w i t h I S O 6892-84.
F i g . 2.2.2.7-2 I f made according t o t h e standards recognized b yt h e
Register, t h e specimen deviations shall c o m p l y w i t h
T h e sample shall b e large e n o u g h t o a c c o m m o ­ these standards.
date t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f 6 specimens. 3 test specimens 2.2.3 I m p a c t t e s t s .
shall be prepared w h i l e t h erest o f the sample r e m a i n s 2.2.3.1 T h e i m p a c t t o u g h n e s s K C U s h a l l b e
f o r possible retest. d e t e r m i n e d o nC h a r p y U - n o t c h t y p e test specimens
T h e test is considered i n v a l i d a n d f u r t h e r as i n F i g . 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 - 1 a n d T a b l e 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 - 1 , t h e i m p a c t
replacement test i s r e q u i r e d i f t h e fracture occurs i n energy K Va n d K U o n C h a r p y V - n o t c h t y p e test
the w e l d o rheat affected zone. specimens a n d C h a r p y U - n o t c h t y p e test specimens
T h e d i m e n s i o n s o f specimens a r e selected d e ­ as i n F i g s . 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 - 2 a n d 2.2.3.1-3, a n d T a b l e s 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 - 2
pending o n t h e rolled products thickness. F o r a n d 2.2.3.1-3.
thicknesses u p t o 2 7m m t h e specimens a r e r e c o m ­
mended having diameter d = 4 m m with a variable • b
parallel test l e n g t h L t o ensure u s i n g a s o l i d specimen
c

h a v i n g n o w e l d e d - o n gripping parts. F o r thicknesses


f r o m 2 7t o 4 5m m t h e specimens h a v i n g a diameter
d = 6 m m shall be used, f o r thicknesses over 4 5 m m —
d = 10 m m . F i g . 2.2.3.1-1
2.2.2.8 I n w e l d a b i l i t y t e s t s ( r e f e r t o 2 . 4 ) t e n s i l e
test specimens shall h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s :
F o r d e p o s i t e d m e t a l tensile test:
d = 10 m m ;
L = 50 m m ;
0

L ^ 55 m m ;
c

R^\0 mm.
W h e n necessary, t h e specimens o f other d i m e n ­
sions m a y be used; t h egeometrical relationship o f the F i g . 2.2.3.1-2

above parameters t h e r e w i t h shall b e observed;


f o r b u t t - w e l d tensile test (refer t o F i g . 2.2.2.8):
a = t;
' 1 *iИ r - L

4
b=\2 m m f o r t^2 m m ;
b = 25 m m f o r t > 2 m m ; 1
i
— 4 f
L = w i d t h o fweld + 60 m m ;
c

R F i g . 2.2.3.1-3
a

T h e i m p a c t tests s h a l l b e carried o u t o n C h a r p y
machines complying with t h e requirements o f
I S O 148 o r other national o rinternational standard
recognized b y t h e Register, a n d having a striking
e n e r g y o f n o t less t h a n 1 5 0 J . W h e r e t h e test
temperature is other than ambient, the temperature
o f the text specimen a tthem o m e n t o fbreaking shall
F i g . 2.2.2.8 b e t h e s p e c i f i e d t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h i n + 2 °C.
14 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 2.2.3.1-1

Dimensions Nominal Tolerance

Length L , m m 55 + 0,60
W i d t h b, mm 10 + 0,10
T h i c k n e s s a, m m 10 + 0,10
D e p t h below notch h, m m 8 + 0,10
R o o t r a d i u s r, m m 1 + 0,10
D i s t a n c e o f n o t c h f r o m e n d o f t e s t s p e c i m e n L / 2 , mm 27,5 ±0,40
A n g l e betweenplane o f symmetry o fnotch a n d longitudinal axis o f
t e s t s p e c i m e n 9, d e g 90 ±2

T a b l e 2.2.3.1-2

Dimensions Nominal Tolerance

Length L , m m 55 + 0,60
T h i c k n e s s a, m m 10 + 0,06
W i d t h b, m m 10 + 0,11
7,5 + 0,11
5,0 + 0,06
Angle o fV-notch y, deg. 45 + 2
D e p t h o f n o t c h h , mm 8 + 0,06
R o o t r a d i u s r, m m 0,25 + 0,025
D i s t a n c e o f n o t c h f r o m e n d o f t e s t s p e c i m e n L / 2 , mm 27,5 ±0,040
Angle between plane o fsymmetry o f notch a n d longitudinal axis o f
t e s t s p e c i m e n 9, d e g . 90 ±2

N o t e . F o r p l a t e t h i c k n e s s t e q u a l t o o r l e s s t h a n 10 m m , t h e w i d t h b i n m m m a y b e e q u a l t o t ( f u l l t h i c k n e s s ) w i t h n o m a c h i n i n g
o f t h e sides.

T a b l e 2.2.3.1-3

Dimensions Nominal Tolerance

Length L , m m 55 ±0,60
W i d t h b, m m 10 ±0,11
Thickness a, m m 10 ±0,11
Depth below notch h, m m 5 ±0,09
R o o t r a d i u s r, m m 1 ±0,07
D i s t a n c e o f n o t c h f r o m e n d o f t e s t s p e c i m e n L / 2 , mm 27,5 ±0,42
A n g l e between plane o fsymmetry o f notch a n d longitudinal axis o f
t e s t s p e c i m e n 9, d e g . 90 ±2

T h e impact energy K V a n d K U is determined as F o r welded joints o fsuch rolled products, the impact
a n average value obtained a t testing three specimens. energy K V is determined o n m a c h i n e d specimens o f
T h e required m e a n values o f t h e impact energy m a x i m u m possible thickness considering r e m o v a l o f
d e p e n d i n g o n t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e specimens selected weld undercuts. I t is recommended t o use welded
f o r tests ( E i s t h e r e q u i r e d m i n i m u m v a l u e o f i m p a c t specimens w i t h thickness o fb = 7,5,5 a n d 2,5 m m .
energy) a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 2.2.3.1-4. T h e result o f tests T h e r e q u i r e d i m p a c t v a l u e (b) f o r s p e c i m e n s w i t h
o n o n e o f t h e s p e c i m e n s t h e r e w i t h m a y b e less t h a n w i d t h b < 10 m mm a y be calculated based o n t h e
t h a t given i n T a b l e 2.2.3.1-4, b u t its value shall n o t be r e q u i r e d m i n i m u m average i m p a c t energy f o r speci­
less t h a n 7 0 % o f t h e r e q u i r e d o n e . m e n s 1 0 m m w i d e (Ею) u s i n g f o r m u l a
T a b l e 2.2.3.1-4 E{b) = ( b / l 5 + l / 3 ) E 1 0 (2.2.3.1.1)
D i m e n s i o n s o ftest specimen, Average value o f impact r o u n d i n g t o t h e w h o l e n u m b e r i n J . T h e test
mm energy, J
result f o r o n e o f the specimens m a y be l o w e r t h a n t h e
10x10x55 IE value calculated b y t h e f o r m u l a i n 2.2.3.1.1, b u t i t
10x7,5x55 5/6E
shall b e e q u a l t o a t least 7 0 % o f t h e r e q u i r e d o n e .
10x5x55 2/3E
T h e tests o nt h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h thickness o f
less t h a n 6 m m s h a l l b e p e r f o r m e d u p o n t h e R e g i s t e r
request c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n 3.5. T h e tests
Impact energy K Vf o r t h e rolled products having o n t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f less t h a n 2 , 5
t h i c k n e s s t o f less t h a n 1 0 m m i s d e t e r m i n e d u n d e r m m shall n o tbe performed.
test specimens as i n F i g . 2.2.3.1-2 w i t h w i d t h b e q u a l T h e impact toughness K C U is determined as a n
t o r o l l e d t h i c k n e s s w i t h n o m a c h i n i n g o f t h e sides. average value obtained a t testing t w o specimens. I n
P a r t XIII. Materials 15

this case, each o f t h e i m p a c t t o u g h n e s s v a l u e s U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e h u l l s t r u c t u r a l steel


o b t a i n e d s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n r e q u i r e d . N e c e s s i t y s t r a i n ageing sensibility tests a r e r e q u i r e d a t t h e i n i t i a l
o f testing impact toughness o f material having a survey o f the manufacturer, a t procedure alterations
t h i c k n e s s o f less t h a n 1 0 m m a s w e l l a s c o r r e s p o n d i n g a n d i n d o u b t f u l o r a r g u a b l e cases r e l a t e d t o t h e r o l l e d
estimation criteria shall be justified i n the documen- p r o d u c t s q u a l i t y . A t t h e i n i t i a l s u r v e y a n d a t t h e tests
tation submitted t o t h e Register. p r o c e d u r e a l t e r a t i o n s t h e tests s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t
2.2.3.2 T h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t e s t s p e c i m e n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.3.5.3.6. I n o t h e r
w i t h o u t a n y n o t c h u s e d f o r i m p a c t tests, i n m m , s h a l l cases t h e steel tests as a r u l e s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t a t r o o m
be as s h o w n i n F i g . 2.2.3.2. t e m p e r a t u r e a n d a t t h e i m p a c t tests t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h e
s u b m i t t e d s t e e l g r a d e ( e . g . — 2 0 °C f o r g r a d e D 3 2 s t e e l ) .
55±0,6 ion U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e h u l l s t r u c t u r a l steel
s t r a i n ageing sensibility tests results shall c o m p l y w i t h
t h e R u l e s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r steel d u r i n g i m p a c t tests (e.
g. f o r g r a d e D 3 2 steel t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f i m p a c t tests
r e s u l t s s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n 3 1 J a t — 2 0 °C w i t h t h e
F i g . 2.2.3.2
steel thickness 5 0 m m — refer t o T a b l e 3.2.3).
W h e n t h e a b o v e tests a r e c a r r i e d o u ta t t e m p e r a -
2.2.3.3 I m p a c t t e s t s s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t o n tures l o w e r t h a n t h e prescribed f o r t h e s u b m i t t e d steel
C h a r p y m a c h i n e s h a v i n g a s t r i k i n g e n e r g y n o t less g r a d e ( e . g . f o r g r a d e D 3 2 s t e e l — l o w e r t h a n — 2 0 °C),
than 150J. the r e q u i r e d average v a l u e o f tests results i s set f o r t h
T h e distance between t h e supports shall be b y t h e steel m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d s h a l l b e specified i n t h e
( 4 0 ±0,5) m m . T h e p e n d u l u m s h a l l b r e a k t h e t e s t documentation submitted t o t h e Register.
specimen i n the plane o f s y m m e t r y o f the n o t c h a n d 2.2.4 H a r d n e s s t e s t i n g .
f r o m t h e side o p p o s i t e t o i t , t h e distance b e t w e e n t h e Hardness shall be determined according t o
plane o f symmetry o f the notch a n d that o f the B r i n e l l (HB), V i c k e r s ( H V ) , R o c k w e l l ( H R Q o r
p e n d u l u m b e i n g n o t i n excess o f 0,5 m m . using a n y other m e t h o d approved b y t h e Register.
W h e n test t e m p e r a t u r e is b e l o w t h e r o o m 2.2.5 T e c h n o l o g i c a l t e s t s .
t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e test specimens shall be supercooled 2.2.5.1 T h e t e s t s p e c i m e n s c u t a s s h o w n i n
p r i o r t o installing o n t h e C h a r p y machine. T h e degree F i g . 2.2.5.1 s h a l l be u s e d f o r b e n d test.
o f s u p e r c o o l i n g shall p r o v i d e t h e r e q u i r e d test
t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h m a x i m u m d e v i a t i o n o f ± 2 °C. b
T h e degree o f supercooling shall be determined
according t o T a b l e 2.2.3.3, i ft h e test specimens a r e
tested m a x i m u m 3 t o 5 s after r e m o v a l f r o m t h e
11a
(~9a+D) -A
thermostat.
T a b l e 2.2.3.3 F i g . 2.2.5.1

T e s t t e m p e r a t u r e , °C S u p e r - c o o l i n g t e m p e r a t u r e , °C

E d g e s o f t h e specimens o n t h e t e n s i o n side m a y
-100 to - 6 0 -4 - 6
-60 to -40 -3 - 4
be r o u n d e d t o a radius o f 1 t o 2 m m .
-40 to +10 -2 -3 T h e m a n d r e l diameter a n d t h e angle o f specimen
bending isindicated i n the relevant chapters o f the Part.
T h e b e n d test o f plates a n d sections, a n d also t h e test o f
2.2.3.4 S t r a i n a g e i n g s e n s i b i l i t y t e s t s s h a l l b e w e l d e d t r a n s v e r s e specimens ( b o t h sides) s h a l l b e
c a r r i e d o u t o n specimens m a d e o f samples selected carried o u t o n t h e test specimens o f t h e f o l l o w i n g
similar t o i m p a c t samples. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, d i m e n s i o n s : a = t; b = 3 0 m m , t i s t h e p r o d u c t t h i c k n e s s .
m e t a l strips f r o m w h i c h specimens a r e c u t shall be W h e r e t h e thickness o f t h e p r o d u c t exceeds 2 5 m m , t h e
subjected t o extension d e f o r m a t i o n assuming 5 p e r test s p e c i m e n m a y b e m a c h i n e d o n o n e side t o a
cent residual e l o n g a t i o n . I m p a c t test specimens m a d e thickness o f 2 5 m m . D u r i n g t h e test t h e m a c h i n e d
o f strips subjected t o extension d e f o r m a t i o n are surface s h a l l b e o n t h e c o m p r e s s i o n side o f t h e b e n d test
subject t o even h e a t i n g (artificial ageing) u p t o specimen. W i t h thickness o frolled products equal t o o r
2 5 0 °C, w i t h 1 h o u r c o n d i t i o n i n g a t t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e less t h a n 1 2 , 5 m m , t h e f o l l o w i n g s i z e o f t h e t e s t
a n d subsequent c o o l i n g i n t h e a i r . I m p a c t tests o f s p e c i m e n s i s a l l o w e d : a = t , b i s n o t less t h a n t h e b i g g e s t
these specimens shall be carried o u t a t r o o m f r o m 1,5a o r 2 0 m m .
t e m p e r a t u r e ( w i t h i n 1 8 t o 2 5 °C) a n d / o r a t t e m p e r a - T h e b e n d tests o f forgings, castings a n d s i m i l a r
ture agreed additionally. semi-finished products shall be carried o u t o n t h e
16 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

specimens having the following dimensions: provided that after testing t h e r e m a i n i n g cylindrical
a = 20 m m , b = 25 m m . p o r t i o n i s n o t less t h a n 0 , 5 D .
2.2.5.2 F l a t t e n i n g t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t o n s p e c i m e n s T h e rate o f m a n d r e l p e n e t r a t i o n shall n o t exceed
(pipe lengths) h a v i n g a length f r o m 10 m m t o 100 m m . 50 m m / m i n .
T h e specimen ends shall be plain a n d s m o o t h w i t h 2.2.5.6 R i n g e x p a n d i n g t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n
their cuts perpendicular t o t h e tube axis ( I S O 8492). accordance w i t h t h e requirements o f I S O 8495 (refer
2.2.5.3 D r i f t e x p a n d i n g t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t o n to F i g . 2.2.5.6). T h e length o f specimens (tube
specimens m a d e i n accordance w i t h t h e requirements lengths) m a y v a r y f r o m 10 m m t o 16 m m a n d t h e
o f I S O 8493 (refer t o F i g . 2.2.5.3). rate o f m a n d r e l p e n e t r a t i o n shall n o t exceed 3 0 m m / s .

F i g . 2.2.5.3

F i g . 2.2.5.6
F o r metallic tubes, t h e specimen length (tube
length) L is equal t o twice t h e external diameter D o f
t h e t u b e i f t h e a n g l e o f t h e d r i f t p i s 30°, a n d L i s e q u a l
t o l , 5 D i f t h e a n g l e o f t h e d r i f t i s 45° o r 60°. T h e t e s t 2.2.6 D r o p w e i g h t t e s t s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f n i l -
piece m a y b e shorter, p r o v i d e d t h a t after testing t h e ductility temperature ( N D T ) .
r e m a i n i n g c y l i n d r i c a l p o r t i o n i s n o t less t h a n 0 , 5 D . W h e n r e q u i r e d b y t h e R u l e s , d r o p w e i g h t tests
T h e rate o f m a n d r e l p e n e t r a t i o n shall n o t exceed a n d results e v a l u a t i o n a r e effected i n accordance w i t h
50 m m / m i n . the A S T M standard a n d the procedures recognized
2.2.5.4 R i n g t e n s i l e t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n b y t h e Register. T h e tests shall be carried o u t o n t h e
accordance w i t h the requirements o f I S O 8496. T h e specimens o f the f o l l o w i n g types (dimensions i n m m ) :
length o f specimens (tube lengths) is equal t o 15 m m Type P-l: 2 5 x 9 0 x 3 6 0 ;
a n d t h e rate i n tests shall n o t exceed 5 m m / s . T y p e P-2: 1 9 x 5 0 x 130;
2.2.5.5 F l a n g i n g t e s t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t o n s p e c i - T y p e P-3: 1 6 x 5 0 x 130.
mens (tube lengths) having a length o f l , 5 D i n T h e dimensions o f specimens are chosen so that
accordance w i t h t h e requirements o f I S O 8494 (refer their thickness approximates that o f the material t o
t o F i g . 2.2.5.5). T h e test piece m a y b e shorter, be tested.
T h e f o l l o w i n g shall be noted, unless otherwise
specified:
.1 n o w a r m i n g u p o f specimens is a l l o w e d i f t h e y
are m a d e b y m a c h i n i n g ( i f f l a m e cutting is used, t h e
s p e c i m e n side s h a l l b e a t least 2 5 m m f r o m t h e c u t line);
.2 n o m a c h i n i n g i s a l l o w e d f o r t h e t e n s i l e s i d e o f
the specimen;
.3 t h e s p e c i m e n s i n t h e s e r i e s s h a l l b e o f t h e s a m e
orientation.
2.2.7 M a c r o a n d m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s .
W h e r e required b y this o r other Parts o f the Rules,
m a c r o a n d m i c r o structural analysis o fmetals shall be
m a d e i n compliance w i t h t h e relevant standards.
P a r t XIII. Materials 17

2.2.8 C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s . W h e r e o n e p r o c e d u r e f o r steel p r o d u c t i o n is
The methods f o r determination o f chemical concerned (smelting, rolling, condition o f supply), the
composition o f metals a n d permissible deviations results o f tests carried o u t f o r the greatest thickness o f
are specified i n relevant standards. rolled products m a y be extended t o t h e rolled
2.2.9 N o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g . p r o d u c t s o f less t h i c k n e s s .
2.2.9.1 W h e n r a d i o g r a p h i c t e s t i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t , 2.2.10.2 T h e t e s t s s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t f o r t h e
the results shall be recorded i n t h e f o r m o f radio­ rolled products w i t h w i d t h o f 10 m m o r above.
g r a p h s w i t h a s u m m a r y o f test e v a l u a t i o n s attached. The temperature T kb is defined as t h e o n e
2.2.9.2 U l t r a s o n i c t e s t i n g s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t corresponding t o 70 % o f a fibrous component i n
using t h e pulse-echo methods. F o r c o n t r o l purposes the fracture o f a full-thickness radially-notched
dual-search units are used. specimen being b r o k e n d o w n i n static bending. T h e
T o p r o v i d e f o r m o r e precise testing, single-dual specimens shall be dimensioned according t o 2.4.2.5,
a n d prismatic search u n i t use shall be approved b y P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e Rules f o rt h e Classifica­
the Register. G o o d c o n d i t i o n a n d accuracy o f the test tion, Construction a n d Equipment o f M O D U / F O P .
e q u i p m e n t s h a l l b e r e g u l a r l y c h e c k e d . T h e size o f T h e tests a r e carried o u t f o r r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o v e r
p e r m i s s i b l e defects a n d c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n 10 m m t h i c k . F o r r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o v e r 7 0 m m t h i c k
are subject t o agreement w i t h the Register as a p a r t o f the specimens o f 7 0 m m thick c u t o u t i n t h e m i d -
design d o c u m e n t a t i o n f o r t h e product. thickness o f r o l l e d p r o d u c t s m a y be tested.
T h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p r o d u c t s h a l l p r o v i d e a safe T h e test procedure shall m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
a n d u n i f o r m acoustic contact w i t h t h e search unit. 2.4, P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e R u l e s f o r t h e
T h e ultrasonic testing is carried o u t after heat Classification, Construction a n d Equipment o f
t r e a t m e n t a t t h e stage o f m a n u f a c t u r e w h e n t h e MODU/FOP.
product h a s t h e simplest shape. 2.2.10.3 T e s t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e NDT.
2.2.9.3 F o r m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e t e s t i n g o n l y t e c h n i q u e T h e nil-ductility t e m p e r a t u r e N D T is t h e m a x i m u m
p r o v e d satisfactory i n practice m a y be used. T h e t e m p e r a t u r e ( d e t e r m i n e d a t 5 °C i n t e r v a l s ) a t w h i c h
m a t e r i a l surface u n d e r test shall h a v e a p p r o p r i a t e standard specimens w i t h a brittle notched w e l d deposit
intensity o f the field. b r e a k d o w n i n i m p a c t testing. T h e test p r o c e d u r e a n d
A need i n demagnetization o f t h e product after specimen dimensions shall m e e t the requirements o f 2.3,
c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e test shall be specified i n t h e Part X I I "Materials" o f the Rules for the Classification,
technical documentation. Construction a n d Equipment o f M O D U / F O P . Refer
2.2.9.4 T e s t i n g m e t h o d s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e r e f e r r e d also t o 2.2.6 o f the present Part.
t o i n 2.2.9.1 t o 2.2.9.3, as w e l l as t h e relevant T h e tests a r e carried o u t f o r t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s
evaluation criteria shall be approved b y t h e Register. h a v i n g a thickness t over 15 m m o f t h e specimens
2.2.9.5 T h e e v a l u a t i o n o f n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g m a n u f a c t u r e d i n compliance w i t h 2.3.2, P a r t X I I
results shall be m a d e o n l y b y t h e w o r k s responsible "Materials" o f the Rules f o r t h e Classification, C o n ­
for t h e results submitted t o t h e Register. Records o f struction a n d Equipment o f M o b i l e Offshore Drilling
testing shall be appended t o t h e Register certificate i n U n i t s a n d F i x e d O f f s h o r e P l a t f o r m s . T h e specimens a r e
case n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e testing is r e q u i r e d b y t h e R u l e s . c u t o u t f r o m a surface. T h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s surface is
2.2.10 P r o c e d u r e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l t e s t i n g o f b a s e considered t o b e t h e w o r k surface o f t h e specimen o n
material a n d welding consumables intended for t h e side o f a w e l d deposit. I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e
structures used a tlow temperatures. p r o g r a m a p p r o v e d b y t h e R e g i s t e r a d d i t i o n a l speci­
2.2.10.1 T h e p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e s m a y b e u s e d i n m e n s shall be c u t o u t as follows:
developing a n d correcting the programs needed i n f r o m t h e mid-thickness o f t h e plate, i n t h e
s u r v e y o f m a n u f a c t u r e o f steel i n t e n d e d f o r u s e a t l o w laminate plane, transversely t o t h edirection o f rolling
t e m p e r a t u r e s (refer t o 3.5) i n c l u d i n g t h e steel m a r k e d (specimens o f types l o r 2 )— f o r rolled products over
w i t h upper index " A r c " (refer t o 3.5.2.1). T h e present 40 m m u p t o a n d including 50 m m thick;
provisions apply t o : f r o m t h emid-thickness o f the plate perpendicular
procedures f o r determining t h e temperature o f a t o t h e plate surface so t h a t t h e direction o f break­
ductile-brittle transition t o estimate the material d o w n development coincides w i t h that o fthe rolling.
property w i t h regard t o retarding the spread o f T o reduce plastic d e f o r m a t i o n , t h e specimen
b r i t t l e f a i l u r e (Т NDT,
ш DWTT); deflection i n testing is restricted w i t h a stopper.
procedures f o r determining crack resistance T h i s t y p e o f tests f o r castings a n d forgings is
parameter C T O D f o r t h e base m e t a l a n d t h e heat- allowed o n l y according t o t h e procedure agreed w i t h
affected zone ( H A Z ) i n testing t h e specimens c u t o u t the Register.
from butt-welded joints.
18 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

2.2.10.4 T e s t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e 2.2.10.6 T e s t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g c r a c k r e s i s t a n c e
DWTT. parameter C T O D forthe H A Z metal.
The temperature D W T T shall be determined i n T h e tests a r e c a r r i e d o u t s i m i l a r t o 2.2.10.5 u s i n g
d r o p - w e i g h t testing as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g the specimens c u t f r o m welded billets w i t h K - o r
to 7 0 % o f a fibrous component i n the fracture o f a V-preparation t o have the front o f a n initial fatigue
full-thickness specimen w i t h a sharp n o t c h being crack located i n the certain structural component o f
broken d o w n i n shock loading at a rate o f5 t o 8 m/s. H A Z . T h e tests a r e c a r r i e d o u t f o r r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o f
The m a i n specimen dimensions: height = 7 5 + 2 m m , n o t less t h a n 2 5 m m t h i c k . P r o c e d u r e s f o r p r e p a r i n g
length = 3 0 0 + 5 m m , space between support billets, c u t t i n g o u t a n d m a r k i n g specimens, testing,
s = 252 + 2 m m . a n d estimating t h e correctness o f the results obtained
T h e tests a r e c a r r i e d o u t f o r r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h shall be agreed w i t h t h e Register a n d shall meet t h e
thickness equal t o 7,5 m m a n d u p t o 4 0 m m requirements o f 2.2, Part X I I "Materials" o f the
according t o t h e procedure agreed w i t h t h e Register. Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d
F o r rolled products w i t h thickness over 19 m m the E q u i p m e n t o f M O D U / F O P . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e speci-
specimens w i t h thickness equal t o 19 m m c u t o u t fied, samples are w e l d e d a t t h e m a x i m u m heat i n p u t
from the mid-thickness o f rolled products o n thick- specified f o r a g i v e n steel i n n o r m a t i v e d o c u m e n t a -
ness m a y b e tested. I n t h i s case t h e D W T T is h i g h e r i n tion, a n d then o t c h shall be m a r k e d i nthezone o f the
comparison w i t h t h e temperature o f full thickness: m a x i m u m overheating i n welding a large-grain
having rolled products' full-thickness o f over 19 m m c o m p o n e n t o f H A Z a t a distance u p t o 1 m m f r o m
and above 30 m m at 10, having rolled products' a fusion line.
t h i c k n e s s o f o v e r 3 1 a n d a b o v e 4 0 m m — a t 1 5 I I °C. F o r t h e g i v e n t y p e o f tests, t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e i s
i n accordance w i t h A p p e n d i x I V "Special test r e c o m m e n d e d a t t e m p e r a t u r e s o f — 3 0 , — 4 0 , — 5 0 °C.
procedures" o f the Rules f o r the Classification a n d T h r e e correct values, as a m i n i m u m , shall be o b t a i n e d
Construction o f Subsea Pipelines. Procedure f o r i n tests a t o n e t e m p e r a t u r e .
attributing fracture sections t o a crystalline type i n I n case t h e d a t a scattering is considerable, a n d
compliance w i t h 2.3.2, P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e t h e m i n i m u m C T O D v a l u e i s less t h a n 0 , 5 o f i t s
Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d average value t h e n u m b e r o f specimens tested a t this
Equipment o f Mobile Offshore Drilling Units a n d t e m p e r a t u r e shall be increased u n t i l 5 correct test
Fixed Offshore Platforms. results.
2.2.10.5 T e s t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g c r a c k r e s i s t a n c e T h e specimens over 7 0 m m t h i c k m a y be tested
parameter C T O D f o r base m e t a l . after t h e i r w o r k i n g o n o n e o f t h e sides t o a t h i c k n e s s
T h e crack resistance p a r a m e t e r C T O D is defined o f 7 0 m m . I n t h i s case t h e test t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l b e
as t h e c r a c k t i p o p e n i n g d i s p l a c e m e n t , i n m m , w i t h r e d u c e d b y 5 °C a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d
crack appearance under loading conditions f o r the f o r s t e e l o f u p t o 9 0 m m t h i c k , a n d b y 1 0 °C, f o r s t e e l
type o f c r a c k p r o p a g a t i o n . T h e test is carried o u t i n over 90 m m thick.
full-thickness specimens w i t h a sharp n o t c h h a v i n g
fatigue precracking.
T h e tests a r e c o n d u c t e d f o r r o l l e d p r o d u c t s n o t 2.3 P R O C E D U R E S O F T E S T I N G NON-METALLIC
less t h a n 2 5 m m t h i c k a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o c e d u r e MATERIALS
agreed w i t h t h e Register i n compliance w i t h t h e
requirements o f 2.2, Part X I I "Materials" o f the 2.3.1 T e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .
Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d 2.3.1.1 B e f o r e t e s t i n g t e s t s p e c i m e n s s h a l l b e
Equipment o f M O D U / F O P . F o r the given type o f c o n d i t i o n e d a t a n a m b i e n t a i r t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C
tests, t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e is r e c o m m e n d e d a t t e m p e r a - a n d r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ± 5 ) %. U n l e s s e x p r e s s l y
t u r e s o f — 3 0 , — 4 0 , — 5 0 °C. A t l e a s t t h r e e s p e c i m e n s provided otherwise, the duration o f conditioning
for each t e m p e r a t u r e shall be tested. shall be a t least 16 h .
T h e specimens over 7 0 m m t h i c k m a y be tested Testing shall be carried o u t i m m e d i a t e l y after
after t h e i r w o r k i n g o n o n e o f t h e sides t o a t h i c k n e s s c o m p l e t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h e test specimens.
o f 7 0 m m . I n t h i s case t h e test t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l be The conditioningm a y be o m i t t e d i fi t is proved t o
r e d u c e d b y 5 °C a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d the Register t h a t testing c o n d i t i o n s d o n o t signifi-
f o r s t e e l o f u p t o 9 0 m m t h i c k , a n d b y 1 0 °C, f o r s t e e l c a n t l y affect t h e test results a n d t h e i r stability.
over 90 m m thick. 2.3.1.2 T h e t e s t s p e c i m e n s o f r e i n f o r c e d m a t e r i a l s
T h i s t y p e o f tests f o r castings a n d f o r g i n g s is are c u t i n t h e w a r p o r weft direction so t h a t t h e axis
allowed only according t o t h e procedure agreed w i t h o f t h e test specimen shall be p a r a l l e l t o t h e fibres o f
the Register. w a r p o r weft, respectively.
P a r t XIII. Materials 19

2.3.1.3 I n c a s e o f t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t a c c o r d i n g Fracture elongation shall be i n accordance w i t h


t o t h e m e t h o d a p p r o v e d b y t h e R e g i s t e r test, speci­ 2.2.2.1.4.
mens m a y be used, w h o s e shape a n d dimensions 2.3.2.3 T h e t e a r p r o p a g a t i o n s t r e n g t h o f l a m i n a t e d
differ f r o m those required b y t h e present Chapter. textiles is d e t e r m i n e d o n rectangular test specimens
2.3.1.4 T e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e measuring (225 ± 5) x (75 ± 5) m m . A n incision
specified i n t h e present C h a p t e r shall c o m p l y w i t h ( 8 0 ± 1) m m l o n g s h a l l b e m a d e i n t h e m i d d l e o f o n e
the relevant standards. o f t h e specimen ends p a r a l l e l t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l edge.
2.3.2 T e n s i l e t e s t s . B o t h the ends o f the incised specimen are t h e n fixed i n
2.3.2.1 T e n s i l e s t r e n g t h o f g l a s s - r e i n f o r c e d p l a s ­ the grips o ftesting m a c h i n e so t h a t t h e area w h e r e t h e
tics s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e test specimens tear begins is parallel t o t h e direction, i n w h i c h t h e
according t o Figs. 2.3.2.1-1 a n d 2.3.2.1-2, a n d breaking load is applied. T h e m o v i n g rate o f t h e
Table 2.3.2.1. testing machine grips is ( 1 0 0 + 1 0 ) m m / m i n .
T h e b r e a k i n g l o a d is d e t e r m i n e d as a n a r i t h m e t i c
m e a n o f five successive m a x i m u m values.
2.3.2.4 T h e s t r e n g t h o f i n t e r l a y e r b o n d s i n a
textile i s d e t e r m i n e d o n rectangular test specimens
measuring (50 ± 5) x (200 ± 5) m m . T h e specimen coat
is c a r e f u l l y c u t t o t h e c l o t h a n d s e p a r a t e d u s i n g a
^0 . k n i f e o v e r a l e n g t h o f 5 0 m m o n t h e side o f t h e
oblique n o t c h as s h o w n i n F i g . 2.3.2.4 (the separated
area is lined). T h e ends o f layers separated i n this
F i g . 2.3.2.1-1
m a n n e r are clamped i n t h e grips o f testing machine.

L,
Notches out to the cloth
L,

25
1 <N \
II ^

50

F i g . 2.3.2.4

F i g . 2.3.2.1-2
D e l a m i n a t i o n is effected o n a length o f 100 m m ,
T a b l e 2.3.2.1 a n d t h e forces applied a r e p l o t t e d o n a graph. T h e
m o v i n g rate o f t h e grips is 100 ±10 m m / m i n . T h e
Dimensions, m m F i g . 2.3.2.1-1 F i g . 2.3.2.1-2
i n t e r l a y e r b o n d strength is d e t e r m i n e d as a n a r i t h m e t i c
150 250
m e a n o f 5 0 per cent o f t h e l o w e s t p e a k values t o be
^lmin
L 2 115 + 5 170 ± 5 f o u n d i n the g r a p h as m e a s u r e d o n t h ecentral section
Ьъ 60 ± 0 , 5 — o f the specimen length m a k i n g u p 50 % o f the total
L 0
50 ± 0 , 5 50±1 separated length.
bi 20 ± 0 , 5 25 ± 0 , 5
b 10±0,5 — 2.3.2.5 T h e t e a r p r o p a g a t i o n s t r e n g t h o f b o n d
2

t 1...10 1...6 j o i n t s o f l a m i n a t e d textiles is d e t e r m i n e d o n test


r 60 — specimens prepared i n such a m a n n e r that t h e m i d d l e
o f t h e b o n d j o i n t coincides w i t h t h e middle o f t h e
specimen length a n d thejoint overlaps the specimen
2.3.2.2 T h e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h a n d f r a c t u r e e l o n g a ­ b y 2 5 m m . T h e shape a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f test
t i o n o f l a m i n a t e d textiles a r e d e t e r m i n e d o n test specimens are determined proceeding f r o m 2.3.2.2.
specimens ( 5 0 ± 1) m m w i d e h a v i n g t h e o r i g i n a l T h e adhesive applied shall agree w i t h t h e conditions
length between t h e grips o f testing machine of the products manufacture.
(200 ±5) m m . 2.3.2.6 T h e t e a r p r o p a g a t i o n s t r e n g t h o f r e t r o -
T h e pre-load applied is 2 N f o r cloths w i t h a reflective materials is determined o n specimens
3
d e n s i t y 2 0 0 g / m o r less, 5 N f o r c l o t h s w i t h a d e n s i t y 25 + 1 m m wide having t h e initial length between
m o r e t h a n 2 0 0 a n d u p t o 5 0 0 g / m a n d 10 N f o r 3
the grips o f testing m a c h i n e 100 ± 5 m m .
3
cloths w i t h a density above 500 g/m . T h e m o v i n g rate o f t h e testing m a c h i n e grips is
T h e m o v i n g rate o f t h e testing machine grips is 300 ±20 m m / m i n .
100 ±20 m m / m i n .
20 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

M a t e r i a l s w i t h a n adhesive layer a r e tested after 2.3.5.3 B e n d t e s t o f l a m i n a t e d t e x t i l e s .


r e m o v a l o f protective paper. T h e test is effected o n rectangular specimens
2.3.2.7 T h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e a d h e s i v e b o n d a g e m e a s u r i n g ( 3 0 0 ± 5) x (50 ± 1) m m , w h i c h a r e fixed i n
between t h e retro-reflective m a t e r i a l a n d the adhesive the testing arrangement as s h o w n i n F i g . 2.3.5.3.
layer is determined o nspecimens 25 ± 1 m mw i d e a n d W h e n t h e test specimen i s fixed t h e distance b e t w e e n
200 ± 5 m m long. the grips shall be 3 0 m m .
Before testing, protective paper is r e m o v e d f r o m 3
the adhesive layer o f t h e m a t e r i a l o n a length o f
80 ± 5 m m a n d placed o n t h e surface being tested
w h i c h measures (50 ± 5) x (90 ± 5) m m .
T h e loose e n d o ft h e specimen is secured i n t h e
dead lock o fthe testing machine. Separation o f the
s p e c i m e n i s a c h i e v e d b y t u r n i n g t h e p a n e l b y 180°
r o u n d t h e axis passing t h r o u g h t h e specimen e n d
opposite t o t h e loose o n e .
2.3.3 C o m p r e s s i o n t e s t .
2.3.3.1 C o m p r e s s i o n s t r e n g t h o f g l a s s - r e i n f o r c e d
plastics shall be d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e test specimens
according t o F i g . 2.3.2.1-1 a n d T a b l e 2.3.3.1.
T a b l e 2.3.3.1

L u La, L ,
3 hi, b,2
r, t,
m m mm mm mm m m mm

N o t regulated 80 20 10±0,5 160 10


F i g . 2.3.5.3:
1 — grip; 2 — test specimen; 3 — m o t o r ; 4 — l o a d

2.3.3.2 C o m p r e s s i o n s t r e n g t h o f r i g i d f o a m e d T h e test specimen being fixed, t h e grips a r e


plastics shall be d e t e r m i n e d o n rectangular test brought together until they touch each other. A t this
specimens w i t h side d i m e n s i o n s ( 5 0 , 0 ± 0,5) x t i m e , t h e l o a d u p o n t h e test specimen shall b e 1 0 N .
( 5 0 ±0,5) m m a n d a h e i g h t f r o m ( 2 5 ± 1 ) t o ( 5 0 ± 1 ) m m . D u r i n g t h e test, t h e m o v a b l e g r i p m a k e s 5 0 0 c y ­
T h e l o a d i s increased u n i f o r m l y . T h e stress rate s h a l l cles o f r e c i p r o c a t i n g m o v e m e n t w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f
n o t b e i n excess o f 5 m m / m i n . 2 H za n d a n amplitude o f50 m m .
2.3.4 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f m o d u l u s o f e l a s t i c i t y 2.3.6 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e g l a s s c o n t e n t
for glass-reinforced plastics. in glass-reinforced plastic b y mass.
T h e m o d u l u s o f elasticity i n tension shall be I n t h e f u r n a c e a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f ( 6 2 5 + 2 5 ) °C
determined according t o 2.3.2.1, a n d i n compression resin is r e m o v e d f r o m a specimen h a v i n g dimensions
according t o 2.3.3.1. T h e strain i n c r e m e n t is deter­ (10±l,0)x(10±l,0) m m x l a m i n a t e thickness, t h e mass
m i n e d w i t h i n i t i a l l o a d P a n d m a x i m u m l o a d Рпши
0 o f w h i c h together w i t h a crucible shall b e determined w i t h
w h i c h areequal t o 2 a n d 8 — 10 % o fthe breaking a n a c c u r a c y u p t o 0 , 0 1 g . T h e glass c o n t e n t i n t h e m a s s ,
load, respectively. i n %, i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a :
2.3.5 B e n d t e s t .
S=(G -G )100/(G -G )
2 0 1 0
2.3.5.1 T h e b e n d t e s t o f r i g i d f o a m e d p l a s t i c s
shall b e carried o u t o n t h e test specimens, t h e l e n g t h w h e r e G\, G = m a s s o f the crucible together with t h e specimen
2

before a n d after roasting, g;


o f w h i c h i s ( 1 2 0 ± 1,2) m m , w i d t h ( 2 5 ±0,25) m m a n d Go = m a s s o ft h e e m p t y r o a s t e d crucible, g.
t h i c k n e s s ( 2 0 ±0,2) m m . T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e
supports shall be 100m m , rounding o f the supports 2.3.7 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a p p a r e n t d e n s i t y o f f o a m
a n d t h ep u n c h (5 ± 0,2) m m . T h e rate o f p u n c h feed is plastics.
(10 ±2) m m / m i n . T h e apparent density o f f o a m plastics shall be
2.3.5.2 T h e b e n d t e s t o f g l a s s - r e i n f o r c e d p l a s t i c s d e t e r m i n e d o n test specimens o f regular shape,
3
shall be carried o u t o n test specimens, t h el e n g t h o f h a v i n g a v o l u m e n o t less t h a n 1 0 0 c m .
w h i c h equals 2 0 times their thickness a n d t h e breadth Before c o n d i t i o n i n g i n accordance w i t h 2.3.1.1
is 2 5 m m . T h e distance b e t w e e n t h e s u p p o r t s s h a l l the test specimens shall b e d r i e d a t a t e m p e r a t u r e
equal 16 times t h e specimen thickness. T h e load ( 4 0 ± 5 ) °C t o i t s c o n s t a n t m a s s . T h e a p p a r e n t d e n s i t y
applied t o t h e midlength o f t h e specimen shall be is d e t e r m i n e d as t h e r a t i o o f t h e m a s s o f t h e s p e c i m e n
s m o o t h l y increased u n t i l t h e latter breaks. to itsvolume, i n m . 3
P a r t XIII. Materials 21

2.3.8 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s h r i n k a g e o f p l a s t i c s i n t w o d i r e c t i o n s , p a r a l l e l t o t h e e d g e s a n d a t right
at limiting temperature. angles t o each other, u n f o l d e d a n d t h e n folded once
A test specimen w i t h d i m e n s i o n s (100±l)x m o r e along t h e same folds, b u t i n t h e opposite
x(100±l)x(15±0,5) m m is conditioned a t t h e direction. A f t e r each f o l d i n g , t h e edges a r e s m o o t h e d
appropriate temperature during 4 8 h . d o w n w i t h t h e fingers.
S h r i n k a g e i s d e t e r m i n e d a s t h e r a t i o , i n %, o f 2.3.10.4 A s a m p l e , w h i c h s i z e i s d e t e r m i n e d
l i n e a r d e f o r m a t i o n t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e o r i g i n a l size o f p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e n u m b e r a n d size o f s p e c i m e n s
the specimen. required, is subjected t o t h e ultra-violet i r r a d i a t i o n b y
2.3.9 W a t e r a b s o r p t i o n t e s t . means o f a lamp having a power o f 500 W from a
2.3.9.1 W a t e r a b s o r p t i o n s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d o n distance o f 5 0 c m d u r i n g 30 h f o r type 1 retro-reflective
test specimens h a v i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s ( 5 0 ± l ) x material a n d during 60 h f o rtype 2 material.
(50 ±1) m m a n d a thickness equal t o t h e thickness 2.3.11 P e t r o l e u m - p r o d u c t r e s i s t a n c e t e s t .
o f t h e product, b u t n o t m o r e t h a n (50 ± 1) m m . 2.3.11.1 A d i s c - s h a p e d s p e c i m e n i s i n s e r t e d i n t h e
Before testing t h e specimens shall be dried t o testing arrangement as s h o w n i n F i g . 2.3.11.1.
c o n s t a n t mass; d r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e specified i n t h e
relevant standards. A f t e r d r y i n g a n d weighing t h e
specimens are i m m e r s e d into distilled w a t e r a n d kept
a t a t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C f o r 2 4 h . T h e n t h e y a r e
weighed again. W a t e r shall be removed f r o m the
specimen surface.
W a t e r absorption is obtained as a fraction o f
total mass o fabsorbed water related t o t h emass o f
the d r y specimen.
W a t e r a b s o r p t i o n o f f o a m e d plastics is deter-
m i n e d as mass o f absorbed water related t o t h e
surface area o f t h e specimen. 05011
- H
2.3.9.2 A s a m p l e , t h e s i z e o f w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d
p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e r e q u i r e d n u m b e r a n d size o f
specimens, is i m m e r s e d i n fresh water, t h e tempera- F i g . 2.3.11.1:
t u r e o f w h i c h i s 2 3 ± 2 °C, t o a d e p t h o f 1 , 2 5 m a n d 1 — test specimen; 2 — cylindrical c h a m b e r ; 3 — b a s e plate
w i t h a h o l e o f 3 0 m m d i a m e t e r ; 4,8 — w i n g n u t s ; 5,7 — b o l t s ;
conditioned f o r7 days. 6 — plug
Before testing, as w e l l as a d a y a n d seven days
after i m m e r s i o n , t h esample is weighed.
A f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n g , test specimens a r e prepared T h e a r r a n g e m e n t is filled u p t o t h elevel o f2 0 m m
f r o m the sample. w i t h a m i x t u r e o f oils i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n :
2.3.10 A g e i n g t e s t . 30 % o f 2, 2 , 4 — trimethylethane;
2.3.10.1 A s a m p l e , w h i c h d i m e n s i o n s a r e d e t e r - 50 % o f toluene;
mined depending o nthe required number a n d dimen- 15 % o f d i i s o b u t y l e n e ;
sions o f test specimens is c o n d i t i o n e d i n semi- 5 % o f ethanol.
i m m e r s e d c o n d i t i o n i n t h e artificial sea w a t e r w i t h a O t h e r o i l products m a y b e used such as diesel
t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C f o r 3 0 d a y s . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f fuel, petrol, etc.
c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e sample shall b e subjected every d a y t o T h e test specimen i s c o n d i t i o n e d i n oils d u r i n g
two-hour ultra-violet irradiation w i t h 5 0 0 W lamp 2 2 h a t a t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 0 ± 2 ) °C.
placed a t a distance o f 5 0 c m f r o m i t . A f t e r W h e n t h e test specimen is extracted, i t shall b e
c o n d i t i o n i n g test specimens a r e prepared f r o m t h e dried a little bit, t h ew e t surface folded i n t w o a n d t h e
s a m p l e f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e r e q u i r e d tests. halves pressed t o each other.
2.3.10.2 T w o s a m p l e s , t h e s i z e o f w h i c h i s T h e w e t surfaces s h a l l n o t stick t o e a c h o t h e r , n o r
d e t e r m i n e d p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e n u m b e r a n d size o f shall t h e fingers b e stained w h e n t h e surfaces shalluched.
specimens required a r e kept suspended d u r i n g seven 2.3.11.2 A s a m p l e , w h i c h s i z e i s d e t e r m i n e d
d a y s a t a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e 7 0 ± 1 °C, o n e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e n u m b e r a n d size o f s p e c i m e n s
samples being suspended i n a closed v o l u m e above required, i s i m m e r s e d i n diesel o i l h a v i n g a tempera-
water. A f t e r that, t h e same n u m b e r o f test specimens t u r e o f 2 3 ± 2 °C a n d c o n d i t i o n e d t h e r e f o r 3 0 d a y s .
is p r e p a r e d o u t o f e a c h s a m p l e . A f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n g , test specimens a r e prepared
2.3.10.3 T h e t e s t f o r c r e a s i n g a n d s t a b i l i t y o f f r o m the sample.
shape after ageing is effected o n square specimens 2.3.11.3 A s a m p l e , w h i c h s i z e i s d e t e r m i n e d
w i t h a side m e a s u r i n g 100 ± 5 m m , w h i c h a r e f o l d e d p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e n u m b e r a n d size o f s p e c i m e n s
22 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

required, is i m m e r s e d i n diesel o i l o r h i g h octane 0295


p e t r o l h a v i n g a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 2 3 + 2 °C t o a d e p t h o f
100 m m a n d c o n d i t i o n e d there d u r i n g 2 4 h .
2.3.11.4 S a m p l e s , w h i c h s i z e i s d e t e r m i n e d
p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e n u m b e r a n d size o f s p e c i m e n s
required, are i m m e r s e d i n crude o i l , fuel o i l , diesel
fuel, h i g h octane petrol a n d kerosene h a v i n g a
t e m p e r a t u r e o f 2 3 + 2 °C t o a d e p t h o f 1 0 0 m m a n d
conditioned there f o r 14 days.
F i g . 2.3.13:
A f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n g , test specimens a r e p r e p a r e d
b a s e p l a t e ; 2 — c l a m p i n g ring; 3 specimen
f r o m t h e samples.
2.3.12 W a t e r r e s i s t a n c e t e s t .
2.3.12.1 A s a m p l e , w h i c h d i m e n s i o n s a r e d e t e r ­ 2.3.14 C o l d r e s i s t a n c e t e s t .
m i n e d d e p e n d i n g o n t h e r e q u i r e d n u m b e r a n d size o f T h e c o l d resistance test o f l a m i n a t e d textiles is
test specimens, is i m m e r s e d i n artificial sea w a t e r w i t h effected o n rectangular specimens measuring
a t e m p e r a t u r e o f ( 2 3 + 2 ) °C a n d c o n d i t i o n e d d u r i n g (100 + 5) x (50 + 5) m m . A f t e r b e i n g c o n d i t i o n e d a t a
5 months. t e m p e r a t u r e o f — 3 0 . . . — 5 °C d u r i n g l h a n d a t
A f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n g , test specimens a r e p r e p a r e d — 8 0 . . . — 5 °C d u r i n g 1 0 m i n , t h e s p e c i m e n s a r e b e n t
f r o m the sample. t h r o u g h a n a n g l e o f 9 0 °C.
2.3.12.2 I n t h e c a s e o f l a m i n a t e d t e x t i l e s , a A sketch o f testing apparatus is s h o w n i n
sample measuring 3 0 0 x 2 0 0 m m glued along the Fig. 2.3.14.
perimeter shall b e c o n d i t i o n e d i nsalty w a t e r w i t h salt
c o n c e n t r a t i o n 3,3 — 3,8 % d u r i n g 4 h a t a
t e m p e r a t u r e o f ( 4 0 + 1 ) °C a n d a t a d e p t h o f 5 0 0 m m .
2.3.12.3 S p e c i m e n s o f r e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l
m e a s u r i n g (70 + 5) x (150 + 5) m m , w h i c h a r e secured
on a n aluminium panel a n d have a n X-shaped
diagonal cut i n t h e m , are conditioned i n artificial
s e a w a t e r a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 2 3 + 2 °C i n s e m i s u b -
mersed c o n d i t i o n d u r i n g 16 h i n enclosed v o l u m e .
A f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n g , t h e salt residues o n t h e F i g . 2.3.14 S k e t c h o f t e s t i n g m a c h i n e :
specimen surface shall be w a s h e d off. 1 — specimen; 2 — regulating screw
2.3.12.4 S p e c i m e n s o f r e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l
m e a s u r i n g (70 + 5) x (150 + 5) m m , w h i c h a r e secured
o n a n a l u m i n i u m panel, a r e sprayed w i t h 5 % salt B y t h e e n d o f t h e test t h e distance b e t w e e n t h e
solution a n d conditioned at a temperature o f parallel parts o f t h e test specimen shall e q u a l f o u r
3 5 + 2 °C f o r 5 d a y s . times its thickness.
D u r i n g conditioning, t h e specimens are dried f o r 2.3.15 O z o n e r e s i s t a n c e t e s t .
2 h every 2 2 h . A t e s t s p e c i m e n i s b e n t t h r o u g h 180° r o u n d a
2.3.12.5 S p e c i m e n s o f r e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l m a n d r e l equalling six times t h e specimen thickness i n
manufactured and mounted i n conformity with diameter a n d subjected d u r i n g l h t o t h e influence o f
2.3.2.7 a r e soaked i n distilled a n d artificial sea w a t e r air w i t h ozone concentration o f 50 p p h m at a
d u r i n g 16 h i n enclosed v o l u m e . t e m p e r a t u r e o f 3 0 + 2 °C a n d t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y
2.3.13 A i r p e r m e a b i l i t y t e s t . o f 2 6 %.
A disc-shaped specimen h a v i n g a diameter o f 2.3.16 A s a m p l e , t h e s i z e o f w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d
350 m m is covered w i t h w a x i n such a w a y t h a t its p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e n u m b e r a n d size o f specimens
centre, 2 9 0 m m i n d i a m e t e r , is left o p e n , a n d t h e n required, is successively exposed t o a m b i e n t a i r a t a
0
clamped between t h e flanges o f the testing apparatus temperature o f —40 a n d + 7 0 С at 8 hour intervals
as s h o w n i n F i g . 2 . 3 . 1 3 . for f o a m plastics a n d a t 2 4 h intervals f o r r e t r o -
F r o m below, a positive a i r pressure o f 27,5 k P a reflective materials.
acts u p o n t h e test specimen. I n 10 t o 15 m i n , t h e 2.3.17 V i b r a t i o n l o a d t e s t .
specimen is so i m m e r s e d i n w a t e r t h a t its u p p e r m o s t A test s p e c i m e n , t h e t y p e a n d size o f w h i c h a r e
p o i n t is 13 m m b e l o w t h e surface. 1 m i n l a t e r n o a i r d e t e r m i n e d proceeding f r o m t h e expected service o f
bubbles shall r e m a i n o n t h e specimen surface. W i t h i n the product, is m o u n t e d o n a vibration-testing
the f o l l o w i n g 5 m i n n o bubbles shall rise t o t h e m a c h i n e a n d subjected t o v i b r a t i o n loads h a v i n g
surface. the following parameters:
P a r t XIII. Materials 23

oscillation amplitude — 2,5 m m ; T w o specimens a r e fitted b e t w e e n glass plates


frequency range — 5 t o 5 0 0H z w i t h a difference 3 m m t h i c k , w i t h t h e i r retro-reflective surfaces facing
of frequency o f32 H z a n d a n amplitude o f vibration each o t h e r a n d u n d e r a l o a d , t h e m a s s o f w h i c h is
acceleration o f 10 g. 18 k g , a n d c o n d i t i o n e d i n t h e h e a t i n g c h a m b e r a t a
2.3.18 D e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e t r o - r e f l e c t i o n f a c t o r t e m p e r a t u r e o f 6 5 ± 2 °C d u r i n g 8 h .
of a material. A f t e r being conditioned, t h e specimens are
2.3.18.1 T h e r e t r o - r e f l e c t i o n f a c t o r i s d e t e r m i n e d c o o l e d a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 2 3 ± 2 °C d u r i n g 5 m i n .
o n square specimens m e a s u r i n g 150 ± 5 m m . T h e 2.3.21 R e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s a r e t e s t e d f o r
entrance a n d o b s e r v a t i o n angles a r e a d o p t e d i n fungus resistance using square specimens m e a s u r i n g
accordance w i t h T a b l e 6.7.2.2. 75 ± 2 m m , w h i c h are secured o n a n a l u m i n i u m panel.
M e a s u r e m e n t s a r e t a k e n a t t h e t u r n i n g angles o f T h e specimens are conditioned i n t h e soil d u r i n g
r e f e r e n c e p l a n e b e t w e e n 0 a n d 180° w i t h t h e s p a c i n g two weeks.
n o t e x c e e d i n g 30°. A f t e r being conditioned, t h e specimens are w i p e d
2.3.18.2 T h e r e t r o - r e f l e c t i o n f a c t o r f o r a m a t e r i a l clean w i t h a soft c l o t h wetted i nt h e 7 0 % s o l u t i o n o f
staying u n d e r a f i l m o f w a t e r is d e t e r m i n e d o n ethanol alcohol a n d then conditioned i n accordance
s p e c i m e n s m e a s u r i n g (150± 5 ) x ( 7 5 ± 5 ) m m s e c u r e d w i t h 2.3.1.1 d u r i n g 48 h .
on a vertical plane i n t h e transverse direction. The microbiological activity o f t h e soil is
D u r i n g testing, t h e specimen stays u n d e r a determined o n untreated cotton cloth. After being
continuously m o v i n g film o f water. A sketch o f the soil-conditioned f o r 5 days, t h e u l t i m a t e strength o f
testing machine shall be f o u n d i n F i g . 2.3.18.2. the cloth w i t h a density o f400 t o 475g / m shall n o t 2

Measurements are t a k e n a t t h e observation angle o f b e less t h a n 5 0 % o f t h e i n i t i a l v a l u e .


0,2° a n d e n t r a n c e a n g l e o f 5°. 2.3.22 T h e a b r a s i o n - r e s i s t a n c e t e s t o f r e t r o -
reflective m a t e r i a l is m a d e o n specimens m e a s u r i n g
(150 ±5) x (425 ±5) m m , w h i c h a r e secured o n a n
a l u m i n i u m panel.
T h e p a n e l , w h i c h i s fixed i n t h e t e s t i n g m a c h i n e ,
is s u b j e c t e d t o 1 0 0 0 c y c l e s o f t h e r e c i p r o c a t i n g a c t i o n
o f bristles a t a f r e q u e n c y o f 37 ± 2 cycles p e r m i n u t e .
F o r testing, t r i m m e d black bristles o f a p i g a r e
used arranged i n clusters i n 6 0 openings 4 m m i n
d i a m e t e r o n a b l o c k m e a s u r i n g (90 ±5) x (40 ±5) x
(12,5 ± 5) m m a n d h a v i n g a t o t a l w e i g h t o f 450 ± 15 g.
T h e bristles shall project above t h e b l o c k surface b y
not m o r e than 2 0 m m .
2.3.23 T h e c o n t a m i n a n t - r e s i s t a n c e t e s t o f r e t r o -
reflective m a t e r i a l is m a d e o n square specimens
m e a s u r i n g 150 ± 5 m m , w h i c h are secured o n a n
a l u m i n i u m panel.
T h e specimens are covered w i t h a c o n t a m i n a n t
layer 0 , 7 5 m m t h i c k , a l a b o r a t o r y glass is placed
above, a n d so they remain f o r2 4 h .
F i g . 2.3.18.2 A f t e r conditioning, t h especimens arew i p e d clean
o f t h e c o n t a m i n a n t w i t h a soft cloth wetted i n w h i t e
spirit, washed w i t h 1 % s o l u t i o n o f a detergent a n d
2.3.19 T h e b e n d t e s t o f r e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s i s rinsed i n water.
m a d e o n specimens m e a s u r i n g (25 ± 5) x (150 ±5) m m The contaminant used f o r testing shall have t h e
after they have been conditioned, together w i t h a following c o m p o s i t i o n b y weight: 8 parts o f soot,
metallic m a n d r e l 3,2 m m i n diameter, i n a heating 60 parts o fm i n e r a l o i l a n d 32 parts o fw h i t e spirit.
c h a m b e r a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 3 0 °C. T h e s p e c i m e n s
shall be wrapped o n t h em a n d r e l b y a slight t o u c h o f
the finger. 2.4 W E L D A B I L I T Y T E S T
Retro-reflective materials w i t h a n adhesive layer
are tested after t h e r e m o v a l o fprotective paper.
2.3.20 T h e a d h e s i o n t e s t o f r e t r o - r e f l e c t i v e 2.4.1 T h e C h a p t e r c o n t a i n s g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s
materials is m a d e o n square specimens m e a s u r i n g for t h e weldability testing procedure o f materials
100 ± 5 m m . being approved.
24 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T h e n u m b e r o f tests is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e test shall be u n i f o r m i n thickness a n dl o o k homogeneous,


p r o g r a m approved b y the Register. h a v e n o r u n s , sags, h o l i d a y s , g a s b u b b l e s , w r i n k l e s ,
A m o n g t h e products tested f o rw e l d a b i l i t y there blushing changes, paint lack, h a r d particle inclusions,
are r o l l e d steel, steel castings, steel f o r g i n g s a n d dried t o ps k i n a n dblisters. T h e thickness o f a d r y f i l m
a l u m i n i u m alloys applied i n welded ship structures. as p e r I S O 2 8 0 8 s h a l l n o t e x c e e d t h e n o m i n a l v a l u e b y
T h e test i s carried o u t u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o ft h e m o r e t h a n 2 0 %.
Register o r i n a laboratory recognized b y that body. P r i o r t o testing, t h e p a i n t e d test panels s h a l l be
2.4.2 T h e w e l d a b i l i t y o f a m a t e r i a l s h a l l b e conditioned during three weeks at n o r m a l tempera-
e x a m i n e d i n t h e course o f a p p r o v a l tests b y u s i n g t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C a n d a r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ± 5 ) % o r
the same welding methods that w o u l d be applied a t t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 0 ± 2 ) °C a n d a r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y
w h e n p r o d u c i n g structures subject t o survey b y t h e ( 6 5 ± 5 ) %.
Register. T h ewelding methods are indicated i n the T h e p a n e l edges a n d b a c k side s h a l l b e p r o p e r l y
approval documentation f o rthematerial. protected.
2.4.3 D u r i n g t h e w e l d a b i l i t y t e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g I n o r d e r t o c o n f i r m a large lifetime i n sea w a t e r ,
shall be determined: the tests shall be carried o u t according t o t h e
.1 c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r - following:
ties o f t h e base m e t a l ; I S O 7253 ( n e u t r a l salt spray) d u r i n g 1440 h ;
.2 c o l d c r a c k i n g r e s i s t a n c e ; ISO 2812-2 (immersion i n water) during 3000 h .
.3 s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a g e i n g a c c o r d i n g t o 2 . 2 . 3 . 4 ; 2.5.1.3 A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c o a t i n g s y s t e m b e f o r e
.4 w e l d e d j o i n t p r o p e r t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o S e c t i o n 4 , artificial ageing i n t h e salt spray a n d w h e n i m m e r s e d
Part X I V "Welding". in water.
2.4.4 T h e t e s t s m e n t i o n e d u n d e r 2 . 4 . 3 s h a l l b e P r i o r t o testing, t h e a d h e s i o n assessed b y t h e
m a d e o n plates o r other products o f m a x i m u m cross-cut m e t h o d as p e r I S O 2409 shall be classed 0
thickness t a k e n f r o m a t least three d i f f e r e n t casts. or 1.
2.4.5 F o r m e t a l l i c m a t e r i a l s o t h e r t h a n s t e e l t h e F o r t h e c o a t i n g s y s t e m o v e r 2 5 0 m t h i c k , t h e test
w e l d a b i l i t y i n each p a r t i c u l a r case i s d e t e r m i n e d as p e r I S O 4 6 2 4 s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n s t e a d o f t h e test
p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e results o f tests m a d e i n as p e r I S O 2 4 0 9 . T h e c o a t i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e
conformity w i t h the Register approved p r o g r a m o r passed t h e test i f t h e substrate ( A / B ) a d h e s i o n is
according t o t h e standards approved b y t h e Register. r e t a i n e d i n t a c t a t a p u l l - o f f f o r c e o f less t h a n 5 M P a .
2.5.1.4 S a l t s p r a y t e s t s .
The specimens t o be tested i n a salt spray
2.5 T E S T I N G O F I C E - R E S I S T A N T COATINGS chamber shall be notched t o a substrate w i t h length
o f 50 m m a n d a t a distance o f a t least 2 0m m f r o m t h e
test specimen edge.
2.5.1 A s s e s s m e n t o f a n t i c o r r o s i v e p r o p e r t i e s i n The m e t h o d principle consists i n c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e
sea water. p a i n t e d specimens i n t h e salt spray c h a m b e r w i t h t h e
2.5.1.1 T e s t s s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n c o m p l i a n c e following assessment o f t h e extent o f t h e paint
w i t h I S O 12944-6 f o r a corrosivity category I m 2 i n coating destruction.
compliance w i t h I S O 12944-2. T h e test specimens shall be placed i n t h e c h a m b e r
T h e d u r a t i o n o f testing shall be set f o r the c o a t i n g f a c i n g u p w a r d s a t a n a n g l e o f ( 2 5 ± 5)° t o t h e v e r t i c a l .
lifetime o f 15 years. T h e specimens shall b e placed i n s u c h a w a y as t o a v o i d
2.5.1.2 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s . the contact w i t h each other o r t h e chamber, a n d t h e
P a n e l s f o r testing s h a l l b e m a d e o f the steel o f the s o l u t i o n shall b e freely sprayed o n t h e surface exposed.
grade used i n practice. T h e specimens shall be placed a t the same level, so t h a t
T h e panel shall be d i m e n s i o n e d 150 x 7 0 m m as a the s o l u t i o n drops m a y n o t d r a i n o f f the plates o r their
m i n i m u m . T h e p a n e l thickness shall be least 2 m m , supports o n t o t h e o t h e r specimens placed below.
d e p e n d i n g o n t h e test. T h e p a n e l surface s h a l l b e The temperature inside t h e chamber shall be
l
w o r k e d b y a b r a s i v e b l a s t i n g t o s t a n d a r d S a 2/ o r S a 3
2 w i t h i n ( 3 5 ± 2 ) °C.
as p e r I S O 8 5 0 1 - 1 . T h e surface r o u g h n e s s ( p r o f i l e ) s h a l l I n every 2 4 h , as a m i n i m u m , t h e average rate o f
c o r r e s p o n d t o a n a v e r a g e v a l u e (G) a s p e r I S O 8 5 0 3 - 1 solution accumulation i n each collector f o r a
a n d c a n be checked using a standard as p e r I S O 8503-2. horizontal collecting area o f 8 0 c m ( a funnel o f 2

Three panels shall be prepared f o r each type o f 100 m m i n d i a m e t e r ) s h a l l b e m e a s u r e d a n d b e e q u a l


tests. to 1 - 2,5 m l / h . T h e s o d i u m chloride concentration i n
Paint shall be applied according t o the manufac- each c o l l e c t o r s h a l l b e ( 5 0 ± 10) g/1, p = 6,5 - 7,2.
H

turer's instructions. I tis recommended t o apply paint The specimens shall be periodically visually
o n t h e p a n e l b y airless spraying m e t h o d . E a c h layer e x a m i n e d as p e r Parts 2 - 5 , I S O 4628, leaving
P a r t XIII. Materials 25

t h e r e w i t h t h e surfaces u n d e r test u n d a m a g e d . T h e A n y defects w i t h i n 1 c m f r o m t h e p a n e l edges


e x a m i n a t i o n t i m e shall n o t exceed 3 0 m i n . shall be ignored.
The examinations shall be performed once i n 2 4 h 2.5.1.6.1 S c r a t c h i n g :
at the m o s t a n d at the same time o f a day.T h e A n engraving machine is recommended for use t o
specimens shall n o t fully d r y o u t during the get reproducible results. W h e r e i t is impracticable,
e x a m i n a t i o n a n d , following t h e latter, shall be the device f o r scratching shall correspond t o t h e
i m m e d i a t e l y r e t u r n e d i n t o t h e test c h a m b e r . description i n 4.1.1, I S O2409:1992 ( a single-bladed
2.5.1.5 W a t e r i m m e r s i o n t e s t a s p e r I S O 2 8 1 2 - 2 . cutting tool).
T h e tests shall be carried o u t i n a p r o p e r l y The scratch m a y be h o r i z o n t a l , vertical o r
dimensioned tank (recommended dimensions are d i a g o n a l . I t shall be a t least 5 0 m m l o n g , besides i t
7 0 0 x 4 0 0 x 4 0 0 m m ) . T h e tank shall have closing shall be a t least 2 0 m m a w a y f r o m each edge a n d shall
appliances, be heat-resistant a n d be p r o v i d e d w i t h a extend t o t h ev e r y surface o f the m e t a l a t a n y p o i n t o f
water solution circulation a n d aeration system. T h e its l e n g t h .
solution concentration shall be maintained at the 2.5.1.6.2 A s s e s s m e n t o f c o r r o s i o n l e n g t h w i s e o f
3
level o f 5 0 g o f N a C l p e r 1 d m o f water. scratch.
The temperature o f water i n t h e t a n k shall be A f t e r s a l t s p r a y t e s t , t h e m a x i m u m w i d t h C, i n
( 4 0 ± 1 ) °C. m m , o f corrosion across t h e scratch shall be
The specimens shall be i m m e r s e d i n t h e t a n k t o measured. T h e substrate corrosion M caused b y t h e
3/4 o f their l e n g t h a t a distance o f 3 0 m m f r o m o n e scratch is determined b y t h e f o r m u l a
a n o t h e r , t h e t a n k sides a n d b o t t o m . T h e s p e c i m e n
M=(C - W)I2 (2.5.1.6.2)
holders shall be positioned so that t h e specimens are
i n c l i n e d a t a n a n g l e o f ( 1 5 - 20)° t o t h e v e r t i c a l , a n d where W- initial w i d t h o f the scratch, i n m m .
the surface u n d e r study shall t h e r e w i t h be a t t h et o p 2.5.1.7 O t h e r a s s e s s m e n t m e t h o d s . R e q u i r e m e n t s .
and parallel t o the direction o f a water flow i n the T h e a d h e s i o n assessed ( i n 2 4 h after c o n d i t i o n i n g )
tank. b y t h e cross-cut test m e t h o d as p e r I S O 2409 shall be
The specimen positions shall be periodically classed 0 o r 1 . W h e r e t h e thickness o fthe d r y f i l m o f
interchanged. a p a i n t s y s t e m is o v e r 2 5 0 m , t h e p u l l - o f f test f o r
The intermediate examinations o f specimens shall a d h e s i o n as p e r I S O 4 6 2 4 instead o f u s i n g t h e cross-
be carried o u t i n 1 , 3 a n d 5 w e e k s a n d every 2 5 0 h o f c u t test m e t h o d as p e r I S O 2409 shall be carried o u t .
t h e test. N o defects a r e a l l o w e d f o r a d h e s i o n w i t h t h e
D u r i n g t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e x a m i n a t i o n s each speci- s u b s t r a t e ( A / B ) a t a p u l l - o f f f o r c e o f less t h a n 5 M P a
men shall be taken o u t o f the tank, blotted w i t h a (assessment shall b e p e r f o r m e d after 2 4 h o f conditioning).
filter paper a n d t h e extent o f its coating destruction 2.5.2 A s s e s s m e n t o f r e s i s t a n c e t o l o w t e m p e r a -
s h a l l b e assessed as p e r P a r t s 2 - 5 , I S O 4 6 2 8 d u r i n g ture.
1 m i n . F o l l o w i n g that, the specimen shall be 2.5.2.1 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s .
immediately returned into the tank. P a n e l s f o r tests s h a l l b e m a d e o f t h e steel o f t h e
2.5.1.6 A s s e s s m e n t a f t e r a r t i f i c i a l a g e i n g t e s t grade used i n practice. T h e r e c o m m e n d e d specimen
d u r i n g t h e set t i m e . dimensions: 1 5 0 x 7 0 m m o r 1 5 0 x 1 0 0 m m . T h e
T a b l e 2.5.1.6 thickness o f u n p a i n t e d plate shall be a t least 2 m m .
Requirements for coating condition after artificial T h e panel surface shall be w o r k e d b y abrasive
ageing test during the set time 1 1
blasting t o standard S a 2 / o r S a 3 as p e r I S O 8501-1.
2

Assessment method Requirements T h e surface roughness (profile) shall c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e


a v e r a g e v a l u e (G) a s p e r I S O 8 5 0 3 - 1 a n d c a n b e c h e c k e d
I S O 4628-2 B l i s t e r i n g 0(S0)
using a standard as p e r I S O 8503-2. F o u r panels shall
(assessed w i t h o u t delay)
I S O 4628-3 Rusting RiO be prepared: 3 panels f o r testing a n d 1 check panel.
(assessed w i t h o u t delay) I t is r e c o m m e n d t o apply paint t o t h e panel b y
I S O 4628-4 C r a c k i n g 0(S0) airless s p r a y i n g m e t h o d . E a c h layer s h a l l b e u n i f o r m i n
(assessed w i t h o u t delay)
thickness a n d l o o k homogeneous. T h e thickness o f a
I S O 4628-5 F l a k i n g 0(S0)
(assessed w i t h o u t delay) dry f i l m as p e r I S O 2808 shall n o t exceed t h e n o m i n a l
value b y m o r e t h a n 2 0 % (refer t o 2.5.1.2).
P r i o r t o test t h e p a i n t e d test panels shall be
A f t e r t h e artificial ageing test i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h conditioned during three weeks a t a n o r m a l tempera-
I S O 7253, a n y substrate corrosion d u e t o a scratch t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C a n d a r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ± 5 ) % o r
shall n o t exceed 1 m m i f d e t e r m i n e d b y F o r m u - a t t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 0 ± 2 ) °C a n d a r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y
la (2.5.1.6). ( 6 5 ± 5 ) %.
26 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

2.5.2.2 T e s t p r o c e d u r e . 2.5.3.4 A s s e s s m e n t o f t e s t r e s u l t s .
Specimens shall be placed i n a freezing chamber A f t e r s i x tests, t h e m e a n v a l u e o f t h e a d h e s i o n
a n d c o n d i t i o n e d a t a t e m p e r a t u r e - ( 6 0 ± 3 ) °C d u r i n g strength shall be determined. T h e result shall be
2 h followed b y t h e adhesion assessment w i t h i n presented as t h e m e a n value a n d t h e range. T h e
2 0 - 2 5 s u s i n g t h e cross-cut test m e t h o d as p e r assessment o f t h e m e a n percentage o f t h e fracture
I S O 2409. area a n d t h e fracture type i n t h e system being tested
W h e r e t h e thickness o f t h e d r y film o f a coating shall also be provided.
system exceeds 2 5 0 m , t h e cross-cut test m e t h o d as The fracture nature is presented as follows:
per I S O 16276-2 shall be used. AJB - a d h e s i v e f a i l u r e b e t w e e n s u b s t r a t e a n d t h e
2.5.2.3 A s s e s s m e n t o f t e s t r e s u l t s . first coating layer;
C o a t i n g s a r e considered t o h a v e passed t h e tests В - cohesive failure o ffirst coating layer;
i f adhesion o n t w o o f three specimens is classed B/C - a d h e s i v e f a i l u r e b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t a n d t h e
b e l o w 3 as p e r I S O 2 4 0 9 a n d I S O 12276-2. second coating layers;
2.5.3 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d h e s i o n s t r e n g t h . N - cohesive failure o f t h e n - t h layer o f a
The adhesion strength is determined using the pull- multilayer coating system;
o f f test as p e r I S O 4624. T h e test p r o v i d e s f o r n/m - a d h e s i v e f a i l u r e b e t w e e n t h e n - t h l a y e r a n d
measuring the force required t o break thecoating bond. the w - t h layer o f a multilayer coating system;
2.5.3.1 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s . -/Y - a d h e s i v e f a i l u r e b e t w e e n t h e f i n a l l a y e r a n d
T h e coating system t o be tested is applied t o t h e adhesive;
m e t a l specimens o fthe same thickness ( a tleast 3 m m ) Y- c o h e s i v e f a i l u r e o f a d h e s i v e ;
a n d surface texture. Y/Z - a d h e s i v e f a i l u r e b e t w e e n a d h e s i v e a n d
T h e surface p r e p a r a t i o n a n d coating application dolly.
shall be carried o u t i n accordance w i t h a process T h e area o f fracture shall be e s t i m a t e d as a
i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e c o a t i n g system t o be tested. percentage t o t h e nearest 10 % f o r each type o f
P r i o r t o test t h e p a i n t e d specimens shall be fracture.
c o n d i t i o n e d a t a n o r m a l t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C a n d W h e r e t h e failure is m a i n l y associated w i t h t h e
a relative h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ±5) % d u r i n g a t least 1 6 h . adhesive, t h e test shall be repeated u s i n g a n o t h e r
2.5.3.2 P r e p a r a t i o n f o r t e s t s . adhesive o r , i n o r d e r t o reduce roughness, t h e surfaces
A f t e r specimens d r y i n g a n d conditioning, dollies o f t h e c o a t i n g a n d t h e test d o l l y m a y be abraded.
shall be b o n d e d thereon. W h e n selecting a n adhesive, 2.5.4 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a b r a s i o n r e s i s t a n c e .
its u n m i x e d c o m p o n e n t s s h a l l n o t cause t h e v i s i b l e The m e t h o d concept is determination o f abrasion
coating changes w i t h i n t h e time o f t h e adhesive resistance o fthe coatings applied o n a m e t a l substrate
curing. Adhesives, w h i c h give t h e highest results, are w i t h the Taber's abrader.
p r e f e r r e d . I n m o s t cases, c y a n o a c r y l a t e , t w o - c o m p o ­ 2.5.4.1 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s .
nent solventless epoxide a n d peroxide-catalyzed M e t a l specimens dimensioned 100x 100 x
polyester adhesives shall be used. x 3(±0,5) m m w i t h a h o l e 8 m m i n d i a m e t e r a t t h e
The adhesives shall be prepared a n d applied specimen center shall be prepared f o r testing. T h e
according t o the manufacturer's instructions. T o specimen surface p r e p a r a t i o n a n d coating application
secure a tight, c o n t i n u o u s a n d u n i f o r m b o n d b e t w e e n shall be carried o u t i n accordance w i t h the require­
the dolly a n d coating, the m i n i m a l a m o u n t o f ments o fa process instruction f o r t h e coating system
adhesive shall be applied. A f t e r t h e adhesive curing being tested.
(generally 2 4 h ) , t h e adhesive a n d paint shall be c u t If the coating is applied a t a temperature
about thedolly circumference penetrating t h r o u g h t o ( 2 0 - 3 0 ) °C, a b r a d a b i l i t y s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d a t t h e
the m e t a l plate surface. T o reduce t h e d e f o r m a t i o n o f earliest i n three weeks after a p p l y i n g t h e last coating
the painted specimen during pulling off, a rigid metal layer.
ring shall be placed a r o u n d t h e dolly. 2.5.4.2 T e s t p r o c e d u r e .
2.5.3.3 T e s t p r o c e d u r e . The abrasive wheel C S - 1 7 at a 1000g loading
D u r i n g t h e test a tensile force s h a l l b e u n i f o r m shall be used i n testing.
across t h e entire tension area a n d be applied n o r m a l l y C o a t e d specimens shall be weighed t o a n accuracy
to t h e p a i n t e d surface w i t h o u t a n y b e n d i n g m o m e n t . 0,1 m g , a n d t h e c o a t i n g t h i c k n e s s s h a l l b e m e a s u r e d a t
T h e t e n s i o n stress r a t e s h a l l n o t exceed 1 M P a / s some p o i n t s w i t h i n t h e area t o be tested f o r abrasion.
a n d be perpendicular t o t h e p a i n t e d c o a t i n g . T h e test T h e coated specimen is placed a n d secured o n a
s p e c i m e n s h a l l fail w i t h i n 9 0 s since t e n s i o n i n g . rotating p l a t f o r m . T h e abrasive wheels are lowered
T o assess t h e a d h e s i o n s t r e n g t h , a t least s i x o n t o t h e specimen.
determinations shall be carried o u t at a temperature The nozzle o f a v a c u u m p u m p is positioned at a
( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C a n d a r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ± 5 ) %. distance o f 1 m m a b o v e t h e abrasive disc. A c o u n t e r i s
P a r t XIII. Materials 21

set t o z e r o , a n d a s u c t i o n l e v e l , t o " 5 0 " . W h e r e t h e m o r e T h e h e i g h t o f t h e w e i g h t t o t h e r e q u i r e d release-


efficient r e m o v a l o f abrasive dust is needed, t h e suction point (using t h e graduations o n t h e guide tube) shall
level m a y b e increased u p t o " 9 0 " . T h e n u m b e r o f cycles be adjusted a n d t h e w e i g h t s h a l l b e l o c k e d i n
is s e t t o " 1 0 0 0 " : o n e c y c l e o f a b r a s i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o p o s i t i o n . T h e test p a n e l shall be placed o n t h e d i e
one revolution o fthe rotating platform. w i t h t h e c o a t e d face u p , t h e w e i g h t s h a l l b e released
The v a c u u m p u m p a n d rotating platform are a n d a l l o w e d t o fall o n t o t h e test panel.
started. 2.5.5.3 A s s e s s m e n t o f t e s t r e s u l t s .
O n e m o r e specimen, as a m i n i m u m , shall b e tested. The coating shall be examined w i t h a magnifying
After testing, t h e specimen is dismantled, t h e glass w i t h 1 0 X m a g n i f i c a t i o n . T h e presence o f
remains o f abrasive dust are removed a n d t h e c r a c k i n g o n t h e c o a t i n g o f t h e test p a n e l o r peeling
specimen shall thereafter be weighed w i t h t o a n f r o m t h e substrate shall be reported.
accuracy 0,1 m g . T h e test shall be repeated f o u r t i m e s a t different
2.5.5 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i m p a c t r e s i s t a n c e i n positions, giving a total o f five drops. T h e coating is
falling-weight testing. considered satisfactory i fa t least f o u r test p o s i t i o n s
Testing shall be carried p u t according t o s h o w n o cracking o r peeling f r o m t h e substrate.
I S O 6272. 2.5.6 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e s i s t a n c e t o c a t h o d i c
T h e m e t h o d concept is e v a l u a t i o n o f resistance o f disbondment.
a d r y film o f paint coating t o cracking o r peeling 2.5.6.1 D e v i c e s a n d a p p a r a t u s .
f r o m a substrate w h e n i tis subjected t o a d e f o r m a t i o n T h e c o n t a i n e r o f glass o r a n o t h e r i n e r t m a t e r i a l
caused b y a falling weight. not affecting t h e electrolyte p H shall be used f o r
T h e tests shall be carried o u t u s i n g t h e special testing.
a p p a r a t u s ( e . g . o f У-2М t y p e ) , w h i c h m e e t s t h e T h e c o n t a i n e r shall b e a t least 7 0 0 m m i n
requirements i n I S O 6272, w i t h the primary a n d d i a m e t e r o r h a v e a side o f a t least 7 0 0 m m , b e a t
secondary weights, a n d a die. least 2 0 0 m m h i g h . T h ec o n t a i n e r shall be p r o v i d e d
2.5.5.1 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s . w i t h a system f o relectrolyte aeration.
T e s t specimens shall be m a d e o f steel (e.g. o f The anode shall be m a d e o fgraphite a n d be, as a
grade 0 8 as p e r G O S T 9045-80) a t least 0,25m m m i n i m u m , 200 m m long o r i ndiameter, o r be made o f
thick (0,8 m m is preferred) a n d dimensioned platinum wire, o r platinum grid, o r platinized
70 x 2 2 0 m m t o a l l o w t h e test t o be carried o u t a t titanium, o r other material, w h i c h demonstrates the
l e a s t a t f i v e p o s i t i o n s s p a c e d n o less t h a n 4 0 m m sufficient resistance t o a n o d i c p o l a r i z a t i o n i n sea
a p a r t a n d a t a d i s t a n c e o f n o less t h a n 2 0 m m f r o m water.
the p a n e l edge. C a l o m e l o r chlorine-silver reference electrodes
Each panel shall be prepared i n accordance w i t h shall be used.
ISO 1514 b y cleaning i t w i t h a solvent (xylene, A v o l t m e t e r w i t h t h e m i n i m u m resistance o f
toluene o r P - 4 ) a n d w i p i n g w i t h a filter paper. T h e 10 M O h m s h a l l p r o v i d e t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s w i t h i n
cleaning is considered satisfactory i f n o stains are 0 - 2 V t o a n accuracy 1 m V .
visible o n t h e paper. A c a t h o d e p r o t e c t i v e c i r c u i t supplied f r o m a d.c.
E a c h coat o f the coating system is applied source a n d being able t o m a i n t a i n a n electrode
separately o n t h e prepared panels, i.e. impact p o t e n t i a l o f - 1 0 5 0 ± 5 m V o n a test specimen w i t h
resistance is checked separately f o r each p a i n t coat­ respect t o a saturated c a l o m e l reference electrode
ing. T h e layer thickness a n d t h e t i m e o f coating shall be used.
drying shall c o m p l y w i t h a specification. It ispreferable t o usepotentiostatic control, b u t a
After drying, t h e coating thickness shall be galvanostat is also acceptable.
measured as p e r I S O 2808. T h emeasurements shall Representative cathode circuits are s h o w n i n
be m a d e a t , o r as near as possible t o , t h e p o s i t i o n s Figs. 2.5.6.1-1 a n d 2.5.6.1-2.
w h e r e t h e test shall be carried o u t . 2.5.6.2 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s .
Immediately before t h e testing, t h e panel shall be Panels f o r testing s h a l l be m a d e o f t h e steel o f t h e
c o n d i t i o n e d a t a t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C a n d a grade used i n practice a n d dimensioned
relative a i r h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ±5) % d u r i n g a t least 1 6 h . 150x70x2 mm.
2.5.5.2 T e s t p r o c e d u r e . Each panel shall have a n insulated conductor
T h e tests s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t a t a t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h a reliable electrical contact n o t subjected t o
( 2 3 ± 2 ) °C a n d a r e l a t i v e a i r h u m i d i t y ( 5 0 ± 5 ) %. corrosion.
It shall be checked that t h e guide tube is vertical T h e p a n e l surfaces shall be prepared according t o
and t h e secondary weight is attached, i frequired, t o the specification f o ra coating system. I f the require­
the p r i m a r y weight i n order t o achieve t h e required m e n t s a r e n o t specified, t h e panels shall be w o r k e d b y
loading. abrasive blasting according t o I S O 1514. T h e r e u p o n
28 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

1 T h e n t h e test panels shall b e checked f o r t h e


2 3 4
0 0 О presence o f r a n d o m pores a t a voltage o f 10 k V using
5 a c o n t i n u i t y detector.
Three panels shall be used i n cathode disbond-
m e n t testing.
2.5.6.3 T e s t p r e p a r a t i o n .
The a n o d e shall be placed a t t h e center o f a t a n k
0 0 and connected t o t h e positive pole o f t h e cathode
protective circuit.
E a c h panel shall be n u m b e r e d b y a suitable
material, w h i c h w i l l r e m a i n intact i n testing.
E a c h panel i nt h et a n k shall be placed a w a y f r o m
the anode a n d the tank b o t t o m b y m o r e than
F i g . 2.5.6.1-1 C a t h o d e p r o t e c t i v e c i r c u i t
300 m m a n d 50 m m , respectively, a n d completely
with potentiostatic control:
1 - potentiostat; 2 - w o r k electrode; 3 - anode; 4 - reference i m m e r s e d i n e l e c t r o l y t e a f t e r filling t h e t a n k . T h e
electrode; 5 - voltmeter; 6 - test s p e c i m e n electrolyte c o m p o s i t i o n is given i n T a b l e 2.5.6.3.
M a k e sure that t h e panels d o n o t t o u c h o n e another
a n d t h e t a n k sides, t h a t t h e side o f t h e p a n e l w i t h a
holed coating is n o t screened f r o m t h e anode w i t h
a n y t h i n g including other panels, a n d also that
100 kQ n o t h i n g interferes w i t h t h e electrolyte f l o w around,
a n d between, t h e panels.

5kQ T a b l e 2.5.6.3
Electrolyte c o m p o s i t i o n (artificial s e a water)

Component C o n c e n t r a t i o n , g/1

Sodium chloride 23
Hexahydrated magnesium chloride 9,8
Decahydrated sodium sulphate 8,9
Calcium chloride 1,2
F i g . 2.5.6.1-2 C a t h o d e p r o t e c t i v e c i r c u i t
with galvanostatic control:
1 - voltmeter; 2 - reference electrode; 3 - test specimen;4 - anode;
5 - D Csource
Each panel w i t h a negative pole shall be
connected t o t h e cathode protective circuit w i t h a n
insulated conductor.
t h e p a n e l s s h a l l b e p a i n t e d as p e r t h e specification f o r The check panels shall be similarly placed i n a n
the coating system. I t is recommended t o apply t h e equivalent tank having n o anode a n d cathode
s a m e c o a t i n g s y s t e m o n t h e p a n e l b a c k side a n d protective circuit.
e d g e s . T o p r e v e n t e d g e e f f e c t , a t h i c k e r film s h a l l b e T h e t a n k s h a l l b e filled w i t h e l e c t r o l y t e f o r 2 0 0 m m
a p p l i e d o n t h e edges. m i n i m u m . E l e c t r o l y t e t e m p e r a t u r e ( 2 3 + 2 ) °C s h a l l b e
A l l t h e u n p a i n t e d surfaces o f test specimens a n d maintained.
the connections o f insulated conductors shall be 2.5.6.4 T e s t p r o c e d u r e .
protected w i t h a coating o r paraffin melted at a T h e c o n t i n u o u s flow o f e l e c t r o l y t e i n t h e t a n k s h a l l
t e m p e r a t u r e 7 0 °C, o r s o l v e n t - f r e e e p o x y r e s i n , o r be maintained. Electrolyte shall be fully replaced w i t h i n
another suitable coating w i t h t h e better protective m a x i m u m three days. I t is a l l o w e d t o fully replace
p r o p e r t i e s t h a n t h e m a t e r i a l u n d e r test. electrolyte once i n n o tm o r e t h a n 7 days.
T h r e e check panels, w h i c h will n o t be connected Electrode potential shall be —1050 + 5 m V relative
to t h e cathode controlled system, shall also be to t h e reference electrode. Electrode p o t e n t i a l shall b e
prepared. checked once i n 2 4 h o r m o r e frequently, i f required.
T h e thickness o f test specimens shall b e m e a s u r e d T h e test d u r a t i o n is 2 6 weeks.
according t o I S O 2808. T h e test d u r a t i o n m a y b e s h o r t e n e d t o 3 m o n t h s
P r i o r t o t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f testing, a hole i n case t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i v e results o f t h e
(10 + 1 ) m m i n d i a m e t e r s h a l l b e m a d e i n t h e c o a t i n g exploitation o fcathode protection coating.
o f e a c h test specimen a t a distance o f m o r e t h a n 2.5.6.5 A s s e s s m e n t o f t e s t r e s u l t s .
30 m m f r o m t h e panel edge i n a n y suitable m a n n e r T h e test a n d check panels shall b e subjected t o
but preferably b y means o f a n abrasive jet. non-destructive testing.
P a r t XIII. Materials 29

A t i n t e r m e d i a t e e x a m i n a t i o n s , the panels shall be


quickly disconnected f r o m the circuit, removed f r o m
the tank and washed w i t h the tap water avoiding
damages to the coating and removing the cathode
sediment at the coating hole.
T h e panels shall r e m a i n w e t d u r i n g examinations.
T h e blisters a p p e a r e d s h a l l be assessed a c c o r d i n g
to I S O 4628-2, considering the distance f r o m the
blisters t o the hole. F i g . 2.5.7.1 W e t t a b i l i t y o f a s o l i d w i t h l i q u i d :
P - a wetting interfacial angle
T h e results o b t a i n e d o n test a n d check specimens
shall be compared.
A f t e r testing, the panels shall be w a s h e d i n the study placed o n a holder 8 w i t h a drop o n it being
tap water avoiding damages to the coating. p r o j e c t e d w i t h a lens 2 o n t o t h e f r o s t e d glass 3 o f a
T h e c o a t i n g s h a l l be f u l l y e x a m i n e d a n d assessed screen. L i g h t b e a m s pass t h r o u g h a heat filter 4 a n d
according t o I S O 4628-2, considering the blisters a n d are reflected b y m i r r o r s 5, 6 a n d 7 p l a c e d i n t h e device
h o l e spacing. T h e blisters shall be d i v i d e d i n t o case. T h e size o f a d r o p i m a g e o n t h e screen m a y be
groups: related to the hole and remote f r o m it. c h a n g e d w i t h i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e lenses ( w i t h a d i f f e r e n t
T h e blisters developed i n the areas w i t h the f i l m focal distance). A gadget for measuring a w e t t i n g
t h i c k n e s s less t h a n r e q u i r e d s h a l l b e i g n o r e d d u r i n g a n g l e is f a s t e n e d t o t h e p l o t t i n g b o a r d o f t h e screen.
the assessment.
T h e a d h e s i o n f a i l u r e is d e t e r m i n e d as f o l l o w s :
t w o cuts crossing the hole shall be m a d e w i t h a
sharp knife o n the coating penetrating it to the
substrate. T h e c o a t i n g a r o u n d t h e h o l e is s e p a r a t e d
f r o m the substrate w i t h a knife tip;
a n a p p r o x i m a t e distance, i n m m , f o r w h i c h the
c o a t i n g m a y b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e s u b s t r a t e as
c o m p a r e d w i t h the check specimens, shall be reported.
T h e results o b t a i n e d o n the test a n d check
specimens shall be compared.
2.5.7 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a w e t t i n g interfacial
angle.
2.5.7.1 T h e w e t t i n g a n g l e is t h e a n g l e f o r m e d b y
tangent planes t o t h e interphase surfaces, w h i c h F i g . 2.5.7.2 D e v i c e r e c o m m e n d e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e w e t t i n g
restrict t h e w e t t i n g l i q u i d , a n d a n a n g u l a r p o i n t is interfacial angle:
1 - l a m p ; 2 - lens; 3 - s c r e e n glass; 4 - h e a t filter;
aligned w i t h the b o u n d a r y line o f three phases
5,6, 7 - mirrors; 8 - holder o f the surface with a drop
( F i g . 2.5.7.1). T h e w e t t i n g angles are d e t e r m i n e d b y
p r o j e c t i n g a d r o p o n a screen.
2.5.7.2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e device r e c o m m e n d e d 2.5.7.3 M e a s u r e m e n t s s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a
for d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a w e t t i n g interfacial angle. protractor. T h e angle between the c o n t o u r o f the panel
T h e d e v i c e is a r r a n g e d as f o l l o w s ( r e f e r t o surface a n d the tangent t o the d r o p c o n t o u r at the p o i n t
F i g . 2.5.7.2). A l a m p I illuminates the surface under o f d r o p t o u c h i n g the panel surface shall be measured.
30 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3 STEEL AND CAST IRON

3.1 G E N E R A L
T h e steel is s u b d i v i d e d i n t o g r a d e s as s h o w n i n
T a b l e s 3.2.2-1 ( f o r n o r m a l s t r e n g t h steel), 3.2.2-2,
3.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e v a l i d f o r h u l l 3.2.3 a n d 3.5.2.3 ( f o r h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel) d e p e n d i n g
s t r u c t u r a l steel, steel f o r b o i l e r s a n d pressure vessels, on the values and conditions required for the
steel pipes a n d tubes, steel f o r structures o p e r a t i n g a t performance o f i m p a c t testing. T h e relevant data
l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s , chains, steel f o r g i n g s a n d castings, for h i g h s t r e n g t h steel are g i v e n i n T a b l e 3 . 1 3 . 3 - 1 .
cast i r o n a n d steel w i r e ropes. The requirements o f n o r m a l and higher strength
I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.1.4 a l l t h e m a t e r i a l s , s e m i - c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel f o r cargo o i l t a n k s are
finished products and items mentioned i n the present specified i n 3.18.
Section shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d b y recognized w o r k s The requirements o f the Chapter depending o n
(refer t o 1.3.1.2). the r o l l e d p r o d u c t s thickness a p p l y t o t h e steel o f the
3.1.2 I t i s p e r m i t t e d t o u s e s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s f o l l o w i n g types:
manufactured according to standards or other steel plates a n d strips o f a l l grades h a v i n g t h i c k -
specifications, i f i t is p r o v e d t h a t r e q u i r e m e n t s n e s s 1 0 0 m m a n d less;
contained therein are equivalent t o those stipulated steel sections a n d b a r s o f a l l grades h a v i n g
by the Rules. t h i c k n e s s 5 0 m m o r less.
3.1.3 S t e e l s h a l l b e m e l t e d i n a n o x y g e n s t e e l - T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r steel r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o f a
m a k i n g converter, electric o r o p e n h e a r t h furnaces, larger thickness t h a n specified a b o v e m a y be different
a n d cast i r o n i n cupolas o r electric furnaces. T h e f r o m the stated ones, b u t shall be considered i n each
d e o x i d a t i o n o f steel is c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r case a n d agreed w i t h t h e Register. T h e
the requirements o f T a b l e s 3.2.2-1 a n d 3.2.2-2. T h e special r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the rolled products w i t h
c o n d i t i o n o f steel s u p p l y s h a l l m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s t h i c k n e s s o f less t h a n 15 m m d e s i g n e d f o r t h e ice class
o f Tables 3.2.4-1 a n d 3.2.4-2. ships a n d icebreakers are specified i n 3.5.
U s e o f o t h e r m e t h o d s o f steel a n d cast i r o n Steel t h a t does n o t fully m e e t the requirements
m a k i n g shall be agreed w i t h the Register. stated i n the present Chapter, differs i n c o m p o s i t i o n ,
W h e n steel is n o t p r o d u c e d a t t h e w o r k s w h e r e i t d e o x i d a t i o n p r a c t i c e a n d a l l o y i n g as w e l l as m e c h a n i c a l
is r o l l e d , f o r g e d o r d r a w n , a c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l be p r o p e r t i e s (e.g. i n t e r m e d i a t e u p p e r y i e l d stress level, as
supplied to the Surveyor at the m i l l engaged i n c o m p a r e d t o t h a t r e q u i r e d i n 3.2.3 a n d o t h e r respective
f u r t h e r processing o f the steel s t a t i n g t h e s t e e l w o r k s , characteristics) m a y be accepted b y t h e Register f o r use,
process o f m a n u f a c t u r e , n u m b e r o f cast a n d chemical e x c e p t f o r i n h u l l s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s ( P a r t IT). S u c h
c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel. steel s h a l l be g i v e n a special d e s i g n a t i o n , t h e letter S
T h e S u r v e y o r s h a l l h a v e access t o s t e e l - m a k i n g m a y be a d d e d t o the grade s y m b o l .
and steel-rolling w o r k s . 3.2.1.2 T h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t e e l r o l l e d p r o d u c t s
m a n u f a c t u r e r s b y the Register shall be carried o u t i n
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3 f o r e a c h s t e e l g r a d e s t a t e d b y t h e
3.2 H U L L S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L manufacturer, for the semi-finished product type and
c o n d i t i o n o f supply. W h e r e d i f f e r e n t steel p r o d u c t i o n
technologies are used at the w o r k s , materials
3.2.1 G e n e r a l . a p p r o v a l is c a r r i e d o u t i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r each o f t h e m .
3.2.1.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e C h a p t e r a p p l y t o The procedure for recognition o f manufacturers
t h e w e l d a b l e h o t - r o l l e d steel o f a n o r m a l a n d h i g h e r o f s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s ( i n g o t s , billets, slabs,
strength used f o r plates, strips, sections a n d bars a n d b l o o m s ) f o r h u l l s t r u c t u r a l steel a n d the p r o c e d u r e
intended for hull structures a n d components being for r e c o g n i t i o n o f h u l l s t r u c t u r a l steel m a n u f a c t u r e r s
subject t o the Register survey d u r i n g their m a n u f a c - are given i n 2.2.1 a n d 2.2.2 accordingly, P a r t I I I
ture. "Technical Supervision during Manufacture o f M a -
H u l l s t r u c t u r a l steel c o n v e n t i o n a l l y falls i n t o terials" o f the Rules for Technical Supervision during
n o r m a l s t r e n g t h steel (a m i n i m u m y i e l d stress Construction o f Ships and Manufacture o f Materials
235 M P a ) a n d h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel ( o f three s t r e n g t h and Products for Ships.
levels w i t h a m i n i m u m y i e l d stress o f 315, 355 a n d T h e w e l d a b i l i t y o f each steel grade a n d its
390 M P a , respectively). T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r h i g h suitability f o r b e n d i n g shall be c o n f i r m e d b y the
s t r e n g t h steel ( a m i n i m u m y i e l d stress 4 2 0 M P a a n d m a n u f a c t u r e r d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f steel
over) are given i n 3.13. r o l l e d p r o d u c t s b y t h e Register. T h e s u r v e y a n d tests
P a r t XIII. Materials 31

at the manufacturer's during its recognition b y the 3.2.1.4 T h e r o l l i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r n o r m a l a n d


Register are conducted i n accordance w i t h t h e h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steels u s e d b y a m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l
p r o g r a m (chart) agreed w i t h t h e Register. c o m p l y w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n o f supply g i v e n i n 3.2.4,
W h e r e t h e steel i s i n t e n d e d f o r w e l d i n g w i t h a a n d f o r a h i g h e r s t r e n g t h G r a d e F steel w i t h t h a t
h e a t i n p u t a b o v e 5 0 k J / c m , r e c o g n i t i o n is effected g i v e n i n 3.5.2.4 a n d h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel w i t h t h a t
according t o t h e chart given i n 2.2.3, P a r t I I I given i n 3.13.4.
"Technical Supervision during Manufacture o f M a - T h e applicable rolling procedures are presented
terials" o f the Rules for Technical Supervision during i n T a b l e 3.2.1.4 i n t h e f o r m o f d i a g r a m s , a n d their
Construction o f Ships a n d M a n u f a c t u r e o f Materials definitions are given below.
and Products f o r Ships. ( A R ) a s r o l l e d , is the procedure, which
3.2.1.3 A m a n u f a c t u r e r b e a r s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d i n v o l v e s t h e r o l l i n g o f steel a t h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e
assures t h e use o f necessary technological p r o d u c t i o n followed b y air cooling. T h e rolling a n d finishing
processes, systems a n d m o n i t o r i n g m e t h o d s f o r t h e temperatures are typically i n t h e austenite recrystalliza-
f u l f i l m e n t o f the Register r e q u i r e m e n t s . I n case o f the tion region a n d above t h e normalising temperature.
deviation o f production technology o r monitoring T h e s t r e n g t h a n d t o u g h n e s s p r o p e r t i e s o f steel
and/or o f t h e product quality level degradation, t h e p r o d u c e d b y t h e p r o c e s s a r e g e n e r a l l y less t h a n steel
manufacturer shall identify t h e cause a n d take a l l h e a t treated after r o l l i n g o r t h a n steel p r o d u c e d b y
measures t o prevent its recurence. T h e report o n t h e advances processes.
investigations a n d analysis conducted o n t h e devia- ( N ) n o r m a l i s i n g , is the procedure, w h i c h
tions that t o o k place shall be submitted t o t h e i n v o l v e s h e a t i n g r o l l e d steel a b o v e t h e c r i t i c a l
representative o f t h e Register. Scope a n d frequency temperature, A c 3 , a n d i n the lower end o f the
o f tests m a y b e increased u n t i l t h e stability o f p r o d u c t austenite recrystallization region followed b y air
test results a n d t h e confidence i n q u a l i t y level h a v e cooling. T h eprocess improves t h e mechanical prop-
been recovered. erties o f a s r o l l e d steel b y r e f i n i n g t h e g r a i n size.
T a b l e 3.2.1.4
D i a g r a m s o f steel processing procedures

Structure Temperature

Recrystallized Slab temperature


austenite Normalizing temperature
Recrystallization
temperature

Non-recrystallized
austenite

A r 3 or A C 3

Austenite + Ferrite

A r l or A C 1

Austenite + Perlite
or
Ferrite + Bainite

S y m b o l s :
A R — a s rolling p r o c e d u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g hot-rolled steel m a k i n g ;
N — normalizing;
C R ( N R ) — controlled rolling (normalizing rolling);
Q T — quenching and tempering;
T M — thermo-mechanical rolling (thermo-mechanical controlled processing);
R — reduction;
(*) — t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e d u a l p h a s e r e g i o n o f a u s t e n i t e a n d f e r r i t e ;
A c C — accelerated cooling.
32 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

( C R ) controlled rolling, n o r m a l i z ­ B e f o r e s u b j e c t i n g steels p r o d u c e d b y t h e r m o -


i n g r o l l i n g ( N R ) is t h e r o l l i n g p r o c e d u r e , i n mechanical rolling to further heating for forming or
w h i c h the final d e f o r m a t i o n is carried o u t i n the stress r e l i e v i n g , o r u s i n g h i g h h e a t - i n p u t w e l d i n g ,
normalising temperature range, resulting i n a m a t e r i ­ special c o n s i d e r a t i o n shall be g i v e n t o the possibility
al condition generally equivalent to that obtained by o f a consequent reduction i n mechanical properties.
normalising. 3.2.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
( T M ) t h e r m o - m e c h a n i c a l r o l l i n g is a T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel s h a l l be deter­
procedure, w h i c h involves the strict c o n t r o l o f b o t h the m i n e d b y the m a n u f a c t u r e r f r o m the results o f analysis
steel t e m p e r a t u r e a n d t h e r o l l i n g r e d u c t i o n . G e n e r a l l y a o f t h e samples t a k e n f r o m each ladle o f each cast. T h e
h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e r o l l i n g r e d u c t i o n is c a r r i e d o u t m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s analysis w i l l be accepted subject t o
close t o the A t e m p e r a t u r e a n d m a y i n v o l v e the r o l l i n g
r 3 periodical checks i f required by the Register.
in the dual phase temperature region. T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f n o r m a l s t r e n g t h steel
U n l i k e controlled rolled (normalised rolling) the shall c o m p l y w i t h the requirements o f T a b l e 3.2.2-1 a n d
properties c o n f e r r e d b y T M c a n n o t be r e p r o d u c e d b y t h a t o f h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel — w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
subsequent normalising or other heat treatment. T a b l e 3.2.2-2. F o r steel plates a n d w i d e flats o v e r 5 0 m m
T h e use o f accelerated c o o l i n g o n c o m p l e t i o n o f thick, slight deviations i n the chemical c o m p o s i t i o n o f
T M - r o l l i n g as w e l l as t h e use o f t e m p e r i n g a f t e r alloying elements m a y be a l l o w e d . S a i d deviations shall
c o m p l e t i o n o f T M - r o l l i n g s h a l l be a p p r o v e d b y t h e be justified a n d a p p r o v e d b y the Register.
Register. I n Tables 3.2.2-1 a n d 3.2.2-2 the content o f acid
( A c C ) a c c e l e r a t e d c o o l i n g is a process, soluble a l u m i n i u m is i n c l u d e d . T h e t o t a l a l u m i n i u m
w h i c h aims to i m p r o v e mechanical properties by c o n t e n t s h a l l b e a t l e a s t 0 , 0 2 0 %.
c o n t r o l l e d c o o l i n g w i t h rates higher t h a n air c o o l i n g I n case o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t o f
immediately after the final T M - r o l l i n g operation. elements n o t listed i n Tables 3.2.2-1 a n d 3.2.2-2,
D i r e c t q u e n c h i n g is e x c l u d e d f r o m accelerated c o o l i n g . chromium, nickel and copper content i n n o r m a l
T h e material properties conferred by T M and s t r e n g t h steel s h a l l n o t exceed 0,30 % each.
A c C c a n n o t be r e p r o d u c e d b y subsequent n o r m a l ­ F o r n o r m a l s t r e n g t h c a r b o n steel t h e t o t a l c a r b o n
ising o r other heat treatment. c o n t e n t p l u s 1/6 o f t h e m a n g a n e s e c o n t e n t s h a l l n o t
( Q T ) quenching and tempering. e x c e e d 0 , 4 0 %. T h e c a r b o n e q u i v a l e n t , i n %, f o r h i g h e r
Q u e n c h i n g involves a heat t r e a t m e n t process, i n s t r e n g t h steels i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r g u i d a n c e a t a p p r o v a l
w h i c h steel is h e a t e d t o a n a p p r o p r i a t e t e m p e r a t u r e tests f r o m t h e ladle analysis u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a
a b o v e t h e Асз a n d t h e n c o o l e d w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e
coolant for the purpose o f hardening the microstructure. r = r + M B - l Cr + M o + V N i+ Cu
C C +
«* 6 5 15 •
T e m p e r i n g subsequent t o q u e n c h i n g is a process, i n
w h i c h t h e steel is r e h e a t e d t o a n a p p r o p r i a t e t e m p e r a ­ T h e a r s e n i c c o n t e n t i n steels o f a l l t h e g r a d e s s h a l l
ture n o t higher t h a n the A ^ i t o restore toughness n o t e x c e e d 0 , 0 8 %.
p r o p e r t i e s (KV) b y i m p r o v i n g t h e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e . T h e steel m a y c o n t a i n separately o r i n c o m b i n a ­
3.2.1.5 W h e n t h e w o r k s a r e s u r v e y e d , t h e d o c u ­ tions a l u m i n i u m , vanadium, n i o b i u m or other grain
m e n t a t i o n , w h i c h describes a n d specifies t h e f u l f i l m e n t refining elements. W h e r e the above elements are
o f C R , T M , schedules o r T M w i t h A c C , n o r m a l i s i n g , i n t r o d u c e d separately, their c o n t e n t shall be i n
q u e n c h i n g w i t h t e m p e r i n g , etc., s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d t o accordance w i t h Tables 3.2.2-1 a n d 3.2.2-2. W h e r e
the Register representative o n his d e m a n d . A s specified the elements are used i n c o m b i n a t i o n s , their m i n i ­
i n 3.2.1.3, a m a n u f a c t u r e r is responsible f o r t h e m u m c o n t e n t i n steel is n o t specified.
observance o f a l l m e n t i o n e d rolling schedules a n d heat W h e r e the content o f a l u m i n i u m or another grain
t r e a t m e n t procedures i n t h e process o f steel m a n u f a c ­ r e f i n i n g e l e m e n t p r o v e s t o be l o w e r t h a n r e q u i r e d , t h e
ture. T h e a p p r o p r i a t e records shall be verified b y the R e g i s t e r m a y r e q u i r e t h e a u s t e n i t e g r a i n size t o be
m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d s u b m i t t e d t o the Register repressu- d e t e r m i n e d , w h i c h shall n o t be greater t h a n g r a i n
tative w h e n p e r f o r m i n g his duties. s i z e N o . 5.
W h e r e deviations f r o m the p r o g r a m m e d rolling F o r h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel subjected t o t h e t h e r m o -
schedules o r heat t r e a t m e n t procedures exist, the mechanical rolling ( T M ) , the c a r b o n equivalent shall be
p r o d u c t s m a y be a c c e p t e d f o r use o n c o n d i t i o n s set i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 3.2.2-3.
f o r t h i n 3.2.1.3. Instead o f the carbon equivalent the factor
T h e a t t e n t i o n o f the users shall be d r a w n t o the e s t i m a t i n g t h e steel susceptibility t o c o l d c r a c k i n g
fact t h a t w h e n f a t i g u e l o a d i n g is present, t h e effective m a y be d e t e r m i n e d according t o the f o r m u l a
fatigue strength o f a welded joint o f higher strength
steel m a y n o t be greater t h a n t h a t o f a w e l d e d j o i n t i n d -n-i- S i
4- M n
- i - C u
- i - Ni , C r M o , V ™
^ с м - С + ад + ^ o " + 20"+ 60 + 20 + 1 5 - + j o + 5 B
-
n o r m a l s t r e n g t h steels.
P a r t XIII. Materials 33

T a b l e 3.2.2-1
C h e m i c a l composition a n d mechanical properties o fn o r m a l strength steel

Grade A В D E

Deoxidation Killed o r Killed o r Killed Killed, fine-grained,


semi-killed semi-killed a l u m i n i u m treated

Condition o f supply A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 3.2.4-1

Chemical composition С (max) 0,21 0,21 0,21 0,18


(ladle analysis), % Mn (min) 2,5 x С 0,80 0,60 0,70
Si (max) 0,50 0,35 0,35 0,35
P (max) 0,035 0,035 0,035 0,035
S (max) 0,035 0,035 0,035 0,035
Al (min) 0,015 0,015

Tensile properties Tensile strength R , M P a m 400 — 5 2 0


Y i e l d stress R , min, M P a
e H 235
Elongation A , min, % 5 22

I m p a c t testing T e s t t e m p e r a t u r e , °C + 20 0 -20 -40

P l a t e t h i c k n e s s , t, m m ^50 >50 >70 ^50 >50 >70 ^50 >50 >70 ^50 >50 >70
^70 ^100 ^70 ^100 ^70 ^100 ^70 ^100
I m p a c t e n e r g y , m i n , J ,— 34 41 27 34 41 27 34 41 27 34 41
l o n g i t u d i n a l s p e c i m e n s , KV L

I m p a c t e n e r g y , m i n , J ,— 24 27 20 24 27 20 24 27 20 24 27
t r a n s v e r s e s p e c i m e n s , KV T

N o t e s : 1 . I n c a s e o f t h e p o s i t i v e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k s ' s u r v e y G r a d e A s t e e l o f 12,5 m m t h i c k n e s s m a y b e r i m m e d .
2. M a x i m u m 0,23 % c a r b o n c o n t e n t f o r G r a d e A s e c t i o n s .
3. I n c a s e o f t h e p o s i t i v e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k s ' s u r v e y i n t h e i m p a c t t e s t e d G r a d e В s t e e l m a n g a n e s e c o n t e n t c a n b e r e d u c e d t o
0,60 %.
4. I n c a s e o f t h e p o s i t i v e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k s ' s u r v e y a t t h e s u p p l y o f s t e e l o f a l l g r a d e s s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n s i n t h e c h e m i c a l
c o m p o s i t i o n a r e p e r m i t t e d a f t e r T M r o l l i n g , r e f e r t o 3.2.2.
5. F o r G r a d e D s t e e l o v e r 25 m m t h i c k .
6. F o r G r a d e D s t e e l o v e r 2 5 m m t h i c k a n d G r a d e E s t e e l t h e t o t a l a l u m i n i u m c o n t e n t m a y b e d e t e r m i n e d i n s t e a d o f a c i d s o l u b l e
c o n t e n t . I n s u c h c a s e s t h e t o t a l a l u m i n i u m c o n t e n t s h a l l b e n o t l e s s t h a n 0,020 %. A m a x i m u m a l u m i n i u m c o n t e n t m a y a l s o b e s p e c i f i e d
b y the R e g i s t e r . I n case o fthe positive test results o fthe w o r k s ' s u r v e y other suitable g r a i n refining elements m a y b e u s e d .
7. T h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S o c i e t y m a y l i m i t t h e a m o u n t o f r e s i d u a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h m a y h a v e a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t o n t h e w o r k i n g a n d u s e o f
t h e s t e e l (e.g. c o p p e r a n d tin).
8. W h e r e a d d i t i o n s o f a n y o t h e r e l e m e n t h a v e b e e n m a d e a s p a r t o f t h e s t e e l m a k i n g p r a c t i c e , t h e c o n t e n t s h a l l b e i n d i c a t e d a n d
agreed with the Register.
9. I n c a s e o f t h e p o s i t i v e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k s ' s u r v e y a n d s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a l l t h i c k n e s s e s o f G r a d e A s e c t i o n s t h e
u p p e r limit f o r the specified tensile strength r a n g e m a y b e exceeded.
10. R e f e r t o 3.2.3 a n d 3 . 2 . 6 f o r i m p a c t t e s t s .
1 1 . C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t s a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t r e q u i r e d f o r G r a d e В s t e e l w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f 25 m m o r l e s s .
12. I m p a c t t e s t s f o r G r a d e A o v e r 50 m m t h i c k a r e n o t r e q u i r e d w h e n t h e m a t e r i a l i s p r o d u c e d u s i n g fine g r a i n p r a c t i c e a n d
furnished n o r m a l i s e d . I n case o fthe positive test results o fthe w o r k s ' survey T M rolling m a y b eaccepted w i t h o u t i m p a c t testing.
13. S a m p l i n g t e s t s m a y b e c a r r i e d o u t s e l e c t i v e l y f o r s t e e l a l l o w e d f o r s u p p l y w i t h o u t i m p a c t t e s t s . T h e r e s u l t s s h a l l m e e t t h e r e l e v a n t
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T a b l e , a n d f o r G r a d e A s t e e l u p t o 5 0 m m t h i c k , KV > 2 7 J a t 2 0 °C.L

14. F o r f u l l t h i c k n e s s f l a t t e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n s w i t h a w i d t h o f 2 5 m m a n d a g a u g e l e n g t h o f 2 0 0 m m t h e e l o n g a t i o n s h a l l c o m p l y
with the following m i n i m u m values:

T h i c k n e s s t, m m г^5 5<г^10 10<г^15 15<г^20 20<г^25 25<г^30 30<г^40 40<г^50


Elongation, % 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

T h e m a x i m u m values o f the c a r b o n equivalent o r T a b l e 3.2.2-1 while t h e mechanical properties o f


Рем a r e s u b j e c t t o a n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel shall c o m p l y w i t h T a b l e 3.2.2-2.
a n d shall b e s h o w n i n t h e steel technical d o c u m e n t a ­ T h e impact energy a t impact testing m a y be
tion being approved. determined either o n longitudinal ( K V ) o r trans­ L

The actual values o f C o r P eq m a y be also C M


verse (KVj) specimens.
s h o w n i n certificates f o r steel b e i n g delivered. T h e testing shall be p e r f o r m e d i n compliance
T h e a u s t e n i t i c g r a i n size o f steel s h a l l b e n o t less w i t h the requirements given i n Section 2. Values f o r
t h a n 5 ( A S T M E 112, G O S T 5639). standard specimens (10 x 10 m m ) a r e given i n tables
3.2.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . o n i m p a c t test. W h e n r o l l e d steel p r o d u c t s w i t h a
The mechanical properties o f normal strength thickness u n d e r 10 m m a r e presented, o n e shall be
steel shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s g i v e n i n guided b y t h e provisions set f o r t h i n 2.2.3.1. I n
34 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.2.2-2
C h e m i c a l composition a n d mechanical properties o f higher strength steel
Grade A32 D32 E32 A36 D36 E36 A40 D40 E40

Deoxidation Killed

Condition o f supply A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 3.2.4-2

Chemical composition Cmax 0,18


(ladle analysis), % M n 0,9—1,6
0,5
P 0,035
A
max 0,035
Smax 0,35
Cr m a x 0,2
Ni m a x 0,4
Mo m a x 0,08
A1 • 0,015
Nb 0,02 — 0,05
V 0,05 — 0,10 ) > «0,12
Timax 0,02 ^

Tensile properties Tensile strength, R m ,M P a 440...570 490...630 510...660

Y i e l d stress R e H ,min, M P a 315 355 390

Elongation A;, min, % 22 21 20

N o t e s : 1 . T h e letter " H " m a y b e a d d e d e i t h e r i n f r o n t o r b e h i n d t h e g r a d e m a r k o f h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel (e.g. D H 3 6 ) .


2. U p t o a t h i c k n e s s o f 12,5 m m t h e m i n i m u m m a n g a n e s e c o n t e n t m a y b e r e d u c e d t o 0,70 %.
3. T h e t o t a l a l u m i n i u m c o n t e n t m a y b e d e t e r m i n e d i n s t e a d o f t h e a c i d s o l u b l e c o n t e n t . I n s u c h c a s e s t h e t o t a l a l u m i n i m c o n t e n t s h a l l
b e n o t l e s s t h a n 0,020 %.
4. T h e s t e e l s h a l l c o n t a i n a l u m i n i u m , n i o b i u m , v a n a d i u m o r o t h e r s u i t a b l e g r a i n r e f i n i n g e l e m e n t s , e i t h e r s i n g l y o r i n a n y
c o m b i n a t i o n . W h e n u s e d singly t h e steel shall c o n t a i n t h e specified m i n i m u m content o f t h e g r a i n refining element according t o
T a b l e 3.2.2-2. W h e n u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n , t h e s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m c o n t e n t o f a f i n e g r a i n i n g e l e m e n t i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e .
5. I n c a s e o f t h e p o s i t i v e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k s ' s u r v e y a t t h e s u p p l y o f h i g h e r s t r e n g t h s t e e l o f a n y g r a d e i n t h e T M r o l l e d
c o n d i t i o n v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s p e c i f i e d c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n m a y b e p e r m i t t e d , r e f e r t o 3.2.2.
6. R e f e r t o 3.2.2 a n d 3 . 2 . 6 f o r C a n d P .
eq cm

7. W h e r e a d d i t i o n s o f a n y o t h e r e l e m e n t h a v e b e e n m a d e a s p a r t o f t h e s t e e l m a k i n g p r a c t i c e , t h e c o n t e n t s h a l l b e i n d i c a t e d a n d
agreed with the Register.
8. F o r f u l l t h i c k n e s s f l a t t e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n s w i t h a w i d t h o f 2 5 m m a n d a g a u g e l e n g t h o f 2 0 0 m m t h e e l o n g a t i o n s h a l l c o m p l y
with the following m i n i m u m values:

T h i c k n e s s t, m m
G r a d e o f steel
г«5 5<г«10 10<г«15 15<г«20 20<t^25 25<г«30 30<г«40 40<г«50

A32
D32 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
E32
F32

A36
D36 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
E36
F36

A40
D40 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
E40
F40

9. R e f e r t o 3.2.3 a n d 3 . 2 . 6 f o r i m p a c t t e s t s .
10. F o r G r a d e s A 3 2 a n d A 3 6 s t e e l s a r e l a x a t i o n i n t h e n u m b e r o f i m p a c t t e s t s f o r a c c e p t a n c e p u r p o s e s m a y b e p e r m i t t e d , p r o v i d e d
t h a t satisfactory results a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m occasional c h e c k tests.

general, t h e i m p a c t tests o f delivered steel shall b e W h e r e t h e test results a r e unsatisfactory, retesting


p e r f o r m e d o n l o n g i t u d i n a l specimens o n l y (test s h a l l b e c o n d u c t e d i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.4.2.
results o n transverse specimens shall be guaranteed 3.2.4 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .
b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ) , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f cases T h e c o n d i t i o n o f steel s u p p l y shall m e e t t h e
stipulated b y t h e C u s t o m e r o r t h e Register. requirements o fTables 3.2.4-1 a n d 3.2.4-2 a n d shall
P a r t XIII. Materials 35

T a b l e 3.2.2-3 T a b l e 3.2.4-2
Condition o f supply for higher strength steel
Steel grades C a r b o n equivalent, m a x , %
Grade G r a i n refining Thickness, Condition o f supply
«50 50<«100 elements m m
A32, A 3 6 N b a n d / o r V «12,5 Any
A32, D32, E32, F 3 2 0,36 0,38 12,5 < t < 100 N o r m a l i z e d ( N ) ,
controlled rolled ( C R )
A36, D36, E36, F 3 6 0,38 0,40 or thermo-mechanically
rolled ( T M )
A40, D40, E40, F 4 0 0,40 0,42 A32, A 3 6 A l or A l and T i «20 Any
2 0 < « 3 5 A n y , subject t o special
N o t e . T h e value of the carbon equivalent shall b e agreed approval i f a s rolled
u p o n between the M a n u f a c t u r e r a n d shipyard i neach case.
(AR)
35<«100 N o r m a l i z e d ( N ) ,
controlled rolled ( C R )
T a b l e 3.2.3
or thermo-mechanically
Steel Tempe­ A v e r a g e i m p a c t e n e r g y KV, m i n , J rolled ( T M )
grade rature, A40 Any «12,5 Any
°C «50 m m 50mm <(^70mm 70mm<^100mm 12,5 < « 5 0 N o r m a l i z e d ( N ) ,
controlled rolled ( C R )
KV KV KV or thermo-mechanically
L KV T L KV T L KV
T

rolled ( T M )
A32 0 31 22 38 26 46 31 D32, D 3 6 N b and/or V «12,5 Any
D32 -20 31 22 38 26 46 31 12,5 < t < 100 N o r m a l i z e d ( N ) ,
E32 -40 31 22 38 26 46 31 controlled rolled ( C R )
or thermo-mechanically
A36 0 34 24 41 27 50 34
rolled ( T M )
D36 -20 34 24 41 27 50 34 Any
D32, D 3 6 A l or A l and T i «20
E36 -40 34 24 41 27 50 34
2 0 < « 2 5 A n y , subject t o special
approval i f a s rolled
A40 0 39 26 46 31 55 37
(AR)
D40 -20 39 26 46 31 55 37
25<«100 N o r m a l i z e d ( N ) ,
E40 -40 39 26 46 31 55 37
controlled rolled (CR)
or thermo-mechani­
cally rolled ( T M )
T a b l e 3.2.4-1
1
D40 Any «50 N o r m a l i z e d (N),
Condition o fsupply for normal strength steel
controlled rolled ( C R )
Grade Thickness, m m Condition o f supply or thermo-mechanically
rolled ( T M )
A «50 Any E32, E36 Any «50 N o r m a l i z e d (N),
50<«100 Normalized (N),controlled rolled (CR) controlled rolled ( C R )
2
or thermo-mechanically rolled ( T M ) or thermo-mechanically
rolled ( T M )
В «50 Any
50<«100 N o r m a l i z e d ( N ) ,
50<«100 Normalized (N),controlled rolled (CR)
2 thermo -mechanically
or thermo-mechanically rolled ( T M )
rolled ( T M )
D «50 Any E40 Any «50 N o r m a l i z e d (N),
50<«100 Normalized (N),controlled rolled (CR) thermo -mechanically
or thermo-mechanically rolled ( T M ) 3 rolled ( T M )o r quen­
ched a n d tempered (QT)
E «100 Normalized (N) o r thermo-mechani­
3 N o t e . S e c t i o n s i n G r a d e s A 3 2 ,A 3 6a n d D 3 6 steels m a y
cally rolled ( T M )
be supplied in as rolled condition, provided the results o f impact
' T h e scope o fi m p a c t tests i s specified according t o T a b l e tests are satisfactory. Similarly, sections i n G r a d e s E32 a n d E 3 6
3.2.6.4-1. steels m a y b e s u p p l i e d i n a s rolled c o n d i t i o n o r after controlled
2
I n case o f the positive test results o f the w o r k s ' s u r v e y G r a d e s rolling. T h e n u m b e r o fi m p a c t fests i s d e t e r m i n e d according t o
A a n d В steel plates m a y b e s u p p l i e d i n the as-rolled condition. 3.2.6.4-2.
'Sections i nG r a d e D steel m a y b e supplied i n the a s rolled
condition provided satisfactory results are consistently obtained
f r o m C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t tests. S i m i l a r l y sections i n G r a d e
E steel m a y b e supplied i n t h e a s rolled o r controlled rolled
condition. the samples o f plates a n dflats w i d e r t h a n 600 m m
shall be t a k e n f r o m o n e e n d so that t h e sample axis is
located m i d w a y between t h e longitudinal axis a n d t h e
be specified i n a certificate a n d / o r m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s edge o f the plate o r flat (refer t o F i g . 3.2.5-1);
document o nproduct quality. t h e s a m p l e s o f flats 6 0 0 m m w i d e a n d less a n d o f
3.2.5 S a m p l i n g . sections a r e t a k e n f r o m o n e e n d so that t h e sample
U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e test samples shall a x i s lies 1/3 f r o m t h e f l a t e d g e o r f r o m t h e o u t e r e d g e
be t a k e n as f o l l o w s : o f the section flange o r , i n t h e case o f s m a l l sections,
36 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

f o r n o n - c y l i n d r i c a l s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s , 1/3 o f
the half-diagonal f r o m t h e outside (refer t o F i g . 3.2.5-5);

1
s
Л

F i g . 3.2.5-1 P l a t e a n d f l a t

F i g . 3.2.5-5 R e c t a n g u l a r b a r

as n e a r a s p o s s i b l e t o t h i s p o s i t i o n ( r e f e r t o F i g s .
3.2.5-2, 3.2.5-3 a n d 3.2.5-4); f o r c y l i n d r i c a l s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s , 1/3 o f t h e
radius f r o m t h e outside (refer t o F i g . 3.2.5-6).

2/3 1/3

F i g . 3.2.5-2 A n g l e
F i g . 3.2.5-6 C y l i n d r i c a l b a r
2/3 .1/3.
Pieces selected f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f tensile a n d
i m p a c t test specimens shall be t h ethickest (greatest i n
diameter) i n each b a t c h w i t h their l o n g i t u d i n a l axes
transverse t o t h e final direction o f rolling, except i n
t h e case o f s e c t i o n s , b a r s a n d f l a t s o f 6 0 0 m m o r less
in width.
Specimens, o n w h i c h impact energy K V shall be
determined, shall be prepared w i t h their longitudinal
F i g . 3.2.5-3 C h a n n e l a n d b e a m
axes either parallel o r transverse t o t h e final d i r e c t i o n
o f rolling o f t h e m a t e r i a l unless required i n special
cases t h a t t h e s a m p l e s a r e t a k e n w i t h t h e i r l o n g ­
i t u d i n a l axes transverse t o t h e final d i r e c t i o n o f
rolling.
T h e n o t c h shall be c u tperpendicular t o t h e rolled
surface a n d n o t closer t h a n 25 m mt o t h e f l a m e c u to r
sheared edge.
T h e i m p a c t test specimens shall be t a k e n w i t h i n
2 m m b e l o w t h e rolled surface a n d w h e r e t h e
thickness o f t h e r o l l e d m a t e r i a l exceeds 4 0 m m —
w i t h i n 1/4 o f t h e t h i c k n e s s ( t h e a x i s o f t h e s p e c i m e n s
F i g . 3.2.5-4 B u l b b a r s h a l l b e i n a p l a n e l o c a t e d a t 1/4 o f t h e t h i c k n e s s a n d
parallel t o t h e surface). T h e rolled products w i t h
i n t h e case o f channels, b e a m s t h e test samples t h i c k n e s s o f 1 5 m m o r less d e s i g n e d f o r o p e r a t i o n a t
m a y b e a l t e r n a t i v e l y t a k e n f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n 1/4 f r o m d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e s b e l o w — 3 0 °C s h a l l b e s u b j e c t t o
the w e b centre line (refer t o F i g . 3.2.5-3); tensile, b e n d i n g a n d i m p a c t b e n d i n g tests. T h e i m p a c t
the samples o f bars a n d similar semi-finished b e n d i n g tests o f t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f
products are t a k e n f r o m o n e e n d so that t h e sample less t h a n 1 0 m m s h a l l b e p e r f o r m e d o n f u l l - t h i c k n e s s
axis is parallel t o t h e direction o f rolling; test specimens (refer t o 2.2.3.1).
f r o m rolled bars 5 0 t o 100 m thick, samples are 3.2.6 N u m b e r o f t e s t s .
t a k e n 1/4 o f t h e thickness d i m e n s i o n f r o m t h e surface. 3.2.6.1 R o l l e d m a t e r i a l i s p r e s e n t e d f o r t e s t s i n
Pieces o f smaller cross-section m a y be tensile batches. A b a t c h shall c o m p r i s e rolled p r o d u c t s o f t h e
tested w i t h o u t p r i o r m a c h i n i n g . I n o t h e r cases, t h e same type, f r o m t h e same cast a n d i n t h e same c o n d i t i o n
samples shall be t a k e n so t h a t their axes lie: o f supply. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, o n e tensile test
P a r t XIII. Materials 37

piece a n d o n e set o f i m p a c t test pieces s h a l l b e tested T h e manufacturer shall guarantee complete


f r o m each batch presented w i t h t h e mass n o t exceeding elimination o f piping, w h i c h shall be verified b y
5 0 t (except G r a d e E , E 3 2 , E 3 6 a n d E 4 0 steel). c h e c k tests. T h e m e t h o d s o f t e s t i n g s h a l l b e agreed
W h e r e t h e b a t c h m a s s i s i n excess o f 5 0 t , o n e w i t h the Register.
e x t r a tensile a n d i m p a c t test shall be m a d e f o r each Surface defects m a y b e r e m o v e d b y l o c a l g r i n d ­
50 t o r fraction thereof. ing, p r o v i d e d t h e n o m i n a l thickness is i n n o place
A n a d d i t i o n a l test shall b e m a d e f o r every r e d u c e d b y m o r e t h a n 7 %, b u t i n n o c a s e b y m o r e
variation o f m o r e t h a n 10 m m i n t h e thickness o f t h a n 3 m m . T h e total area rectified b y grinding shall
plates o r f o r every v a r i a t i o n o f m o r e t h a n 10 m m i n n o t exceed 2 % o f the p r o d u c t surface.
the thickness o r diameter o f sections a n d bars Surface defects, w h i c h c a n n o t b e r e m o v e d b y l o c a l
comprising the batch. grinding, m a y be repaired b y chipping o r grinding
Samples f o r testing rolled material batches shall f o l l o w e d b y w e l d i n g , subject t o t h e Register consent
be t a k e n f r o m t h e thickest semi-finished p r o d u c t a n d under its technical supervision, provided that:
belonging t o t h e batch concerned. after r e m o v a l o f t h e defects before w e l d i n g t h e
I f steel, except f o r G r a d e A , is o v e r 5 0 m m i n thickness o f t h e p r o d u c t is i n n o place reduced b y
thickness a n d is supplied i n t h e as r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n , m o r e t h a n 2 0 %;
t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i m p a c t tests s h a l l b e increased t o o n e welding is carried o u t i n accordance w i t h a n
set f r o m e a c h b a t c h o f 2 5 t o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f . approved procedure b y qualified welders w i t h ap­
S i m i l a r l y G r a d e A steel o v e r 5 0 m m i n thickness p r o v e d electrodes;
m a y b e s u p p l i e d i n t h e as r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n . I n s u c h case the welded area is g r o u n d s m o o t h t o the correct
o n e set o f three C h a r p y V - n o t c h test specimens s h a l l b e n o m i n a l thickness;
taken f r o m each batch o f 5 0 t o r fraction thereof. the area o f a single w e l d i n g shall n o t exceed 2 5 c m ; 2

T h e piece selected f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e test the total welded area shall n o t be greater t h a n


specimens shall be t h e thickest i n each batch. 1 % o f the p r o d u c t surface;
3.2.6.2 W h e n t h e R e g i s t e r a p p r o v e s t h e s u p p l y o f after w e l d i n g surface defects t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y a n d
the m a t e r i a l i n t h e as-rolled c o n d i t i o n , o n e set o f type o fheat treatment, i f required, are agreed w i t h a
i m p a c t test specimens shall be tested f r o m each b a t c h surveyor t o t h e Register.
o f 25 t o r fraction thereof. 3.2.8 T h i c k n e s s t o l e r a n c e s o f s t e e l p l a t e s a n d
3.2.6.3 T h e n u m b e r o f i m p a c t t e s t s f o r G r a d e E , w i d e flats.
E 3 2 , E 3 6 a n d E 4 0 steel shall b e as f o l l o w s : 3.2.8.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o t h e t o l e r a n c e
for plates a n d w i d e flats each piece shall be o n thickness o f steel plates a n d w i d e flats w i t h w i d t h s
tested; o f 600 m m o r greater w i t h thicknesses o f 5 m ma n d
f o r sections a n d bars o n e set shall be tested f r o m o v e r , c o v e r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g steel grades:
each batch o f 25 t o r fraction thereof. .1 n o r m a l a n d h i g h e r s t r e n g t h h u l l s t r u c t u r a l
W h e n , sections o t h e r t h a n G r a d e s E 4 0 a n d F 4 0 steels a c c o r d i n g t o 3 . 2 ;
are supplied i n t h e as r o l l e d o r c o n t r o l l e d r o l l e d .2 h i g h s t r e n g t h h u l l s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l s a c c o r d i n g t o
c o n d i t i o n , o n e set o f i m p a c t tests s h a l l b e t a k e n f r o m 3.13;
each batch o f 15 t o r fraction thereof. .3 s t e e l s f o r m a c h i n e r y s t r u c t u r e s .
I m p a c t tests o f t h e r o l l e d m a t e r i a l s after q u e n c h ­ T h e thickness tolerances f o r steel plates a n d w i d e
ing a n d tempering ( Q T ) shall be carried o u t o n each flats b e l o w 5 m m m a y be t a k e n f r o m n a t i o n a l o r
length undergone such operation. international standards, recognized b y t h e Register.
T h e n u m b e r o f i m p a c t tests o f t h e r o l l e d T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s d o n o t a p p l y t o r o l l e d steel
materials, w h i c h m a y be accepted f o r supply i n h o t - products intended f o r t h e construction o f boilers,
rolled c o n d i t i o n , m a y be increased. T h e m a x i m u m h e a t exchangers, pressure vessels, etc., as w e l l as
size o f t h e b a t c h , f r o m w h i c h a set o f s p e c i m e n s i s independent tanks f o rthe transportation o fliquefied
taken, shall be 25 t. gases o r c h e m i c a l s .
3.2.6.4 I n g e n e r a l , t h e n u m b e r i m p a c t t e s t s i s Class С ( I S O 7452) m a y be applied i n lieu o f
given i n Tables 3.2.6.4-1 a n d 3.2.6.4-2. 3.2.8.3, i n w h i c h case t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n 3.2.8.4 a n d
3.2.7 I n s p e c t i o n . 3.2.8.5 n e e d n o t b e applied. I f Class С ( I S O 7 4 5 2 ) is
T h e steel s h a l l b e r e a s o n a b l y free f r o m segrega­ applied t h e f o o t n o t e T a b l e 2 p a r t o f w h i c h reads: " A l s o
tions a n d non-metallic inclusions. T h e semi-finished a m i n u s side o f t h i c k n e s s o f 0,3 m m i s p e r m i t t e d . " i s n o t
p r o d u c t s shall be free f r o m cracks, slag i n c l u s i o n s applicable.
a n d o t h e r defects p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e u s e o f t h e m a t e r i a l Additionally, i f I S O 7452 is applied, i t is required
for its intended application. T h e semi-finished t h a t t h e steel m i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e satisfaction o f t h e
products shall also h a v e w o r k m a n l i k e surface a n d Classification Society that the n u m b e r o f measurements
shall n o t h a v e been h a m m e r dressed. a n d m e a s u r e m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n is a p p r o p r i a t e t o estab-
38 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.2.6.4-1

Grade Deoxidation T y p e o f rolled C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y (batch size f o r tests, K V )


products
Thickness, m m
10 12 ,5 20 25 30 35 40 50 100

Killed o r semi-killed Section


1 Not applicable
A(-)

< 50 k i l l e d Plate A(-) N(-)


or semi-killed TM(-)
A > 50 k i l l e d CR(50), AR*(50)

Section A(-) Not applicable

< 50 k i l l e d Plate A(50) N(50)


or semi-killed TM(50)
В > 50 k i l l e d CR(25) AR*(25)

Section A(-) A(50) Not applicable

Killed Plate A(50) Not applicable


Section
D
Killed a n d Plate A(50) N(50) N(50)
fine-grained CR(50) TM(50)
TM(50) CR(25)

Section A(50) N(50) Not applicable


CR(50)
TM(50)
AR*(25)

Killed a n d Plate N (each piece)


fine-grained T M (each piece)
E
Section N(25)TM(25) Not applicable
AR*(15),
CR*(15)
S y m b o l s : A - any; N - normalizing; C R- controlled rolling; Q T - quenching a n d tempering.
N o t e . A R * a s - r o l l e d s t e e l a n d C R * c o n t r o l l e d r o l l i n g s p e c i f i e d i n t h e p r e s e n t t a b l e a n d i n T a b l e 3.2.6.4-2 m a y b e a p p l i e d i n c a s e
o f t h e positive test results o f t h e w o r k s ' survey.

T a b l e 3.2.6.4-2

Steel Deoxidation Grain Type of C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y (batch size f o r tests, K V )


grade refining rolled
elements products T h i c k n e s s , mm
10 12, 5 2 0 25 30 35 40 50 100
1
Plate A(50) N(50) N(50), CR(25), T M ( 5 0 )
Nb and/or CR(50), TM(50)
V Section A(50) N(50)
Killed a n d
CR(50), TM(50) Not applicable
fine-grained
AR*(25)
A32,
A36 Plate A(50) AR*(25) Not applicable

N(50), CR(50) N(50), CR(25), T M ( 5 0 )


Alor TM(50)
Al + Ti Section A(50) N(50) Not applicable
CR(50)
TM(50)
AR*(50)
Plate A(50) N(50) N(50)
CR(50) TM(50)
Killed a n d TM(50) QT(each length a sheat treated)
A40 fine-grained Any
Section A(50) N(50) Not applicable
CR(50)
TM(50)
P a r t XIII. Materials 39

Table 3.2.6.4-2 — continued

Steel Deoxidation Grain Type of C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y (batch size f o r tests, K V )


grade refining rolled
elements products T h i c k n e s s , mm
10 12 ,5 2 0 25 30 35 40 50 100
1
N b o r V Plate A(50) N(50) N(50), CR(25), TM(50)
CR(50)
TM(50)

Section A(50) N(50) Not applicable


CR(50), TM(50)
D32, Killed a n d
AR*(25)
D36 fine-grained
Alor Plate A(50) AR*(25) N o t applicable
Al + Ti
N(50), CR(50), TM(50) N(50), CR(25), TM(50)

Section A(50) N(50) Not applicable


CR(50), TM(50)
AR*(25)

Any Plate N(50) N(50)


CR(50) TM(50)
D40 Killed a n d TM(50) Q T (each length a s heat treated)
fine-grained
Section N(50) Not applicable
CR(50)
TM(50)
Any Plate N (each piece)
T M (each piece)
E32, Killed a n d
E36 fine-grained Section N(25) Not applicable
TM(25)
AR*(15), CR*(15)

Any Plate N (each piece) N (each piece)


T M (each piece) T M (each piece)
E40 Killed a n d Q T (each length a s heat treated) Q T (each length a s heat treated)
fine-grained
Section N(25) Not applicable
TM(25)
QT(25)

Any Plate N (each piece) N (each piece)


T M (each piece) T M ( each piece)
F32, Killed a n d Q T (each length a s heat treated) Q T (each length a s heat treated)
F36 fine-grained
Section N(25) Not applicable
TM(25)
QT(25)
CR*(15)

Any Plate N (each piece) N (each piece)


T M (each piece) T M (each piece)
Killed a n d Q T (each length a s heat treated) Q T (each length a s heat treated)
F40 fine-grained
Section N(25) Not applicable
TM(25)
QT(25)

lish t h a t t h e m o t h e r plates produced are a t o r above t h e surface c o n d i t i o n s rests w i t h t h e s h i p y a r d before t h e


specified n o m i n a l thickness. products are used i n fabrication.
3.2.8.2 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3.2.8.3 T h i c k n e s s t o l e r a n c e s .
T h e responsibility f o r verification a n d maintenance T h e tolerances o n thickness o f a given product
o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e d tolerances rests are defined as:
w i t h the manufacturer. T h e surveyor t o the Register .1 m i n u s t o l e r a n c e i s t h e l o w e r l i m i t o f t h e
m a y require t o witness some measurements. acceptable range b e l o w t h e n o m i n a l thickness;
T h e responsibility f o r storage a n d maintenance .2 p l u s t o l e r a n c e i s t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f t h e
o f t h e delivered product(s) w i t h acceptable level o f acceptable range above t h e n o m i n a l thickness.
40 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

N o t e . N o m i n a l thickness is defined b y t h epurchaser a t


the time o fenquiry a n d order.
Line 1
T h e m i n u s t o l e r a n c e o n thickness o f steel r o l l e d
products o fn o r m a l a n dhigher strength according t o
3.2, o f h i g h s t r e n g t h a c c o r d i n g t o 3.13, a s w e l l a s steels
supplied i naccordance w i t h t h e requirements o f 3.14 Line 2
and Part X I I "Materials" o f t h e Rules f o r t h e
Classification, C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d E q u i p m e n t o f M o b i l e
Offshore Drilling Units a n dFixed Offshore Platforms
shall b e 0,3 m m irrespective o fn o m i n a l thickness. Line 3

T h e m i n u s tolerances for products for machinery


structures shall b e i naccordance w i t h T a b l e 3.2.8.3. • Measurement points
Rolling direction
T a b l e 3.2.8.3

N o m i n a l t h i c k n e s s t, m m Tolerance, m m F i g . 3.2.8.5.1-1 L o c a t i o n s o f t h i c k n e s s m e a s u r i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e
original steel plates
5^f<8 -0,4
8^f<15 -0,5
Line 1
15^f<25 -0,6
25^f<40 -0,8
40^t -1,0
Line 2

T h e tolerances o n n o m i n a l thickness a r e n o t Line 3 Ci


applicable t o areas repaired b y g r i n d i n g w h i c h shall
be i n accordance w i t h a Register recognized stan- Rolling direction • Measurement points

d a r d . T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2.7 m a yb e used f o r this


purpose.
Line 1
T h e plus tolerances o n n o m i n a l thickness shall
be i n accordance w i t h a recognized n a t i o n a l o r
international standard.
Line 2
3.2.8.4 A v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s .
T h e average thickness o f a product o rproducts is
defined as t h earithmetic m e a n o f t h e measurements
Line 3
m a d e i n accordance w i t h 3.2.8.5.
T h e average thickness o f steel r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o f
Rolling direction • Measurement points
n o r m a l a n d higher strength according t o 3.2, o f high
s t r e n g t h a c c o r d i n g t o 3.13, a s w e l l a s steels s u p p l i e d
in accordance w i t h t h e requirements o f 3.14 a n d
Line 1
Part X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e Rules f o r t h e Classifica-
tion, Construction a n d Equipment o f Mobile
Offshore Drilling Units a n d Fixed Offshore Plat-
Line 2
f o r m s s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n t h e n o m i n a l t h i c k n e s s .
3.2.8.5 T h i c k n e s s m e a s u r e m e n t s .
T h e thickness ist obemeasured a t locations o f a
Line 3
p r o d u c t o r products as defined i n Figs. 3.2.8.5-1 a n d
3.2.8.5.1-2.
A u t o m a t e d m e t h o d o r m a n u a l m e t h o d is applied Rolling direction • Measurement points
to t h e thickness measurements.
F i g . 3.2.8.5.1-2 L o c a t i o n s o f t h i c k n e s s m e a s u r i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e c u t
T h e procedure a n dt h erecords o f measurements
steel p r o d u c t s
shall be made available t o t h e surveyor t o t h e
Register a n d copies p r o v i d e d o n request.
3.2.8.5.1 A v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s m e a s u r i n g l o c a t i o n s . ment. I f m o r e t h a n three points are t a k e n o neach line
A t least t w o lines a m o n g s h o w n i n F i g . 3.2.8.5.1-1 the n u m b e r o fpoints shall b e equal o n each line.
a n d 3.2.8.5.1-2, s h a l l b e selected f o r t h e thickness
N o t e . T h emeasurement locations apply t o a product
m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d a t least three p o i n t s o n each rolled directly f r o m o n e slab o rsteel i n g o t e v e n i ft h e p r o d u c t
selected line s h a l l b e selected f o r thickness m e a s u r e - shall b e later cut b ythe manufacturer. E x a m p l e s o fthe original
P a r t XIII. Materials 41

measurements relative t o later c u t products a r e s h o w n i n required mechanical properties a t r o o m o r elevated


F i g . 3.2.5.8.1-2. I t s h a l l b e n o t e d t h a t t h e e x a m p l e s s h o w n a r e
not representative o f all possible cutting scenarios. design temperatures a n d t h econtent o f base elements
i n % s h a l l n o t exceed:
For automated methods, themeasuring points at f o r c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e steels ( l a d l e
sides s h a l l b e l o c a t e d n o t less t h a n 1 0 m m b u t n o t a n a l y s i s ) , %:
greater t h a n 3 0 0 m m f r o m t h e transverse o r long- c a r b o n — 0,20, p h o s p h o r u s a n d sulphur — 0,04,
i t u d i n a l edges o f t h e p r o d u c t . s i l i c o n — 0 , 5 0 , m a n g a n e s e — 1,60, c h r o m i u m , n i c k e l ,
For m a n u a l methods, the measuring points at copper — 0,30.
sides s h a l l b e l o c a t e d n o t less t h a n 1 0 m m b u t n o t T h e u s e o f steel w i t h c a r b o n c o n t e n t m o r e t h a n
greater t h a n 100 m m f r o m t h e transverse o r long- 0,20 % f o r welded structures shall be agreed w i t h t h e
i t u d i n a l edges o f t h e p r o d u c t . Register o n c o n d i t i o n sufficient weldability is ensured;
3.2.9 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . f o r l o w - a l l o y s t e e l ( l a d l e a n a l y s i s ) , %:
Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued documenta- carbon — 0,18, phosphorus — 0,04, silicon —
t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4. 0,50, c h r o m i u m — 2 , 5 0 , m a n g a n e s e — 0 , 8 0 , m o l y b -
Every semi-finished product shall have clearly d e n u m — 1,10,s u l p h u r — 0,04, v a n a d i u m — 0,35.
visible stamp o r b r a n d o ft h e Register m a r k e d b y t h e 3.3.2.2 T h e s t e e l s h a l l b e k i l l e d . U s i n g o f rimming
specified m e t h o d a n d i n specified l o c a t i o n . steel is n o t p e r m i t t e d a n d u s i n g o f s e m i - k i l l e d steel is
Besides t h e m e n t i o n e d above, t h e m a r k i n g shall not recommended a n d shall be approved b y the
i n c l u d e t h e u n i f i e d i n d i c a t i o n m a r k f o r grade o f steel c u s t o m e r . T r e a t m e n t o f steel w i t h g r a i n - r e f i n i n g
a n d s t r e n g t h level (e.g., A , B 3 6 , E 4 5 0 ) . elements m a y be p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n t h e limits specified
W h e n required b y the Register, material supplied in t h e n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards recog-
in t h e thermo-mechanically controlled processed nized b y t h e Register.
condition shall have index " T M " added after t h e C a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e steel i n t e n d e d t o
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a r k , (e.g., E 3 6 T M ) . o p e r a t e a t t e m p e r a t u r e s o v e r 4 0 0 °C s h a l l n o t c o n t a i n
Besides, t h e steel, s u p p l i e d u n d e r t h e R e g i s t e r aluminium.
technical supervision m a yhave index " P C " before the 3.3.2.3 O n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e c u s t o m e r u s i n g o f
u n i f i e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a r k f o r grade o f steel a n d steel c o m p l y i n g w i t h n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l stan-
s t r e n g t h level (e.g., P C E 3 6 T M ) . dards recognized b y the Register m a y be permitted.
I n case o f t h e R e g i s t e r a p p r o v e d s u p p l y o f steel, 3.3.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
w h i c h does n o t fully c o m p l y w i t h the requirements o f T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f steel a t r o o m a n d
the R u l e s (refer t o 3.2.1.1), index " S "m a y be added elevated temperature shall be i n accordance w i t h
after t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a r k f o r grade o f steel a n d standards.
s t r e n g t h level (e.g., P C E 3 6 8 T M o r P C B 3 6 8 ) . T h e p r o p e r t i e s o f steel s h a l l b e c o n f i r m e d b y t h e
B r a n d i n g o f r o l l e d a n d section r o l l e d steel f o l l o w i n g tests:
products m a y be p e r f o r m e d o n a label. A t that the tensile test (tensile s t r e n g t h , y i e l d stress a n d
manufacturer shall c o n f i r m the identification system elongation are determined);
of every rolled product i n a bundle. b e n d test;
i m p a c t test ( K C U o r K V ) .
T h e tensile test a t elevated t e m p e r a t u r e a n d t h e
3.3 S T E E L F O R B O I L E R S , H E A T EXCHANGERS ageing test shall be carried o u t i f r e q u i r e d b y t h e
AND PRESSURE V E S S E L S relevant parts o f t h e Rules o r b y standards.
The values o fl o n g - t e r m stress-rupture strength o f
3.3.1 G e n e r a l . m e t a l shall be submitted t o t h e Register.
3.3.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a p p l i c a b l e 3.3.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t .
to r o l l e d steel f o r m a r i n e boilers, h e a t exchangers a n d T h e steel s h a l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d as n o r m a l i z e d ,
pressure vessels m a n u f a c t u r e d u n d e r t h e s u r v e y b y normalized a n dtempered o r quenched a n d tempered.
the Register. The m e t h o d o f heat t r e a t m e n t shall be as stipulated
3.3.1.2 T h e s t e e l s h a l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d a t w o r k s by standards.
r e c o g n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o 1.3.1.2 i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h Provided the required properties are ensured a n d
standards o r specifications agreed w i t h t h e Register. c o n f i r m e d b y tests a n d statistical data, steel m a y b e
3.3.1.3 R o l l e d s t e e l w h i c h i s m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d manufactured w i t h o u theat treatment, a n d controlled
tested i n accordance w i t h these r e q u i r e m e n t s is i n t e n d e d t e m p e r a t u r e r o l l i n g m a y be accepted as a substitute
for operation a t r o o m o r elevated temperatures. for n o r m a l i z i n g .
3.3.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . 3.3.5 S a m p l i n g .
3.3.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t e e l s h a l l b e Unless stated otherwise, sampling shall be carried
in accordance w i t h standards proceeding f r o m the out i n accordance w i t h 3.2.5.
42 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

Tensile test specimens a n d those f o r d e t e r m i n i n g 3.4.1.3 T h e w e l d e d p i p e s a n d t u b e s m a y b e


the impact toughness K C U shall be c u t o u t transverse m a n u f a c t u r e d b y m e a n s o felectric i n d u c t i o n w e l d i n g ,
to, a n d those f o r determining the impact energy pressure contact w e l d i n g o r fusion welding.
K V — parallel t o t h e direction o f t h e last rolling. 3.4.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
3.3.6 N u m b e r o f t e s t s . 3.4.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t e e l f o r
E a c h r o l l e d steel p l a t e s h a l l b e s u b m i t t e d f o r testing. pipes a n d tubes shall be chosen o n t h e basis o f
I n t h e case o f r o l l e d plates o f c a r b o n steel u p t o 1 2 m m standards proceeding f r o m t h e required mechanical
t h i c k , as w e l l as r o l l e d sections, i t is p e r m i t t e d t o t a k e properties a t r o o m o f elevated design temperature;
10 % o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f t h e p l a t e s ( r o l l e d p i e c e s ) o r the c o n t e n t o fbase elements i n % shall n o t exceed t h e
s e c t i o n s f o r t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s , b u t n o t less t h a n t w o a n d values stated below:
o f t h e same thickness (diameter o r shape), o n e a n d t h e for c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e steel (ladle
same cast a n d identical heat treatment. a n a l y s i s ) , %:
U n l e s s s t a t e d o t h e r w i s e , n o t less t h a n o n e speci- sulphur a n d phosphorus — 0,04,manganese —
m e n f o r t e n s i l e a n d b e n d t e s t i n g a n d n o t less t h a n o n e 1,50, c h r o m i u m , n i c k e l , s i l i c o n — 0 , 5 0 , c o p p e r —
set o f s p e c i m e n s f o r i m p a c t t e s t i n g s h a l l b e t a k e n 0,30, c a r b o n — 0,23;
f r o m t h e r o l l e d piece i n t e n d e d f o r testing purposes. F o r l o w - a l l o y s t e e l ( l a d l e a n a l y s i s ) , %:
F r o m plates ( r o l l e d pieces) w i t h a m a s s o f m o r e sulphur a n d phosphorus — 0,035, manganese —
t h a n 6 1 o r a length o f m o r e t h a n 15 m the samples f o r 1,00, c h r o m i u m — 2 , 5 0 , s i l i c o n — 0 , 5 0 , m o l y b d e n u m
test specimens shall be c u t o u t o n b o t h ends. — 1,20, c a r b o n — 0,20, v a n a d i u m — 0,35.
3.3.7 I n s p e c t i o n . 3.4.2.2 T h e s t e e l s h a l l b e k i l l e d . R i m m i n g s t e e l i s
T h e r o l l e d steel shall be free f r o m defects not p e r m i t t e d f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g pipes a n d tubes.
prejudicial t o theuse o fthe material f o rthe intended U s i n g s e m i - k i l l e d steel i s n o t r e c o m m e n d e d a n d s h a l l
a p p l i c a t i o n . F r e e d o m f r o m n o n - a l l o w a b l e defects be justified. T h e t r e a t m e n t o f steel w i t h g r a i n - r e f i n i n g
shall be guaranteed b y t h e manufacturer a n d m a y elements is also permitted. C a r b o n a n d carbon-
be c o n f i r m e d b y t h e results o f n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e testing. m a n g a n e s e steel i n t e n d e d f o r w o r k i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s
Surface defects i n v o l v e d b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g above 400C shall n o tcontain a l u m i n i u m .
process a r e p e r m i t t e d i n case t h e i r d e p t h is n o t 3.4.2.3 T h e u s e o f s t e e l , i n w h i c h t h e b a s e
greater t h a n t h e allowable under-thickness tole- elements c o n t e n t exceeds t h e a b o v e l i m i t s , as w e l l as
rances, considering f r o m t h e n o m i n a l thickness. steel c o n t a i n i n g o t h e r base a l l o y i n g elements t h a n
R e p a i r o f surface defects b y w e l d i n g f o l l o w e d b y those stated above m a y be permitted i n accordance
post-weld heat treatment is permitted using t h e w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards recog-
technology approved b y the Register. nized b y t h e Register.
3.3.8 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . 3.4.2.4 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s h a l l b e d e t e r -
Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued documenta- m i n e d f r o m the heat analysis (ladle analysis);
t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4. determination o fchemical composition o n a tubular
Every semi-finished product shall have clearly billet is permitted.
visible stamp o r b r a n d o ft h e Register m a r k e d b y t h e 3.4.3 M e c h a n i c a l a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
specified m e t h o d a n d i n specified l o c a t i o n . 3.4.3.1 A t r o o m a n d e l e v a t e d d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e
B r a n d i n g o f r o l l e d a n d section r o l l e d steel the m e c h a n i c a l a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f steel
products m a y be p e r f o r m e d o n a label. A t that the intended f o r pipes a n d tubes shall be i n accordance
manufacturer shall c o n f i r m the identification system w i t h standards f o r pipes a n d tubes.
of every rolled product i n a bundle. 3.4.3.2 I n t h e p r o c e s s o f m a n u f a c t u r e t h e p i p e s
a n d tubes s h a l l u n d e r g o t h e f o l l o w i n g tests:
tensile test (tensile s t r e n g t h , y i e l d stress a n d
3.4 S T E E L T U B E S A N D P f f E S elongation being determined) according t o 2.2.2;
tensile test a t elevated t e m p e r a t u r e ( p r o o f stress
3.4.1 G e n e r a l . being determined);
3.4.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o h o t - flattening test according t o 2.2.5.2, o r tensile test
a n d c o l d - f o r m e d steel pipes a n d tubes i n t e n d e d f o r o f rings according t o 2.2.5.4;
boilers, h e a t exchangers, pressure vessels, ship e x p a n d i n g test according t o 2.2.5.3.
systems a n d p i p i n g a n d subject t o survey b y o f t h e Tensile test a t elevated t e m p e r a t u r e , f l a t t e n i n g
Register during manufacture. test, tensile test o f r i n g s a n d e x p a n d i n g test s h a l l b e
3.4.1.2 T h e s t e e l p i p e s a n d t u b e s s h a l l b e carried o u t w h e n required b y standards f o r pipes o r
manufactured at w o r k s recognized according t o by technical documentation approved b y the Register
1.3.1.2 i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s t a n d a r d s o r t e c h n i c a l o n t h e basis o f w h i c h t h e test results a r e estimated.
requirements agreed w i t h t h e Register. W h e n provided f o rb y the relevant parts o fthe Rules
P a r t XIII. Materials 43

or b y standards, t h e results o f testing t h e steel A certain n u m b e r o f m i n o r nicks a n d dents,


intended f o r pipes a n d tubes f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m a r k s , t h i n l a y e r s o f scale, traces o f defects g r i n d i n g
average stress t o p r o d u c e r u p t u r e a t elevated and small skins are permitted i f due t o t h e m t h e wall
temperature shall be submitted. thickness w o u l d n o t exceed t h e a l l o w a b l e under-
3.4.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t . thickness tolerances.
The pipes a n d tubes shall be heat treated, w h e n 3.4.8 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
stipulated b y the relevant parts o f the Rules, b y Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued d o c u m e n t a -
standards o r technical design d o c u m e n t a t i o n ap- t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4.
p r o v e d b y t h e R e g i s t e r . T h e c o l d - f o r m e d a n d elec- B r a n d i n g o f r o l l e d a n d section r o l l e d steel
trically w e l d e d pipes a n d tubes s h a l l i n a n y case b e products m a y be performed o n a label. A t that the
heat treated, normalized, n o r m a l i z e d a n d tempered o r manufacturer shall c o n f i r m the identification system
quenched a n d tempered. T h e m e t h o d a n d conditions of every rolled product i n a bundle.
o f heat treatment shall be chosen b y the manufacturer,
reported t o t h e Register a n d stated i n t h e certificate.
3.4.5 S a m p l i n g . 3.5 S T E E L F O R S T R U C T U R E S U S E D
Unless stated otherwise, sampling f o r specimens AT L O W T E M P E R A T U R E S
s h a l l b e m a d e f r o m o n e e n d o f n o t less t h a n t w o p i p e s
or tubes o f t h e batch. 3.5.1 G e n e r a l .
3.4.6 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g . 3.5.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o s t e e l
The pipes a n d tubes shall be tested b y batches. plates, flats, sections a n d bars u p t o 100 m m t h i c k , as
A batch shall consist o f pipes a n d tubes o f t h e same w e l l as t o forgings a n d castings intended f o r ship's
size m a n u f a c t u r e d f r o m steel o f t h e s a m e h e a t a n d h u l l structures, equipment a n d m a c h i n e r y intended
heat treated under similar conditions. f o r u s e a t d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e s b e l o w — 3 0 °C.
The n u m b e r o f pipes o r tubes i n a batch shall n o t 3.5.1.2 A p p l i c a t i o n o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r o l l e d
exceed: products, forgings a n d castings intended f o r use a t
400 i n t h e case o f pipes o r tubes w i t h a n o u t e r d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e s b e l o w — 5 0 °C i s p e r m i t t e d ,
d i a m e t e r o f 7 6 m m o r less; taking i n t o account t h e requirements o f 3.5.3 a n d
200 i n t h e case o f pipes o r tubes w i t h a n o u t e r 3.5.4, as w e l l as crack a n d c o l d resistance test results
diameter over 76 m m . submitted by the works.
A r e s t o f p i p e s o r t u b e s , w h i c h i s less t h a n h a l f t h e The requirements f o r rolled products depending
n u m b e r stated, shall be included i n a relevant batch o n t h e strength level specified a n d o p e r a t i o n c o n d i -
and one w h i c h is half and over, — shall be considered tions are given i n 3.2, 3.13, 3.14 a n d 3.17 o f the
a separate batch. present Part, a n di n 4.2 a n d4.3, P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s "
F o r testing purposes, o u t o f each sample o n e of the Rules f o rthe Classification, Construction a n d
s p e c i m e n f o r t h e tensile test, o n e s p e c i m e n f o r t h e E q u i p m e n t o f M O D U / F O P ( f o r steel o f i m p r o v e d
f l a t t e n i n g test o r t h e tensile test o f rings ( w h e n w e l d e d weldability). T h e requirements for the rolled products
pipes a n d tubes a r e tested — 2 specimens, d u r i n g t h e w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f 1 5 m m o r less d e s i g n e d f o r
testing o f one o f the specimens t h ewelded j o i n t shall be o p e r a t i o n a t d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e s b e l o w — 3 0 °C a r e
in the tension zone), o n e specimen f o r the expanding specified i n 3.5.2.6.
test s h a l l b e cut. A l l t h e pipes a n d tubes s h a l l b e tested T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r G r a d e F steel r o l l e d
b y h y d r a u l i c pressure. T h e test pressure s h a l l b e i n products a r e given i n 3.5.2. T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
accordance w i t h standards f o r pipes a n d tubes o r w i t h t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f 1 5 m m o r less
d o c u m e n t a t i o n agreed w i t h t h e Register, b u t i n a n y designed f o r o p e r a t i o n a t design temperatures b e l o w
c a s e i t s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n t h a t s t a t e d i n 2 1 . 2 , P a r t — 3 0 °C a r e s p e c i f i e d i n 3 . 5 . 2 . 6 .
V I I I " S y s t e m s a n d P i p i n g " a n d i n 1.7, P a r t X " B o i l e r s , The requirements f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e , inspec-
H e a t Exchangers a n d Pressure Vessels". tion, identification, m a r k i n g a n d documentation f o r
H y d r a u l i c tests m a y b e o m i t t e d i f a l l t h e pipes rolled products, forgings a n d castings a r e given i n
and tubes undergo ultrasonic o r other equivalent 3.2, 3 . 7 a n d 3 . 8 a c c o r d i n g l y .
testing. 3.5.1.3 T h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s , f o r g i n g s a n d c a s t i n g s
A l l t h e welds i n welded pipes a n d tubes shall shall be manufactured b y t h e firms recognized b y the
undergo t h e ultrasonic testing. R e g i s t e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3.
3.4.7 I n s p e c t i o n . 3.5.1.4 S t e e l o t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i e d i n t h e p r e s e n t
A l l t h e pipes a n d tubes shall u n d e r g o v i s u a l C h a p t e r as t o t h e chemical c o m p o s i t i o n , mechanical
testing. properties a n d c o n d i t i o n o f supply m a y be a l l o w e d
T h e surface o f t h e pipes a n d tubes shall be free for use i n compliance w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l a n d interna-
f r o m cracks, skins, fissures a n d laps. tional standards recognized b y t h e Register.
44 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.5.1.5 W h e r e p r o v i s i o n i s m a d e f o r w e l d i n g d u r i n g o f r o l l e d p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c t u r e (issue o f a R e c o g n i ­
the m a n u f a c t u r e o f forged o r cast items, o r w h e r e such t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e f o r M a n u f a c t u r e r ) , t h e range o f steel
items a r e i n t e n d e d f o r w e l d i n g inside t h e ship's h u l l , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t i n 3.5.1.6 o f t h e
c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel a n d t h e w e l d i n g p r o c e d u r e p r e s e n t C h a p t e r , 1.2.3, P a r t I I " H u l l " o f t h e p r e s e n t
shall ensure t h e w e l d e d j o i n t resistance t o c r a c k i n g . R u l e s a n d 1.5, P a r t I I " H u l l " o f t h e R u l e s f o r t h e
T h e mechanical properties a n d impact energy o f Classification, Construction a n d E q u i p m e n t o f
w e l d m e t a l a t t h e specified t e m p e r a t u r e a t i m p a c t test M O D U / F O P , m a ybe extended.
shall be n o t l o w e r t h a n those required f o r the base m e t a l . 3.5.2 H u l l s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l .
3.5.1.6 S t e e l r o l l e d p r o d u c t s i n p l a t e s , f l a t s , 3.5.2.1 G e n e r a l .
sections, as w e l l as steel f o r g i n g s a n d castings f o r T h e present r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o G r a d e F steel
hull structural members, equipment a n d machinery plates, flats, sections a n d bars u p t o 1 0 0m m thick.
subjected t o l o n g - t e r m exposure t o l o w temperatures T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r steel plates m a r k e d w i t h
are selected w i t h d u e r e g a r d f o r t h e set v a l u e o f t h e upper index " A r c " are also included.
structure design temperature a n d t h e structural T h e general r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r steel a r e g i v e n i n 3.2.1.
m e m b e r category. T h e structure design temperature U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e rate o f plastic
T a n d t h e structural m e m b e r category a r e deter­
D d e f o r m a t i o n i n r o l l i n g s h a l l b e 5:1 as a m i n i m u m . T h e
m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o 1.2.3, P a r t I I " H u l l " a n d t h e requirements for the rolled products w i t h thickness o f
a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d restrictions specified i n 15 m m o r less d e s i g n e d f o r o p e r a t i o n a t d e s i g n
the present Chapter f o r higher a n d h i g h strength t e m p e r a t u r e s b e l o w — 3 0 °C a r e s p e c i f i e d i n 3 . 5 . 2 . 6 .
steels f o r c a t e g o r y I I I a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 3.5.1.6. 3.5.2.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
T a b l e 3.5.1.6 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel i s specified i n
standards a n d technical requirements a n d shall n o t
Design temperature, T D "C
Steel grade exceed t h e u l t i m a t e values g i v e n i n T a b l e 3.5.2.2 f o r
Thickness o f structural m e m b e r
h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steel a n d i n T a b l e 3.13.2 f o r h i g h s t r e n g t h
wall, m a x , m m
steel. H i g h e r s t r e n g t h s t e e l o f i m p r o v e d w e l d a b i l i t y a s t o
-30 -40 -50
chemical composition shall meet t h e requirements o f
D32, D 3 6 15 10 — Tables 4.2.1.2 a n d 4.2.2, P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e
E32, E 3 6 W 35 25 15 Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d E q u i p ­
E32W 45 30 20
F32 80 60 40 m e n t o f M O D U / F O P . T h e steel s h a l l b e f u l l y k i l l e d a n d
F32W, F36W any 70 50 treated w i t h grain-refining elements.
E36, E40W, E420W, E460W 30 20 15
F36, F 4 0 60 40 30 3.5.2.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
D40, D420 10 — — T h e mechanical properties o f Grades F 3 2 , F 3 6
E40, E420,E460, E 5 0 0 W 25 15 10 a n d F 4 0 steels d u r i n g t e n s i l e test a n d i m p a c t test s h a l l
F40W, F420W, F460W 80 50 35
F420, F460, F 5 0 0 W 50 35 25 m e e t t h e requirements o f T a b l e 3.5.2.3; t h e m e c h a n ­
E500 20 15 10 ical properties o f Grades F 4 2 0 , F 4 6 0 , F 5 0 0 , F 5 5 0 ,
F500 50 30 20 F 6 2 0 a n d F 6 9 0 steels s h a l l m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
N o t e . F o r t h e u s e o f steel i n c o n d i t i o n s n o t regulated 3.13.3.
h e r e i n r e f e r t o 3.5.1.7.
A d d i t i o n a l l y t o 3.2.5, tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
impact energy i n t h e specimens c u t o u t f r o m t h e
plate m i d - t h i c k n e s s a r e c a r r i e d o u t f o r steel o v e r
3.5.1.7 F o r h u l l s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s o f i c e b r e a k e r s 4 0 m m t h i c k . I n t h i s case t h e test results shall also
a n d A r c ice class ships, t h e design t e m p e r a t u r e T D o f m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e s 3.5.2.3 a n d 3 . 1 3 . 3 - 1 .
w h i c h does n o t exceed — 3 0 °C, u s e o f steel o f i m p r o v e d 3.5.2.4 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .
w e l d a b i l i t y w i t h A r c i n d e x is p e r m i t t e d (refer t o 3.5.2.1 C o n d i t i o n o f steel supply:
and 4.2 - 4.3,Part П "Materials" o f the Rules f o r the for Grades F32, F 3 6 a n dF 4 0 — according t othe
Classification, C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d E q u i p m e n t o f M o b i l e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 3.2.6.4;
Offshore Drilling U n i t s a n d F i x e d Offshore Platforms). for Grades F420, F460, F500, F550, F 6 2 0 a n d
3.5.1.8 S t e e l i s t e s t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e F 6 9 0 — according t o t h e requirements o f 3.13.4.
requirements o f Section 2 w i t h the use o f the 3.5.2.5 R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s t e e l p l a t e s o f g r a d e
Register-approved programs. marked with upper index "Arc".
Tests t o determine T a r e carried o u t , as a rule,
d 3.5.2.5.1 " A r c " i s t h e s y m b o l a d d e d t o t h e
within the operating temperature range including d e s i g n a t i o n o f steel g r a d e f o r w h i c h a d d i t i o n a l tests
temperature T. D were performed according t o the Register programs t o
F o r details — refer t o 3.5.2, 3.5.4 a n d 3.5.5. d e t e r m i n e d u c t i l i t y a n d c o l d resistance characteristics
3.5.1.9 G i v e n t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g (refer t o 2.2.10, 3.5.1.9, 3.5.2.5.6) a n d a n d m e e t i n g t h e
according the Register programs i n the initial survey r e l e v a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r steels o f i m p r o v e d w e l d a b i l i t y
P a r t XIII. Materials 45

T a b l e 3.5.2.2
Chemical composition o f hull structural steel

Content o felements, %

Steel С M n Si P S Al Nb V Ti Cu Cr Ni Mo N
(acid-
grade
soluble),
min
max max max

F32 0,16 0,90—1,60 0,50 0,025 0,025 0,015 0,02 — 0,05 0,05 — 0,10 0,02 0,35 0,20 0,80 0,08 0,009 (0,012
F36 0,16 0,90—1,60 0,50 0,025 0,025 0,015 0,02 — 0,05 0,05 — 0,10 0,02 0,35 0,20 0,80 0,08 if A l i s
F40 0,16 0,90—1,60 0,50 0,025 0,025 0,015 0,02 — 0,05 0,05 — 0,10 0,02 0,35 0,20 0,80 0,08 present)

Total content
0,12 m a x
N o t e . R e f e r t o n o t e s 1 t o 7 i n T a b l e 3.2.2-2.

T a b l e 3.5.2.3
M e c h a n i c a l properties o f hull structural steel

Grade Y i e l d stress Tensile Elongation I m p a c t test


ReH, M P a strength R m , A ; , %, m i n
MPa Test tempe­ A v e r a g e i m p a c t e n e r g y v a l u e KV, m i n , J
r a t u r e , °C
«50 m m 50<«70 m m 70<«100 m m

KV L KV T
KV L KV T
KV L KV T

F32 315 440 — 5 7 0 22 -60 31 22 38 26 46 31


F36 355 490 — 6 3 0 21 -60 34 24 41 27 50 34
F40 390 510 — 6 6 0 20 -60 39 26 46 31 55 37
N o t e . R e f e r t o n o t e s 8 a n d 9 i n T a b l e 3.2.2-2.

according t o Section 4 , P a r t X I I "Materials" o f t h e r e g a r d t o r e t a r d i n g t h e s p r e a d o f b r i t t l e f a i l u r e (Та,


Rules f o r t h eClassification, Construction a n d Equip­ NDT, DWTT):
ment o f M O D U / F O P a n d the requirements f o r tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e Т a r e №

Z-properties. T h em i n i m u m material service/operating carried o u t according t o 2.2.10.2;


temperature d ( w i t h o u t t h e m i n u s sign) d o w n t o w h i c h tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e N D T a r e
t h e steel m a y b e u s e d f o r a n y s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s carried o u t according t o 2.2.10.3;
w i t h o u t limitations shall be indicated next t o t h e tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e D W T T a r e
0 4 0 0
s y m b o l (e.g. Б З б Ш ^ or БЗбШ^ ). carried o u t according t o 2.2.10.4;
3.5.2.5.2 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i g h e r .2 d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c r a c k r e s i s t a n c e p a r a m e t e r
s t r e n g t h steel m a r k e d w i t h u p p e r i n d e x " A r c " s h a l l C T O D f o r t h ebase m e t a l a n dH A Z m e t a l i n testing
m e e t t h e r e l e v a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r steel o f i m p r o v e d the specimens c u t f r o m butt-welded joints:
weldability. tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c r a c k resistance p a r a ­
T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i g h s t r e n g t h steel meter C T O D f o r t h e base m e t a l a r e carried o u t
m a r k e d w i t h upper index " A r c " shall meet t h e according t o 2.2.10.5;
requirements o f the Register-approved documentation. tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c r a c k resistance p a r a ­
T h e s u l p h u r c o n t e n t s h a l l n o t e x c e e d 0 , 0 0 8 %, t h e meter C T O D f o r the H A Z metal are carried o u t
p h o s p h o r u s c o n t e n t , 0 , 0 1 5 %. according t o 2.2.10.6.
3.5.2.5.3 T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t e e l s h a l l Application o f each o f t h e above procedures
m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the steel o f a r e l e v a n t grade d u r i n g tests s h a l l b e agreed w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r i n e a c h
a c c o r d i n g t o 3.2, 3.13, 3.14 a n d 3.17. I n t h i s case, t h e p a r t i c u l a r case.
test p r o g r a m d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l survey o f m a n u f a c t u r e W h e r e o n e p r o c e d u r e f o r steel m a n u f a c t u r e i s
b y t h e R e g i s t e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3.1.2 i n o r d e r t o concerned (smelting, rolling, condition o f supply), the
determine the possibility o f adding upper index " A r c " results o f t h e a b o v e tests o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e t h i c k e s t
t o a steel g r a d e includes t h e f o l l o w i n g : rolled products m a y be extended t o t h e rolling
.1 d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f a d u c t i l e - b r i t t l e p r o d u c t s o f less t h i c k n e s s .
transition t o estimate t h e material property w i t h
46 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.5.2.5.4 T h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f C T O D f o r b a s e T a b l e 3.5.2.5.6

m e t a l s h a l l b e n o t less t h a n t h a t s p e c i f i e d i n
Rolled products Depending o n the rolled products thickness the
T a b l e 3.5.2.5.4 w i t h t h e m i n i m u m v a l u e a t least 0,7 thickness, m m r e q u i r e d t e m p e r a t u r e v a l u e s T ^ jy^, Т^тщ,
d N

o f t h e r e q u i r e d o n e . T h e l o w e s t test t e m p e r a t u r e a t Td(pwrT) f o r t h e s t e e l m a r k e d w i t h u p p e r i n d e x
w h i c h t h e T a b l e 3.5.2.5.4 requirements a r e m e t , is "Arc" are given i n the Table
assumed t obe them i n i m u m temperature T ) for d ( c m D Td(NDT), °C Td(T№)> °C Td(pwiT), °C
t h e g i v e n t y p e o f tests. F r o m 25 u p t o 30 i n c l . NDT + 15 DWTT
T№

T a b l e 3.5.2.5.4 O v e r 30 u p t o 40 i n c l . NDT + 20 T - 15

D W T T - 10
Requirements for C T O D value for base metal, m m O v e r 40 u p t o 50 i n c l . NDT + 25 Ты, - 2 5
O v e r 50 u p t o 60 i n c l . NDT + 30 T - 30

Thick­ Strength level (required m i n i m u m value NDT + 30 l
O v e r 60
ness, m m o f yield stress, M P a )
'Provided i n addition to: T < 0,5Г +15
normal 315 — 390 — 460 — 550 — 690 № < Л Ю Г )

N o t e . Additional condition means T № ^ — 5° f o r A r c 4 0 ,


355 420 500 620
a n d T s s - 1 5 ° f o r АгсбО

25-35 — 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,25


36-50 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,25 0,30
51-70 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,30 0,35 t r a n s i t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e s d e t e r m i n e d : Т^ , Т^тщ o r T тТ) d
> 70 0,20 0,25 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,35
(DWTT)-
3.5.2.5.7 I n a l l t y p e s o f t e s t s t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e
shall be accepted as t h e m i n i m u m o p e r a t i n g m a t e r i a l
3.5.2.5.5 T h e a v e r a g e v a l u e o f C T O D f o r t h e H A Z t e m p e r a t u r e T , u p t o w h i c h t h e steel i n q u e s t i o n m a y
d

m e t a l s h a l l b e n o t less t h a n t h a t r e q u i r e d b y be used f o r a l l t h e s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s w i t h o u t
T a b l e 3.5.2.5.5 w i t h t h e m i n i m u m v a l u e a t least 0,5 limitations:
o f t h e r e q u i r e d o n e . I f t h e n u m b e r o f correct tests i s
T =max(T ^
d d C T O D b m - , T (
l d C T O D h a z ), T^^).
increased u p t o five a n d m o r e , t h e lowest result m a y
be i g n o r e d . 3.5.2.6 M a n u f a c t u r e a n d s u p p l y o f s t e e l r o l l e d
products designed f o r o p e r a t i o n a t design temperatures
T a b l e 3.5.2.5.5
Requirements for C T O D value for H A Z metal, m m b e l o w — 3 0 °C h a v i n g t h i c k n e s s b e t w e e n 6 a n d 1 5 m m
Thick­
i n c l u s i v e , i s n o t a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m e c h a n i c a l tests.
Strength level (required m i n i m u m value
ness, m m o f yield stress, M P a ) M e c h a n i c a l tests s h a l l m a n d a t o r y i n c l u d e i m p a c t
b e n d i n g t e s t s (KV) a t a t e m p e r a t u r e n o t e x c e e d i n g T d
n o r m a l 315 — 3 9 0 — 4 6 0 — 5 5 0 — 690
355 420 500 620
o n test specimens i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 2.2.3.1.
— F o r t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h s t r e n g t h class o f
25-30 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,15 0,20
3 1 - 50 0,10 0,10 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,25 4 6 0 M P a a n d a b o v e , a d d i t i o n a l tests results s h a l l b e
> 50 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,30 s u b m i t t e d (refer t o 2.2.10). F a i l i n g t h a t , said tests
shall be conducted.
Besides, i f t h e a b o v e special tests w e r e n o t
T h e l o w e s t test t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h i c h t h e T a ­ p e r f o r m e d , special s t a n d a r d s s h a l l b e specified f o r
ble 3.5.2.5.5 r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e m e t , i s a s s u m e d t o b e t h e the i m p a c t energy o f the base m e t a l a n d w e l d e d j o i n t s
m i n i m u m t e m p e r a t u r e T f o r t h e g i v e n t y p e o f tests.
d (refer t o T a b l e 3.5.2.6) a t a temperature n o t exceeding
3.5.2.5.6 B a s e d o n t h e r e s u l t s o f NDT, T a n d T d . T h e impact energy m a y be reduced t o 7 0 % o f the
a

D W T T the t e m p e r a t u r e s ( T , T ,
d ( N D T ) T d(Tkti) ) are r e q u i r e d v a l u e f o r o n e o f t h e three test specimens.
d ( D W 7 T )

d e t e r m i n e d , t h e g r e a t e s t o f a l l t h e v a l u e s i s T^^, F o r t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f less t h a n
assumed t o be t h e ductile-brittle transition tempera­
T a b l e 3.5.2.6
t u r e T o f t h e s a m p l i n g steel. D e p e n d i n g o n t h e
kb
T h e impact energy standards for the flat rolled products a n d welded
rolled products thickness t h e required temperature j o i n t s w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f u p t o 15 m m a t a t e m p e r a t u r e n o t e x c e e d i n g
values T , d(NDT) T ,d(Tkb) T f o r t h e steel m a r k e d
d ( D m T ) T for the arctic ships a n d icebreakers i n absence o fthe special tests
d

w i t h upper index " A r c " a r egiven i n T a b l e 3.5.2.5.6.


F o r t h e m e t a l t h i c k n e s s o f 4 0 m m , i n case t h e M i n i m u m yield stress M i n i m u m average value f o r three test
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n NDT a n d T t e m p e r a t u r e s i s o v e r

in M P a pieces
5 0 °C, t o c o n t r o l d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s rolled product rolled product
o n resistance t o brittle fracture, N D T specimens c u t o u t t h i c k n e s s o f 10 m m t h i c k n e s s a b o v e 10
f r o m t h e mid-thickness o f rolled products m a y be t o 15 m m i n c l u s i v e

additionally tested i n accordance w i t h 2.2.10.3. N D T 460 46 L , 3 1 T 60 L , 4 0 T


500 50 L , 3 3 T 68 L , 4 5 T
o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e test m a y b e considered as a 550 55 L , 3 7 T 83 L , 55 T
r e p l a c e m e n t o f t e m p e r a t u r e Т^тщ. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o 620 70 L , 4 6 T 98 L , 6 5 T
determine based o n o n e o r t w o ductile-brittle 690 86 L , 5 7 T 120 L , 8 0 T
P a r t XIII. Materials Al

10 m m , t h e required i m p a c t energy shall be deter­ — 3 0 °C a n d b e l o w , r e s i s t a n c e t o b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e m a y


m i n e d b y F o r m u l a (2.2.3.1.1). be c o n f i r m e d either b y testing according t o t h e N T D
3.5.3 S t e e l f o r g i n g s . procedure (refer t o 2.2.10.3) o r b y o t h e r test m e t h o d s
3.5.3.1 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . a g r e e d w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r , e.g. c r a c k resistance tests.
T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel f o r f o r g i n g s T h e requirements f o rcastings f o r cargo-handling
being p a r t o f h u l l structures is specified i n t h e gear a r e set f o r t h i n S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e R u l e s f o r t h e
R e g i s t e r - r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s a n d / o r a p p r o v e d spe­ Cargo H a n d l i n g Gear o f Sea-Going Ships.
cification a n d shall p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o l d resistance 3.5.5 W e l d i n g .
characteristics as r e q u i r e d . T h e s u l p h u r a n d p h o s ­ 3.5.5.1 T e c h n o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e p r o ­
p h o r u s c o n t e n t i n a l l o y steel s h a l l n o t exceed 0,015 % cesses o f w e l d e d s t r u c t u r e s m a n u f a c t u r e , w e l d e d
for each member. joints testing a n d f o r welding consumables shall be
3.5.3.2 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . in compliance with Part X I V "Welding" o fthe Rules
T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f f o r g e d steel s h a l l for the Classification a n d Construction o f Sea-Going
m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.7.3. T h e r e q u i r e d i m p a c t Ships, a n d w i t h t h e additional requirements a n d
energy value during impact testing a t the m i n i m u m restrictions o f t h e present Section.
design t e m p e r a t u r e T is specified i n t h e Register-
d 3.5.5.2 T h e g r a d e s o f w e l d i n g c o n s u m a b l e s f o r
recognized standards a n d / o r a n a p p r o v e d specifica­ welding stuctures o fn o r m a l , higher a n dh i g h strength
tion, b u t shall be as follows: steel a r e c h o s e n i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 2.4.5, P a r t X I I I
n o t less t h a n 2 7 J a t t h e y i e l d stress o f steel less "Welding" o f the Rules f o r the Classification,
than 400 M P a ; Construction and Equipment o f M O D U / F O P .
n o t less t h a n 4 1 J a t t h e y i e l d stress o f steel f r o m 3.5.53 T h e w e l d i n g c o n s u m a b l e s u s e d f o r t h e
400 t o 690 M P a . m a n u f a c t u r e o f h u l l structures relating t o structural
T h e percentage o f fibrous component i n the m e m b e r c a t e g o r i e s I I a n d П1 f o r t h i c k n e s s e s o v e r 3 0 m m
fracture o f a specimen determined after impact m a y be tested t o d e t e r m i n e t h e crack resistance
t e s t i n g s h a l l b e n o t l e s s t h a n 5 0 %. p a r a m e t e r C T O D . T h e tests m a y b e c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e
T o a p p r o v e steel f o r essential f o r g i n g s used a t i n i t i a l issue o f a C e r t i f i c a t e o f A p p r o v a l f o r W e l d i n g
— 3 0 °C a n d b e l o w , r e s i s t a n c e t o b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e m a y C o n s u m a b l e s o r a t t h e stage o f w e l d i n g procedures
be c o n f i r m e d either b y testing according t o t h e N T D a p p r o v a l b y t h e Register.
procedure (refer t o 2.2.10.3) o r b y o t h e r test m e t h o d s 3.5.5.4 W h e r e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e i m p o s e d u p o n t h e
a g r e e d w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r , e.g. c r a c k resistance tests. crack resistance p a r a m e t e r C T O D o f w e l d m e t a l , i t s
T h e requirements f o rforgings f o r cargo-handling average values, i n m m , a t a design temperature shall
gear a r e set f o r t h i n Section 3 o f t h e R u l e s f o r t h e be n o t less t h a n t h o s e s p e c i f i e d i n T a b l e 3 . 5 . 5 . 4 .
Cargo H a n d l i n g Gear o f Sea-Going Ships. T h r e e c o r r e c t tests, as a m i n i m u m , s h a l l b e
3.5.4 S t e e l c a s t i n g s .
T a b l e 3.5.5.4
3.5.4.1 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
Thickness, Grade o fwelding consumable
T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel f o r t h e castings
not more
being p a r t o f h u l l structures is specified i n t h e than, m m Requirements for CTOD value for weld metal, m m
R e g i s t e r - r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s a n d / o r a p p r o v e d spe­
Y36 Y42 Y46 Y50 Y55 Y62 Y69
cification a n d shall p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o l d resistance
Y40
characteristics as r e q u i r e d . T h e s u l p h u r a n d p h o s ­
40 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20
p h o r u s c o n t e n t i n a l l o y steel s h a l l n o t exceed 0,015 % 50 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25
for each member. 70 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,25 0,30
3.5.4.2 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f cast steel s h a l l m e e t
the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.8.3. T h er e q u i r e d i m p a c t energy c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e m i n i m u m v a l u e s b e i n g n o t less
value d u r i n g i m p a c t testing a t t h e design temperature t h a n 5 0 % o f t h e required ones.
is specified b y s t a n d a r d s o r t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , T h e tests a r e carried o u t i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e
b u t s h a l l be as f o l l o w s : requirements o f Section 2 o ft h e present P a r t , as w e l l
n o t less t h a n 2 7 J a t t h e y i e l d stress o f steel less as o f S e c t i o n 2 , P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e R u l e s f o r
than 400 M P a ; the Classification, Construction a n d E q u i p m e n t o f
n o t less t h a n 4 1 J a t t h e y i e l d stress o f steel f r o m M O D U / F O P according t o t h e Register-agreed pro­
400 t o 690 M P a . grams.
T h e percentage o f fibrous component i n the
fracture o f a specimen determined after impact
t e s t i n g s h a l l b e n o t l e s s t h a n 5 0 %.
T o a p p r o v e steel f o r essential castings used a t
48 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.6 S T E E L F O R C H A I N C A B L E S A N D A C C E S S O R I E S 3.6.2.3 T h e r o l l e d b a r s s h a l l b e m a d e o f k i l l e d
steel, a n d t h e steel f o r c h a i n cables o f grades 2 , 3, R 3 ,
3.6.1 G e n e r a l . R 3 S a n d R 4 shall be deoxidized a n d fine grain
3.6.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o s t e e l treated.
rolled products, forgings a n d castings used f o r 3.6.2.4 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f f o r g i n g s a n d
m a n u f a c t u r e o f c h a i n cables a n d accessories. castings shall be i n accordance w i t h t h e specification
Steel forgings shall generally meet t h e require­ a p p r o v e d b y t h e Register a n d be specified b y t h e
m e n t s o f 3.7 a n d steel castings — t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f manufacturer f o r each heat.
3.8, unless o t h e r w i s e stated. 3.6.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
3.6.1.2 A l l m a t e r i a l s u s e d f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f steel f o r c h a i n
c h a i n cables a n d accessories shall be supplied b y t h e cables a n d accessories shall ensure t h e properties
m a n u f a c t u r e r s r e c o g n i z e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3.1.2. according t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 3.6.3.
Grade 1 rolled products m a y be used f o r the
T a b l e 3.6.3
m a n u f a c t u r e o f c h a i n cables w i t h t h e manufacturer's
Chain Yield Tensile Elon­ Redu­ Impact test 3 , 4
K V
certificates.
cable stress strength g a t i o n ction
3.6.1.3 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l s u b m i t t h e s p e c i f i ­ grade Re И , R m > A , % i n a r e a
s

cation f o r material t o t h e Register f o r approval. min, MPa Z , % 2

Stated i n t h e specification shall be t h e melting MPa


a n d d e o x i d a t i o n procedure, specified c h e m i c a l c o m ­ min Test Base Weld
tempe­ metal joint
position a n d mechanical properties, a n d terms o f
rature,
rolled products' acceptance a n d delivery as well. °C
Impact energy,
min, J
Unless stated otherwise, m e l t i n g a n d d e o x i d a t i o n
1 — 370 - 490 25 — — — —
procedures, chemical composition a n d condition o f
2 295 490- 690 22 — 0 27 —
rolled products' delivery that d o n o t fully comply 3 410 690 m i n 17 40 0(-20) 60(35) 50(27)
w i t h t h e requirements o ft h e present Chapter m a y be R3 410 690 m i n 17 50 0(-20) 60(40) 50(30)
applied i n accordance w i t h the standards a n d R3S 490 770 m i n 15 50 0(-20) 65(45) 53(33)
specifications o f t h e w o r k s as w e l l as t h e n a t i o n a l R4 580 860 m i n 12 50 -20 50 36

and international standards. ^ o r chain cables o f grades R 3 , R 3 S a n dR 4 ,


ReH/Rn.^0,92.
3.6.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . 2
F o r c a s t s t e e l o f g r a d e s R 3 a n d R 3 S , Z ^ 4 0 %, f o r s t e e l o f
3.6.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t e e l i s g r a d e R 4 — Z ^ 3 5 %. W h e n t h e m a t e r i a l s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o
hydrogen embrittlement for chain cables o fgrades R3, R 3 S a n d
determined b y ladle analisis. T h echemical c o m p o s i ­ R 4 i s d e t e r m i n e d , Z / Z i > 0 , 8 5 , w h e r e Z a n d Z\ a r e t h e s a m p l e
t i o n o f r o l l e d steel bars, based o n ladle analysis f o r reduction i n area under tension before a n d after heating,
respectively.
grades 1 a n d 2 chain cables shall c o m p l y w i t h 3
I m p a c t tests o f material f o rgrade 2 c h a i n cables m a y b e
Table 3.6.2.1. w a i v e d i fthe c h a i n cable is supplied i n a h e a t treated condition.
4
Required m i n i m u m impact energy value at the tempera­
t u r e o f — 2 0 °C i s s h o w n i n b r a c k e t s .
T a b l e 3.6.2.1
Chemical composition o f rolled steel bars

Chain cable Content o felements, %


3.6.4 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .
grade
С Si M n P S A l total , 1 3.6.4.1 R o l l e d b a r s a n d r o u n d s e c t i o n f o r g i n g s ,
max min unless otherwise stated, a r e supplied i n as-rolled
max condition. T h e finished forgings a n d castings m a ybe
supplied after heat treatment appropriate t o each
1 0,20 0,15 0,40 m i n 0,040 0,040 —
0,35 c h a i n cable grade as specified i n T a b l e 7.1.3.4.
2 2
0,24 0,15 1,60 max 0,035 0,035 0,020 F o r g i n g s a n d castings m a y be subjected t o n o r m a l ­
0,55
izing, normalizing a n d tempering, hardening a n d
A l u m i n i u m m a y b e r e p l a c e d p a r t l y b y o t h e r fine g r a i n i n g tempering. T h e type o fheat treatment shall c o n f o r m
elements. to t h e specification approved b y t h e Register.
2
A d d i t i o n a l alloying elements m a y b e u s e d o n t h ebasis o f
the works' manufacturing experience o r astandard/specifica­ 3.6.4.2 W h e n t h e r o l l e d p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c t u r e r i s
tion. recognized, t h echain cables o f grades 3, R 3 , R 3 S R 4
shall ( a n d c h a i n cables o f grades 1 a n d 2 m a y
3.6.2.2 F o r c h a i n c a b l e s o f g r a d e s 3 , R 3 , R 3 S a n d o p t i o n a l l y ) be subject t o c o n t r o l testing o f m a t e r i a l
R 4 t h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel s h a l l c o m p l y after heat treatment similar t o t h e o n e o f t h e chain
w i t h t h e specification agreed w i t h t h e manufacturer cable manufacturer.
o f a chain cable a n d approved b y t h e Register. I n 3.6.5 M e c h a n i c a l t e s t s .
a d d i t i o n t h e steel f o r c h a i n cables o f g r a d e R 4 s h a l l 3.6.5.1 T h e r o l l e d b a r s a r e s u b m i t t e d f o r t e s t i n g
c o n t a i n n o t less t h a n 0 , 2 % o f m o l y b d e n u m . i n batches. A batch n o t m o r e t h a n 5 0 t i n mass shall
P a r t XIII. Materials 49

comprise bars o f t h e same cast a n d supply c o n d i t i o n specimen, t h e strain rate (change o f elongation i n
w i t h a tolerance o f diameter w i t h i n 4 m m . f r a c t i o n s o f g a g e l e n g t h o f t h e s p e c i m e n ) s h a l l b e less
_ 1
3.6.5.2 F r o m e a c h b a t c h o f r o l l e d b a r s , a s a m p l e t h a n 0,0003 s (which amounts to approximately
is t a k e n , o u t o f w h i c h a tensile test s p e c i m e n a n d a set 10 m i n f o r a specimen o f 2 0 m m i n d i a m e t e r ) . T e s t i n g
o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s f o r i m p a c t t e s t i n g (KV) f o r c h a i n is c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e tensile s t r e n g t h ,
cables o f grades 2 , 3, R 3 , R 3 S a n d R 4 a r e m a c h i n e d . e l o n g a t i o n a n d reduction i n area. Test results shall
Specimens shall be taken f r o m the sample i nthe c o m p l y w i t h T a b l e 3.6.3 (refer t o N o t e 2 a t t h e
l o n g i t u d i n a l d i r e c t i o n according t o F i g . 3.6.5.2. b o t t o m o f the Table). W h e n the obtained value
Z / Z i < 0,85, t h e m e t a l presented f o r testing m a y be
Specimen for degassed, after w h i c h a l l t h e above testing shall be
impact test
performed.
3.6.5.4 M e c h a n i c a l t e s t s r e s u l t s s h a l l m e e t t h e
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 3.6.3.
W h e r e t h e rest results a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , retests
i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3.4.2 s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t . I n t h i s
case, t h e r e h e a t t r e a t m e n t i s a l l o w e d a n d t h e n e w tests
m a y be performed o n the metal taken f r o m the
m a t e r i a l initially s u b m i t t e d f o r testing. I f t h e retest
results are positive, those previously obtained m a y be
disregarded.
Tensile
3.6.5.5 R e c o g n i z i n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o f s t e e l f o r
specimen
c h a i n cables o f grades R 3 , R 3 S a n d R 4 t h e steel
F i g . 3.6.5.2 resistance t o strain ageing, t e m p e r brittleness a n d
hydrogen embrittlement shall be confirmed b y
following procedures approved b y t h e Register.
T h e tests shall be c a r r i e d o u t i n accordance w i t h 3.6.6 I n s p e c t i o n .
t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 2.2. P r i o r t o t h e tests, t h e s a m p l e s 3.6.6.1 T h e t o l e r a n c e s f o r r o l l e d b a r s s h a l l b e
shall be heat-treated following the procedures corre­ w i t h i n t h e limits specified i n T a b l e 3.6.6.1.
sponding t o the heat treatment o f finished chain
T a b l e 3.6.6.1
cables i n accordance w i t h 7.1.3.4. T h e m e t h o d a n d
N o m i n a l diameter, Tolerance o n Tolerance o n roundness,
regime o fthe heat treatment shall be indicated b y the
mm diameter, m m (<4rax — l i m i n ) , ГЦ™
c h a i n cable m a n u f a c t u r e r .
3.6.5.3 F o r c h a i n c a b l e s o f g r a d e s R 3 S a n d R 4 , <25 - 0 +1,0 0,6
25—35 - 0 +1,2 0,8
tests o f steel susceptibility t o h y d r o g e n e m b r i t t l e m e n t
36—50 - 0 +1,6 1,1
(reduction o f ductility margin) shall be performed. 51—80 - 0 +2,0 1,5
F o r this purpose, t w o samples are taken f r o m each 81—100 - 0 +2,6 1,95
cast: 101—120 - 0 +3,0 2,25
121—160 - 0 +4,0 3,00
i n t h e case o f c o n t i n u o u s casting — f r o m m e t a l
corresponding t o the beginning a n d the end o f the
cast section;
i n t h e case o f i n g o t m a k i n g — f r o m m e t a l 3.6.6.2 R o l l e d b a r s s h a l l b e f r e e f r o m s h r i n k a g e
corresponding t o a n y t w o ingots. h o l e s , cracks, flakes ( h a i r l i n e s ) , f o l d s , laps a n d scale
Tensile test specimens shall be c u t f r o m each a n d also o t h e r i n t e r n a l a n d surface defects t h a t m i g h t
sample representing t h ecentral part o f rolled product impair proper workability a n d use.
(the r o l l e d steel p r o d u c t s s h a l l b e h e a t treated i n t h e T h e longitudinal discontinuities, n o t m o r e than
same conditions a n d shall preferably belong t o the 1 % o f rolled bars diameter i n depth, m a y be repaired
s a m e furnace charge). T w o tensile test specimens b y g r i n d i n g w i t h s m o o t h t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e surface.
t a k e n f r o m a h e a t o f steel s h a l l b e 2 0 m m i n d i a m e t e r 3.6.7 N o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g .
(it is permitted t o use specimens 14 m m i n diameter). R o l l e d bars f o r c h a i n cables o f grades R 3 , R 3 S
O n e o f t h e t w o s p e c i m e n s s h a l l b e t e s t e d n o t less t h a n a n d R 4 shall be subjected t o 1 0 0 % ultrasonic testing
3 h after p r o d u c t i o n (for a specimen w i t h a diameter and also t o magnetic particle o r eddy-current testing
o f 1 4 m m , t h e t i m e i s 1,5 h ) . T h e o t h e r s p e c i m e n s h a l l according t o standards approved b y the Register.
b e t e s t e d a f t e r b e i n g c o n d i t i o n e d f o r 4 h a t 2 5 0 °C T h e scope o f non-destructive testing m a y be
(for a specimen w i t h a diameter o f 14 m m , t h e time reduced i f the quality stability o f rolled bars
is 2 h ) . T h r o u g h o u t t h e test u p t o t h e f r a c t u r e o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g is confirmed.
50 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.6.8 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . c o m p l y w i t h n a t i o n a l o r proprietary specifications,


Generally, t h e m a r k i n g shall be m a d e i n accor- m a y b e accepted b y t h e Register. I n t h i s case,
d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o c e d u r e specified i n 1.3.1.2, t h e
T h e m a r k i n g content shall allow the identifica- equivalence o fthese alternative requirements o r their
tion o f t h e supplied product a n d m a y be prescribed justification f o rthe given manufacture and/or appli-
b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r . I n t h i s case, as a m i n i m u m , t h e cation shall be confirmed t o t h e Register.
m a r k i n g shall indicate the grade a n d heat the rolled 3.7.1.4 S t e e l f o r g i n g s ( o r r o l l e d s t e e l w h e n u s e d
products belong to. i n s t e a d o f steel f o r g i n g s as specified i n 3.7.1.1) s h a l l
R o u n d bars u p t o a n d including 4 0 m m i n be m a d e b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r recognized b y t h e
diameter m a y be supplied i n bundles w i t h the R e g i s t e r i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.1.2. T h e steel u s e d i n
m a r k i n g a l l o w e d t o be m a d e o n labels (refer t o1.4). the manufacture o fthe forgings shall be made b y the
E a c h b a t c h o f steel f o r grade 2 , 3, R 3 ,R 3 S a n d process approved b y t h e Register. A d e q u a t e t o p a n d
R 4 cable chains shall be accompanied b y t h e Register b o t t o m discards ( o f a rolled blank) shall be m a d e t o
certificate o r t h e manufacturer's certificate witnessed ensure f r e e d o m f r o m p i p i n g a n d h a r m f u l segrega-
by t h e Register representative. T h e Register a n d tions i n the finished forgings.
manufacturer's certificate f o r m s shall correspond. 3.7.1.5 T h e p l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n ( r e d u c t i o n r a t i o )
T h e manufacturer's certificate shall c o n t a i n t h e shall be such as t o ensure soundness, u n i f o r m i t y o f
following data: structure a n d satisfactory mechanical properties after
certificate n u m b e r ; heat treatment. T h e reduction ratio shall be calcu-
order number; lated w i t h reference t o t h e average cross-sectional
h u l l n u m b e r o f ship o r floating facility; area o f t h e cast m a t e r i a l . W h e r e t h e cast m a t e r i a l is
rolled products quantity a n d dimensions, batch initially upset, the plastic d e f o r m a t i o n reached d u r i n g
weight; this operation m a ybe considered.
specification f o r steel, a n d c h a i n cable grade; Unless otherwise stipulated o r agreed t h e total
heat number; r e d u c t i o n r a t i o s h a l l b e a t least:
manufacturing methods; for forgings made f r o m ingot o r f r o m forged
chemical composition; b l o o m o r billet, using c o n t i n u o u s casting p l a n t — 3:1
procedure f o r sample heat treatment. w h e r e L>D a n d 1 , 5 : 1 w h e r e L^D;
I f needed, t h e test reports m a y be attached t o t h e for forgings made f r o m rolled products, 4:1
certificate. w h e r e L>D a n d 2 : 1 w h e r e L^D;
for forgings m a d e b y upsetting, t h e length after
upsetting shall be n o t m o r e than one-third o f the
3.7 S T E E L FORGINGS l e n g t h before u p s e t t i n g o r , i n t h e case o f a n i n i t i a l
f o r g i n g r e d u c t i o n o f a t least 1,5:1, n o t m o r e t h a n one-
3.7.1 General. half o f t h e length before upsetting;
3.7.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o for rolled bars, 6:1
steel f o r g i n g s i n t e n d e d f o r h u l l a n d m a c h i n e r y applica- where L a n d D are the length a n d diameter
tions such as rudder stocks, pintles, propeller a n d respectively o f t h e part o f t h e forging o r its part.
i n t e r m e d i a t e shafts, crankshafts, camshafts, c o n n e c t i n g 3.7.1.6 F o r c r a n k s h a f t s , w h e r e g r a i n f l o w i s
rods, piston rods, a n d other parts o f machinery a n d required i n the m o s t favourable direction i n regard
g e a r i n g set f o r t h i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e R u l e s a n d h a v i n g t o t h e m o d e o f stressing i n service, t h e pressure
respective references t o t h e present C h a p t e r . W h e r e shaping process shall be subject t o agreement b y t h e
relevant, these requirements a r e also applicable t o Register.
material for forging stock and t o rolled bars intended t o 3.7.1.7 T h e s h a p i n g o f f o r g i n g s o r r o l l e d s l a b s
be m a c h i n e d i n t o c o m p o n e n t s o f simple shape. a n d billets b y flame cutting, scarfing o r arc-air
3.7.1.2 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r e s e n t C h a p t e r gouging shall be carried o u t before t h e final heat
are applicable o n l y t o steel f o r g i n g s ( o r r o l l e d steel treatment. Preheating shall be employed w h e n
w h e n used i n s t e a d o f steel f o r g i n g s as specified i n necessitated b y t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d / o r thickness o f
3.7.1.1) w h e r e t h e designation is d e t e r m i n e d proceed- t h e steel. F o r c e r t a i n c o m p o n e n t s , s u b s e q u e n t m a -
ing f r o m the properties at ambient temperature. c h i n i n g o f a l l f l a m e c u t surfaces m a y be required.
Additional requirements for the forgings intended for 3.7.1.8 W h e n t w o o r m o r e f o r g i n g s a r e j o i n e d b y
service a t l o w o r elevated t e m p e r a t u r e s shall be welding t o form a composite component, the
specially d e t e r m i n e d i n e a c h case. chemical composition a n d welding procedure shall
3.7.1.3 A l t e r n a t i v e l y t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f be agreed b y t h e Register; w e l d i n g j o i n t s ' procedure
steel f o r g i n g s ( o r r o l l e d steel w h e n used i n s t e a d o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n tests m a y be r e q u i r e d .
steel f o r g i n g s as specified i n 3.7.1.1), forgings, w h i c h
P a r t XIII. Materials 51

3.7.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . 3.7.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
3.7.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t e e l f o r 3.7.3.1 T a b l e s 3 . 7 . 3 . 1 - 1 a n d 3 . 7 . 3 . 1 - 2 g i v e t h e
forgings s h a l l b e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e t y p e o f steel a n d m i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e R e g i s t e r f o r y i e l d stress,
the required m e c h a n i c a l a n d special properties o f t h e e l o n g a t i o n , r e d u c t i o n i n area a n d i m p a c t test energy
forgings being manufactured. values c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e different s t r e n g t h levels.
T h e f o r g i n g s s h a l l b e m a d e f r o m k i l l e d steel. W h e r e i t i s p r o p o s e d t o u s e a steel w i t h a
3.7.2.2 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f e a c h h e a t specified m i n i m u m tensile strength i n t e r m e d i a t e t o
shall be determined b yt h emanufacturer o na sample those given, corresponding m i n i m u m values required
taken preferably d u r i n g t h e p o u r i n g o f t h e heat. b y t h e Register f o r t h e o t h e r properties specified i n
W h e n m u l t i p l e heats are tapped i n t o a c o m m o n ladle, the above tables m a y be obtained b y i n t e r p o l a t i o n .
the ladle analysis shall apply. Forgings m a ybe used where their properties are
3.7.2.3 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s h a l l c o m p l y those established i n t h erelevant standards recognized
w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 3.7.2.3-1 ( f o r h u l l steel by t h e Register.
forgings) a n d T a b l e 3.7.2.3-2 ( f o r m a c h i n e r y steel 3.7.3.2 H a r d n e s s t e s t s m a y b e r e q u i r e d b y t h e
forgings) o r w i t h the requirements o f the specification Register o n the following:
agreed b y t h e Register. .1 g e a r f o r g i n g s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f h e a t t r e a t ­
3.7.2.4 I f n o t o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , g r a i n r e f i n i n g m e n t a n d p r i o r t o m a c h i n i n g t h e gear teeth.
elements such as a l u m i n i u m , n i o b i u m o r v a n a d i u m The hardness shall be determined a t four positions
may be added a t the discretion o f the manufacturer. equally spaced a r o u n d t h e circumference o f the surface
The content o fsuch elements shall be reported i n the w h e r e teeth w i l l subsequently be cut. W h e r e the finished
results o f t h e chemical analysis. d i a m e t e r o f t h e t o o t h e d p o r t i o n exceeds 2 , 5 m , t h e
3.7.2.5 E l e m e n t s d e s i g n a t e d a s r e s i d u a l e l e m e n t s a b o v e n u m b e r o f test p o s i t i o n s shall b e increased t o
shall n o t b e c o n t a i n e d i n steel i n great q u a n t i t y . T h e eight. W h e r e t h e w i d t h o f a gear w h e e l r i m f o r g i n g
content o f such elements shall be reported i nt h e exceeds 1,25 m , t h e h a r d n e s s s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d a t
results o f t h e chemical analysis. eight positions a t each e n d o f the forging;

1
T a b l e 3.7.2.3-1

Steel type С Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ni Cu 2
Total residuals

Carbon, carbon- 0,23 3 , 4


0,45 0,3 — 15 0,035 0,035 о.зо 2
0,15 2
0,40 2
0,30 0,85
manganese

Alloy 5
— 0,45 — 0,035 0,035 — — — 0,30 —

C o m p o s i t i o n i n percentage m a s s b y m a s s m a x i m u m u n l e s s s h o w n a s a range.
2
E l e m e n t isconsidered a sresidual element.
3
T h e c a r b o n c o n t e n t m a y b e i n c r e a s e d a b o v e t h i s l e v e l , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e c a r b o n e q u i v a l e n t ( C ) i s n o t m o r e t h a n 0 , 4 1 %,
e q

c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : С (%) = C + M n / 6 + ( C r + M o + V ) / 5 + ( N i + C u ) / 1 5 .
щ

" T h e c a r b o n c o n t e n t o f c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e s t e e l f o r g i n g s n o t i n t e n d e d f o r w e l d e d s t r u c t u r e s m a y b e 0,65 % m a x i m u m .
5
T h e c o n t e n t o fC , M n , C r , M o , N i a n d the total c o n t e n t o f residual elements shall b eindicated i n the specification t o b e submitted
for agreement.

N o t e . Shaft a n d rudder stocks forgings shall b eo f weldable quality.

1
T a b l e 3.7.2.3-2

Steel type С Si Mn P S Cr Mo Ni Cu 2
Total residuals

Carbon, carbon- 0,65 3


0,45 0,3 — 1,5 0,035 0,035 о.зо 2
0,15 2
0.40 2
0,30 0,85
manganese

Alloy 4
0,45 0,45 0,3 — 1,0 0,035 0,035 Min 0,40 5
M i n 0,15 s
Min 0,40 5
0,30 —

C o m p o s i t i o n i n percentage m a s s b y m a s s m a x i m u m u n l e s s s h o w n a s a range o r a s a m i n i m u m .
Element isconsidered a sresidual element.
T h e c a r b o n c o n t e n t o f c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e s t e e l f o r g i n g s i n t e n d e d f o r w e l d e d s t r u c t u r e s s h a l l b e 0,23 m a x i m u m . T h e
c a r b o n c o n t e n t m a y b e i n c r e a s e d a b o v e t h i s l e v e l , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e c a r b o n e q u i v a l e n t ( C ) i s n o t m o r e t h a n 0 , 4 1 %, c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g
e e

t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : C „ (%) = C + M n / 6 + ( C r + M o + V ) / 5 + ( N i + C u ) / 1 5 .
e

W h e r e alloy steel forgings a r eintended f o rw e l d e d structures, t h e p r o p o s e d chemical c o m p o s i t i o n shall b e indicated i n t h e


specification t o b esubmitted f o r agreement.
T h e content o fone o r m o r e o fthe specified elements shall c o m p l y with the m i n i m u m content.
52 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.7.3.1-1
M e c h a n i c a l properties for hull steel forgings

Steel type T e n s i l e s t r e n g t h R„„ Y i e l d stress Elongation A , min, %


5 Reduction i n area Z , min, %
min, M P a R , min, M P a
e

Longitudinal Tangential Longitudinal Tangential

Carbon, carbon- 400 200 26 19 50 35


manganese 440 220 24 18 50 35
480 240 22 16 45 30
520 260 21 15 45 30
560 280 20 14 40 27
600 300 18 13 40 27

Alloy 5
550 350 20 14 50 35
600 400 18 13 50 35
650 450 17 12 50 35
N o t e . T h e tensile strength values o b t a i n e d a ttensile testing shall n o texceed t h e s e t values b y m o r e t h a n :
120 M P a f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d Л < 6 0 0 M P a ;
т

150 M P a f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d Л > 6 0 0 M P a .
т

T a b l e 3.7.3.1-2
1
M e c h a n i c a l properties for machinery steel forgings

Steel type Tensile strength 2


Y i e l d stress Elongation A ,min, % 5 Reduction i n area Z , min, % Brinell
R , min, M P a
m R,., m i n , M P a hardness 3

Longitudinal Tangential Longitudinal Tangential

Carbon, carbon- 400 200 26 19 50 35 1 1 0 - - 150


manganese 440 220 24 18 50 35 1 2 5 - - 160
480 240 22 16 45 30 1 3 5 - - 175
520 260 21 15 45 30 1 5 0 - - 185
560 280 20 14 40 27 160--200
600 300 18 13 40 27 175--215
640 320 17 12 40 27 185--230
680 340 16 12 35 24 200--240
720 360 15 11 35 24 210--250
760 380 14 10 35 24 225 -- 2 6 5

Alloy 600 360 18 14 50 35 175--215


700 420 16 12 45 30 205 -- 2 4 5
800 480 14 10 40 27 235 -- 2 7 5
900 630 13 9 40 27 260--320
1000 700 12 8 35 24 290--365
1100 770 11 7 35 24 320--385
1
F o r propeller shaft forgings, except non-ice ships a n d ships w i t h ice category m a r k I c e l , i m p a c t tests for all steel grades shall b e
c a r r i e d o u t a t — 1 0 °C a n d t h e m i n i m u m r e q u i r e d a v e r a g e i m p a c t e n e r g y v a l u e K V o f 2 7 J ( l o n g i t u d i n a l s p e c i m e n ) . N o m o r e t h a n f o r o n e
o f t h r e e s p e c i m e n s t h e r e s u l t m a y b e b y 30 % b e l o w t h a n r e q u i r e d .
^ h e following r a n g e s f o rtensile strength m a y b e additionally specified:
the tensile strength values o b t a i n e d a ttensile testing shall n o texceed t h e following:
150 M P a f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d Л < 9 0 0 M P a ;
т

200 M P a f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d R > 9 0 0 M P a .
m
3
T h e hardness values are given for information purposes only.

.2 s m a l l c r a n k s h a f t a n d g e a r f o r g i n g s , w h i c h h a v e have been g r o u n d t o the finished profile. T h e results


been b a t c h tested. o f s u c h tests shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n
I n s u c h cases a t least o n e h a r d n e s s test shall b e agreed a n d recognized b y t h e Register (refer t o
carried o u t o n each forging. 3.7.4.6).
T h e results o f h a r d n e s s tests shall b e r e p o r t e d t o 3.7.3.3 W h e r e t h e t e s t r e s u l t s a r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
the representative o f t h e Register. C o r r e s p o n d i n g re-testing shall be conducted i n accordance w i t h
Brinell hardness values a r e given i n T a b l e 3.7.3.1-2 1.3.2.3.
for information purposes. 3.7.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t ( i n c l u d i n g s u r f a c e h a r d e n i n g
H a r d n e s s tests m a y also b e r e q u i r e d o n forgings, and straightening).
which have been induction hardened, nitrided o r 3.7.4.1 A l l t h e f o r g i n g s s h a l l b e s u i t a b l y h e a t
c a r b u r i z e d . F o r gear forgings these tests shall be treated t o obtain the required mechanical properties
carried o u t o n t h e teeth after, w h e r e applicable, they and m e t a l structure, a n d t o refine t h e grain structure.
P a r t XIII. Materials 53

The procedure o f heat treatment shall b e chosen b y time o f conditioning. T h erecords shall b e presented
the manufacturer proceeding f r o m t h e chemical to t h e Register o n request.
c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel, t h e p u r p o s e a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f 3.7.5 S a m p l i n g .
the forging. 3.7.5.1 T h e s a m p l e , s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e r e q u i r e d t e s t s
3.7.4.2 E x c e p t a s p r o v i d e d i n 3 . 7 . 4 . 7 a n d 3 . 7 . 4 . 8 a n d f o r possible retest purposes, shall b e p r o v i d e d w i t h
forgings shall b e supplied i n o n e o fthe following a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f n o t less t h a n t h a t p a r t o f t h e
conditions: forging, w h i c h i t represents. T h i s sample shall b e
.1 c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e steels: integral w i t h each forging except as p r o v i d e d i n
fully annealed; 3.7.6.1.10 a n d 3.7.6.1.13. W h e r e batch testing is
normalized; p e r m i t t e d according t o 3.7.6.1.13, t h e sample m a y
normalized a n d tempered; alternatively be a p r o d u c t i o n part o r separately forged.
quenched a n d tempered; S e p a r a t e l y f o r g e d s a m p l e s h a l l h a v e d i m e n s i o n s n o t less
.2 a l l o y s t e e l s : t h a n those o fthe forgings represented.
quenched a n d tempered. 3.7.5.2 G e n e r a l l y , a t e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n a n d ,
T h e t e m p e r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n w h e n r e q u i r e d , a set o f i m p a c t tests specimens s h a l l
5 5 0 °C. W h e r e f o r g i n g s f o r g e a r i n g a r e n o t i n t e n d e d be c u t f r o m a sample.
for surface hardening, l o w e r t e m p e r i n g temperature 3.7.5.3 T e s t s p e c i m e n s s h a l l n o r m a l l y b e c u t w i t h
may beallowed. their axes either m a i n l y parallel ( l o n g i t u d i n a l test) o r
3.7.4.3 A l l o y s t e e l f o r g i n g s m a y b e s u p p l i e d i n t h e m a i n l y t a n g e n t i a l (tangential test) t o t h e p r i n c i p a l
n o r m a l i z e d a n d t e m p e r e d c o n d i t i o n . I n each case t h e axial direction o feach product.
specifications f o r forgings shall b e agreed b y t h e U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e agreed, l o n g i t u d i n a l test speci­
Register a n d c o n f i r m e d b y t h e results o f c o n t r o l tests mens shall becut t h e following way:
w h e n necessary. .1 f o r t h i c k n e s s o r d i a m e t e r u p t o m a x i m u m
3.7.4.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n 50 m m , t h e a x i s s h a l l b e a t t h e m i d - t h i c k n e s s o r t h e
properly equipped furnaces, w h i c h have adequate center o f t h e cross section;
means f o r temperature recording. T h efurnace shall .2 f o r t h i c k n e s s o r d i a m e t e r g r e a t e r t h a n 5 0 m m ,
provide therequired quality o foperation a n d proper the axis shall b e a t one-quarter thickness (1/4 o f t h e
level o f c o n t r o l over t h e process regardless o f f o r g i n g d i a m e t e r ) o r 8 0 m m , w h i c h e v e r i s less, b e l o w a n y
d i m e n s i o n s . I n t h e case o f v e r y large forgings, o r l a c k heat-treated surface.
o f the required equipment methods o f heat treatment 3.7.6 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g .
w i l l b e specially considered b y t h e Register o n a 3.7.6.1 F o r g i n g s s h a l l b e s u b m i t t e d f o r t e s t i n g
separate request. individually o r i n batches. Except as p r o v i d e d i n
3.7.4.5 I f f o r a n y r e a s o n s a f o r g i n g i s s u b s e ­ 3.7.6.13 t h e n u m b e r a n d d i r e c t i o n o f tests s h a l l
quently heated f o r further h o t working, t h e forging correspond t o t h e listed below:
shall b ereheat treated. .1 h u l l f o r g i n g s ( s u c h a s r u d d e r s t o c k s , p i n t l e s ,
3.7.4.6 W h e r e i t i s i n t e n d e d t o s u r f a c e h a r d e n etc) a n d general m a c h i n e r y c o m p o n e n t s (such as
forgings, t h e proposed procedure a n d specification shafting, c o n n e c t i n g rods, etc.):
shall b e agreed b y t h e Register. T h e results o f tests t o one sample shall be taken f r o m t h e e n d o f each
verify t h e u n i f o r m i t y a n d depth o f surface layer shall forging i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l direction except that, a t t h e
be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Register. discretion o f the manufacturer, t h e alternative direc­
3.7.4.7 W h e r e i n d u c t i o n h a r d e n i n g o r n i t r i d i n g tions o r positions as s h o w n i n F i g . 3.7.6.1.1-1,
shall b ecarried out, forgings shall b eheat treated a t 3.7.6.1.1-2 a n d 3.7.6.1.1-3 m a y b e used.
an appropriate stage a n d c o n d i t i o n suitable f o r this A
subsequent surface hardening.
3.7.4.8 W h e r e c a r b u r i z i n g s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t ,
forgings shall b eheat treated a t a n appropriate stage
(generally either b y full annealing o rb y n o r m a l i z i n g
В
and tempering) a n d condition providing the required
level o fmechanical properties a n d hardening. Fig. 3.7.6.1.1-1
3.7.4.9 I f a f o r g i n g i s l o c a l l y r e h e a t e d o r a n y
В (through bolt hole)
straightening o p e r a t i o n is p e r f o r m e d after t h e final
heat treatment, i t shall b e heat treated t o relive t h e
s u b s e q u e n t stress.
3.7.4.10 T h e f o r g e s h a l l m a i n t a i n r e c o r d s o f h e a t
t r e a t m e n t identifying conditions, t h e furnace used,
С
furnace charge, t i m e o f charging, temperatures a n d F i g . 3.7.6.1.1-2
54 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

.5 g e a r w h e e l r i m f o r g i n g s ( m a d e b y e x p a n d i n g ) :
one sample shall be taken f r o m each forging i n a
t a n g e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.5
(position A o r B);
A

F i g . 3.7.6.1.1-3

w h e r e a f o r g i n g exceeds b o t h 4 t i nm a s s a n d 3 m
in length, o n e sample shall be taken f r o m each end.
These limits refer t o t h e "as forged" mass a n d length
but excluding t h e sample material;
.2 p i n i o n f o r g i n g s :
where t h e finished machined diameter o f the
t o o t h e d p o r t i o n exceeds 200 m m , o n e sample shall be F i g . 3.7.6.1.5
taken f r o m each forging i n a tangential direction
adjacent t o t h e toothed p o r t i o n according t o
F i g . 3.7.6.1.2 ( p o s i t i o n B ) . W h e r e t h e d i m e n s i o n s w h e r e t h e finished diameter exceeds 2,5 m o r t h e
preclude sampling f r o m position B , sample i n a m a s s (as heat treated e x c l u d i n g test m a t e r i a l ) exceeds
tangential direction shall be taken according t o 3 tonnes, t w o samples shall be taken f r o m diame­
F i g . 3.7.6.1.2 ( p o s i t i o n C ) ; trically opposite p o s i t i o n s according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.5
(positions A a n d B).
T h e m e c h a n i c a l properties m a y as w e l l b e
d e t e r m i n e d o n l o n g i t u d i n a l test specimens;
.6 p i n i o n s l e e v e f o r g i n g s :
one sample shall be taken f r o m each forging i n a
tangential direction according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.6
F i g . 3.7.6.1.2 (position A o r B);

i f however, t h e j o u r n a l diameter is 2 0 0 m m o r A
z
less, t h e s a m p l e s h a l l b e t a k e n i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l
d i r e c t i o n according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.2 ( p o s i t i o n A ) ;
where the finished length o fthe toothed portion
exceeds 1,25m, o n e sample shall be t a k e n f r o m each
end;
.3 s m a l l p i n i o n f o r g i n g s :
w h e r e t h e diameter o f t h e t o o t h e d p o r t i o n is F i g . 3.7.6.1.6
2 0 0 m m o r less, o n e s a m p l e s h a l l b e t a k e n i n a
l o n g i t u d i n a l d i r e c t i o n according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.2
(position A ) ; w h e r e t h e f i n i s h e d l e n g t h exceeds 1,25 m , o n e
.4 g e a r w h e e l f o r g i n g s : sample shall be taken f r o m each end;
one sample shall be taken f r o m each forging i n a .7 c r a n k w e b forgings:
tangential direction according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.4 one sample shall be taken f r o m each forging i n a
(position A o r B); tangential direction;
.8 s o l i d - f o r g e d c r a n k s h a f t s :
A- one sample shall be taken i n a longitudinal

'jjjjljp
direction f r o m t h e d r i v i n g shaft e n d ( f r o m coupling)
o f each f o r g i n g a c c o r d i n g t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.8 (posi­
в- tion A ) ;
w h e r e t h e m a s s (as heat treated b u t e x c l u d i n g test
m a t e r i a l ) exceeds 3 tonnes, o n e sample i n a l o n g ­
F i g . 3.7.6.1.4
itudinal direction shall be taken f r o m each e n d
according t o F i g . 3.7.6.1.8 (positions A a n d B ) ;
P a r t XIII. Materials 55

A (from coupling end) .13 n o r m a l i z e d f o r g i n g s w i t h a m a s s u p t o 1 0 0 0 k g


f •- в each a n d quenched a n d tempered forgings w i t h mass
u p t o 500 k g each m a y b e b a t c h tested. A b a t c h shall
L consist o f forgings o f similar shape a n d dimensions,
m a d e f r o m t h e s a m e h e a t o f steel, h e a t t r e a t e d i n t h e
same furnace charge a n d w i t h a total mass n o t
F i g . 3.7.6.1.8 exceeding 6 t f o r n o r m a l i z e d forgings a n d 3 t f o r
quenched a n d tempered forgings, respectively;
.14 a b a t c h t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e m a y a l s o b e u s e d
where, however, t h ecrankthrows are formed b y for h o t r o l l e d bars. B a t c h q u a n t i t y is determined
m a c h i n i n g o r flame cutting, t h e second sample shall b e proceeding f r o m the following:
taken i n a tangential direction f r o m material removed .14.1 m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e s a m e r o l l e d i n g o t o r
f r o m the c r a n k t h r o w a t the e n d opposite the driving b l o o m p r o v i d e d that these a r e a l l heat treated i n t h e
shaft e n d ( f r o m coupling) according t o p o s i t i o n C ; same furnace charge;
.9 f o r g i n g s w i t h g r a i n f l o w i n t h e m o s t f a v o r a b l e .14.2 b a r s o f t h e s a m e d i a m e t e r a n d h e a t , h e a t -
direction w h e r e the m e t h o d o f m a n u f a c t u r e is subject t o treated i nt h e same furnace charge a n d w i t h a total
a p p r o v a l b y t h e Register i n accordance w i t h 3.7.1.6: mass n o t exceeding 2,5 t ;
the n u m b e r a n d position o f samples shall be .15 t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t s p e c i m e n s a n d t e s t i n g
agreed i n t h e course o f a p p r o v a l o f respective procedures shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e relevant require­
procedure a n d recognition o f the manufacturer; ments o f Section 2.
.10 w h e n a f o r g i n g i s s u b s e q u e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o a U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e agreed, a l l tests shall b e c a r r i e d
n u m b e r o fcomponents, all o fw h i c h are heat treated out i n t h e presence o f t h e Register representative.
together i n t h e s a m e furnace charge, f o r test purposes 3.7.7 I n s p e c t i o n .
this m a ybe regarded as o n e forging a n d t h e n u m b e r 3.7.7.1 A l l f o r g i n g s s h a l l b e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e
o f tests r e q u i r e d shall b e related t o t h e t o t a l l e n g t h Register representative f o r visual testing including,
and mass o fthe original multiple forging; w h e r e necessary, t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l surfaces
.11 e x c e p t f o r c o m p o n e n t s , w h i c h s h a l l b e a n d bores. Unless otherwise agreed, t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f
carburized, o r f o rh o l l o w forgings samples shall n o t dimensions is t h e responsibility o f the Manufacturer.
be c u t f r o m a f o r g i n g u n t i l a l l heat t r e a t m e n t h a s T h e f o r g i n g s s h a l l b e free f r o m defects, w h i c h
been completed; w o u l d be prejudicial t o their proper application.
.12 w h e n f o r g i n g s s h a l l b e c a r b u r i z e d , t h e s a m p l e 3.7.7.2 W h e n r e q u i r e d b y t h e r e l e v a n t p a r t s o f t h e
size s h a l l p r o v i d e f o r b o t h p r e l i m i n a r y tests ( a f t e r t h e Rules o r b y t h e Register approved technical doc­
forge) a n d f o r f i n a l tests (after c o m p l e t i o n o f umentation, the forgings, including forged composite
carburizing). F o r this purpose duplicate sample shall components, w h i c h shall b e welded (refer t o 3.7.1.8),
be t a k e n f r o m p o s i t i o n s as detailed i n 3.7.6.1, except appropriate non-destructive testing shall also be
that irrespective o f t h e dimensions o r mass o f t h e carried o u t . T h eresults shall be reported t o t h e
f o r g i n g , tests a r e r e q u i r e d f r o m o n e p o s i t i o n o n l y Register representative a n d included i n a relevant
a n d , i n t h e case o f f o r g i n g s w i t h i n t e g r a l j o u r n a l s , quality document o f the manufacturer o n a forging o r
shall be c u t i n t h e longitudinal direction. batch. Recommendations o n approval o f technical
Samples shall be machined t o a diameter o f D / 4 documentation a n d o n non-destructive testing are
o r 6 0 m m , w h i c h e v e r i s less, w h e r e D i s t h e f i n i s h e d given i n 2.5,Part I I I "Technical Supervision during
diameter o f the toothed portion. Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for Technical
F o r p r e l i m i n a r y tests (after t h e forge) t h e samples Supervision during Construction o f Ships a n d
shall be given a blank carburizing a n dheat treatment M a n u f a c t u r e o f Materials a n d Products f o r Ships.
cycle s i m u l a t i n g t h a t w h i c h subsequently w i l l be The scope o ftesting a n d acceptance criteria shall
a p p l i e d t o t h e f o r g i n g . F o r f i n a l acceptance tests, t h e be agreed w i t h t h e Register.
rest o f samples shall b e b l a n k - c a r b u r i z e d a n d heat- 3.7.7.3 W h e n s u r f a c e h a r d e n i n g o f f o r g i n g s i s
treated a l o n g w i t h t h e forgings, w h i c h they represent. required (refer t o 3.7.4.6), a d d i t i o n a l samples m a y b e
A t t h e discretion o f t h e forge o r gear manufacturer, selected a t t h e t i m e o f i n s p e c t i o n . T h e s e samples s h a l l
test samples o f larger cross section m a y either b e be subsequently sectioned i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e
carburized o r blank-carburized, b u t these shall be hardness, shape, area a n d depth o f the locally hardened
machined t o the required diameter prior t o the final zone a n d w h i c h shall comply w i t h the requirements o f
quenching a n d tempering heat treatment. the Register approved documentation.
Alternative procedures for testing t h e forgings t o 3.7.7.4 I n t h e e v e n t o f a n y f o r g i n g p r o v i n g
be c a r b u r i z e d a r e subject t o t h e a p p r o v a l b y Register defective i n accordance w i t h t h e R u l e s o r Register
as p a r t o f t h e s u b m i t t e d d o c u m e n t a t i o n ; approved documentation during subsequent machin-
56 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

ing o r testing, i t shall be rejected n o t w i t h s t a n d i n ga n y results o f non-destructive testing, w h e r e applicable;


available covering d o c u m e n t s a n d certificates. details o f heat treatment, including temperature
3.7.7.5 I t i s p e r m i t t e d t o r e m o v e s u r f a c e d e f e c t s and time o f conditioning.
by grinding o r chipping a n dgrinding within mechan-
ical allowances. T h e resulting grooves shall have a
b o t t o m radius o f approximately three times the 3.8 S T E E L CASTINGS
groove depth. Sharp contours are n o t permitted.
C o m p l e t e e l i m i n a t i o n o f defective m a t e r i a l shall be 3.8.1 G e n e r a l .
verified b y magnetic particle o r penetrant testing. 3.8.1.1 S t e e l c a s t i n g s s u b j e c t t o s u r v e y b y t h e
3.7.7.6 R e p a i r w e l d i n g o f f o r g i n g s i s d e f i n e d b y Register, w h e n produced i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e relevant
the forgings documentation approved b y the Regis- parts o f t h e R u l e s , shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d tested i n
ter. P r o c e d u r e a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e repair, subsequent accordance w i t h t h e requirements stated below.
heat treatment a n d inspection methods a n d criteria 3.8.1.2 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o
shall, f o r each case, b e e n t e r e d i n t o a separate c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e steel castings used i n
document a n d approved b y the Register. h u l l a n d ship m a c h i n e r y structures, t h e purpose o f
3.7.7.7 T h e f o r g i n g m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l m a i n t a i n w h i c h shall be established proceeding f r o m their
records o f repairs a n d subsequent inspections, w h i c h properties determined at r o o m temperature.
results shall be s h o w n i n a d r a w i n g o r sketch o f t h e 3.8.1.3 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c a s t i n g s t o b e u s e d
forging. Respective i n f o r m a t i o nshall be submitted t o at l o w a n d h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e , as w e l l as a l l o y steel
the Register representative a t t h e latter's request. castings w i t h special properties ( c o r r o s i o n resistance,
3.7.8 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d m a r k i n g . h e a t resistance, h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e o x i d a t i o n resis-
3.7.8.1 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o f f o r g i n g s s h a l l a d o p t a tance, etc.) s h a l l b e d e f i n e d b y t h e p r o d u c t designer i n
system o f identification, w h i c h w i l l enable a l l finished accordance w i t h the national/international standards
forgings, a t t h e stage o f b e i n g s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Register, and thereafter approved b y t h e Register. T h e docu-
to b e traced t o t h e o r i g i n a l cast, a n d t h e d a t a p e r t i n e n t ments submitted t o the Register f o r approval shall
to t h e process o f a particular forging (batch) m a n u - contain detailed i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e chemical c o m -
facture, w h i c h shall be recorded d u r i n g t h e above position, m e c h a n i c a l a n d special properties, heat
process, including heat t r e a t m e n t a n d repair, shall be t r e a t m e n t procedures a n d scope o f testing t h e
presented t o t h e Register representative o n request. castings.
3.7.8.2 A l l f o r g i n g s s h a l l b e c l e a r l y m a r k e d i n a 3.8.1.4 W h e n t w o o r m o r e c a s t i n g s a r e j o i n e d b y
specified place a n d i n a specified m a n n e r w i t h t h e welding t o form a composite item, the chemical
Register s t a m p o r b r a n d t o include a t least t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel a n d t h e w e l d i n g p r o c e d u r e a r e
following particulars: subject t o a p p r o v a l b y t h e Register.
manufacturer's name o r trade m a r k ; 3.8.1.5 T h e c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d a t
identification number o r other marking, w h i c h w o r k s r e c o g n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o 1.3.1.2 i n c o n f o r m i t y
will enable t h e full history o ft h e forging t o be traced; w i t h the procedure approved b y the Register. U s e o f
steel grade. surface h a r d e n i n g i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n process shall be
3.7.8.3 W h e r e s m a l l f o r g i n g s a r e m a n u f a c t u r e d i n also agreed w i t h t h e Register.
large numbers, m o d i f i e d arrangements f o r identifica- 3.8.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
t i o n m a y be specially agreed b y t h e Register. 3.8.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r
3.7.8.4 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r c e r t i f i c a t e t o b e s u b - t y p e o f steel w i l l b e established p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e
mitted t o the Register representative shall include the mechanical a n d special properties required. T h e
following particulars: castings s h a l l b e m a d e f r o m k i l l e d steel.
purchaser's n a m e a n d order number; 3.8.2.2 F o r c a r b o n a n d c a r b o n - m a n g a n e s e s t e e l
steel grade a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f forgings; castings t h e chemical c o m p o s i t i o n o f ladle samples
identification number; shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e requirements o f T a b l e 3.8.2.2
steel m e l t i n g process, cast n u m b e r a n d c h e m i c a l and/or o f t h e documents (specifications, standards,
c o m p o s i t i o n as p e r t h e ladle analysis; etc.) agreed w i t h t h e Register.
results o f m e c h a n i c a l tests; 3.8.2.3 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e d , s u i t a b l e g r a i n -
refining elements m a y be used a t t h ediscretion o f the
T a b l e 3.8.2.2

Steel Application c, Si, Mn, max s, P, Residual elements, m a x Total number o f


grade max max max max residual elements
Cu Cr Ni Mo

Carbon, Non-welded structures 0,40 0,60 0,50 — 1,60 0,040 0,040 0,30 0,30 0,40 0,15 0,80
carbon-manganese Welded structures 0,23 0,60 1,60 0,040 0,040 0,30 0,30 0,40 0,15 0,80
P a r t XIII. Materials 57

manufacturer. T h e content o f such elements shall be readings shall be submitted t o t h e Register represen-
reported i n t h e ladle analysis. tative o n his demand.
3.8.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . 3.8.4.3 I n c a s e w h e r e s t e e l c a s t i n g a f t e r f i n a l h e a t
3.8.3.1 T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e d o f s t e e l c a s t - t r e a t m e n t is subjected t o local heating o r t o opera-
ings shall meet t h e requirements o f T a b l e 3.8.3.1 tions producing additional strain, heat treatment m a y
and/or o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n approved b y t h e Register. be r e q u i r e d t o r e l i e v e r e s i d u a l stress.
T a b l e 3.8.3.1 g i v e m i n i m u m v a l u e s o f y i e l d stress, 3.8.5 S a m p l i n g .
elongation a n d reduction i n area established depend- 3.8.5.1 S a m p l i n g m a y b e e f f e c t e d d i r e c t l y f r o m
ing o n t h e required level o f t h e tensile strength values the casting o r t h e test samples m a y be cast t o i t . T h e y
f o r t h e steel castings. s h a l l h a v e a t h i c k n e s s n o t less t h a n 3 0 m m .
T a b l e 3.8.3.1 T h e use o f separately cast samples is permitted, i n
w h i c h case t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e sample s h a l l
Tensile strength Y i e l d stress Re E l o n g a t i o n A ,
H 5 Reduction in
R , m i n , M P a o r Rpoa, M p
% area Z , %
correspond t o the casting dimensions.
m a
3.8.5.2 W h e r e t w o o r m o r e s a m p l e s s h a l l b e
400 200 25 40
p r o v i d e d f o r a casting they shall be cast a t locations
440 220 22 30
480 240 20 27 as w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d a s p o s s i b l e .
520 260 18 25 3.8.5.3 T h e s a m p l e s s h a l l b e h e a t t r e a t e d t o g e t h e r
560 300 15 20 w i t h t h e castings, w h i c h they represent.
600 320 13 20
3.8.5.4 T h e s i z e o f s a m p l e s s h a l l b e s u c h a s t o
N o t e s : 1 . M i n i m u m y i e l d s t r e s s v a l u e 250 M P a i s ensure t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f tests i n c l u d i n g re-tests, i f
allowed.
2. F o r i n t e r m e d i a t e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h v a l u e s , t h e m i n i m u m required. A l l samples shall be identified.
values o f yield stress, e l o n g a t i o n a n d reduction i n area m a y b e 3.8.6 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g .
determined b ylinear interpolation.
3.8.6.1 A t l e a s t o n e s a m p l e s h a l l b e p r o v i d e d f o r
each casting. W h e r e o n ecasting is m a d e f r o m several
casts ( w i t h o u t m i x i n g ) t h e n u m b e r o f samples s h a l l be
3.8.3.2 W h e r e t e n s i l e t e s t r e s u l t s a r e u n s a t i s f a c - e q u a l t o t h e n u m b e r o f casts i n v o l v e d . T h e c o n d i t i o n
tory, retesting shall be conducted i n compliance w i t h o f 3.8.5.2 s h a l l b e m e t i n t h i s case.
the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.8.6.4. W h e r e the casting is o f complex design o r where
3.8.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t . the finished mass exceeds 1 0 t , a t least t w o samples
3.8.4.1 T o e n s u r e t h e r e q u i r e d s t r u c t u r e a n d shall be provided.
mechanical properties t h e castings shall undergo heat 3.8.6.2 A b a t c h t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e m a y b e a d o p t e d
treatment. T h eprocedure o f heat treatment shall be f o r castings. A b a t c h shall consist o f castings o f
chosen b y the manufacturer proceeding f r o m the a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e size a n d s h a p e m a d e f r o m
c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f steel, t h e p u r p o s e a n d shape one cast a n d heat treated i n t h e same furnace charge
o f t h e castings. T h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s shall be a n d h a v i n g t h e t o t a l m a s s e q u a l t o o r less t h a n 1 0 0 0 k g .
observed: Such batch m a y be represented b y o n e o f the
t h e t e m p e r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n castings considered as a sample o r b y a separately
5 0 0 °C; cast sample, t h e dimensions o f w h i c h shall corre-
t h e stress r e l i e f h e a t t r e a t m e n t o f castings f o r spond t o t h e castings c o m p r i s i n g t h e batch.
c o m p o n e n t s such as crankshafts a n d engine bedplates 3.8.6.3 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , a t l e a s t o n e
where dimensional stability a n d freedom f r o m inter- tensile test specimen shall be t a k e n f r o m each sample.
n a l stresses a r e i m p o r t a n t , s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t a t a T e s t specimens s h a l l b e p r e p a r e d a n d t h e tests
t e m p e r a t u r e o f n o t l e s s t h a n 5 5 0 °C f o l l o w e d b y conducted i n conformity w i t h the requirements o f
f u r n a c e c o o l i n g t o 3 0 0 °C o r l o w e r ; S e c t i o n 2 . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e stated, tests s h a l l be
if a casting is reheated o r a n y straightening conducted i n t h e presence o f the Register representative.
operation is performed after the final heat treatment, 3.8.6.4 W h e r e t h e t e n s i l e t e s t s y i e l d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
a s u b s e q u e n t stress r e l i e v i n g h e a t t r e a t m e n t m a y be results t h e tests s h a l l b e repeated o n t w o a d d i t i o n a l
required. specimens preferably c u t o u t f r o m t h e same sample.
3.8.4.2 A s a r u l e , t h e s t e e l c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e I n case t h e c u t t i n g o u t o f a d d i t i o n a l specimens f r o m
supplied i n the following condition: the same sample is n o t possible, specimens m a y be
completely annealed; cut o u t f r o m other sample o r casting.
after n o r m a l i z i n g ; W h e r e t h e tests c a r r i e d o u t o n t w o a d d i t i o n a l
after n o r m a l i z i n g a n d tempering; specimens yield satisfactory results, t h e casting a n d t h e
after quenching a n d tempering. b a t c h i f represented b y t h e casting shall be accepted.
A l l necessary data o n t h e heat t r e a t m e n t process W h e r e t h e test result o n a t least o n e o f t w o
including procedures a n d appropriate instrument additional specimens is unsatisfactory, t h e casting
58 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

s u b m i t t e d shall be rejected. H o w e v e r , t h e r e m a i n i n g T h e procedure o f repair a n d subsequent inspec-


semi-finished products o f t h e batch m a y be accepted t i o n i n c l u d i n g , i f necessary, w e l d i n g is subject t o
b y t h e Register, p r o v i d e d t h a t satisfactory test results agreement w i t h t h e Register. A l l w o r k shall be
are o b t a i n e d o n t w o m o r e castings c o m p r i s i n g t h e performed b y the qualified personnel.
b a t c h i n v o l v e d . W h e r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y test results a r e Repair welding shall be performed w i t h the use o f
o b t a i n e d o n o n e o f t w o a d d i t i o n a l l y selected castings, welding consumables recognized b y t h e Register,
the entire b a t c h shall be rejected. w h i c h ensure properties o f t h e deposited m e t a l n o t
A t the manufacturer's discretion, the batch o r inferior t h a n those o f t h e casting metal.
casting rejected m a y b e s u b m i t t e d t o re-tests o n t h e O n c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e repair w e l d i n g , t h e castings
same conditions after repeated heat treatment. shall be subjected t o heat t r e a t m e n t t o relieve residual
3.8.6.5 W h e r e r e l e v a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s s h a l l b e s t r e s s a t t e m p e r a t u r e n o t l o w e r t h a n 5 5 0 °C. T h e t y p e
f o u n d i n o t h e r parts o f t h e Rules, t h e castings shall and procedure o fheat treatment depends o n the type
be subjected t o a d d i t i o n a l tests, s u c h as pressure tests. a n d n a t u r e o f repair w o r k p e r f o r m e d p r e v i o u s l y as
W h e r e u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l tests, o w i n g t o w e l l a s o n t h e m a t e r i a l a n d size o f t h e castings.
m a c h i n i n g o f t h e castings o r as a result o f a n y Refusal t o carry o u t the above postweld heat
s t r u c t u r a l tests a defect is f o u n d , w h i c h interferes t r e a t m e n t is generally acceptable f o r s m a l l scopes o f
w i t h t h euse o fcasting f o rits designated purpose, the repair.
batch shall be rejected irrespective o f t h e availability 3.8.7.6 U p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e p a i r w e l d i n g o f
o f t h e relevant certificates. the castings, t h e m a g n e t i c particle o r penetrant
3.8.7 I n s p e c t i o n . testing shall be carried o u t . A d d i t i o n a l ultrasonic o r
3.8.7.1 T h e c a s t i n g s s u b m i t t e d f o r i n s p e c t i o n a n d radiographic testing m a y be required depending o n
c o n t r o l testing shall be cleaned, de-gated, free o f t h e n a t u r e a n d size o f s u r f a c e defects detected.
risers a n d burrs, etc. Testing criteria a r e also subject t o agreement w i t h
T h e castings s h a l l b e free f r o m defects, w h i c h the Register.
w o u l d be prejudicial t o their proper application i n 3.8.7.7 A l l r e p a i r w o r k s a n d t h e i r r e s u l t s s h a l l b e
service. documented a n d available f o rt h e Register represen-
U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e responsibility f o r tative.
fulfilment o f the requirements f o rdimensions o f the 3.8.8 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
castings shall be i m p o s e d o n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t h e 3.8.8.1 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t h e c a s t i n g s s h a l l
castings. have a n identification system, w h i c h enables t o
3.8.7.2 W h e r e r e l e v a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s s h a l l b e identify t h e casting w i t h t h e ladle a t a stage o f
found i n other parts o f the Rules o r following the submission t o t h e Register, while u p o n t h e request o f
instructions o f a S u r v e y o r t h e castings shall u n d e r g o the Register representative, the manufacturer shall
non-destructive testing. T h e testing procedure a n d present t h e data, recorded i n course o f manufacture
t h e a l l o w a n c e s f o r defects s h a l l b e i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h referred t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n process o f a particular
d o c u m e n t a t i o n approved b y t h e Register. R e c o m - casting, o r a batch, including t h e r m a l treatment a n d
mendations o n approval o f technical documentation repair.
and o n non-destructive testing are given i n 2.5, 3.8.8.2 E v e r y c a s t i n g s h a l l h a v e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e
Part III "Technical Supervision during Manufacture stamp o r brand o f the Register m a r k e d b y the
o f Materials" o fthe Rules f o rTechnical Supervision specified m e t h o d a n d i n specified l o c a t i o n , a n d , a t
during Construction o f Ships a n d Manufacture o f least, s h a l l c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g data:
Materials a n d Products f o r Ships. name o r designation o f the manufacturer;
3.8.7.3 S u r f a c e d e f e c t s l y i n g w i t h i n m a c h i n i n g n u m b e r o r other m a r k i n g , w h i c h enables t o
allowances m a y be r e m o v e d b y m a c h i n i n g . identify t h e presented m a t e r i a l a n d t h e process o f
3.8.7.4 D e f e c t s m a y b e r e p a i r e d b y w e l d i n g i n its p r o d u c t i o n ;
accordance w i t h 2.6.3, P a r t X I V " W e l d i n g " . P r i o r t o grade o r m a r k o f steel.
c a r r y i n g o u t w e l d repairs o f large-sized defects, a l l o y 3.8.8.3 W h e r e s m a l l c a s t i n g s a r e m a n u f a c t u r e d i n
steel castings, castings f o r c r a n k s h a f t s a n d f o r o t h e r large n u m b e r s t h e castings i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system m a y
m a i n components shall be pre-heated i n accordance be agreed w i t h t h e Register separately.
w i t h 3.8.4; i f r e q u i r e d b y t h e S u r v e y o r , t h e w e l d e d 3.8.8.4 M a n u f a c t u r e r c e r t i f i c a t e , s u b m i t t e d t o t h e
spots shall be subjected t o non-destructive testing. Register representative, shall contain t h e following
3.8.7.5 T h e s i z e , n u m b e r o f d e f e c t s a c c e p t e d data:
u n c o r r e c t e d as w e l l as o f defects t o b e corrected s h a l l name o f purchaser a n d n u m b e r o f purchase
be established b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d agreed w i t h order;
the customer. grade, ( m a r k ) o f steel, t y p e o f casting;
P a r t XIII. Materials 59

identification number; U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o -


steel m e l t i n g process, cast n u m b e r a n d c h e m i c a l sition o f ladle analysis shall be reported.
c o m p o s i t i o n as p e r t h e ladle analysis; 3.9.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
m e c h a n i c a l test results; 3.9.3.1 T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e c a s t i n g s
non-destructive testing results, i f necessary; s h a l l c o n f o r m t o T a b l e 3.9.3.1.
heat treatment type, including temperature a n d
T a b l e 3.9.3.1
time o fconditioning. Mechanical properties a n d structure o f nodular graphite iron
Tensile Yield Elon- Brinell Impact energy Struc-
1
strength R , m stress gation hard- ture 3

3.9 S P H E R O I D A L O R N O D U L A R G R A P H I T E IRON min, M P a As, ness


CASTINGS min, min,
MPa % Test 2
KV ,
tempe- min, J
rature,
3.9.1 G e n e r a l . °C
3.9.1.1 A s d e f i n e d i n t h e r e l e v a n t p a r t s o f t h e Normal 370 230 17 120-180 — —
Rules, a l l spheroidal o r nodular graphite iron quality
castings subject t o survey b y t h e Register d u r i n g 400 250 15 140 - 200 — — Ferrite
their m a n u f a c t u r e shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d a r e tested i n
500 320 7 170 - 240 — — Ferrite/
accordance w i t h the requirements o f the following
Perlite
paragraphs. I f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a n d 3.1.2 a r e 600 370 3 190-270 — — Ferrite/
followed, castings m a y be m a n u f a c t u r e d according t o Perlite
n a t i o n a l standards o r w o r k s specifications. 700 420 2 230-300 — — Perlite

3.9.1.2 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o 800 480 2 250-350 Perlite


sphe-roidal o r n o d u l a r graphite i r o n castings used structure
or struc-
i n h u l l a n d ship m a c h i n e r y structures. T h e purpose o f ture after
the castings shall be established proceeding f r o m their tempe-
ring
properties at r o o m temperature.
Special 350 220 22" 110-170 + 20 17 (14) F e r r i t e
3.9.1.3 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c a s t i n g s i n t e n d e d f o r quality
service a t l o w o r elevated t e m p e r a t u r e s shall be 400 250 18 4
140 - 200 + 20 14 (11) F e r r i t e
agreed as p a r t o f t h e s u b m i t t e d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . I n
^ o r intermediate tensile strength values the m i n i m u m values
this case, d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e c h e m i c a l o f elongation a n d u p p e r yield stress m a y b e determined b y linear
c o m p o s i t i o n , m e c h a n i c a l a n d special properties, heat interpolation.
2
W h e n tests a r e carried o u to n three C h a r p y V - n o t c h type test
treatment, m e t h o d s a n d scope o f testing t h e castings specimens, theimpact energy m e a n value is given. I t is allowed t o
shall be submitted t o the Register. lower the i m p a c t energy value f o r o n e o fthe three test specimens i n
c o m p a r i s o n w i t h data i nTable, b u t n o t less t h a n given i n brackets.
3.9.1.4 W h e r e c a s t i n g s o f t h e s a m e t y p e a r e 3
D a t a for consideration.
regularly produced i n quantity, alternative proce- " W h e n tensile tests a r ecarried o u t o n test s p e c i m e n s o u t o f
cast-on samples, the ultimate values o f elongation m a y b e
dures f o r testing a n d scope o ftesting m a y be adopted lowered b y 2 % o f the given value.
provided that t h emanufacturer verifies t h e continued
efficiency o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g technique a n d t h e
q u a l i t y o f castings. W h i l e effecting t h e tensile test o f t h e casting
3.9.1.5 C a s t i n g s s u b j e c t t o s u r v e y b y t h e R e g i s t e r m a t e r i a l t h e tensile strength a n d elongation shall be
shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d a t w o r k s recognized b y t h e determined.
R e g i s t e r as m e n t i o n e d i n 1.3.1.2. T h e m i n i m u m required tensile strength shall be
3.9.1.6 F o r r e m o v a l o f r i s e r s a n d f o r c a s t i n g s stated i n t h e agreed technical d o c u m e n t a t i o n f o r t h e
grinding the relevant metal machining methods m a y casting, b u t i n n o case s h a l l i t exceed t h e l i m i t s detailed
be used. T h e m e t h o d s e x e r t i n g a t h e r m a l effect o n i n T a b l e 3.9.3.1. A d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e rele-
casting quality are n o t allowed w i t h t h e exception o f v a n t parts o f t h e Rules are also t o be complied w i t h .
their use as p r e l i m i n a r y before m a c h i n i n g . W h e r e m e c h a n i c a l test results a r e unsatisfactory,
3.9.1.7 W h e n f i n i s h e d , c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e f r e e o f retesting shall be conducted i n compliance w i t h the
defects u n f a v o u r a b l y effecting t h e i r u s e a n d s h a l l be r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.3.4.2.
in full compliance w i t h the approved documentation 3.9.3.2 W h e r e i m p a c t t e s t i n g i s r e q u i r e d , t h e
for delivery. standards a n d type o f specimen shall be approved b y
3.9.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . the Register.
3.9.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n i s l e f t t o t h e 3.9.3.3 T h e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c a s t i n g s s h a l l
discretion o f t h e manufacturer w h o shall ensure that i n c l u d e n o t less t h a n 9 0 % o f s p h e r o i d a l o r n o d u l a r
it is suitable f o r obtaining t h e mechanical properties graphite. N o flaked graphite is permitted.
specified f o r t h e castings.
60 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.9.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t .
3.9.4.1 T h e c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e s u p p l i e d i n e i t h e r a s
the cast o r heat treated c o n d i t i o n .
T h e necessity o f heat t r e a t m e n t a n d t h e relevant
procedure shall be determined b y t h e manufacturer Ж ( ^
X
o n t h e basis o f c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , p u r p o s e a n d
shape o f t h e castings. и и и
T h e h e a t t r e a t m e n t f o r stress r e l i e v i n g shall
follow t h e heat treatment f o r structure refining a n d
F i g . 3.9.5.1-2 S t a n d a r d s p e c i m e n w i t h d i m e n s i o n s : и — 25;
t o procede t h e m a c h i n i n g . Special quality castings
v — 90; x — 40; у — 100; z — t o s u i t t e s t i n g m a c h i n e
h a v i n g t h e tensile strength 3 5 0a n d 4 0 0 M P aa n d t h e
relevant necessary i m p a c t energy v a l u e shall u n d e r g o
ferritizing.
3.9.4.2 W h e r e i t i s p r o p o s e d t o l o c a l l y h a r d e n t h e i
surfaces o f a casting, full details o f t h e p r o p o s e d
procedure a n d specification shall be submitted t o t h e
Register f o rconsideration.
3.9.5 S a m p l i n g .
3.9.5.1 T h e s a m p l e s m a y b e e i t h e r c a s t - o n o r
separately cast. T h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e samples, w h e n
cast separately, shall be i n accordance with
Figs. 3.9.5.1-1, 3.9.5.1-2 a n d 3.9.5.1-3 ( d i m e n s i o n s a r e
given i nm m ) ; t h e sample length z shall be chosen pro­
ceeding f r o m t h e type o f the m a c h i n e f o r tensile testing. F i g . 3.9.5.1-3 S t a n d a r d s p e c i m e n a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s p e c i m e n s
T h e samples m a yhave alternative dimensions o r with dimensions:
they m a y be t a k e n directly f r o m o n e o f t h e castings Dimensions Standard Alternative specimens
forming the batch. specimen
Thickness o f the m o u l d surrounding a standard и 25 12 50 75
s p e c i m e n s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n 4 0 m m , a n d f o r V 55 40 90 125
a l t e r n a t i v e s a m p l e s , n o t less t h a n 4 0 , 6 0 a n d 8 0 m m X 40 30 50 65
У 140 135 150 175
respectively.
W h e r e separately cast samples a r e used, t h e y z to suit testing m a c h i n e (fora l l specimens)
shall be cast i n m o u l d s m a d e f r o m t h e same t y p e o f
m a t e r i a l as used f o r t h e castings a n d shall n o t be
stripped f r o m t h e moulds until t h e sample metal 3.9.5.2 W h e n c a s t i n g s a r e s u p p l i e d i n t h e h e a t
t e m p e r a t u r e i s b e l o w 5 0 0 °C. treated condition, t h e samples shall be heat treated
together w i t h t h e castings, w h i c h t h e y represent.
3.9.5.3 S a m p l e s f o r m e t a l l o g r a p h i c e x a m i n a t i o n
m a y c o n v e n i e n t l y be t a k e n f r o m t h e tensile test
specimens, b u t separately cast samples m a y be
prepared, provided that they are taken f r o m the
ladle towards t h e e n d o ft h e casting period.
3.9.6 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g .
3.9.6.1 A t l e a s t o n e s a m p l e s h a l l b e t a k e n f r o m
each casting. I f m e t a l f r o m several ladles is used f o r a
F i g . 3.9.5.1-1 S t a n d a r d s p e c i m e n a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s p e c i m e n s
casting, o n e sample shall be t a k e n f r o m each ladle.
with dimensions: 3.9.6.2 A b a t c h t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e m a y b e a d o p t e d
f o r castings w i t h t h e f e t t l e d m a s s o f 1 t o r less. A l l
Dimensions Standard Alternative specimens castings i n a batch shall be o f similar type a n d
specimen
d i m e n s i o n s , cast f r o m t h e same ladle o f treated m e t a l .
и 25 12 50 75 O n e separately cast s a m p l e shall b e p r o v i d e d f o r each
V 55 40 90 125
m u l t i p l e o f 2 t o f fettled castings i n t h e batch.
X 40 30 60 65
100 80 150 165 3.9.6.3 A t l e a s t o n e t e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n , s h a l l b e
У
prepared f r o m each sample according t o 2.2.2.3 a n d ,
z to suit testing machine (forall specimens)
w h e r e r e q u i r e d , a set o f C h a r p y V - n o t c h t y p e test
specimens f o r i m p a c t tests a c c o r d i n g t o 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 .
P a r t XIII. Materials 61

3.9.6.4 W h e r e t h e c a s t i n g s a r e s u b j e c t t o p r e s s u r e strength shall be stated i n t h e technical documenta-


testing f o r tightness, b o t h t h e w o r k i n g a n d test t i o n f o r t h e c a s t i n g , b u t i n n o case i t s h a l l b e less t h a n
pressure shall be stated i n t h e technical documenta- 200 M P a . A n y a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e rele-
tion. v a n t parts o f t h e Rules shall also be complied w i t h .
3.9.7 I n s p e c t i o n . W h e r e tensile test results a r e unsatisfactory,
The castings shall be s u b m i t t e d f o r inspection retesting shall be conducted i n compliance w i t h the
and c o n t r o l testing i n cleaned a n d de-gated condi- r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.3.4.2.
t i o n , free f r o m risers, etc. 3.10.4 H e a t t r e a t m e n t .
T h e castings s h a l l b e free f r o m defects, w h i c h Castings m a ybe supplied i n either as t h e cast o r
w o u l d be p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n service. I n heat treated condition.
general, r e p a i r i n g o f defects b y w e l d i n g is n o t The necessity o f heat t r e a t m e n t a n d t h e relevant
permitted. Subject t o approval b y t h e Surveyor, procedure shall be determined b y the manufacturer
surface imperfections m a y be r e m o v e d b y grinding. o n t h e basis o f c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , purpose a n d
W h e r e there is reason t o suspect t h e soundness o f the shape o f t h e castings.
casting, non-destructive testing m a y be required. T h e h e a t t r e a t m e n t f o r stress r e l i e v i n g s h a l l
Crankshafts shall undergo magnetic particle testing follow the heat treatment f o r structure refining a n d
and metallographic examination. to precede t h e m a c h i n i n g .
3.9.8 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . 3.10.5 S a m p l i n g .
Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued documenta- 3.10.5.1 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a g r e e d b e t w e e n t h e
t i o n — i n accordance w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.8.8. m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d t h e C u s t o m e r , cast samples shall
have the f o r m o fcylindrical bars 30 m m i n diameter
a n d o f a suitable lenght. T h e y shall be cast f r o m t h e
3.10 G R E Y I R O N CASTINGS same ladle as t h e castings i n m o u l d s o fthe same type
o f m a t e r i a l as t h e m o u l d s f o r t h e castings a n d s h a l l
3.10.1 G e n e r a l . not be stripped f r o m the m o u l d s until the m e t a l
3.10.1.1 A l l g r e y i r o n c a s t i n g s s u b j e c t t o s u r v e y b y t e m p e r a t u r e i s b e l o w 5 0 0 °C.
the Register, as defined i n t h e relevant parts o f t h e I f t w o o r m o r e samples are cast i n o n e m o u l d a t
Rules, shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d tested i n accordance t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e r o d d i a m e t e r s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n
w i t h t h e requirements o f the following paragraphs. 50 m m a n d t h e y s h a l l b e l o c a t e d as specified i n
3.10.1.2 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o g r e y Fig. 3.10.5.1 (dimensions are given i n m m ) .
i r o n castings used i n h u l l a n d ship m a c h i n e r y 050
structures.
3.10.1.3 W h e r e c a s t i n g s o f t h e s a m e t y p e a r e
regularly produced i n quantity, the manufacturer m a y
adopt alternative procedures for, a n d scope of, testing,
w i t h t h e data verifying t h e c o n t i n u e d efficiency o f t h e
m a n u f a c t u r i n g technique a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f castings
submitted t o t h e Register.
3.10.1.4 O n c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
3.1.2 a r e f o l l o w e d , c a s t i n g s m a y b e m a n u f a c t u r e d i n
compliance with national standards a n d w o r k s
specifications.
3.10.1.5 C a s t i n g s s u b j e c t t o t h e R e g i s t e r s u r v e y
shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d a t w o r k s recognized b y t h e
R e g i s t e r , as stated i n 1.3.1.2.
3.10.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
The chemical c o m p o s i t i o n is left t o t h e discretion
o f t h e manufacturer, w h o shall ensure that i t is
suitable f o r obtaining the mechanical properties
specified f o r t h e castings.
U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, t h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o - F i g . 3.10.5.1
sition o f ladle analysis shall be reported.
3.10.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
W h e n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e tensile test o f t h e casting The samples o f alternative dimensions m a y be
m a t e r i a l (according t o 2.2.2.4) t h e tensile strength used, they m a y be cast-on o r t a k e n directly f r o m t h e
shall be determined. T h e specified m i n i m u m tensile castings.
62 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

A s a rule, cast-on samples m a y be used i f t h e 3.11.2 T h e c a s t i n g s o f m a l l e a b l e c a s t i r o n s h a l l b e


casting w a l l thickness is over 2 0 m m a n d its mass produced b y the manufacturers recognized b y the
exceeds 2 0 0 k g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e sample t y p e a n d R e g i s t e r i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.1.4 a n d 1.3.2. T h e
location shall ensure r o u g h l y t h e same cooling condi- request shall be supplemented w i t h specifications f o r
tions s i m i l a r t o t h e base casting c o o l i n g a n d a r e subject material, description o fproduction, requirements f o r
to t h e manufacturer's agreement w i t h a customer. inspection a n d repairs.
3.10.5.2 W h e r e c a s t i n g s a r e s u p p l i e d i n t h e h e a t 3.11.3 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l
treated condition, t h e samples shall be heat treated properties.
together w i t h t h e castings, w h i c h they represent. The chemical composition, mechanical properties
3.10.5.3 O n e t e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n s h a l l b e a n d scope o f testing o f items m a d e o f malleable cast
prepared f r o m each sample. iron shall comply w i t h the requirements o f the
3.10.6 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g . d o c u m e n t a t i o n agreed w i t h t h e Register.
3.10.6.1 F r o m e a c h c a s t i n g a t l e a s t o n e s a m p l e 3.11.4 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
shall be t a k e n . W h e r e m e t a l f r o m several ladles is Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued d o c u m e n t a -
used f o r a casting, o n e sample shall be t a k e n f r o m t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4.
each ladle.
3.10.6.2 A l l c a s t i n g s i n t h e b a t c h s h a l l b e o f
similar type a n d dimensions, a n d cast f r o m t h e same 3.12 S T E E L C A S T I N G S F O R P R O P E L L E R S
ladle o f metal. A s rule, t h e batch mass shall n o t
exceed 2 t o f fettled castings; separate castings w i t h a
mass equal t o o r over 2 t also f o r m a batch. 3.12.1 G e n e r a l .
A t continuous casting o f i r o n o f the very same 3.12.1.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r e s e n t C h a p t e r
grade a n d i n large quantities, t h e batch mass m a y be a p p l y t o steel castings f o r cast propellers, blades a n d
limited b y t h e m e t a l cast w i t h i n t w o h o u r s . bosses d u r i n g their m a n u f a c t u r e . I f specified i n t h e
The batch v o l u m e a n d n u m b e r o f samples t a k e n d o c u m e n t a t i o n agreed w i t h t h e Register, these
are subject t o a n agreement w i t h t h e Register. requirements m a y also be applied i n t h e repair o f
3.10.6.3 W h e r e t h e c a s t i n g s a r e s u b j e c t t o propellers d a m a g e d i n service.
pressure testing f o r tightness, b o t h t h e w o r k i n g a n d T h e u s e o f steel t h a t is d i f f e r e n t i n c h e m i c a l
test pressure shall be stated i n t h e technical doc- composition, mechanical properties o r heat treatment
umentation. for propellers is p e r m i t t e d according t o standards,
3.10.7 I n s p e c t i o n . specifications o r other technical requirements recog-
The castings shall be s u b m i t t e d f o r inspection nized b y t h e Register.
a n d c o n t r o l testing i n cleaned a n d de-gated condi- 3.12.1.2 P r o p e l l e r c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d
t i o n , free f r o m risers, etc. by t h e w o r k s recognized b y t h e Register i n accordance
T h e castings s h a l l b e free f r o m defects, w h i c h w i t h 1 . 1 . 4 a n d 1.3.2. S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a t e r i a l , t h e
w o u l d be prejudicial t o their proper application i n description o f a t e c h n o l o g i c a l process, repair a n d
service. I n general, r e p a i r i n g o f defects b y w e l d i n g i s inspection shall be attached t o a request f o r material.
not permitted. A tthediscretion o fthe Surveyor, small 3.12.1.3 R e c o g n i z i n g t h e w o r k s , t e s t s a r e c o n -
surface blemishes m a y be r e m o v e d b y l o c a l g r i n d i n g . d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3.1.2 o n t h e basis o f t h e
W h e r e these is r e a s o n t o suspect t h e soundness o f t h e s u r v e y a n d tests p r o g r a m a p p r o v e d b y t h e Register.
casting, non-destructive testing m a y be required. T h e tests s h a l l c o n f i r m t h e c o m p l i a n c e o f castings
3.10.8 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . m a t e r i a l a n d t h e i r q u a l i t y w i t h these requirements.
Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued documenta- 3.12.1.4 A f o u n d r y s h a l l h a v e a v a i l a b l e a p r o p e r l y
t i o n — i n accordance w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.8.8. equipped laboratory m a n n e d w i t h experienced qualified
personnel. T h e laboratory shall have at its disposal
e v e r y t h i n g necessary f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f n o n -
3.11 M A L L E A B L E C A S T IRON
destructive testing. H o w e v e r , i f the l a b o r a t o r y is unable
to c o n d u c t tests a n d i n s p e c t i o n , t h e d a t a o n a n
independent laboratory shall be submitted t o t h e
3.11.1 G e n e r a l . Register. T h e laboratory shall be recognized b y t h e
M a l l e a b l e cast i r o n m a y be used f o r t h e competent n a t i o n a l b o d y and/or Register.
manufacture o f parts f o r h u l l a n d ship machinery 3.12.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
structures t h a t a r e subject t o survey b y t h e Register The c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e steel f o r
and are intended t o operate at a temperature n o t propellers shall meet the requirements o f T a -
e x c e e d i n g 3 0 0 °C a n d t h e w o r k i n g p r e s s u r e n o t ble 3.12.2. T h e alloys i n T a b l e a r e subdivided i n t o
exceeding 2 M P a . four m a i n groups.
P a r t XIII. Materials 63

T a b l e 3.12.2 presented a n d heat treated i n t h e same furnace


1
Chemical composition o f steel for propeller castings
charge.
Steel grade C, max, Mn, Cr, % Mo, Ni, % I n t h e initial survey o f a w o r k s i n accordance
and type %, m a x , %, max, %
w i t h 3.12.1.2, tests m a y b e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e m e t a l o f
Martensitic 0,15 2,0 11,5 — 17,0 0,5 M a x 2,0 b o t h separately cast a n d cast-on samples o r t a k e n
(12CrlNi) directly f r o m a casting body.
Martensitic 0,06 2,0 11,5 — 17,0 1,0 3,5 — 5,0
(13Cr4Ni) 3.12.4.3 S a m p l e s s h a l l n o t b e t a k e n f r o m a
Martensitic 0,06 2,0 15,0—17,5 1,5 3,5 — 6,0 casting prior t o a final heat treatment. Samples are
(16Cr5Ni) prepared i n accordance w i t h t h e standards recog­
Austenitic 0,12 1,6 16,0 — 2 1 , 0 4,0 8,0 — 13,0 nized b y t h e Register.
(19CrllNi)
3.12.4.4 T h e r m a l m e t h o d s s h a l l n o t b e u s e d f o r
1
T h e m i n i m u m elements content n o t specified i nT a b l e shall
sampling.
meet the requirements o f recognized national o r international
standards. 3.12.5 N u m b e r o f t e s t s .
3.12.5.1 A t l e a s t o n e t e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n ( r e f e r t o
T a b l e 2.2.2.3) a n d o n e set o f i m p a c t test specimens (refer
3.12.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a n d h e a t t r e a t m e n t . t o 2.2.3) shall be t a k e n f r o m each cast presented. I n
3.12.3.1 T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t e e l d u r i n g t e n s i l e t e s t s , t h e t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h , p r o o f stress, e l o n g a t i o n
the testing o f specimens p r e p a r e d f r o m samples cast- a n d reduction i n area a r e determined. T e s t are conducted
o n t o t h eh u b o r blade shall meet t h e requirements o f i n compliance w i t h t h e requirements o f 2.2.
Table 3.12.3.1. 3.12.5.2 T e s t s p e c i m e n s s h a l l g e n e r a l l y b e c u t o u t
T a b l e 3.12.3.1 f r o m cast-on samples. I f castings are r o u g h l y o f t h e
M e c h a n i c a l properties o f steel castings for propellers s a m e s i z e , less t h a n 1 m i n d i a m e t e r m a d e f r o m m e t a l o f
Steel grade a n d Yield Tensile Elonga­ Reduc­ Impact o n e cast a n d h e a t t r e a t e d i n o n e f u r n a c e charge, o n e set
type stress strength tion tion o f test 1

o f specimens f o r each 5 castings m a y be t a k e n f r o m


Rp0,2> R , min, A , a r e a Z , KV, m i n ,
min,
m

MPa min,
5

min,
separately cast samples o f the relevant dimensions.
MPa % % 3.12.6 S e v e r i t y z o n e s ( r e p a i r z o n e s ) .
3.12.6.1 I n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e c r i t e r i a o f
Martensitic 440 590 15 30 20 assessment f o r p r o p e l l e r defects, t h e blade surface is
(12CrlNi)
d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e z o n e s d e s i g n a t e d А, В a n d С ( r e f e r
Martensitic 550 750 15 35 30
(13Cr4Ni)
to Figs. 4.2.6.2.1 a n d 4.2.6.3). T h e definitions o f
Martensitic 540 760 15 35 30 repair zones are given i n 4.2.6.2 a n d 4.2.6.3.
(16Cr5Ni) 3.12.6.2 T h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a s k e w a n g l e — r e f e r t o
Austenitic 180 440 30 40 — 4.2.6.1 ( N o t e ) a n d F i g . 4.2.6.1.
(19Cr5Ni)
3.12.7 I n s p e c t i o n .
^ h e i m p a c t test is n o t required f o r ice class ships o f I c e l ,
Ice2 a n d Ice3; f o ra l lother ice class ships a n d f o r icebreakers, 3.12.7.1 P r o p e l l e r c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e v i s u a l l y t e s t e d
s t e e l c a s t i n g s s h a l l b e i m p a c t - t e s t e d a t — 1 0 °C. a t a l l t h e stages o f t h e i r m a n u f a c t u r e . T h e castings
shall be subjected t o a t h o r o u g h 100 % v i s u a l testing
in the finished condition (the inspection is conducted
b y t h e Register representative). A surface s h a l l be free
3.12.3.2 T h e l e v e l o f m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f r o m t h e defects, w h i c h m a y result i n p r o p e l l e r
separately cast samples m e t a l is subject t o t h e damages d u r i n g operation. T h e Register representa­
approval b y t h e Register. tive c a n d e m a n d t h e performance o f investigationo f
3.12.3.3 H e a t t r e a t m e n t . questionable surface sections i n c l u d i n g m e t a l etching,
Castings o f m a r t e n s i t i c class steel s h a l l be particularly prior t o repair welding.
subjected t o austenization a n d tempering. A u s t e n i t i c 3.12.7.2 D i m e n s i o n s , d i m e n s i o n a l a n d g e o m e t r i ­
class steels s h a l l b e s u b j e c t e d t o s o l u t i o n t r e a t m e n t . cal tolerances shall meet t h e requirements o f the
3.12.4 S a m p l i n g . drawings approved b y the Register a n d o f order
3.12.4.1 S a m p l e s m a y b e t a k e n i m m e d i a t e l y f r o m d o c u m e n t a t i o n . T h e above documents a n d t h e results
a casting o r gated t o i t . Test specimens, w h e r e of measurements a n d inspection d r a w n u p i n the
possible, are t a k e n f r o m t h e cast-on sample i n t h e f o r m o f a report o r statement are produced t o the
a r e a w i t h i n 0,5R t o 0,6R ( w h e r e Л i s a p r o p e l l e r R e g i s t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d u r i n g tests. T h e r e s p o n s i ­
radius). T h e use o f separately cast samples f o r bility f o r the performance o f measurements w i t h a n
m a c h i n e specimens shall be specified i n t h e a p p r o v e d appropriate accuracy f o r their compliance w i t h the
documentation. r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e d r a w i n g a n d / o r o r d e r rests w i t h a
3.12.4.2 S e p a r a t e l y c a s t s a m p l e s s h a l l b e t a k e n manufacturer. T h e Register representative has a right
f r o m t h e same ladle as t h e casting as t h e m e t a l to demand checking measurements.
64 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

I n accordance w i t h the requirements o f the I n d i c a t i o n is t h e presence o f detectable


Register-approved documentation, a l l propellers bleed-out o f t h e penetrant f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l dis­
shall be subjected t o static balancing. D y n a m i c continuities appearing a t least 10 m i n u t e s after t h e
balancing is required f o r propellers r u n n i n g w i t h a developer has been applied.
r o t a t i o n a l speed o f over 5 0 0 r p m . N o n l i n e a r i n d i c a t i o n is theindicationo f
3.12.8 N o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g . a c i r c u l a r o r e l l i p t i c a l s h a p e w i t h a l e n g t h less t h a n
3.12.8.1 A l l t h e c a s t i n g s o f p r o p e l l e r s s h a l l b e three times t h e w i d t h (refer t o F i g . 4.2.7.3.1(1)).
subjected t o non-destructive testing. A m a n u f a c t u r e r L i n e a r i n d i c a t i o n is t h e indication, i n
shall have available a n appropriate system t o record w h i c h t h e l e n g t h is a t least three t i m e s t h e w i d t h
all the non-destructive testing results f o r each casting. (refer t o F i g . 4.2.7.3.1(2)).
T h e Register representative shall be familiarized w i t h T h r e s h o l d s e n s i t i v i t y is the opening o f a
that system a n d t h e results o f the testing carried out. discontinuity like the isolated crack o f a certain
T h e manufacturer duty shall c o n f i r m i n the docu­ length detected w i t h t h e given p r o b a b i l i t y according
mentary f o r m the true performance a n d the positive to thegiven geometrical a n doptical parameters o f a n
results o f non-destructive testing methods. indication. T h e indication, a n ydimension o f w h i c h is
3.12.8.2 P e n e t r a n t t e s t i n g . o v e r 1,5 m m , m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e i s o l a t e d
Penetrant testing shall be conducted i n accor­ indication taken into account.
dance w i t h t h e standards o r specification approved A l i g n e d i n d i c a t i o n is three o r m o r e
by t h e Register. T h e following definitions t h e r e w i t h i n d i c a t i o n s i n a l i n e s e p a r a t e d b y 2 m m o r less
are r e c o m m e n d e d t o use. edge-to-edge — (refer t o F i g . 4.2.7.3.1(3)).
2
R e f e r e n c e a r e a is a n area o f 100 c m , w h i c h 3.12.8.3 R a d i o g r a p h i c a n d u l t r a s o n i c t e s t i n g .
m a y have square o r rectangular shape w i t h t h e m a j o r W h e r e serious doubts exist t h a t castings are n o t
d i m e n s i o n n o t exceeding 2 5 0 m m . I n evaluation o f free f r o m i n t e r n a l defects, f u r t h e r r a d i o g r a p h i c a n d /
surface q u a l i t y b y penetrant testing, t h e entire o r ultrasonic testing shall be carried o u t u p o n request
controlled surface is c o n v e n t i o n a l l y divided i n o f the Register representative. T h e evaluation a n d
2
reference areas o f 1 0 0 c m each. S e g m e n t a t i o n shall acceptance criteria shall be agreed between t h e
be t h e m o s t u n f a v o u r a b l e i n r e l a t i o n t o indications, manufacturer, t h e customer a n d the Register accord­
i . e. t h e s h a p e a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f e a c h r e f e r e n c e a r e a ing t o t h e standards recognized b y the Register.
shall be chosen so that i t covers t h e m a x i m u m 3.12.9 R e p a i r o f d e f e c t s .
n u m b e r o f defects w i t h o u t t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a m o n g 3.12.9.1 S u r f a c e d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , w h i c h i m p a i r p r o ­
adjacent reference areas. pellers p e r f o r m a n c e , shall be repaired b y m e c h a n i c a l
T h e indications detected i n a n y o f such areas w i t h m e t h o d s , e.g. b y g r i n d i n g , c h i p p i n g a n d m i l l i n g . T h e u s e
respect t o their shape, dimensions a n d n u m b e r shall o f w e l d i n g t o r e p a i r defects i s a l l o w e d o n l y i n j u s t i f i e d
meet t h e requirements o f T a b l e 3.12.8.2. cases t o b e a g r e e d w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
T h e r e p a i r o f defects s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t after
T a b l e 3.12.8.2
Allowable n u m b e r a n d size o f indications depending o nseverity zone p r o d u c i n g t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e full descrip­
tion o f w o r k s t o be conducted, t o the Register
Severity Total Indication N u m b e r o f Indication representative. T h e relevant repair zones, dimensions
zone number o f type i n d i c a t i o n s o l size, m m , a n d l o c a t i o n o f defects, m e t h o d s o f t h e i r r e p a i r a n d
indications, each type,
max max max inspection shall be specified.
A 7 non-linear 5 4 After milling o r chipping, grinding shall be
linear 2 3 a p p l i e d f o r s u c h defects, w h i c h s h a l l n o t b e w e l d e d .
aligned 2 3 T h e grinding shall be carried o u t i n such a m a n n e r
В 14 non-linear 10 6
t h a t t h e c o n t o u r o f t h e g r o u n d depression is as
linear 4 6
aligned 4 6 s m o o t h as possible t o a v o i d stress c o n c e n t r a t i o n
С 20 non-linear 14 8 and/or minimize cavitation corrosion. T h e metal for
linear 6 6 w e l d i n g s h a l l be p r o p e r l y selected a n d s h a l l h a v e t h e
aligned 6 6
shape a n d dimensions needed f o r welding. T h e
N o t e s : 1. S i n g u l a r n o n - l i n e a r i n d i c a t i o n s less t h a n 2 m m 2
w e l d i n g o f a r e a s less t h a n 5 c m s h a l l b e a v o i d e d .
in zone A a n d less t h a n 3 m m i n other zones m a y b e disregarded.
2. T h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f n o n - l i n e a r i n d i c a t i o n s m a y b e 3.12.9.2 R e p a i r o f d e f e c t s i n z o n e A .
increased to the total allowable n u m b e r o f all type indications, I n zone A , repair welding is n o t allowed.
represented b y the absence o flinear o r aligned indications. T h e
total n u m b e r o f non-linear indications m a y also b e increased Grinding i n zone A m a y be carried o u t t o the
due to the partial lack o flinear o raligned indications retaining extent, w h i c h maintains the blade thickness o f the
the total allowablen u m b e r o f indications. d r a w i n g approved b y t h e Register. T h e possible
r e p a i r o f defects b y m e t h o d s n o t specified here s h a l l
be a p p r o v e d as p a r t o f t h e s u b m i t t e d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
P a r t XIII. Materials 65

=300
3.12.9.3 R e p a i r o f d e f e c t s i n z o n e B .
T h e d e f e c t s t h a t a r e n o t d e e p e r t h a n d B = t/40
Discard
{t = m i n i m u m l o c a l t h i c k n e s s ) o r 2 m m ( w h i c h e v e r i s
greater) m a y b e r e m o v e d b y g r i n d i n g . T h e defects,
Macro-specimen
w h i c h a r e deeper t h a n allowable f o r r e m o v a l b y
grinding, m a ybe repaired b ywelding.
3.12.9.4 R e p a i r o f d e f e c t s i n z o n e C . Tensile test specimen

I n zone C ,repair welds aregenerally permitted.


3.12.9.5 R e p a i r w e l d i n g . Bend test specimen

T h e welding procedure a n d welding consumables used


f o r defects r e p a i r s h a l l b e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e R e g i s t e r i n
accordance w i t h the requirements o f P a r t X I V " W e l d i n g " . Impact test specimen =400
Prior t ot h ebeginning o fw o r k s o nt h erepair o f
defects b y w e l d i n g , i t shall b e s u b m i t t e d t h e detailed
specification o f a welding procedure, w h i c h shall Bend test specimen
include data o nt h e w e l d i n g position, welding process
parameters, w e l d i n g consumables, preheating, fol¬
Tensile test specimen
low-up heat treatment a n d inspection o f welding
operations conducted. W e l d i n g shall be conducted
Macro-specimen
under controlled conditions, which prevent a n
adverse exposure t o weather. J L .
Defects shall b e repaired b y welders o fa proper Discard

qualification, allowed b y t h e Register t o p e r f o r m


such w o r k s .
S l a g , u n d e r c u t s a n d o t h e r flaws s h a l l b e r e p a i r e d
30
p r i o r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g pass.
M a r t e n s i t i c class steels a f t e r r e p a i r b y w e l d i n g a r e
subject t o annealing i n a furnace.
T h e methods f o r t h e relief o f local residual F i g . 3.12.9.5
stresses w i t h t h e m i n i m u m r e p a i r s h a l l b e agreed a s
part o fthe repair documentation.
R e p a i r e d surfaces after heat t r e a t m e n t shall b e
m i l l e d a n d g r o u n d . I n a l l cases, t h e r e p a i r q u a l i t y M a c r o - e x a m i n a t i o n of a fusion l i n e and heat-
shall b e checked b y non-destructive testing methods. affected zone.
A manufacturer shall m a i n t a i n t h e system o f Carried o u t o n t w o macro-sections. Cracks,
defects r e c o r d i n g , o n w h i c h base t h e scope o f a r e p a i r p o r e s , s l a g i n c l u s i o n s a n d o t h e r w e l d flaws o v e r
conducted, the type a n d schedules o f heat t r e a t m e n t f o r 3 m m i n size a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d .
a n y casting m a y b edetermined. T h e entire i n f o r m a t i o n Tensile testing for determination of weld metal
o n t h e casting being subject t o t h e Register survey i s properties.
produced t o t h e Register representative. Carried o u to n t w o transverse specimens, w h i c h
T h e approval o f a welding procedure shall be thickness i n equal t o that o fa sample, t h ew i d t h is
based o n t h e welding o f samples as s h o w n i n 30 m m a n d t h e p a r a l l e l test l e n g t h is e q u a l t o the w e l d
Fig. 3.12.9.5, h a v i n g t h e thickness o f30 m m o r w i d t h p l u s 6 m mt o each side (refer t o 4.2.3.2.2,
m o r e . F o l l o w i n g w e l d i n g , t h esamples a r esubject t o Part X I V "Welding"). Mechanical properties shall
penetrant testing. meet those required f o rt h e base m e t a l .
T h e approval o fa welding procedure is carried T h e fracture area ( w e l d m e t a l , heat-affected zone
out i naccordance w i t h t h erequirements o fSection 6, o r base m e t a l ) shall n o t beed i n a test report.
Part I I I"Technical Supervision during Manufacture Bend testing.
of Materials" o f Rules f o rTechnical Supervision Carried o u to nt w o transverse specimens m a d e i n
during Construction o f Ships a n dManufacture o f accordance w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f2.2.5.1. T h e test
Materials a n d Products f o r Ships following t h e is c o n d u c t e d o n a m a n d r e l f o u r t h i c k n e s s i n d i a m e t e r
Register-approved p r o g r a m , w h i c h shall include, as e x c e p t i n g a u s t e n i t i c steels, f o r w h i c h t h e m a n d r e l
a m i n i m u m , t h e f o l l o w i n g tests. diameter shall b eequal t othree thicknesses. A f t e r t h e
tests, t h e s p e c i m e n surface s h a l l b e free f r o m t e n s i o n
fractures a n d cracks o fm o r e t h a n 2 m m long.
66 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

Impact testing. heat t r e a t m e n t schedule;


T h e tests a r e n o t generally r e q u i r e d excepting t h e results o f m e c h a n i c a l tests;
cases w h e n a base m e t a l w a s subjected t o these tests. result o f non-destructive testing (satisfactory o r
W h e r e necessary, i m p a c t tests a r e c o n d u c t e d o n unsatisfactory), i f applied.
specimens made i n accordance w i t h 2.2.3 a n d 3.12.10.4 T h e R e g i s t e r C e r t i f i c a t e .
Fig. 2.2.3.1-2. E a c h casting o r t h e batch o f s m a l l castings shall
T h e tests s h a l l be c o n d u c t e d o n o n e b a t c h o f be a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h t h e Register Certificate. I n
specimens notched i n t h e w e l d centre a n d o n another a d d i t i o n t o t h e special n u m b e r , t h e requisites o ft h e
one notched i n t h e fusion line. T h etemperature a n d Register representation o r location, t h e place a n d
results o f t h e tests s h a l l m e e t those r e q u i r e d f o r t h e date o f issue, t h e Register Certificate i s , as a
base m e t a l . m i n i m u m , t o contain t h e following data:
Hardness testing according to Vickers (HV5). manufacturer's name a n d order number;
Carried o u t o n macro-sections. Three measure- shipbuilding project number, i f k n o w n ;
m e n t s each are, as a m i n i m u m , m a d e o n t h e w e l d n u m b e r o f the certificate o f quality o fthe casting
m e t a l , heat-affected z o n e , a t b o t h sides o f a w e l d a n d manufacturer;
i n t h e base m e t a l . T h emeasurements a r e n o t e d i n a final weight;
test report. identification n u m b e r a n d casting number;
3.12.10 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d m a r k i n g . drawing number.
3.12.10.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The Manufacturer's Certificate o f Quality shall
A m o n i t o r i n g system enabling t o check the be t h e m a n d a t o r y a p p e n d i x t o t h e Register C e r t i f i -
castings m a n u f a c t u r e a t a n y stage since m e t a l m a k i n g cate.
shall be used a t t h e w o r k s manufacturing propellers. Test protocols witnessed b y t h e Register repre-
The c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the availability o fsuch system a t sentative m a y also be part o f t h e appendix t o t h e
the manufacturer's shall be submitted t o the Register Register Certificate o n t h e purchaser's demand.
representative o n his demand.
3.12.10.2 M a r k i n g .
A casting shall be properly m a r k e d prior t o its 3.13 H I G H STRENGTH S T E E L F O R W E L D E D
presentation i n the finished condition t o the Register STRUCTURES
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I n a d d i t i o n t o specified i n 1.4, t h e
m a r k i n g shall include t h e following data: 3.13.1 G e n e r a l .
casting n u m b e r a n d other designations a l l o w i n g The present requirements apply t o hot-rolled,
t r a c i n g a l l t h e stages o f m a n u f a c t u r e ; fine-grain, weldable plates a n d w i d e flats o f h i g h
number o fthe Register Certificate; s t r e n g t h steel subject t o t h e s u r v e y b y t h e R e g i s t e r
skew angle (for high-skew propellers); d u r i n g manufacture a n dintended f o r use i n sea-going
ice class s y m b o l , w h e r e applicable; ships a n d a n d i n M O D U / F O P .
date o f casting acceptance. P r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e m i n i m u m y i e l d stress
The Register stamp is p u t following t h e final g u a r a n t e e d t h e steel i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o eight s t r e n g t h
survey a n d t h eacceptance o f a casting b y t h e Register levels: 4 2 0 , 4 6 0 , 500, 550, 620, 690, 890 a n d 9 6 0 M P a .
representative. F o r each yield strength level grades A , D ,E a n d F are
3.12.10.3 M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e o f Q u a l i t y . specified, based o n t h e i m p a c t test t e m p e r a t u r e ,
The Certificate o f Q u a l i t y f o r a casting shall be except f o r yield strength level o f 8 9 0 a n d 9 6 0 M P a
submitted t o t h e Register representative simulta- for w h i c h grade F is n o t applicable.
neously w i t h t h e presentation o f t h e casting i n t h e The requirements f o r the hot-rolled products
finished c o n d i t i o n o r i n geed time. T h e Certificate shall w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f 1 5 m m o r less d e s i g n e d f o r
be verified b y t h e q u a l i t y service o f a w o r k s a n d operation a t design temperatures b e l o w — 30 are
witnessed b y the person authorized f o r this b y the specified i n 3.5.2.6.
w o r k s . T h e Certificate shall c o n t a i n the following data: H i g h s t r e n g t h steel i s m a n u f a c t u r e d a t w o r k s
manufacturer's name a n d order number; r e c o g n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o 1.3.1.2.
shipbuilding project number, i f k n o w n ; The attention o f the consumers shall be d r a w n t o
description o f t h e casting w i t h d r a w i n g number; the fact that w h e n fatigue loading is present, t h e
propeller diameter, n u m b e r o f blades, p i t c h a n d effective fatigue strength o f a w e l d e d j o i n t o f h i g h
directions o f turning; s t r e n g t h steel m a y n o t b e greater t h a n t h a t o f a
final weight; w e l d e d j o i n t i n n o r m a l s t r e n g t h steels.
grade a n d type o f alloy, n u m b e r o f a cast a n d B e f o r e s u b j e c t i n g steels p r o d u c e d b y t h e r m o m e -
chemical composition; chanical rolling t o further heating f o r forming o r
identification number; stress r e l i e v i n g , o r u s i n g h i g h h e a t - i n p u t w e l d i n g ,
P a r t XIII. Materials 67

special c o n s i d e r a t i o n shall b e g i v e n t o t h e possibility 3.13.4 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .


o f a consequent reduction i n mechanical properties. Steel shall be delivered i n accordance w i t h t h e
3.13.2 S t e e l m a k i n g p r o c e s s . processes a p p r o v e d b y t h e Register. These processes
V a c u u m degassing shall be used f o ra n yo f t h e include:
following: Normalized (N)/Normalized rolled ( N R ) ;
a l l steels w i t h e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h - t h i c k n e s s p r o p e r t i e s ; Thermo-mechanical controlled rolled ( T M ) / w i t h
a l l steels o f g r a d e s P C 6 9 0 , P C 8 9 0 a n d P C 9 6 0 . Accelerated cooling ( T M + A c C ) / w i t h direct quench­
T h e steel s h a l l b e f u l l y k i l l e d , fine g r a i n treated ing followed b y tempering ( T M+ D Q ) ;
and shall have fine grain structure. T h e fine grain Quenched and Tempered condition ( Q T ) .
practice is t o be as detailed i n t h e approved T h e d e f i n i t i o n o f these delivery conditions a r e
m a n u f a c t u r i n g specification. specified i n 3.2.1.4.
A fine grain structure h a sa n equivalent index 6 Direct quenching after h o t - r o l l i n g f o l l o w e d b y
determined b y micrographic e x a m i n a t i o n i n accor- tempering is considered equivalent t o conventional
dance w i t h I S O 643 o r alternative national o r quenching a n d tempering.
i n t e r n a t i o n a l test m e t h o d agreed w i t h t h e Register. 3.13.5 R o l l i n g r e d u c t i o n r a t i o .
T h e steels s h a l l c o n t a i n n i t r o g e n b i n d i n g e l e m e n t s T h e r o l l i n g r e d u c t i o n r a t i o s h a l l b e n o t less t h a n
as d e t a i l e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n . A l s o 3:1 unless o t h e r w i s e agreed a t t h e t i m e o f a p p r o v a l .
refer t o T a b l e 3.13.3.1. 3.13.6 T h i c k n e s s l i m i t s f o r a p p r o v a l
3.13.3 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . 3.13.6.1 T h e m a x i m u m t h i c k n e s s o f s l a b , b i l l e t o r
3.13.3.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t e e l s h a l l b l o o m f r o m the continuous casting process shall bea t
be d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r f r o m each cast o r the manufacturer's discretion.
ladle i n a n adequately equipped laboratory. T h e 3.13.6.2 M a x i m u m t h i c k n e s s o f p l a t e s , s e c t i o n s ,
c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o fsteel s h a l l b e i n a c c o r d a n c e bars a n d t u b u l a r s , o v e r w h i c h a specific d e l i v e r y
w i t h t h e specification approved b y t h e Register a n d c o n d i t i o n is applicable, a r e s h o w n i n T a b l e 3.13.6.2.
the limiting values given i nTable 3.13.3.1. 3.13.7 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
3.13.3.2 E l e m e n t s used f o r a l l o y i n g , as w e l l ast h e F o r t h e purpose o f tensile a n d i m p a c t testing, t h e
residual elements shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e manufactur- m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f steel s h a l l b e i n a c c o r d a n c e
ing specification. T h e deviation i n said elements w i t h Tables 3.13.7-1 a n d 3.13.7-2.
c o n t e n t s h a l l n o t e x c e e d 0 , 0 0 5 %. W h e r e r o l l e d products o f o t h e r shapes (sections,
3.13.3.3 T h e c a r b o n e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e shall be c o n s t r u c t i o n pipes, etc.) a r e tested, t h e e l o n g a t i o n
calculated f r o m t h e ladle analysis. M a x i m u m values required f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l specimens shall exceed t h a t
are specified i n T a b l e 3.13.3.3. C a l c u l a t i o n f o r m u l a s s t a t e d i n T a b l e s 3 . 1 3 . 7 - 1 a n d 3 . 1 3 . 7 - 2 b y 2 %.
are given below: 3.13.8 S a m p l i n g a n d t e s t i n g .
f o r a l l steel grades t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a m a y b e T e s t specimens a n d test procedures f o r m e c h a n ­
used: ical properties arei n accordance w i t h 2.2 a n d 3.1.
„ „ . M n. Cr+ M o + V . Ni+Cu , 3.13.8.1 T e n s i l e t e s t .
+—t~F (%)
n/4
Ceq=C+-£- + г
Test specimens shall be c u t w i t h their long­
(3.13.3.3-1)
i t u d i n a l axes transverse t o t h e final direction o f
f o r steel grades H 4 6 0 a n d h i g h e r , C E T m a y b e r o l l i n g , except i n t h e case o f sections, bars, t u b u l a r s
used instead o f C e q a t t h e discretion o f t h e a n d rolled flats w i t h a finished w i d t h o f600 m m o r
manufacturer, a n d shall be calculated according t o less, w h e r e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e t e n s i l e s p e c i m e n s s h a l l
the following formula: be agreed w i t h t h e Register. A s a rule, full thickness
M n + M o , Cr+Cu , N i flat tensile specimens shall be prepared i n such a
CET=C+
10 + 20 + 40 (3.13.3.3-2)
m a n n e r as t o m a i n t a i n t h e r o l l i n g scale a t least a t o n e
side. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f t h e m a c h i n e d r o u n d test speci­
N o t e . T h e C E T i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t a n d a r d E N 1011¬
2:2001 u s e d a s o n e o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r p r e h e a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e
mens a r e used, they shall be located a t a p o s i t i o n
determination, which isnecessaryto avoid cold cracking. lying a t a distance o f (t/4) f r o m t h e surface o r as near
as p o s s i b l e t o t h i s p o s i t i o n .
f o r T M a n d Q T steels w i t h c a r b o n c o n t e n t n o t W h e r e test results a r e unsatisfactory, retesting
m o r e t h a n 0 , 1 2 %, t h e c o l d c r a c k i n g s u s c e p t i b i l i t y P c m shall be conducted i n compliance w i t h t h e require­
shall be be calculated using t h e following f o r m u l a : m e n t s o f 1.3.4.2.
d ^ . S i . M n . C u . N i . Cr , M o , V , r r o / \ D 3.13.8.2 I m p a c t t e s t .
+ 5 f i ( % )
Р с т = с +
ъ о +20-+20-+6F+20-
+
!5- iF+
3.13.8.2.1 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a g r e e d w i t h t h e
(3.13.3.3-3) Register, t h e i m p a c t testing o f steel plates a n d w i d e
68 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.13.3.1
Chemical composition o fhigh strength steel

Delivery N/NR T M QT
1
condition
Steel grade PCA420N/NR PCE420N/NR PCA420TM PCE420TM PCA420QT PCE420QT
PCD420N/NR PCE460N/NR PCD420TM PCF420TM PCD420QT PCF420QT
PCA460N/NR PCA460TM PCE460TM PCA460QT PCE460QT
PCD460N/NR PCD460TM PCF460TM PCD460QT PCF460QT
PCA500TM PCE500TM PCA500QT PCE500QT
PCD500TM PCF500TM PCD500QT PCF500QT
PCA550TM PCE550TM PCA550QT PCE550QT
PCD550TM PCF550TM PCD550QT PCF550QT
PCA620TM PCE620TM PCA620QT PCE620QT
PCD620TM PCF620TM PCD620QT PCF620QT
PCA690TM PCE690TM PCA690QT PCE690QT
PCD690TM PCF690TM PCD690QT PCF690QT
PCA890TM PCD890TM PCA890QT PCD890QT
PCE890TM PCA960QT PCE890QT
PCD960QT
PCE960QT

2
Chemical Composition, %

с 0,20 0,18 0,16 0,14 0,18

M n 1,0"1,70 1,70

0,60 0,80

3
p 0,030 0,025 0,025 0,020 0,025 0,020
r
max
3
s 0,025 0,020 0,025 0,010 0,015 0,010
^max
Altotai m i n 4
0,02 0,018

5
Nb m a x 0,05 0,06

V 5
0,20 0,12 0,12
'max
5
Ti 0,05 0,05
1
'max
6
Ni 0,80 2,00 2,00

Climax 0,55 0,50


5
Cr 0,30 0,50 1,50
v
-'' m a x
MOmax 5
0,10 0,50 0,70

N 0,025 0,015

Oxygen ppmmax 7
- - 50 - 30
^ e f e r t o 3.13.4 f o r d e f i n i t i o n o f d e l i v e r y c o n d i t i o n s .
2
T h e chemical composition is t o b e determined b yladle analysis a n d shall meet the a p p r o v e d manufacturing specification a t the
time o f approval.
3
F o r s e c t i o n s t h e P a n d S c o n t e n t c a n b e 0.005% h i g h e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e t a b l e .
" T h e t o t a l a l u m i n i u m t o n i t r o g e n r a t i o s h a l l b e a m i n i m u m o f 2:1 i n c a s e n o o t h e r n i t r o g e n b i n d i n g e l e m e n t s a r e u s e d .
5
T o t a l N b + V + T i 0.26% a n d M o + C r 0.65%, n o t a p p l i c a b l e f o r Q T s t e e l s .
6
H i g h e r N i content m a y b e a p p r o v e d a t the discretion o f the Register.
7
T h e requirement o n m a x i m u m Oxygen content is only applicable to PCD890, PCE890, PCD960 a n d PCE960.

flats o fm o r e t h a n 6 0 0 m m i n w i d t h shall be effected 3.13.8.2.2 S u b - s u r f a c e t e s t s p e c i m e n s w i l l b e


o n specimens prepared i n accordance w i t h 2.2.3.1-2, t a k e n i n s u c h a w a y t h a t o n e side i s n o tf u r t h e r a w a y
the longitudinal axes o f w h i c h are perpendicular t o t h a n 2 m m f r o m a rolled surface, h o w e v e r , f o r
the direction o frolling (transverse specimens). W h e r e m a t e r i a l w i t h a t h i c k n e s s i n excess o f 5 0 m m , i m p a c t
rolled products o f another cross-sectional shape are tests shall b e t a k e n a t t h e q u a r t e r thickness (t/4) a n d
concerned, t h e i m p a c t testing shall be effected o n mid-thickness (t/2) location.
longitudinal specimens. 3.13.8.2.3 I m p a c t t e s t f o r a n o m i n a l t h i c k n e s s l e s s
than 6 m m are normally n o t required.
P a r t XIII. Materials 69

T a b l e 3.13.3.3
M a x i m u m C e q , C E Ta n d P c m values for high strength steel

Steel grade a n d C a r b o n E q u i v a l e n t (%)


delivery
condition Ceq CET Pcm

Plates Section Bars Tubulars all all

t^50 50<г^100 m m 100<г^250 t^50 t^250 t^65


m m m m mm or <i^250 m m mm

PC420N/NR 0,46 0,48 0,52 0,47 0,53 0,47 - -


PC420TM 0,43 0,45 0,47 0,44 - - - -
PC420QT 0,45 0,47 0,49 - - 0,46 - -
PC460N/NR 0,50 0,52 0,54 0,51 0,55 0,51 0,25 -
PC460TM 0,45 0,47 0,48 0,46 - - 0,30 0,23
PC460QT 0,47 0,48 0,50 - - 0,48 0,32 0,24
PC500TM 0,46 0,48 0,50 - - - 0,32 0,24
PC500QT 0,48 0,50 0,54 - - 0,50 0,34 0,25
PC550TM 0,48 0,50 0,54 - - - 0,34 0,25
PC550QT 0,56 0,60 0,64 - - 0,56 0,36 0,28
PC620TM 0,50 0,52 - - - - 0,34 0,26
PC620QT 0,56 0,60 0,64 - - 0,58 0,38 0,30
PC690TM 0,56 - - - - - 0,36 0,30
PC690QT 0,64 0,66 0,70 - - 0,68 0,40 0,33
PC890TM 0,60 - - - - - 0,38 0,28
PC890QT 0,68 0,75 - - - - 0,40 -
PC960QT 0,75 - - - - - 0,40 -

T a b l e 3.13.6.2
M a x i m u m thickness limits
O u t o f e a c h test sample, a t least o n e tensile
specimen a n d three i m p a c t test specimens shall b e
Delivery M a x i m u m thickness (mm) prepared.
condition
Plates Sections Bars Tubulars I f required b yt h e Register, tensile testing shall be
m a d e o n specimens w i t h their longitudinal axes
N 2501 50 250 65 perpendicular t o t h e plate surface a n dt h e r e d u c t i o n
N R 150 2 i n cross-sectional area shall be determined.
3.13.10 I n s p e c t i o n .
T M 150 50 - -
Rolled products shall comply w i t h a l lt h e
QT 1501 50 - 50 requirements o f 3.2.7 taking t h e provisions below
1
M a n u f a c t u r i n g process o fN steels w i t h thickness larger into consideration.
t h a n 2 5 0 m m a n d Q T s t e e l s w i t h t h i c k n e s s l a r g e r t h a n 150 W h e n surface defects a r ee l i m i n a t e d b y g r i n d i n g ,
m m shall b eapproved b y the Register.
2
T h em a x i m u m thickness limits o f sections, bars a n d the thickness o f t h e rolled products a t t h e g r o u n d
tubulars p r o d u c e db y N Rp r o c e s s r o u t e a n d shall b e specified spot shall n o t exceed p e r m i t t e d tolerances. W h e n
in the technical documentationapproved b y the Register. required b y t h e Rules, t h e rolled products shall
undergo t h e ultrasonic testing i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h
standards recognized b y t h e Register.
3.13.9 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g . 3.13.11 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
E a c h plate (rolled length) shall u n d e r g o tensile Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued d o c u m e n t a ­
and impact testing after heat treatment. t i o n shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2.9.
F o r rolled products quenched a n d tempered i n
c o n t i n u o u s furnaces, t h e scope o f testing, i n c l u d i n g
the n u m b e r o f specimens a n d t h e direction o f their
cutting o u t , is determined o n t h e basis o f t h e
specification approved b y the Register.
70 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.13.7-1
M e c h a n i c a l properties for e x t r a high strength steel

\ Mechanical Yield strength R e H l m i n (MPa) Tensile strength R m M i n i m u m percentage I m p a c t energy, average m i n , (J)
\ properties (MPa) elongation after
N o m i n a l thickness (mm) 2
N o m i n a l thickness f r a c t u r e (%)
3

(mm) 2 )
£ = 5.65VS
0 0

Steel grade4
4

& delivery \ 3 < г ^ 5 0 50<г^100 100<г^250 3<г^100 100 < г ^ 2 5 0 T L Test temp T L
condition \ (°C)

PC420N/NR A 420 390 365 520 — 6 8 0 4 7 0 — 6 5 0 19 21 0 28 42


PC420TM D -20
PC420QT E -40
F -60
PC460N/NR A 460 430 390 540 — 7 2 0 500 — 7 1 0 17 19 0 31 46
PC460TM D -20
PC460QT E -40
F -60
PC500TM A 500 480 440 590 — 7 7 0 540 — 7 2 0 17 19 0 33 50
PC500QT D -20
E -40
F -60

PC550TM A 550 530 490 640 — 820 590 — 7 7 0 16 18 0 37 55


PC550QT D -20
E -40
F -60
PC620TM A 620 580 560 700 — 890 650 — 830 15 17 0 41 62
PC620QT D -20
E -40
F -60
PC690TM A 690 650 630 770 — 940 710 — 900 14 16 0 46 69
PC690QT D -20
E -40
F -60
PC890TM A 890 830 9 4 0 — 1100 11 13 0 46 69
PC890QT D -20
E -40

PC960QT A 960 9 8 0 — 1150 10 12 0 46 69


D -20
E -40

^ o r t e n s i l e t e s t e i t h e r t h e u p p e r y i e l d s t r e s s ( R e H ) o r w h e r e R e H c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d , t h e 0,2 % p r o o f s t r e s s ( R p 0 . 2 ) i s t o b e
determined a n d the material is considered t oc o m p l y with the requirement i feither value meets o rexceeds the specified m i n i m u m value
of yield strength.
2
F o r p l a t e s a n d sections f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s , s u c h a s r a c k s i n o f f s h o r e p l a t f o r m s etc., w h e r e the d e s i g n r e q u i r e s t h a t tensile p r o p e r t i e s
are m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e thickness, a decrease i n t h em i n i m u m specified tensile properties i s n o tpermitted w i t h a n increase i n t h e
thickness.
3
F o r f u l l t h i c k n e s s f l a t t e s t s p e c i m e n s w i t h a w i d t h o f 25 m m a n d a g a u g e l e n g t h o f 2 0 0 m m t h e e l o n g a t i o n s h a l l c o m p l y w i t h t h e
m i n i m u m v a l u e s s h o w n i n T a b l e 3.13.7.2.
4
I n the case t h a t the tensile specimen's l o n g i t u d i n a l axis is parallel t o the final rolling direction, the test result shall c o m p l y w i t h the
requirement o f elongation for longitudinal (L) direction.

3.14 Z - S T E E L
cular t o rolled surface. T h e present requirements
define t w o levels o f Z - p r o p e r t i e s f o r steel. T w o
3.14.1 G e n e r a l . relevant notations: Z 2 5 a n d Z 3 5 are introduced.
T h e present r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o steel o f Rolled products shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d b y w o r k s
n o r m a l , h i g h e r (refer t o 3 . 2 a n d 3.5), h i g h s t r e n g t h recognized b y t h e R e g i s t e r (refer t o 1.3.1.2). T h e
(refer t o 3.13) h a v i n g thickness e q u a l t o o r m o r e t h a n M a n u f a c t u r e r shall p r o v e that t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g
15 m m . A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t f o r t h i s process provides guaranteed plastic properties i n t h e
p o s s i b l e a l s o f o r r o l l e d steel w i t h t h i c k n e s s less t h a n t h r o u g h rolling thickness direction.
15 m m . A t appropriate guarantees o f the manufacturer a
Z-steel is recommended f o r use f o r welded s u p p l y o f steel w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e d u c t i o n i n
s t r u c t u r e s t a k i n g u p c o n s i d e r a b l e stresses p e r p e n d i ­ area Z o f t h e rolled products w i t h a thickness
z
P a r t XIII. Materials 71

T a b l e 3.13.7-2
1
E l o n g a t i o n m i n i m u m values f o r flat tensile specimens

Strength level Thickness (mm)

«10 > 10^15 > 15^20 > 20^25 > 25^40 > 40^50 > 50^70

420 11 13 14 15 16 17 18
460 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
500 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
550 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
620 9 11 12 12 13 14 15
2
690 9 2
10 2
ll 11 12 13 14

1
T h e tabulated elongation m i n i m u m values are the requirements f o r testing specimen i n transverse direction. PC890 a n d PC960
s p e c i m e n s a n d s p e c i m e n s w h i c h a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b l e s h a l l b e p r o p o r t i o n a l s p e c i m e n s w i t h a g a u g e l e n g t h o f L 0 = 5.65S0.
2
F o r P C 6 9 0 p l a t e s w i t h t h i c k n e s s 20 m m , r o u n d s p e c i m e n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 2.1 m a y b e u s e d i n s t e a d o f t h e f l a t t e n s i l e s p e c i m e n .
T h e m i n i m u m e l o n g a t i o n f o r t e s t i n g s p e c i m e n i n t r a n s v e r s e d i r e c t i o n i s 14 %.

T a b l e 3.14.3-2
specified i n t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n agreed w i t h t h e
Tests Retest
Register is permitted.
Provision is made for calcium treatment, v a c u u m
Acceptable Unacceptable result Acceptable
degassing, a r g o n stirring, s u l p h u r segregation c o n ­
result where retest is required result
trol, etc.
3.14.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
Z-steel shall be fully killed a n d fine grain treated. M i n i m u m
T h e contents o f elements shall comply w i t h the required value Ch-O OOOO
national o r international standards recognized b ythe of Д
Register. the reduction
in area ( K )
T h e content o f sulphur (ladle analysis) i n Z-steel
s h a l l n o t e x c e e d 0 , 0 0 8 %.
M i n i m u m
3.14.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . allowable value
T h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e steel, unless of the reduction
o t h e r w i s e specified, shall m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f in area o n one
3.2, 3.5 a n d 3.13. specimen

F o r t h e appropriate level o f Z-properties, t h e S y m b o l s :


average value o f t h e reduction i n area Z obtained О — individual result;
Л — average result.
z

u p o n tension o f three specimens, t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l


centreline o f w h i c h is perpendicular t o rolled surface,
shall c o m p l y w i t h T a b l e 3.14.3-1. T a b l e 3.14.3-1 gives
for each level o f Z-properties t h e value o f t h e case o f retest o f s i x specimens (three c o m p l e t e d
reduction i n area t o w h i c h t h e area is allowed t o plus three additional).
reduce o n o n e o f the specimens. T h e retest results a r e considered t o be satisfac­
T a b l e 3.14.3-1
tory a n d t h e rolled product/batch is accepted f o r
supply, provided:
Level o f Z-properties Z25, % Z35, %
the average value o f t h e reduction i n area Z , z

M i n i m u m average value o fthe reduction i n area 25 35 o b t a i n e d as a result o f testing s i x specimens exceeds


M i n i m u m allowable value o f the reduction i n 15 25 the required m i n i m u m average value (refer t o
area o n o n e specimen
Table 3.14.3-2),
t h e r e s u l t s less t h a n t h e m e n t i o n e d r e q u i r e d v a l u e h a v e
b e e n o b t a i n e d o n n o t m o r e t h a n t w o s p e c i m e n s o u t o f six.
T h e need f o r retest o n a d d i t i o n a l set o f three W h e r e t h e retest results a r e unsatisfactory t h e
specimens c u t o u t f r o m t h e same rolled p r o d u c t (refer rolled p r o d u c t / b a t c h s u b m i t t e d shall be rejected.
t o 2.2.2.5) a n d acceptance o f test results i n c l u d i n g also A d d i t i o n a l tests ( o n t h e same c o n d i t i o n s ) a r e
retest results as satisfactory is s h o w n i n T a b l e 3.14.3-2. permitted f o r each rolled product (other t h a n that
T h e T a b l e 3.14.3-2 gives b o u n d a r y cases t a k e n already tested) o u t o f the b a t c h rejected.
into account b y the Rules: 3.14.4 S a m p l i n g a n d s c o p e o f t e s t i n g .
case o f satisfactory tests o n three specimens; T h e scope o f testing depends o n t h e type o f rolled
t h r e e cases w h e r e retest i s p e r m i t t e d ; product a n d content o f sulphur (ladle analysis).
72 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T h e scope o f testing shall be determined i n diameter m o r e than 12 m m shall have a core o f three
accordance w i t h T a b l e 3.14.4. strands.
Samples shall be taken f r o m o n e e n d o fthe semi­ 3.15.2.3 C o r e s o f o r g a n i c f i b r e s h a l l b e i m p r e g n a t e d
f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s u b m i t t e d f o r tests, as i n d i c a t e d or lubricated w i t h corrosion preventive o r anti-rot
i n 2.2.2.5. substances n o t solvable i n sea w a t e r a n d containing n o
T a b l e 3.14.4 acids o r alkalis. T h e lubricant f o r t h e ropes a n d t h e
impregnant f o r t h e organic-fibre cores shall b e c o m p a ­
T y p e o f rolled Content o f sulphur, %
product
tible b y their physical a n d chemical properties.
S > 0,005 S « 0,005 3.15.3 S a m p l i n g .
Plate E a c h plate One plate o u t o f
F o r testing purposes, f r o m each rope 2000 m o r
m a x i m u m 50 t o f less l o n g a s a m p l e l e n g t h s h a l l b e t a k e n , a n d f r o m
products o f the same ropes longer t h a n 2000 m a sample length shall be
cast, thickness a n d t a k e n f r o m b o t h ends. T h e sample lengths shall be
W i d e f l a t s o f M a x i m u m 10 t o f heat treatment
M a x i m u m 50 t o f
l o n g e n o u g h t o m a k e a l l t h erequired testing possible.
t h i c k n e s s t« 2 5 m m p r o d u c t s o f t h e
s a m e cast, thickness products o f the same 3.15.4 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g .
and heat treatment cast, thickness a n d 3.15.4.1 A f t e r m a n u f a c t u r e , e a c h r o p e s h a l l
W i d e f l a t s o f M a x i m u m 20 t o f heat treatment
u n d e r g o t h e f o l l o w i n g tests:
t h i c k n e s s t > 25 m m p r o d u c t s o f t h e M a x i m u m 50 t o f
s a m e cast, thickness products o f the same b r e a k i n g test o f r o p e as a w h o l e ;
and heat treatment cast, thickness a n d tensile test ( u l t i m a t e strength being d e t e r m i n e d ) ,
heat treatment b e n d test, t w i s t i n g test a n d t e s t i n g o f t h e b o n d b e t w e e n
t h e c o a t i n g a n d steel core o n w i r e s f r o m t h e r o p e .
T h e n u m b e r o f wires t o be tested m a y be
3.14.5 I n s p e c t i o n . d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f s t a n d a r d s , b u t n o t less
Besides f u l f i l m e n t o fthe r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2.7, a l l than 10 % o fthe total number o fwires i na group o f
the r o l l e d products shall be subject t o ultrasonic wires o f a p a r t i c u l a r d i a m e t e r shall b e tested.
testing a t t h e f i n a l stage o f m a n u f a c t u r e . 3.15.4.2 T e s t i n g s h a l l b e c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e
T h e ultrasonic testing shall be carried o u t i n w i t h approved standards.
compliance with the requirements o f E N 10160 T h e b r e a k i n g test o f t h e r o p e as a w h o l e shall be
(level S l / E l ) , A S T M A 5 7 8 (level С a t a frequency o f effected b y m e a n s o f a b r e a k i n g m a c h i n e h a v i n g t h e
4 M H z ) o r w i t h the Register-approved n a t i o n a l standards. d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e c l a m p s n o t less t h a n 5 0 r o p e
3.14.6 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . d i a m e t e r s . I f d u r i n g t e s t i n g t h e r o p e b r e a k s less t h a n
Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued documenta­ 50 m m a w a y f r o m t h e grip t h e test shall be repeated.
t i o n — i n accordance w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2.8. 3.15.4.3 T h e t e s t r e s u l t s s h a l l b e i n a c c o r d a n c e
Besides, t o t h e steel d e s i g n a t i o n m e n t i o n e d Z 2 5 w i t h standards.
o r Z 3 5 s h a l l b e a d d e d , respectively, (e.g., D H 3 6 2 2 5 ) . 3.15.4.4 U n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f a n e s t a b l i s h e d
m a n u f a c t u r i n g process a n d i n t h e event o f testing
equipment o f t h e required capacity being n o t avail­
3.15 W I R E ROPES able t o enable t h e b r e a k i n g test o f a rope as a w h o l e
the breaking load m a y be determined proceeding
f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e n s i l e t e s t , F, i n k N , o f a l l t h e
3.15.1 G e n e r a l . wires m a k i n g u p t h e rope o n t h e basis o ft h e f o r m u l a
3.15.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o r o p e s ,
subject t o t h e Register survey, w h i c h are i n t e n d e d f o r F=cX[(XF )n/z] (3.15.4.4)
m

c a r g o - h a n d l i n g gear, life-saving appliances a n d o t h e r


ship appliances. where с = w i r e efficiency factor f o r t h e rope, w h i c h shall b e
3.15.1.2 T h e r o p e s s h a l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d adopted o n thebasis o f standards o r calculated a s t h e
ratio o fthe breaking load o fthe rope a s a whole to the
tested i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h standards a p p r o v e d b y t h e total breaking load o fall the wires m a k i n g u pthe rope,
Register a n d b y w o r k s recognized b y that body b o t h the values being stipulated b y t h e standards;
i = n u m b e r o f groups o fwires o f the same diameter;
a c c o r d i n g t o 1.3.1.2. m = n u m b e r o f wires f r o m each group o f a particular
3.15.2 M a n u f a c t u r e . diameter, subjected t o tensile testing, w h i c h c o n f o r m
to standards;
3.15.2.1 F o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f r o p e s , w i r e o f F = t h e greatest load, during t h e tensile test o f a wire,
m

r o u n d cross-section shall be used w i t h a coating t o k N , after w h i c h t h e specimen breaks;


n = n u m b e r o fwires i neach group o fa particular diameter;
protect i t f r o m c o r r o s i o n a n d a tensile strength n o t z = n u m b e r o f wires f r o m each group o f a particular
less t h a n 1 1 8 0 M P a . diameter subjected t o tensile testing.
3.15.2.2 T h e o r g a n i c f i b r e c o r e o f r o p e s s h a l l b e Proceeding f r o m the intended application o fthe
manila, sizal, h e m p o r synthetic fibre. Ropes w i t h t h e rope, t h e n u m b e r o fwires t o be tensile tested m a y be
P a r t XIII. Materials 73

r e d u c e d , b u t i n n o case t o less t h a n 2 5 % o f t h e t o t a l structures o f c a r g o a n d process vessels u n d e r


n u m b e r o fwires i n t h e rope. pressure a n d w i t h o u t pressure, systems a n d pipes f o r
3.15.5 I n s p e c t i o n . chemicals, p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s , l i q u e f i e d gases o r
3.15.5.1 T h e c o m p l i a n c e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , d i a ­ fresh water, de-activating solutions, etc;
meter a n d other parameters o fthe rope t o standards h u l l structures;
shall be c o n f i r m e d b y visual testing. pipelines o f t h e systems specified i n 1.1.1, P a r t
3.15.5.2 W h e n b e n d s o r b u r n - o f f s p o t s a r e V I I I "Systems a n d Piping";
removed f r o m t h e ends o f unstrandable ropes t h e machine-building products.
strands a n d wires i nt h e strands shall n o t uncoil o r F o r stainless steel p r o d u c t s h a v i n g c o n t a c t w i t h
m a y u n c o i l i n such a w a y t h a t they c a n be easily sea w a t e r e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l p r o t e c t i o n s h a l l b e u s e d .
returned t o their initial position. T h e C h a p t e r includes t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r stainless
3.15.5.3 T h e r o p e d i a m e t e r s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d steel r o l l e d plates a n d b a r s , f o r g i n g s a n d p i p e s o f
on a slack rope a tright angles t o t h eaxis between t w o martensitic ( M ) , martensitic+ ferritic ( M F ) , ferritic ( F ) ,
opposite strands i n t w o positions. austenitic+martensitic ( A M ) , austenitic ( A ) a n d auste­
The rope diameter shall n o t exceed t h e design n i t i c + f e r r i t i c ( A F ) classes. T h e a s s u m e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
v a l u e b y m o r e t h a n 6 %. stainless steel d e p e n d i n g o n its c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d
3.15.5.4 O n t h e r o p e s u r f a c e , t w i s t i n g a n d b e n d i n g structure is given i n Table 3.16.1.1.
of strands, sinking, crossing, corrosion a n d breaking Steel designations a r ebased o n t h e designations
of wires i n strands that prevent using t h e rope i n used i n international standards.
accordance w i t h the purpose are n o t permitted. Designations o fnational marks are n o wgiven i n
3.15.6 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . accordance w i t h the Russian standard.
Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued documenta­ 3.16.1.2 C o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t s t e e l u s e d a s a n
t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4. alternative means o f providing corrosion protection
(protective coatings) o f cargo tanks o f o i l tankers
specified i n 1.2.5.3, P a r t I I " H u l l " s h a l l m e e t t h e
3.16 S T A I N L E S S S T E E L requirements o f I M O resolution MSC.289(87).
3.16.1.3 T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t a i n ­
3.16.1 G e n e r a l . less steel m a n u f a c t u r e r s i s g i v e n i n 2 . 2 . 5 , P a r t I I I
3.16.1.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o s t a i n l e s s "Technical Supervision during Manufacture o f M a ­
steel subject t o t h e Register s u r v e y d u r i n g i t s terials" o fthe Rules f o rTechnical Supervision during
manufacture as required i n other Parts o f t h e Rules Construction o fShips a n d Manufacture o f Materials
and intended for: and Products f o r Ships.

T a b l e 3.16.1.1
A s s u m e d classification o fstainless steel depending o n chemical composition a n d structure

Steel Steel designation Steel m a r k Temperature range


class f o r a p p l i c a t i o n , °C
AISI /U N S National

M-l X20Crl3 410 20X13 -20-H+450


420 30X13
X7CrNiNbl6 4 07Х16Н4Б -60-H+350
MF-2 X15CrNil7 431 14X17H2 -20-H+350

F-3 X8CrTil7 430Ti 08X17T Он-+600

AM-4 X8CrNiTil7 6 — 08X17H6T -60-H+250

A-5 X 1 0 C r N i T i l 8 10 321, 347 08X18H10T -165-H+600


12X18H10T
X 2 C r N i l 9 11 304L, 3 0 4 L N -165-H+600

A-6 X 1 0 C r N i M o l 7 13 2 316L,316LN 03X17H14M3 -165-H+600


X 2 C r N i M o l 8 13 3 317L,317LN -165-H+600
X 1 0 C r N i M o T i l 7 13 3 10X17H13M3T -165-H+600
A-7 X 2 C r N i M o C u 2 0 18 6 S31254 — -165-H+600
X 2 C r N i M o C u 2 1 23 4 2 N08904 -165-H+600

AF-8 X2CrNiMo22 5 3 S31803 03X22H6M2 -40-H+250


X3CrNiMo25 6 3 S31260 -40-H+250
X4CrNiVo25 5 3 S32550 -40-H+250
X2CrNiMo25 7 4 S32750 -40-H+250
X3CrNiMo25 7 3 S32760 -40-H+250
X10CrNiTi22 6 08X22H6T -40-H+250
X10CrNiMo21 6 2 08X21H6M2T -40-H+250
74 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

Materials meeting the Register requirements shall Samples are taken f r o m a semi-finished product.
be supplied w i t h t h e Register Certificates. F o r forgings separately forged samples prepared
Manufacturers' Certificates f o r ingots a n d blanks f r o m the metal o f the same heat a n d w i t h the same
w i t h i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r , steel m a r k , degree o f d e f o r m a t i o n as t h e semi-finished p r o d u c t
heat N o . , chemical composition a n d documentation, s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e tests m a y b e used. I n s u c h case,
in compliance w i t h which ingots/blanks were manufac- dimensions o f the sample i n terms o f their thickness a n d
tured, shall be submitted t o theSurveyor t o the Register diameter m a y vary f r o m the m a x i m u m dimensions o f
w h o carries o u t t h e survey a t t h emanufacturer's w h e r e t h e f o r g i n g i t s e l f b y n o t m o r e t h a n 2 5 %.
there a r e n o m e l t i n g processes. T h e i n g o t / b l a n k s Samples f o r preparation o f specimens shall be c u t
manufacturer shall be recognized b y t h e Register. o u t u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l types o f heat treatment.
3.16.1.4 T h e u s e o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l n o t m e e t i n g t h e Separately forged samples shall be subjected t o
requirements f o r chemical composition, mechanical all types o f process heating a n dheat treatment i n o n e
properties and/or c o n d i t i o n o f supply m a y be c h a r g e w i t h t h e f o r g i n g s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e tests.
p e r m i t t e d after detailed s t u d y o f steel p r o p e r t i e s T h e dimensions o f samples shall provide perfor-
u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s , f o r w h i c h t h e steel i s intended. m a n c e o f t h e r e q u i r e d a n d possible retests.
3.16.1.5 T e s t s o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l f o r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y Unless expressly p r o v i d e d otherwise, samples
to intergranular, t h r o u g h , crevice a n d pitting shall be t a k e n as f o l l o w s :
c o r r o s i o n as w e l l as m e t a l l o g r a p h i c e x a m i n a t i o n , r o l l e d stock — i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 3.2.5. S a m p l e s
a-phase determination, etc shall be carried o u t f o r i m p a c t tests s h a l l be c u t i n such a m a n n e r t h a t t h e
according t o the procedures given i n the standards longitudinal axis o fspecimens is transverse t o t h e last
recognized b y the Register. d i r e c t i o n o f r o l l i n g . F o r steel sections a n d bars
3.16.1.6 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l longitudinal specimens m a y be used. F o r a semi-
properties. f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t h a v i n g a size ( d i a m e t e r , s q u a r e side,
Chemical composition a n d mechanical properties diameter o f inscribed circle) under 4 0 m m t h e
o f s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s o f stainless steel as w e l l as specimen axis shall coincide w i t h t h e axis o f the
steel resistance t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l effects s h a l l m e e t t h e semi-finished product;
requirements o f this P a r t o f t h e Rules a n d also t h e forgings — i n compliance w i t h 3.7.5.1, sample
requirements o f national a n d international standards being t a k e n f r o m t h e feed h e a d o fthe ingot. Samples
o r other special documents recognized b y t h e m a y b e t a k e n a t a d i s t a n c e o f 1/3 o f t h e r a d i u s o r 1 / 6
Register. o f the d i a g o n a l f r o m t h e o u t e r surface o f the f o r g i n g
T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f stainless steel t o be or f r o m t h e centre o fthe forging;
determined f o reach heat shall meet the requirements pipes — i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 3.4.5 a n d 3.4.6.
o f T a b l e 3.16.1.6. W h e r e necessary, samples m a y be S a m p l e s f o r i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n tests s h a l l be
taken directly f r o m a semi-finished product (plate, t a k e n s i m i l a r l y t o t h o s e f o r tensile tests.
forging, etc). I n a n y case, schemes o f t a k i n g samples a n d
T h e requirements f o r mechanical properties o f cutting o u t specimens shall be indicated o n t h e
semi-finished products depending o n their type are sketch.
given i n Tables 3.16.2.2, 3.16.3.2-1, 3.16.3.2-2 a n d 3.16.1.9 S c o p e o f t e s t s .
3.16.4.2. 3.16.1.9.1 T y p e s o f t e s t s , t o w h i c h s t a i n l e s s s t e e l
3.16.1.7 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y . can be subjected d u r i n g m a n u f a c t u r e , are given i n
A l l semi-finished products shall be supplied i n T a b l e 3.16.1.9.1. Tests, t o w h i c h stainless steel
heat-treated condition. supplied under the Register technical supervision
H e a t t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s a r e specified i n accor- s h a l l b e s u b j e c t e d , a r e m a r k e d w i t h " + ".
dance w i t h standards recognized b y the Register o r A s a r u l e s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s o f stainless steel
other normative documents. are s u b m i t t e d f o r tests i n batches o r i n d i v i d u a l l y .
W h e r e heat treatment conditions are n o t indi- A batch shall consist o fsemi-finished products o f
cated i n t h e standards, such conditions shall be the s a m e steel m a r k , t h e s a m e heat, t h e s a m e
specified i n accordance w i t h t h e standards a n d o t h e r c o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y , o n e s h a p e ( t y p e ) a n d size a n d
normative technical documentation approved b y the m a d e using t h e same p r o d u c t i o n process.
Register. Forgings o f one batch shall be made according t o
Steel plates a n d flats o f 4 m m i n thickness a n d the sketch a n d heat-treated i n o n e charge.
less m a y b e s u p p l i e d i n s e m i - c o l d - w o r k e d o r c o l d - Pipes included i n the batch shall have the same
worked condition. w a l l thickness.
T y p e o r conditions o f heat treatment shall be Steel plates a n d forgings intended f o r use a t
indicated i n the Semi-Finished Certificate. t e m p e r a t u r e s b e l o w z e r o s h a l l b e s u b m i t t e d f o r tests
3.16.1.8 S a m p l i n g . individually.
P a r t XIII. Materials 75

T a b l e 3.16.1.1
C h e m i c a l composition o f stainless steel

Content o felements, %

Steel class a n d m a r k c,
max Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo N Other

Martensitic
410 0,12 1,0 1,0 0,045 0,03 12,0 — 14,0 — — — —
420 0,17 1,0 1,0 0,045 0,03 12,0 — 14,0 — — — —
M a r t e n s i t e - ferritic
431 0,23 1,0 1,0 0,045 0,03 16,0 — 18,0 1,5 — 2,5 — — —
Ferritic
431Ti 0,1 1,0 1,0 0,045 0,03 16,0 — 18,0 — — — T i x C
Austenitic
304L 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 17,0 — 20,0 8,0—13,0 — 0,10 —
304LN 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 17,0 — 20,0 8,0—12,0 — 0,10 — 0 , 2 2 —
316L 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 16,0 — 18,5 10,0—15,0 2,0 — 3,0 0,10 —
316LN 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 16,0 — 18,5 10,0 — 14,5 2,0 — 3,0 0,10 — 0 , 2 2 —
317L 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 18,0 — 20,0 11,0—15,0 3,0 — 4,0 0,10 —
317LN 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 18,0 — 20,0 12,5—15,0 3,0 — 4,0 0,10 — 0 , 2 2 —
321 0,08 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 17,0 — 19,0 9,0 — 12,0 — 0,10 Ti>5xC«0,70
347 0,08 1,0 2,0 0,045 0,03 17,0 — 19,0 9,0—13,0 — 0,10 Nb>10xC«l,0
U N S S31254 0,02 0,8 1,0 0,03 0,01 19,5 — 20,5 17,5—18,5 6,0 — 6,5 0,18 — 0 , 2 2 C u 0 , 5 0 — 1,0
U N S N08904 0,02 1,0 2,0 0 , 0 4 0,025 19,0 — 23,0 23,0 — 2 8 , 0 4 , 0 — 5,0 0,15 C u 1,00 — 2,0
A u s t e n i t e - ferritic (duplex)
U N S S31260 0,03 0,75 1,0 0,03 0,03 24,0 — 26,0 5,5 — 7,5 2,5 — 3,5 0,10 — 0 , 3 0 C u 0,2 — 0,8
W 0 , 1 — 0,5
U N S S31803 0,03 1,0 2,0 0,03 0,02 21,0 — 23,0 4,5 — 6,5 2,5 — 3,5 0,08 — 0,20 —
U N S S32550 0,04 1,0 1,5 0,04 0,03 24,0 — 27,0 4,5 — 6,5 2,0 — 4,0* 0,10 — 0,25 C u 1,5 — 2,5
U N S S32750 0,03 0,8 1,2 0,035 0,02 24,0 — 26,0 6,0 — 8,0 3,0 — 5,0 0,24 — 0,32 C u 0,50, n o t m o r e
2
U N S S32760 0,03 1,0 1,0 0,03 0,01 24,0 — 26,0 6,0 — 8,0 3,0 — 4,0 0,20 — 0,30 C u 0 , 5 0 — 1,0
W 0 , 5 0 — 1,0

' F o r p i p e s c o n t e n t o f M o i s t a k e n e q u a l t o 2,90 t o 3,90.


2
F o r p i p e s c o n t e n t o f С i s «0,05.

National stainless steels

Content o f elements, %
Steel class a n d m a r k
Si, Mn, S, P,
max max Cr Ni Ti Mo max max

Martensitic
20X13 0,16 — 0,25 0,8 0,8 12,0 — 1 4 , 0 0,025 0,030
30X13 0,26 — 0,35 0,8 0,8 12,0 — 14,0 0,025 0,030
07X16Н4Б 0,05 — 0 , 1 0 0,6 0,2 — 0,5 14,0 — 16,5 3,5 — 4 , 5 N b 0,2 — 0,4 0,020 0,025
M a r t e n s i t e - ferritic
14X17H2 0,11—0,17 0,8 0,8 16,0—18,0 1,5 — 2,5 0,025 0,030
Ferritic
08X17T m a x 0,08 0,8 0,8 16,0—18,0 5 x С — 0,8 0,025 0,030
Austenite -
martensitic
08X17H6T m a x 0,08 0,8 0,8 16,5 — 18,0 5,5 — 6,5 0,15 — 0,35 0,020 0,035
Austenitic
08X18H10T m a x 0,08 0,8 2,0 17,0¬ 19,0 9 , 0 ¬ 11,0 5xC 0,7 0,020 0,035
12X18H10T m a x 0,12 0,8 2,0 17,0¬ 19,0 9 , 0 ¬ 11,0 5xC 0,8 0,020 0,035
10X17H13M3T m a x 0,10 0,8 2,0 18,0 12,0¬ - 1 4 , 0 5xC 0,7 3,0¬ -4,0 0,020 0,035
16,0¬
03X17H14M3 m a x 0,03 0,4 1,0 — 2 , 0 18,3 -15,0 2,2- -2,8 0,020 0,030
16,8¬ 13,5¬
A u s t e n i t e - ferritic
21,0¬ 5,3¬
08X22H6T m a x 0,08 0,8 0,8 23,0 -6,3 5xC -0,65 0,025 0,035
08X21H6M2T m a x 0,08 0,8 0,8 20,0¬ 22,0 5,5¬ - 6 , 5 0,20- 0,40 -2,5 0,025 0,035
03X22H6M2 m a x 0,03 0,4 1,0 — 2 , 0 2 1 , 0 - 23,0 5,5- -6,5 -2,5 0,020 0,035

Sizes o f batches, n u m b e r a n d p r o c e d u r e o f t a k i n g i n 3.16.2.3, f o rforgings — i n 3.16.3.3, f o r pipes — i n


samples f o r steel plates, sheet steel a n d bars a r e given 3.16.4.3.
76 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.16.1.9.1
T y p e s o f semi-finished products o f stainless steel tests

Steel class
Characteristics t o b e determined
M-l MF-2 F-3 AM-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 AF-8

M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a t 2 0 °C:
tensile strength R m + + + + + + + +
y i e l d s t r e s s Rpo,2 + + + + + + + +
elongation A 5 + + + + + + + +
reduction i n area Z + + + + + + + +
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
S a m e a toperating temperature + + + + + + + +
+ + + + — — — +
+ 2 0 c
I m p a c t t o u g h n e s s a t + 2 0 °C, K C V °

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Impact toughness ata temperature below K C V + + + + + + +
— — — —
1 1 1
Impact energy a ta temperature belowK V + + + +
2
Susceptibility t o intergranular corrosion + + + + + + + +
Macrostructure examination + + + + + + + +
— — — — —
1 1 1
a-phase examination + + +
— —
1 1 1 1 1
G r a i n size control + + + + + +
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Process tests + + + + + + + +
Non-destructive testing + + + + + + + +
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Control o fnon-metallic inclusion content + + + + + + + +
— — — —
1 1 1 1
D e t e r m i n a t i o n o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f brittleness critical temperature + + + +
' W h e n specified i n the a p p r o v e d documentation.
2
O n l y f o r s t e e l m a r k 07Х16Н4Б.

3.16.1.9.2 T e s t s f o r t h e r e c o g n i z i n g a n e n t e r p r i s e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o b t a i n e d e v e n f o r o n e speci­
as a m a n u f a c t u r e r o f stainless steel i n a c c o r d a n c e m e n , t h e blanks shall be subjected t o repeated heat
w i t h 3.16.1.3 shall b e carried o u t u n d e r a p r o g r a m t r e a t m e n t a n d s u b m i t t e d f o r tests as n e w ones. N o t
approved b y t h eRegister (refer t o 2.2.5.2.4, P a r t I I I m o r e than three complete heat treatments are
"Technical Supervision during Manufacture o f M a ­ allowed.
terials" o f the Rules for Technical Supervision during 3.16.1.10 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
Construction o fShips a n d Manufacture o fMaterials Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued d o c u m e n t a ­
and Products f o r Ships) a n d generally shall include: t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4.
chemical analysis; E v e r y s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t o f stainless steel
determination o f mechanical properties ( R , m shall have t h eRegister brand.
RpO,i, A , Z ) a t 2 0 °C a n d a d e s i g n t e m p e r a t u r e ;
5 3.16.2 R o l l e d p r o d u c t s .
determination o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o fthe critical brittle­ 3.16.2.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o s t a i n l e s s
n e s s t e m p e r a t u r e ( e x c e p t f o r a u s t e n i t i c t y p e steels); steel plates, flats a n d sections w i t h a thickness u p t o
metallographic examination a n d macrostructure 50 m m as w e l l as t o h o t - r o l l e d a n d f o r g e d steel o f
e x a m i n a t i o n t o detect shrinkage cavities, bubbles, round, square o r rectangular section w i t h a diameter
n o n - m e t a l l i c i n c l u s i o n s , g r a i n size; or thickness u p t o 2 0 0 m m .
tests f o r susceptibility t o i n t e r g r a n u l a r , t h r o u g h , 3.16.2.2 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t e e l a t 2 0 °C
crevice, p i t t i n g c o r r o s i o n ; shall n o t be w o r s e t h a n given i n T a b l e 3.16.2.2.
determination o fa-phase a m o u n t (for austenitic T a b l e 3.16.2.2
t y p e steels); Mechanical properties o f stainless steel rolled products
process tests ( r i n g e x p a n d i n g , f l a t t e n i n g , b e n d i n g , Tensile strength Y i e l d stress Elongation A , 5

etc) a n d plasticity assessment i n case o f c o l d Steel class R , min,


m Рроз, m i n , min, %
stamping. MPa MPa

3.16.1.9.3 T e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , t y p e s a n d d i m e n ­ M-l 650 440 16


sions o f specimens shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e require­ 850 735 13
ments o fSection 2 o f the present P a r t o rn a t i o n a l a n d MF-2 690 540 12
international standards recognized b y t h e Register. F-3 440 — 18
A-5 440 175 45
Retests a i m i n g t o check mechanical properties 490 195 35
s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.5.2. A-6 440 185 40
D u r i n g retests those characteristics s h a l l b e deter­ 510 200 35
m i n e d , f o rw h i c h negative results were obtained. A-7 650 300 35
AF-8 580 340 20
I n case o f n e g a t i v e results o f i n t e r g r a n u l a r 650 450 25
c o r r o s i o n tests a n d retests f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f 760 550 15
P a r t XIII. Materials 11

I n determining mechanical properties o f rolled W e l d i n g , c o n t r o l o f welded areas a n d heat


products (bars) using transverse specimens, t h e t r e a t m e n t ( i f necessary) shall be p e r f o r m e d according
requirements m a y be reduced i n accordance w i t h to t h emanufacturer's d o c u m e n t a t i o n agreed w i t h t h e
the provisions o f n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards. surveyor t o the Register w i t h the following m a r k i n g
3.16.2.3 S c o p e o f t e s t s . o f welded areas i n t h e Certificate.
T h e n u m b e r o f s a m p l e s a n d b a t c h size f o r r o l l e d 3.16.3 F o r g i n g s .
products shall be determined i n the following way: 3.16.3.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o s e m i - f i n i s h e d
f o r steel plates a n d w i d e flats ( > 6 0 0 m m ) m o r e products manufactured b y forging a n d h o t stamping.
t h a n 2 0 m m i n thickness, m o r e t h a n 10 m l o n g a n d 3.16.3.2 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f f o r g i n g s a n d
m o r e t h a n 5 tons i n mass samples are t a k e n f r o m stampings, t o w h i c h intergranular corrosion require­
b o t h e n d s o f e a c h r o l l e d p r o d u c t . I n o t h e r cases, a ments apply, shall n o t be lower than that given i n
sample is taken f r o m o n e e n d o f t h e rolled product; Table 3.16.3.2-1. Mechanical properties o f forgings
f o r steel p l a t e s a n d w i d e f l a t s ( > 6 0 0 m m ) less and stampings, t o w h i c h intergranular corrosion
t h a n 2 0 m m i n thickness, samples are t a k e n f r o m o n e requirements d o n o t apply, shall meet the require­
end o f the plate o f the batch containing n o t m o r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 3.16.3.2-2.
t h a n 2 0 plates;
T a b l e 3.16.3.2-1
f o r r o l l e d steel, samples a r e t a k e n f r o m b o t h ends M e c h a n i c a l properties o f stainless steel forgings a n d stampings,
o f each roll; to which intergranular corrosion requirements apply
f o r steel plates a n d sections, samples a r e t a k e n Tensile strength Y i e l d stress Elongation A , 5

f r o m o n e e n d o f o n e semi-finished product o f the Steel class R , min, M P a


m Рроз, m i n , min, %
b a t c h c o n t a i n i n g n o t m o r e t h a n 5 0 pieces, h a v i n g a MPa
mass n o t m o r e t h a n 5 t. M-l 880 690 12
Plates that v a r y i n thickness b y n o t m o r e t h a n 5 MF-2 690 540 12
m m m a ybe combined i n o n e batch. AM-4 730 540 12
A-5 490 190 38
A s a rule, t h e following specimens shall be A-6 510 210 38
p r e p a r e d f r o m each s a m p l e o f steel plates, w i d e flats AF-8 590 340 17
a n d bars:
o n e s p e c i m e n f o r tensile test;
t w o s p e c i m e n s f o r i m p a c t t o u g h n e s s test; T a b l e 3.16.3.2-2
M e c h a n i c a l properties o f stainless steel forgings a n d stampings
o n e set o f specimens ( a t least t w o pieces) f o r
to which intergranular corrosion requirements d o not apply
a u s t e n i t i c steels, t w o sets o f s p e c i m e n s ( a t least f o u r
pieces) f o r austenitic — ferritic a n d austenitic — Tensile Y i e l d stress Elongation A , 5

Steel class strength R , Pp0,2, m i n , min, %


m a r t e n s i t i c steels, o n e o f w h i c h i s a c h e c k s p e c i m e n , m

min, M P a MPa
f o r i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n tests;
M-l 650 440 13
at least o n e t e m p l a t e f o rm a c r o s t r u c t u r e c o n t r o l .
MF-2 690 540 12
3.16.2.4 I n s p e c t i o n . AM-4 730 630 10
A l l t h eplates a n d rods o f the batch shall undergo 880 730 12
surface inspection a n d v e r i f i c a t i o n o f dimensions.
R o l l e d p r o d u c t s s h a l l n o t h a v e a n y defects p r e v e n t i n g
t h e m f r o m use f o r intended applications. T h e absence I n the a b o v e tables m e c h a n i c a l properties d e t e r m i n e d
o f defects s h a l l b e t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n l o n g i t u d i n a l specimens a r e given f o r semi-finished
a n d m a y be p r o v e d b y non-destructive testing. N o n ­ products, t h e diameter (thickness) o f w h i c h does n o t
destructive testing shall be performed according t o exceed 300 m m . M e c h a n i c a l properties o f bigger forgings
national standards. Surface imperfections resulted are specified b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r i n accordance w i t h t h e
f r o m t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process used are permitted, acting standards a n d subject t o agreement w i t h t h e
provided they are within permissible limits, counting Register.
f r o m the n o m i n a l thickness. I n determining mechanical properties o f forgings
D e f e c t i v e areas m a y b e w e l d e d i n cases w h e r e t h e using transverse, radial o r tangential specimens t h e
d e p t h o f t h e c h i p p e d areas after r e c t i f y i n g defects requirements f o r mechanical properties m a y be
does n o t exceed 2 0 % o f the n o m i n a l thickness o f the reduced i n accordance w i t h provisions o f n a t i o n a l
billet, a n d the t o t a l chipped area does n o t exceed 2 % o f and international standards o r b y values given i n
the t o t a l area o f the billet. W h e r e projections o f w e l d e d T a b l e 3.16.3.2-3.
a r e a s c o i n c i d e i n t h i c k n e s s o n b o t h sides o f t h e b l a n k , 3.16.3.3 S c o p e o f t e s t s .
the permissible chipped areas shall n o t exceed i n t o t a l T h e n u m b e r o f s a m p l e s a n d b a t c h size o f stainless
t h e d e p t h p e r m i s s i b l e o n o n e side t h e billet. steel f o r g i n g s a n d s t a m p i n g s s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d as
follows:
78 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.16.3.2-3 After welding the location o f all repairs a n d the


Permissible reduction o fmechanical properties
results o f inspection shall be s h o w n i nt h e d r a w i n g o r
when using transverse, radial a n d tangential specimens, i n %
sketch o f the forging a n d annexed t o the Certificate.
Specimen type
3.16.4 P i p e s .
Tangential 3.16.4.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o h o t - a n d
Mechanical specimens for ingots c o l d - f o r m e d pipes o f stainless steel.
properties Trans­ Radial having diameter 3.16.4.2 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f p i p e s s h a l l n o t
verse (thickness), m m
be l o w e r t h a n t h a t g i v e n i n T a b l e 3.16.4.2.
under over T a b l e 3.16.4.2
300 300
Tensile strength Y i e l d stress Elongation A , 5

Y i e l d s t r e s s Rpo,2,m
M P a 10 10 5,0 5,0 Steel class R , min, M P a
m Рроз, m i n , min, %
Tensile strength R , i nM P a m 10 10 5,0 5,0 MPa
Elongation A , in % 5 50 35 25 30
A-5 490 175 30
Reduction i n area Z ,i n % 50 40 25 30
2
549 186 35
Impact toughness KCV, in J / c m 50 40 25 30
A-6 490 185 30
529 216 30
N o t e s : 1. F o r forgings o f "ring" type w i t h a diameter
AF-8 580 200 20
m o r e t h a n 1000 m m p r o d u c e d b y d r a w i n g , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
mechanical properties obtained i n testing tangential specimens 690 450 25
are b a s e d o n t h erequirements f o r longitudinal specimens. 760 550 15
2
2. I n a n y c a s e i m p a c t t o u g h n e s s s h a l l n o t b e l e s s t h a n 30 J / c m 800 550 25
a n d e l o n g a t i o n s h a l l n o t b e l e s s t h a n 9 %.

3.16.4.3 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g .
for forgings a n d stampings o f 2 0 k g i n mass o r T h e size o f t h e b a t c h s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d as f o l l o w s :
less — f r o m o n e s e m i - f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t o f t h e b a t c h w h e r e t h e o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r i s 7 6 m m a n d less
consisting o f n o t m o r e t h a n 3 0 pieces. S a m p l e s a r e — 3 0 0 pieces;
taken f r o m o n e end o f the semi-finished product; where the outside diameter is over 76 m m
for forgings a n d stampings h a v i n g a mass f r o m — 2 0 0 pieces.
20 t o 1000 k g — f r o m o n e semi-finished p r o d u c t o f Samples are t a k e n f r o m o n e e n d o f a t least t w o
the b a t c h c o n s i s t i n g o f n o t m o r e t h a n 1 0 pieces. pipes o f t h e batch.
Samples are taken f r o m o n e e n d o fthe semi-finished Unless expressly specified otherwise b y t h e
product; Register o r standards, t h e following specimens shall
for forgings a n d stampings o fm o r e t h a n 1000 k g be t a k e n f r o m each sample:
in mass — f r o m each forging. W h e r e a length is 3 m for tensile test — 1 specimen;
and m o r e , f r o m b o t h ends o f each forging. for flattening o r expansion o f rings — 1 specimen;
Forgings made according t o different drawings for flaring — 1 specimen;
but close i n shape a n d v a r y i n g i n section b y n o t m o r e for i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n test o f pipes m a d e o f
than 25 % m a ybe combined i n o n e batch. austenitic steel — 1 set o f specimens ( a t least
A s a rule, t h e following specimens shall be 2 pieces); f o r pipes o f austenitic + ferritic pipes —
prepared f r o m each sample: 2 sets o f s p e c i m e n s ( a t least 4 pieces), o n e o f w h i c h i s
for tensile test — o n e specimen; a c h e c k set;
for i m p a c t toughness — t w o specimens; each pipe shall be subjected t o a h y d r a u l i c
for i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n test — f o u r speci­ pressure test a n d u l t r a s o n i c testing.
mens, t w o o f w h i c h are check specimens; 3.16.4.4 I n s p e c t i o n .
for m a c r o s t r u c t u r e c o n t r o l — a t least o n e specimen. A l l pipes a n d tubes shall u n d e r g o external a n d
3.16.3.4 I n s p e c t i o n . i n t e r n a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e surface. Absence o f
A l l forgings a n d stampings o f the batch are i n a d m i s s i b l e defects shall be g u a r a n t e e d b y t h e t h e
subject t o inspection o f a surface a n d dimensions. manufacturer a n d p r o v e d b y non-destructive testing.
A b s e n c e o f i n a d m i s s i b l e defects shall be g u a r a n t e e d
by t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r a n d m a y be p r o v e d b y n o n ­
destructive testing, i f specified b y o r d e r specification. 3.17 C L A D S T E E L
W e l d i n g o f defects is subject t o special considera­
t i o n b y t h e R e g i s t e r i n each p a r t i c u l a r case a n d is
generally restricted t o t h e rectification o f t h e defects 3.17.1 G e n e r a l .
o f m i n o r n a t u r e a n d i n a r e a s o f l o w w o r k i n g stresses. 3.17.1.1 T h e p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s c o v e r s t e e l
The repairing technique a n d testing procedure are plates o f low-alloy m e t a l coated w i t h a t h i n layer o f
subject t o t h e Register agreement. stainless steel o n o n e o r b o t h sides a n d i n t e n d e d f o r
P a r t XIII. Materials 79

t a n k s a n d vessels being subject t o t h e Register U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e specified, s a m p l i n g a n d the base


t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n , as w e l l as f o r ice s t r a k e s o f m e t a l testing shall be carried o u t i n accordance w i t h
icebreakers, arctic ice class ships, m o b i l e o f f s h o r e the requirements o f the above chapters.
drilling units and fixed offshore platforms. 3.17.2.2 T h e chemical c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n ­
3.17.1.2 C l a d steel s h a l l be m a n u f a c t u r e d u n d e r t h e ical properties o f the cladding m e t a l shall meet the
Register supervision by the manufacturers recognized requirements o f 3.16.
i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.3. 3.17.2.3 T h e use o f clad steel f o r specific
The Register representative carrying o u t the o p e r a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s shall be agreed i n each
technical supervision at the manufacturer's o f clad p a r t i c u l a r case.
steel plates, w h i c h has n o f o u n d r y f o r a l l the 3.17.3 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .
i n g r e d i e n t s o f c l a d steel, s h a l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e 3.17.3.1 Plates w i t h stainless steel c l a d d i n g s h a l l
certificates o f the billets m a n u f a c t u r e r . T h e surveyor be supplied i n as-rolled c o n d i t i o n a n d m a y be heat-
may d e m a n d surveying a n d recognizing the suppliers treated t o ensure the properties o f the base m e t a l . I n
o f billets f o r clad steel m a n u f a c t u r i n g . this case t h e c o r r o s i o n resistance o f t h e c l a d d i n g
3.17.1.3 H u l l s t r u c t u r a l r o l l e d p r o d u c t s o f В t o m e t a l after heat treatment shall meet the require­
F G r a d e s w i t h a y i e l d stress f r o m 2 3 5 M P a t o 6 9 0 M P a m e n t s o f 3.16. T h e type o f heat t r e a t m e n t shall m e e t
s h a l l be u s e d as base m a t e r i a l o f c l a d steel i n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s t a n d a r d s a n d s h a l l be a p p r o v e d
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2, 3.5, 3.13 by the Register at the initial survey o f the m a n u ­
a n d 3.14. T h e steel s h a l l be selected i n c o m p l i a n c e facturer.
w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e f u n c t i o n ( r e f e r t o 1.2, P a r t I I 3.17.4 S c o p e o f testing.
" H u l l " o f t h e p r e s e n t R u l e s a n d 1.5, P a r t I I " H u l l " o f 3.17.4.1 T h e scope o f testing a t t h e i n i t i a l s u r v e y o f
the Rules for the Classification, Construction and the m a n u f a c t u r e r shall be d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p r o ­
E q u i p m e n t o f M O D U / F O P ) reasoning f r o m the g r a m m e developed i n compliance w i t h the requirements
d e s i g n s e r v i c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l Td, t h e o f 2.2.1.3.1, P a r t I I I "Technical Supervision during
f u n c t i o n o f a structural m e m b e r (special o r p r i m a r y ) , Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for Technical
the base m a t e r i a l thickness, requirements f o r Supervision during Construction o f Ships and M a n u ­
Z-properties and loading conditions. facture o f M a t e r i a l s a n d Products f o r Ships. T h e
I n cases n o t specified i n T a b l e 1.5.1.2, P a r t I I p r o g r a m m e shall be agreed w i t h the Register.
" H u l l " o f the Rules for the Classification, Construc­ T h e f o l l o w i n g types o f tests m a y a d d i t i o n a l l y be
t i o n a n d E q u i p m e n t o f M O D U / F O P the selection o f carried out:
t h e base m a t e r i a l steel grade shall m e e t t h e r e q u i r e ­ tensile test o n the full thickness clad plate test
m e n t s o f 3.17.4.1.9 a n d 3 . 1 7 . 4 . 1 . 1 1 , 3.2 a n d 3.5 o f t h e specimen;
p r e s e n t P a r t , as w e l l as t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2, b e n d test o n the clad test specimens;
P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f the Rules for the Classifica­ shear test o n the c l a d d i n g m e t a l ;
tion, Construction and Equipment o f M O D U / F O P . resistance o f the cladding m e t a l against inter­
T h e base m e t a l shall be o v e r 10 m m t h i c k . granular corrosion;
A u s t e n i t i c o r a u s t e n i t i c - f e r r i t i c stainless steels test f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e base m a t e r i a l Z - p r o p e r t i e s ;
(classes A a n d A F ) h a v i n g a c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n test f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e base m a t e r i a l c r a c k
a n d properties m e e t i n g the requirements o f 3.16 shall resistance.
be u s e d as t h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l . 3.17.4.1.1 S t r e n g t h i n tensile test o n t h e full
T h e use o f o t h e r b r a n d s o f corrosion-resistant thickness clad plates.
m a t e r i a l s as t h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l s h a l l be a p p r o v e d b y T h e tensile test o n the full thickness clad plate
t h e R e g i s t e r as p a r t o f t h e s u b m i t t e d n o r m a t i v e test specimens shall be p e r f o r m e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the
technical documentation o f the product. T h e n o m i n a l tensile s t r e n g t h a n d y i e l d stress o f c l a d steel. W i t h t h e
t h i c k n e s s o f t h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l s h a l l be n o t less t h a n t o t a l t h i c k n e s s o f less t h a n 2 0 m m t h e c l a d p l a t e i n
2 mm. tensile test shall m e e t the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t :
T h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l shall be chosen considering
the specific o p e r a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . R ^ Rt 0 0 + R„t„ (3.17.4.1.1)
3.17.1.4 H o t (pack) r o l l i n g , e x p l o s i o n w e l d i n g ,
o v e r l a y r o l l i n g o r a c o m b i n a t i o n t h e r e o f m a y be used where R = n o m i n a l value o f tensile strength o r yield stress o f the
for plate cladding. clad plate, N / m m ; 2

До, R = n o m i n a l v a l u e o f t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h R o r y i e l d s t r e s s
3.17.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l n
R
m

o,2 (Рв, Стод) f o r b a s e m e t a l a n d c l a d d i n g m e t a l ,


properties. respectively, N / m m ; 2

3.17.2.1 T h e chemical c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n ­ t, t = n o m i n a l t h i c k n e s s o f b a s e m a t e r i a l a n d c l a d d i n g
a n

metal, respectively, m m ;
ical properties o f the base m e t a l shall m e e t the t = n o m i n a l thickness o f the clad plate, m m .
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.2, 3.5, 3.13 a n d 3.14.
80 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.17.4.1.2 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p l y b o n d s t r e n g t h . test specimens t a k e n f r o m each plate i n t h e t h r o u g h base


T h e b e n d test o n t h e clad test specimens shall be material thickness direction o f a clad plate shall comprise
performed f o r t h e qualitative assessment o f b o n d a t l e a s t 3 5 % w i t h o n e t e s t r e s u l t a l l o w e d b e l o w 3 5 %,
resistance o f t h e base m a t e r i a l a n d cladding m e t a l . b u t n o t less t h a n 2 5 %.
N o separations o fthe cladding i n bending shall be a F o r M O D U a n d F O P p r i m a r y structures t h e
p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i o n . T h r e e test specimens shall be average value o f t h e reduction i n area Z o f three z

t a k e n f r o m e a c h p l a t e e n d f o r b e n d test. O n e b e n d tested specimens shall c o m p r i s e a t least 2 5 % w i t h


test shall b e carried o u t w i t h t h ec l a d d i n g m e t a l o n o n e test r e s u l t a l l o w e d b e l o w 2 5 %, b u t n o t less t h a n
t h e t e n s i o n e d side a n d a n o t h e r w i t h t h e c l a d d i n g 15 %.
l a y e r o n t h e c o m p r e s s e d side. T h e t h i r d test s p e c i m e n Z-steel f o r t h e clad steel base m a t e r i a l s h a l l
shall be subject t o transverse bending w i t h t h e comply with the requirements o f 3.14 f o rZ 3 5 a n d
c l a d d i n g v e r t i c a l l y oriented. T h e procedure f o r test Z 2 5 g r a d e steels. T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
specimens' p r e p a r a t i o n a n d test p e r f o r m a n c e shall clad steel p l y b o n d s t r e n g t h s h a l l b e a p p r o v e d b y t h e
comply with the manufacturer's documentation, Register.
national o r international standards. I f t h e v a l u e Z o b t a i n e d is b e l o w t h e specified
z

3.17.4.1.3 S h e a r t e s t o n t h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l . m i n i m u m v a l u e o r i f o n e i n d i v i d u a l test r e s u l t i s less


T w o test specimens shall b e t a k e n f r o m each t h a n t h e specified o n e ,a d d i t i o n a l tests o n three n e w
plate e n df o r shear testing. T h e specimen axis shall be test specimens shall b e carried o u t . T h e average o f the
transverse t o t h e rolling direction. r e s u l t s o f t h e s i x t e s t s s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n t h e
T h e test shall b e p e r f o r m e d a c c o r d i n g t o G O S T specified value. N o i n d i v i d u a l result f r o m t h e three
10885, A S T M 2 6 4 o r D I N 50162. T h e shear strength n e w series s h a l l b e less t h a n t h e s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m
shall b e a t least 1 4 0 N / m m . 2
value.
3.17.4.1.4 R e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o ­ 3.17.4.1.6 T h e c r a c k r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e b a s e
sion. m a t e r i a l s h a l l b e defined i n tests f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
The cladding m e t a l shall be resistant t o inter­ following parameters:
granular corrosion. .1 d u c t i l e - b r i t t l e t r a n s i t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e T ;
kb

T h e c o r r o s i o n resistance tests f o r clad steel s h a l l .2 n i l - d u c t i l i t y t e m p e r a t u r e N T D .


be carried o u t i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a n a t i o n a l o r The above temperatures shall be determined i n
i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d . I n a n y case t h e test p r o c e d u r e accordance w i t h Section 2, Part X I I "Materials"o f
shall be p r e l i m i n a r y agreed w i t h t h e Register. the Rules f o r t h e Classification, Construction a n d
T h e resistance against i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n shall Equipment o f M O D U / F O P .
be checked f o r each m e t a l h e a t used f o r cladding. 3.17.4.1.7 T e s t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e Т .№

3.17.4.1.5 Z - p r o p e r t i e s . The temperature Т is the temperature o f a


Z - p r o p e r t i e s s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d i n c l a d steel w i t h ductile-brittle transition a n d is defined b y a 7 0 % f i b r o u s


the base m a t e r i a l 2 0 m m t o 100 m m t h i c k a n d a yield c o m p o n e n t i n t h e fracture o f a full thickness test
stress o f u p t o 6 9 0 M P a i n c l u s i v e . specimen. T h e tests p e r f o r m e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g T kb

P r i o r t o test specimens' p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n ­ allow t o evaluate t h e temperature o f brittle crack


ing t h e Z-properties, t h e cladding m e t a l shall be stopping T i n a full thickness m e t a l ( f r o m 14 t o
br

completely removed. 100 m m ) p r o v i d e d t h a t


The Z-properties criterion is the value o f the
Г ь . > 0 , 9 Г » - 1 0 °C.
reduction i n cross-sectional area i n testing a cylind­
rical test specimen f o ra x i a l t e n s i o n t o failure. T h e Test specimens f o rdetermining t h e T value f o r №

specimen shall be c u t o u t so that its l o n g i t u d i n a l axis clad steel s h a l l b e p r e p a r e d f r o m t h e f u l l thickness


is p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a t e p l a n e a n d i t s c e n t e r i s t h e base m a t e r i a l after t h e r e m o v a l o fcladding a n d t h e
center o f t h e base m e t a l thickness. part o f the base m a t e r i a l n o m o r e t h a n 0,5 m m t h i c k
o n t h e c l a d d i n g side.
N o t e . Selecting t h e test s p e c i m e n s t a n d a r d size, t w o k e y
factors shall b e considered: T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r tests p e r f o r m a n c e s h a l l b e
p a r a l l e l l e n g t h d i a m e t e r d\ agreed w i t h t h e Register.
r e p e t i t i o n f a c t o r l/d o r t h e p a r a l l e l l e n g t h I t o d i a m e t e r d r a t i o . Samples f o r test specimen p r e p a r a t i o n f o r deter­
M i n i m u m v a l u e s : а^ =Л п mm; l n i n = l,5rf.
T h e u s e o f rfmin a n d 1^ a l l o w s t o p r e p a r e a s o l i d s p e c i m e n o f m i n i n g T shall be t a k e n i n areas w h i c h are t h e
kb

4 m m i n diameter without welded extensions a t the metal nearest t o t h e areas o f sampling f o r determining
t h i c k n e s s w i t h i n 18 m m t o 2 7 m m . T h e s o l i d s p e c i m e n o f 6 m m i n mechanical properties o f the base m e t a l .
d i a m e t e r m a y b e u s e d f o r t h e m e t a l t h i c k n e s s w i t h i n 27 m m t o
45 m m , a n d o f 10 m m i n d i a m e t e r , o v e r 4 5 m m . T h e test specimens' thickness shall c o r r e s p o n d t o
the base m a t e r i a l thickness after t h e r e m o v a l o f
F o r M O D U a n d F O P special p u r p o s e structures t h e cladding w i t h other dimensions being i n the o p t i m u m
average value o f the relative reduction o f area 2^ o f three relationship w i t h thickness:
P a r t XIII. Materials 81

test specimen height: W = 3 b + 3 m m ; f o r t e m p e r a t u r e NTD:


length: Z = 404-5=135±1O m m ; N T D ^ T f o r thickness
d 15 m m ;
n o t c h d e p t h : a = l/3W=d± 1 mm; N T D < T d — 1 0 °C f o r t h i c k n e s s
distance between supports a t three-point bend­ 15 m m < t < 2 0 m m ;
ing: /=4Ж=125±10 m m ; N T D < T d — 2 0 °C f o r t h i c k n e s s
+ 0 5
notch radius: R = 3 ' m m a t metal thickness o f 20 m m < t < 30 m m ;
up t o 3 2m minclusive; N T D < T d — 2 5 °C f o r t h i c k n e s s
R =3 + 2
m m a t m e t a l thickness o f over 3 2 m m ; 30 m m < t < 4 0 m m .
notch w i d t h is a technological quantity i f the 3.17.4.1.10 F o r t h e s p e c i a l m e m b e r s o f i c e s t r a k e
notch is made w i t h gas cutting. structures n o t covered b y t h e requirements o f
T h e value o fthe temperature Т obtained shall № 3.17.4.1.9 a n d f o r t h e p r i m a r y m e m b e r s exposed t o
be c o n f i r m e d b y testing o f three test specimens. I f t h e cyclic ice loads, w i n d - w a v e a n d seismic loads, t h e
fracture contains 7 0± 5 % o f the fibrous component c o n d i t i o n b e l o w s h a l l o n l y b e o b s e r v e d f o r NTD:
i n t w o o f t h r e e cases, t h e g i v e n t e m p e r a t u r e i s N T D ^ T f o r thickness f < 3 0 m m ;
d

assumed as T . kb N T D ^ T d — 1 0 °C f o r t h i c k n e s s
3.17.4.1.8 D r o p w e i g h t t e s t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g n i l - 15 m m < t < 2 0 m m .
ductility temperature N T D . 3.17.4.1.11 S t e e l s w i t h c r a c k r e s i s t a n c e p r o p e r t i e s
The N T D is the temperature at which standard specified.
test specimens w i t h a brittle n o t c h e d w e l d deposit fail T h e c l a d steel f o r structures used a t l o w e n v i r o n ­
i n a n i m p a c t test. T h e s p e c i m e n d e f l e c t i o n i n t e s t i n g m e n t a l t e m p e r a t u r e s o f d o w n t o — 5 0 °C m a y b e t e s t e d
shall be bounded w i t h a stop a n dbe i n compliance f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a crack resistance p a r a m e t e r C T O D
with A S T M E208. being the critical value o f a crack opening displacement,
T h e test specimens f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c l a d steel i n m m , a n d associated w i t h a certain k i n d o f crack
NTD s h a l l b e p r e p a r e d f r o m t h e b a s e m e t a l . I n t h i s c a s e extension a t static loading.
the tensioned surface o f t h e specimen shall coincide w i t h T h e test f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e C T O D shall b e
the base m a t e r i a l surface, w h i c h i s opposite t o t h e p e r f o r m e d o n t h e test specimens c u t f r o m t h e base
cladding, a n d shall r e m a i n i n the initial condition. metal after t h er e m o v a l o fcladding a n dt h epart o f
T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r specimens p r e p a r a t i o n , speci­ the base m e t a l n o t m o r e t h a n 0,5 m m thick.
m e n types, equipment, jigs a n d fixtures, i n s t r u m e n t a ­ T h e C T O D test shall b e carried o u t a c c o r d i n g t o
t i o n a n d correctness conditions f o rt h eN T D values the procedure agreed w i t h t h e Register according t o
obtained shall meet t h e requirements o f 2.3, P a r t X I I the requirements o f2.2, P a r t X I I "Materials" o f the
"Materials" o f the Rules f o r the Classification, Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d
Construction and Equipment o f M O D U / F O P . Equipment o f M O D U / F O P o r i n international
T h e procedure f o r d r o p w e i g h t test f o r N T D s t a n d a r d s , e.g. B S 7 4 4 8 , P a r t 2 .
determining shall be agreed w i t h t h e Register. T h e requirements f o r t h e C T O D values f o r clad
3.17.4.1.9 R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c l a d s t e e l b a s e m e t a l steel base m e t a l f o r special a n d p r i m a r y structures
for temperatures T a n d N T D . kb shall n o t be l o w e r t h a n those i nTables 3.17.4.1.11-1
F o r t h e special m e m b e r s o f ice strake structures a n d 3.17.4.1.11-2.
directly exposed t o d y n a m i c ice o r seismic loads o f 3.17.4.1.12 A d d i t i o n a l t e s t s o f w e l d e d j o i n t s f o r
w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l shall effectively stop a brittle ice s t r a k e structures.
crack a t t h e design service t e m p e r a t u r e T, t h e d 3.17.4.1.12.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s c o v e r w e l d e d
conditions below shall be observed: joints o f t h e ice strake members o f M O D U a n d
for temperature Т : № F O P special a n d p r i m a r y structures m a d e o f clad
\ , \ T + 1 0 °C f o r m e t a l t h i c k n e s s o f 1 4 m m
d
steel a n d i n t e n d e d f o r o p e r a t i o n a t l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s
to 100 m m ; a n d exposured t o d y n a m i c a n d seismic loads.
T a b l e 3.17.4.1.11-1
C T O D values f o r clad steel base metal depending o n steel thickness a n d strength level f o r special structures m e m b e r s

Thickness, Strength level ( m i n i m u m yield stress required, M P a )


mm, not
more than 315 355 390 420 460 500 550 620 690

20 0,08 0,08 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,20
30 0,08 0,10 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,25
40 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,35
50 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,25 0,30 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,45
f o r m a l s t r e n g t h level steel.
82 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 3.17.4.1.11-2
C T O D values for clad steel base metal depending o n steel thickness a n d strength level for p r i m a r y structures m e m b e r s ,
as well a s for H A Z base metal o f special structures m e m b e r s

Thickness, Strength level ( m i n i m u m yield stress required, M P a )


mm not
l
more than 315 355 390 420 460 500 550 620 690

20 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,15
30 0,08 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20
40 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25
50 0,10 0,15 0,15 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,25 0,25 0,30
f o r m a l s t r e n g t h level steel.

3.17.4.1.12.2 W e l d e d j o i n t s o f c l a d s t e e l s h a l l b e 3.17.4.1.12.6 T h e t e s t s p e c i m e n s f o r c h e c k i n g t h e
made a n d checked i n compliance w i t h t h e general clad steel w e l d e d j o i n t s resistance against i n t e r g r a -
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.3, P a r t X I V " W e l d i n g " o f t h e nular corrosion shall be c u t f r o m the cladding metal
present R u l e s , as w e l l as o f 2 . 1 t o 2 . 5 , 2.6.1.4 a n d o f the welded butt joints i n such a w a y that the
2.9.3, P a r t X I I " W e l d i n g " o f t h e R u l e s f o r t h e cladding H A Z is i n t h emiddle o fthe specimen i n the
Classification, Construction a n d E q u i p m e n t o f f o r m o f a plate dimensioned 2 x 25 x 80 m m . T h e
M O D U / F O P . T h e ice strake structures o f clad steel accelerated tests o f these specimens f o r t h e resistance
shall be welded w i t h theuse o f the Register-approved against intergranular corrosion shall be performed i n
welding consumables produced at the Register- the s a m e m a n n e r as specified i n 3.17.4.1.4 f o r t h e
recognized manufacturers. T h e welding consumables cladding metal, a n d then they shall be bent t h r o u g h
for t h e base m a t e r i a l shall m e e t t h e requirements o f the angle meeting t o t h e n a t i o n a l o r international
4.1, 4.2, 4.5 a n d 4.6, a n d f o rt h e cladding metal, the standard requirements. T h e presence o f cracks o n t h e
requirements o f 4.8, Part X I V "Welding" o f the t e n s i o n e d side o f t h e specimen evidences t h e t e n d e n c y
present Rules. to intergranular c o r r o s i o n while t h e cracks absence
3.17.4.1.12.3 T h e w e l d e d j o i n t s o f c l a d s t e e l , shows t h e i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n resistance.
w h i c h c o m p l y w i t h 3.17.4.1.12.1 a n d 3.17.4.1.12.2, 3.17.4.1.12.7 T h e w e l d e d j o i n t s r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t
m a y be a d d i t i o n a l l y tested f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e crack intergranular corrosion shall be checked f o r each
resistance p a r a m e t e r C T O D a n d t h e resistance against welding process f o r each batch o f clad plates w h i c h
intergranular corrosion. have the cladding f r o m one batch a n daremade i n the
3.17.4.1.12.4 S a m p l e s f o r p r e p a r i n g t e s t s p e c i - same manner.
m e n s f o r C T O D tests s h a l l be t a k e n f r o m t h e w e l d e d 3.17.4.1.12.8 T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t e s t i n g w e l d e d
b u t t j o i n t s o f c l a d steel. F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e j o i n t s f o r t h e resistance against i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o -
cladding metal, including t h e o n e deposited o n the sion shall be previously agreed w i t h t h e Register.
weld, shall be r e m o v e d after welding. 3.17.4.2 T h e t e s t s s c o p e d u r i n g s t e e l m a k i n g a t t h e
I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e crack resistance o f t h e Register-recognized m a n u f a c t u r e r shall be deter-
H A Z , t h e bevel w e l d i n g (double-bevel o r single-bevel mined i n accordance w i t h the Register-approved
groove) is recommended w h i c h allows t o arrange a documentation considering the additional contract
crack front i n the proper layer o f the H A Z . T h e requirements, i f any.
welding procedure shall be approved b y t h e Register. 3.17.4.2.1 T h e t e s t s s c o p e f o r t h e b a s e m e t a l o f
T h e C T O D tests o f t h e test specimens p r e p a r e d i n n o r m a l a n d h i g h e r s t r e n g t h steels s h a l l c o m p l y w i t h
this w a y shall be carried o u t i n compliance w i t h the the requirements o f 3.2, a n d o f higher strength
requirements o f 2.2, Part X I I "Materials" o f the G r a d e F steel, w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.5, o f h i g h
Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d s t r e n g t h steel, w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.13 a n d o f
Equipment o f M O D U / F O P . steel w i t h specified t h r o u g h thickness properties, w i t h
3.17.4.1.12.5 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e C T O D the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.14.
values o f t h e heat-affected z o n e m e t a l f o r special 3.17.4.2.2 B e s i d e s t h e a b o v e , t e s t i n g c a n b e
structures members depending o n t h e thickness a n d performed t o t h e following extent:
s t r e n g t h level o f t h e clad steel base m e t a l s h a l l b e n o t determination o f plybond strength i n bending
less t h a n t h o s e i n T a b l e 3 . 1 7 . 4 . 1 . 1 1 - 2 . three test specimens. O n e specimen i s bent w i t h t h e
c l a d d i n g o n t h e t e n s i o n e d side a n d a n o t h e r , w i t h t h e
N o t e . T h e tests o fclad steel w e l d e d joints f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
the crack resistance parameter C T O D t o t h e extent o f t h e
c l a d d i n g o n t h e c o m p r e s s e d side. T h e t h i r d o n e s h a l l
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.17.4.1.12.3, 3.17.4.1.12.4 a n d 3.17.4.1.12.5 be tested f o r transverse b e n d i n g w i t h t h e c l a d d i n g
m a y b e ignored, a n dt h e results obtained o n t h e base metal vertically oriented;
welded joints m a y b e considered i n certification.
P a r t XIII. Materials 83

determination o fshear strength o f t h e cladding; 3.17.5.6.1 T h e r e b u i l d i n g s h a l l b e p e r f o r m e d b y


d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e cladding m e t a l resistance qualified welders using t h e materials a n d methods
against i n t e r g r a n u l a r c o r r o s i o n according t o 3.17.4.1.4; approved b y the Register.
all t h e plates a r e subject t o t h e u l t r a s o n i c testing o f 3.17.5.6.2 A l l b u i l d i n g s - u p s h a l l b e f r e e f r o m
the c o n t i n u i t y o f the cladding a n d base m e t a l adhesion cracks, lacks o f f u s i o n , u n d e r c u t s , slags a n d o t h e r
o v e r t h e entire surface o f t h e plate. T h e c o n t i n u i t y defects w h i c h c a n d e g r a d e c l a d d i n g q u a l i t y . I f t h e
characteristics a n d t h e ultrasonic testing m e t h o d shall w e l d i n g process is associated w i t h flashing o f the base
comply w i t h the requirements o f t h e manufacturer's metal, t w o layers o f cladding m e t a l as a m i n i m u m
d o c u m e n t a t i o n , n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards. shall be built u p o nit.
T h e test scope shall be agreed w i t h t h e Register 3.17.5.6.3 F o l l o w i n g w e l d i n g , t h e r e c t i f i e d d e f e c t
before t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h e technical super- shall b e g r o u n d flush w i t h t h ecladding surface. A f t e r
vision at the manufacturer. final r e p a i r s t h e p l a t e s s h a l l b e s u b m i t t e d t o S u r v e y o r
3.17.5 I n s p e c t i o n . t o t h e Register. T h e q u a l i t y o f defects e l i m i n a t i o n
3.17.5.1 A l l p l a t e s a r e s u b j e c t t o s u r f a c e i n s p e c - shall be p r o v e d b y non-destructive testing.
tion. T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r shall ensure t h e absence o f 3.17.5.6.4 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l s u b m i t t o t h e
unacceptable defects. Surveyor a report o n each rectification b y rebuilding
T h e q u a l i t y o f t h e plate surface shall be checked w h e r e i n t h e d i m e n s i o n s a n d l o c a t i o n o f defects,
by surveyor t o t h eRegister after the manufacturer's procedure f o r repairs b y rebuilding, type o f heat
checking. treatment i f required, a n d t h e results o fchecking t h e
3.17.5.2 T h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n defects e l i m i n a t i o n q u a l i t y s h a l l b e specified.
s h a l l m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3.16.2.4. N o scale, 3.17.5.6.5 R e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e b a s e m a t e r i a l
a n n e a l i n g c o l o r s a n d o t h e r defects w h i c h m a y affect surface defects b y w e l d i n g i s n o t a l l o w e d .
the chemical durability a n d themachinability o f clad 3.17.5.7 L i m i t i n g d e v i a t i o n s o f a c l a d d i n g t h i c k n e s s ,
plates a r e acceptable. unless t h e m o r e strict tolerances a r e specified i n a n order,
T h e surface defects caused b y a m e t h o d o f shall c o r r e s p o n d t o those g i v e n i n T a b l e 3.17.5.7. T h e
manufacturing are allowed i f their depth is within cladding thickness shall b e measured a t a distance o f n o t
the m i n u s deviations o f t h e cladding m e t a l thickness less t h a n 1 0 m m f r o m a p l a t e e d g e .
specified i n T a b l e 3.17.5.7. T a b l e 3.17.5.7
3.17.5.3 T h e c l a d d i n g m e t a l s u r f a c e d e f e c t s b e i n g Limiting deviations o fcladding metal thickness
w i t h i n a tolerance for its thickness shall be g r o u n d i n
N o m i n a l thickness, m m Permissible deviation, m m
such a w a y that a s m o o t h transition f r o m a restored
area t o t h e surface o f the rest o f the m e t a l is ensured. >2,0 < 3,0 ±0,20
T h e r e s i d u a l c l a d d i n g s h a l l h a v e a t h i c k n e s s n o t less >3,0 < 3,5 ±0,30
>3,5 < 4,0 ±0,35
than the n o m i n a l o n e considering the tolerance f o r a
>4,0 < 5,0 ±0,40
l o w e r d i m e n s i o n i n T a b l e 3.17.5.7. >5,0 ±0,45
3.17.5.4 T h e s u r f a c e d e f e c t s w i t h t h e c l a d d i n g
t h i c k n e s s a f t e r g r i n d i n g less t h a n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e o n e
shall be eliminated b y welding provided t h etotal area 3.17.6 M a r k i n g s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t a c c o r d i n g t o
o f a l l r e b u i l t defects does n o t exceed 5 % o f t h e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4.
cladding area.
A l l t h e plates a r e subject t o u l t r a s o n i c testing.
3.17.5.5 I f , a f t e r g r i n d i n g o f t h e d e f e c t , t h e 3.18 N O R M A L A N D H I G H E R S T R E N G T H
r e m a i n i n g t h i c k n e s s o f t h e c l a d d i n g i s less t h a n h a l f CORROSION-RESISTANT S T E E L S F O RCARGO O I L TANKS
o f the guaranteed n o m i n a l thickness, i t is necessary t o
replace t h e cladding b y tapering a n d t o rebuild t h e
whole o f the cladding metal b y welding. 3.18.1 S c o p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n .
3.17.5.6 T h e q u a l i t y o f t h e b a s e m e t a l a n d c l a d d i n g 3.18.1.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o n o r m a l a n d
m e t a l adhesion shall be determined b y ultrasonic testing h i g h e r s t r e n g t h c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steels w h e n s u c h
w h i c h shall b e specified i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s d o c u m e n - steel i s used as t h e a l t e r n a t i v e m e a n s o f c o r r o s i o n
t a t i o n . C o n t i n u i t y defects w h i c h exceed t h e v a l u e s p r o t e c t i o n f o r cargo o i l tanks as specified i n
specified i n t h e technical c o n d i t i o n s , specification o r r e g u l a t i o n II-1/3-11 o f S O L A S - 7 4 ( I M O r e s o l u t i o n
relevant standard shall be repaired o r eliminated. MSC.289(87) "Performance Standard for Alternative
T h e repair procedure b y rebuilding shall be M e a n s o f C o r r o s i o n Protection f o rCargo O i l T a n k s
agreed w i t h t h e Register considering t h e following of Crude O i l Tankers").
conditions.
84 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.18.1.2 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d operation are adhered t o within the manufacturing


to a p p l y t o steel p r o d u c t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g types a n d specifications agreed u p o n w i t h t h e Register. I f t h e
thickness: process o r p r o d u c t i o n controls are changed i n a n y w a y ,
steel plates a n d w i d e flats: or a n y p r o d u c t fails t o m e e t specifications, t h e
all grades: u p t o 5 0 m m i n thickness; m a n u f a c t u r e r shall issue a r e p o r t e x p l a i n i n g t h e
sections a n d bars: reasons, a n d , i n t h e instance o f p r o d u c t , w h i c h fails
all grades: u p t o 5 0 m m i n thickness. to m e e t specifications, t h e measures t o prevent
3.18.1.3 N o r m a l a n d h i g h e r s t r e n g t h c o r r o s i o n - recurrence. T h e complete report shall be submitted t o
r e s i s t a n t steels as d e f i n e d w i t h i n these r e q u i r e m e n t s the surveyor t o the Register along w i t h such additional
a r e steels w h o s e c o r r o s i o n resistance p e r f o r m a n c e i n i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e surveyor m a y require. E a c h affected
the b o t t o m o r t o p o f t h e internal cargo o i lt a n k is piece shall b e tested t o t h e satisfaction o f t h e s u r v e y o r
tested a n d a p p r o v e d t o satisfy t h e requirements i n to t h e Register. T h e frequency o ftesting f o r subsequent
I M O resolution MSC.289(87) i n addition t o other products is a t t h e discretion o fthe Register w i t h regard
r e l e v a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s t r u c t u r a l steel, s t r e n g t h to development a n d performance o f t h e particular
a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t s u c h steels arrangements b y manufacturer.
be used f o r corrosion-resistant applications i n o t h e r 3.18.3 M e t h o d s o f m a n u f a c t u r e .
ship areas t h a t are outside o f those specified 3.18.3.1 M e t h o d s o f m a n u f a c t u r e , d e o x i d a t i o n
regulation II-1/3-11 o f S O L A S - 7 4 ( I M O resolution practice a n d rolling practice shall be i n accordance
MSC.289(87)). w i t h 3.2.
3.18.1.4 S i n c e c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t s t e e l s d e s c r i b e d 3.18.4 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
i n t h e p r e s e n t C h a p t e r a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e s h i p steels 3.18.4.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f s a m p l e s
as specified i n 3 . 2 , t h e basic r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 3 . 2 a p p l y taken f r o m each ladle o f each cast shall be
to these steels except w h e r e m o d i f i e d b y t h i s determined b y the manufacturer i n a n adequately
Chapter. equipped a n d competently staffed l a b o r a t o r y a n d
3.18.1.5 T h e w e l d a b i l i t y o f c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t shall be i n accordance w i t h t h e requirements o f 3.2.
steels i s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n i n 3 . 2 , t h e r e f o r e 3.18.4.2 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r w i l l e s t a b l i s h a r e l a -
w e l d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s specified i n Sections 4 a n d 6, tionship o f a l l t h e chemical elements, w h i c h affect t h e
P a r t X I V " W e l d i n g " o f t h e R u l e s as w e l l as o f c o r r o s i o n resistance. T h e c h e m i c a l elements a d d e d o r
Sections 5 a n d 6, P a r t I I I " T e c h n i c a l S u p e r v i s i o n controlled t o achieve this shall be specifically verified
during Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for for acceptance. Verification shall be based o n t h e
Technical Supervision during Construction o f Ships ladle analysis o f t h e steel.
and Manufacture o f Materials a n d Products for 3.18.4.3 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s d e c l a r e d a n a l y s i s w i l l
Ships also a p p l y except as m o d i f i e d b y t h e r e q u i r e - be accepted subject t o periodic r a n d o m checks.
ments o f the present Chapter. 3.18.4.4 T h e c a r b o n e q u i v a l e n t s h a l l b e i n
3.18.2 A p p r o v a l . accordance w i t h 3.2.
3.18.2.1 A l l m a t e r i a l s s h a l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d a t 3.18.5 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .
w o r k s recognised b y t h e Register (having Recogni- 3.18.5.1 A l l m a t e r i a l s s h a l l b e s u p p l i e d i n o n e o f
tion Certificate f o rManufacturer i n accordance w i t h the supply c o n d i t i o n s specified i n 3.2.
1.3 o f t h e R u l e s a n d S e c t i o n 2 , P a r t I I I " T e c h n i c a l 3.18.6 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
Supervision during Manufacture o fMaterials" o f the 3.18.6.1 T e n s i l e t e s t i n g a n d C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t
Rules forTechnical Supervision during Construction testing shall be carried o u ti n accordance w i t h 3.2.
of Ships a n d Manufacture o fMaterials a n d Products 3.18.7 F r e e d o m f r o m d e f e c t s .
for Ships). 3.18.7.1 T h e s t e e l s h a l l b e r e a s o n a b l y f r e e f r o m
3.18.2.2 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t f o r segregations a n d n o n - m e t a l l i c inclusions. T h e finished
R e c o g n i t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e f o r M a n u f a c t u r e r as specified material shall have a w o r k m a n l i k e finish a n d shall be
i n 3.18.2.1, c o r r o s i o n tests s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t i n free f r o m i n t e r n a l a n d surface defects p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e
accordance w i t h 3.18.17. I n t h e Certificate a special use o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i n t e n d e d application.
m a r k m a y be entered f o r application i n o n e o f t h e 3.18.7.2 T h e a c c e p t a n c e c r i t e r i a f o r s u r f a c e f i n i s h
following areas o f a cargo o i l tank: a n d p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e r e p a i r o f defects, as detailed i n
.1 l o w e r s u r f a c e o f s t r e n g t h d e c k a n d s u r r o u n d i n g 3.2, s h a l l b e o b s e r v e d .
structures; 3.18.8 T o l e r a n c e s .
.2 u p p e r s u r f a c e o f i n n e r b o t t o m p l a t i n g a n d 3.18.8.1 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , t h e t h i c k n e s s
surrounding structures; tolerances i n 3.2 are applicable.
.3 b o t h s t r e n g t h d e c k a n d i n n e r b o t t o m p l a t i n g . 3.18.9 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s .
3.18.23 I t i s t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o 3.18.9.1 T h e s t e e l m a k e r s h a l l a d o p t a s y s t e m f o r
assure t h a t effective process a n d p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f ingots, slabs a n d finished
P a r t XIII. Materials 85

products, w h i c h will enable the m a t e r i a l t o be traced .1 u n i f i e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a r k f o r t h e g r a d e o f


to i t s o r i g i n a l cast. steel (e.g. A 3 6 ) ;
3.18.9.2 T h e s u r v e y o r t o t h e R e g i s t e r s h a l l b e g i v e n .2 s t e e l p l a t e s t h a t h a v e c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e
full facilities f o r so tracing t h e m a t e r i a l w h e n required. requirements o f the Rules shall be m a r k e d w i t h a
3.18.10 T e s t i n g a n d i n s p e c t i o n . designation by adding a corrosion designation t o the
3.18.10.1 F a c i l i t i e s f o r i n s p e c t i o n . u n i f i e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a r k f o r t h e g r a d e o f steel.
3.18.10.1.1 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l a f f o r d t h e Example o f designation: A 3 6 R C B ;
surveyor t o t h e Register a l l necessary facilities a n d .3 t h e c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t s t e e l s h a l l b e d e s i g n a t e d
access t o a l l r e l e v a n t p a r t s o f t h e w o r k s t o e n a b l e h i m a c c o r d i n g t o i t s area o f a p p l i c a t i o n as f o l l o w s :
to verify that t h e approved process is adhered t o , f o r l o w e r surface o f strength deck a n d s u r r o u n d i n g
the selection o f test m a t e r i a l s , a n d t h e w i t n e s s i n g o f structures - R C U ;
tests, as r e q u i r e d b y t h e R u l e s , a n d f o r v e r i f y i n g t h e upper surface o f i n n e r b o t t o m plating a n d
accuracy o f t h e testing equipment. surrounding structures - R C B ;
3.18.10.2 T e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . both strength deck a n d inner b o t t o m plating -
3.18.10.2.1 T h e p r e s c r i b e d t e s t s a n d i n s p e c t i o n s RCW;
shall be carried o u t a t t h e place o f m a n u f a c t u r e .4 s t e e l s u p p l i e d i n t h e t h e r m o - m e c h a n i c a l l y
before dispatch. T h e test specimens a n d procedures controlled process c o n d i t i o n shall have t h e letters
shall be i n accordance w i t h S e c t i o n 2 . A l l t h e test " T M " added after t h e identification m a r k b u t before
specimens s h a l l b e selected, s t a m p e d a n d m a r k e d b y the c o r r o s i o n d e s i g n a t i o n (e.g. E 3 6 T M R C U Z 3 5 ) ;
the s u r v e y o r t o t h e Register a n d tested i n h i s .5 n a m e o r i n i t i a l s t o i d e n t i f y t h e s t e e l w o r k s ;
presence, unless o t h e r w i s e specified. .6 c a s t o r o t h e r n u m b e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e p i e c e ;
3.18.10.3 T h r o u g h t h i c k n e s s t e n s i l e t e s t s . .7 i f r e q u i r e d b y t h e purchaser, h i s o r d e r n u m b e r
3.18.10.3.1 I f p l a t e s a n d w i d e f l a t s w i t h t h i c k n e s s or other identification m a r k s .
o f 15 m m a n d over are ordered w i t h t h r o u g h 3.18.15.2 T h e a b o v e p a r t i c u l a r s , b u t e x c l u d i n g t h e
thickness properties, t h e t h r o u g h thickness tensile manufacturer's n a m e o r trade m a r k s , where this is
test i n accordance w i t h 2.2.2.7 shall be carried o u t . embossed o n finished products shall be encircled w i t h
3.18.10.4 U l t r a s o n i c t e s t i n g . p a i n t o r o t h e r w i s e m a r k e d s o as t o be clearly legible.
3.18.10.4.1 I f p l a t e s a n d w i d e f l a t s a r e o r d e r e d 3.18.15.3 W h e r e a n u m b e r o f l i g h t m a t e r i a l s a r e
w i t h ultrasonic testing, this shall be made i n securely fastened together i n bundles t h e m a n u f a c -
accordance w i t h the standards recognized b y the t u r e r m a y m a r k o n l y t h e t o p piece o f each b u n d l e , o r
Register. alternatively, a firmly fastened durable label contain-
3.18.10.5 S u r f a c e i n s p e c t i o n a n d d i m e n s i o n s . ing t h e m a r k i n g m a y be attached t o each bundle.
3.18.10.5.1 S u r f a c e i n s p e c t i o n a n d v e r i f i c a t i o n o f 3.18.15.4 I n t h e e v e n t t h a t a n y m a t e r i a l b e a r i n g
d i m e n s i o n s a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e steel m a k e r . the Register m a r k i n g fails t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e test
The acceptance b y t h e surveyor t o t h e Register shall requirements, the m a r k i n g shall be unmistakably
n o t absolve t h e steel m a k e r f r o m t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . defaced b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r .
3.18.11 T e s t m a t e r i a l . 3.18.16 D o c u m e n t a t i o n .
3.18.11.1 S a m p l i n g a n d p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t 3.18.16.1 C e r t i f i c a t e s o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l b e
samples shall be i n accordance w i t h 3.2. verified before t h e material is accepted b y R S .
3.18.12 T e s t s p e c i m e n s . 3.18.16.2 T h e n u m b e r o f c o p i e s r e q u i r e d s h a l l b e
3.18.12.1 M e c h a n i c a l t e s t s p e c i m e n s . specified b y t h e Register.
3.18.12.1.1 T h e d i m e n s i o n s , o r i e n t a t i o n a n d 3.18.16.3 T h e d o c u m e n t s s h a l l b e a s u b m i t t e d i n
l o c a t i o n o f t h e tensile a n d C h a r p y V - n o t c h test either electronic o r paper f o r m a t .
specimens w i t h i n t h e test samples shall be i n 3.18.16.4 S e p a r a t e s u b m i s s i o n o f d o c u m e n t s f o r
accordance w i t h Section 2 a n d 3.2. each grade o f steel i s p e r m i t t e d .
3.18.13 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g . 3.18.16.5 T h e d o c u m e n t ( R e g i s t e r o r m a n u f a c -
3.18.13.1 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g turer certificate) shall contain, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e
n u m b e r o f tensile a n d C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t test description, d i m e n s i o n s , etc., o f t h e m a t e r i a l , a t least
specimens shall be i n accordance w i t h Section 2 3.2. the f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c u l a r s as a m i n i m u m :
3.18.14 R e t e s t p r o c e d u r e s . .1 p u r c h a s e r ' s o r d e r n u m b e r a n d i f k n o w n t h e
3.18.14.1 R e t e s t p r o c e d u r e s s h a l l b e i n a c c o r - hull number, f o rw h i c h the material is intended;
d a n c e w i t h 1.3.2. .2 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c a s t a n d p r o d u c t , i n c l u d -
3.18.15 M a r k i n g . ing, w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e test specimen n u m b e r ;
3.18.15.1 E v e r y f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s h a l l b e c l e a r l y .3 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t e e l w o r k s ;
m a r k e d b y t h e m a k e r i n a t least o n e place w i t h t h e .4 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g r a d e o f s t e e l a n d t h e
Register brand a n d the following particulars: manufacturer's brand name;
86 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

.5 l a d l e a n a l y s i s ( f o r c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t s s p e c i f i e d .3 t h e t e c h n i c a l b a c k g r o u n d e x p l a i n i n g h o w t h e
i n 3.2); variation i n added a n d controlled elements improves
.6 i f t h e s t e e l i s a p p r o v e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c o r r o s i o n resistance;
3.4.2, t h ew e i g h t percentage o f each c h e m i c a l element .4 t h e g r a d e s , t h e b r a n d n a m e a n d m a x i m u m
added o r intentionally controlled f o r improving thickness o f c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel t o b e a p p r o v e d .
c o r r o s i o n resistance; D e s i g n a t i o n s f o r c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steels a r e g i v e n
.7 c o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y w h e n o t h e r t h a n a s r o l l e d i . i n T a b l e 3.18.17.2.1.4;
e. n o r m a l i s e d , c o n t r o l l e d r o l l e d o r t h e r m o - m e c h a n i - T a b l e 3.18.17.2.1.4
cally rolled; Designations for corrosion-resistant steels
.8 r e s u l t s o f m e c h a n i c a l t e s t s .
3.18.16.6 B e f o r e t h e t e s t c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e s i g n e d o r Type of L o c a t i o n where steel Corrosion-resistance
steel is effective designation
issued b y t h e surveyor t o t h e Register, t h e m a n u -
facturer is required t o furnish the surveyor t o the Rolled F o r lower surfaceo f strength R C U
steel deck a n d surrounding
Register w i t h a w r i t t e n declaration stating that the
for hull structures (ullage space)
material has been m a d e b y a n approved process a n d
that i t h a s been subjected t o a n d h a s w i t h s t o o d F o r upper surface o f inner RCB
b o t t o m plating a n d
satisfactorily t h e r e q u i r e d tests i n t h e presence o f t h e
surrounding structures
surveyor t o t h e Register. T h e Register n a m e shall
a p p e a r o n t h e test certificate. T h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m o f F o r b o t h strength deck a n d R C W
inner b o t t o m plating
declaration will be accepted i f stamped o r printed o n
each test certificate o r s h i p p i n g statement w i t h t h e
name o f the steelworks a n d initialled f o rthe makers .5 t h e w e l d i n g p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e b r a n d n a m e o f
by a n authorized official: the welding consumables t o be used f o r approval.
" W e hereby certify that the m a t e r i a l h a s been m a d e 3.18.17.3 A p p r o v a l o f t e s t p r o g r a m .
b y a n approved process a n d h a s been satisfactorily 3.18.17.3.1 T h e t e s t p r o g r a m s u b m i t t e d b y t h e
tested i n accordance w i t h t h e Register R u l e s " . manufacturer shall be reviewed a n d agreed w i t h t h e
3.18.16.7 I n t h e c a s e o f e l e c t r o n i c c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h e Register. A p p r o v e d p r o g r a m returns t o t h e manufac-
R e g i s t e r s h a l l agree u p o n a p r o c e d u r e w i t h t h e steel turer f o r acceptance. Tests t h a t need t o be witnessed b y
m i l l t o ensure t h e signing o f t h e issued certificate b y the surveyor t o the Register shall be identified.
the surveyor t o t h e Register. 3.18.17.3.2 M e t h o d f o r s e l e c t i o n o f t e s t s a m p l e s
3.18.17 A d d i t i o n a l a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e f o r c o r r o - shall satisfy t h e f o l l o w i n g .
sion-resistant steel. 3.18.173.2.1 T h e n u m b e r s o f t e s t s a m p l e s s h a l l b e
3.18.17.1 S c o p e . in accordance w i t h the requirements o f the A p p e n d i x o f
3.18.17.1.1 R e c o g n i t i o n b y t h e R e g i s t e r ( o b t a i n - the A n n e x t o Performance Standard f o r Alternative
ing b y manufacturer o f Recognition Certificate f o r Means o f Corrosion Protection for Cargo O i l Tanks o f
Manufacturer) a n d approval o f corrosion-resistant Crude O i l Tankers ( I M O resolution MSC.289(87)).
s t e e l s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 1.3 o f t h e 3.18.17.3.2.2 T h e n u m b e r o f c a s t s a n d t e s t
Rules a n d Section 2, Part I I I "Technical Supervision samples selected s h a l l b e sufficient t o m a k e i t possible
during Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for t o c o n f i r m t h e v a l i d i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n effects a n d / o r
Technical Supervision during Construction o f Ships the c o n t r o l range (upper limit, lower limit) o f the
and Manufacture o f Materials a n d Products for elements, w h i c h are added o r intentionally con-
Ships together w i t h the additional requirements f o r trolled, f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e c o r r o s i o n resistance.
c o r r o s i o n testing specified i n this P a r t . W h e r e agreed, this m a y be supported w i t h data
3.18.17.1.2 T h e c o r r o s i o n t e s t s a n d a c c e p t a n c e submitted by the manufacturer.
criteria shall be i n accordance w i t h the A p p e n d i x o f the 3.18.173.23 T h e testing p r o g r a m a n d tests a r e
Annex t o Performance Standard for Alternative Means carried o u t i n accordance w i t h 2.2.5.2.3 (2.2.5),
of Corrosion Protection for Cargo O i l Tanks o f Crude Part I I I o f the Rules for Technical Supervision
Oil Tankers ( I M O resolution MSC.289(87)). during Construction o f Ships a n d Manufacture o f
3.18.17.2 A p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p p r o v a l . Materials a n d Products f o r Ships.
3.18.17.2.1 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l s u b m i t t o t h e 3.18.1733 I n a d d i t i o n t o 3.18.17.3.2.3, t h e a d d i -
Register a request f o r approval, w h i c h shall include t i o n a l tests m a y b e c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g cases:
the following: .1 w h e n t h e R e g i s t e r d e t e r m i n e s t h a t t h e c o n t r o l
.1 o r r o s i o n test p l a n a n d details o f e q u i p m e n t a n d range is set b y t h e theoretical analysis o f each e l e m e n t
test e n v i r o n m e n t s ; based o n existing data, t h e n u m b e r o f corrosion
.2 t e c h n i c a l d a t a r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t a s s e s s m e n t resistance tests c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e
criteria f o rc o n f i r m i n g c o r r o s i o n resistance; Appendix o f the A n n e x t o Performance Standard f o r
P a r t XIII. Materials 87

Alternative Means o f Corrosion Protection for Cargo 3.18.17.7.1 T h e r e s u l t s s h a l l b e a s s e s s e d b y t h e


Oil Tanks o f Crude O i lTankers ( I M O resolution Register i n accordance w i t h the acceptance criteria
M S C . 2 8 9 ( 8 7 ) ) is t o o f e w t o adequately c o n f i r m the specified i n t h e A p p e n d i x o f t h e A n n e x t o P e r f o r -
validity o f the c o n t r o l range o f chemical composition; mance Standard for Alternative Means o fCorrosion
.2 w h e n t h e R e g i s t e r d e t e r m i n e s t h a t t h e d a t a o f Protection for Cargo O i lTanks o f Crude O i l Tankers
the c o r r o s i o n resistance test result o b t a i n e d f o r ( I M O resolutionMSC.289(87)).
setting t h e c o n t r o l range o f chemical c o m p o s i t i o n
varies t o owidely;
.3 w h e n t h e R e g i s t e r d e t e r m i n e s t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y 3.19 A P P L I C A T I O N O F Y P 4 7 S T E E L P L A T E S
o f t h e c o r r o s i o n resistance test result f o r setting t h e
control range o f chemical c o m p o s i t i o n isinsufficient,
or has some flaws; 3.19.1 S c o p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n .
.4 w h e n t h e s u r v e y o r t o t h e R e g i s t e r h a s n o t 3.19.1.1 G e n e r a l .
a t t e n d e d t h e c o r r o s i o n resistance tests f o r setting t h e 3.19.1.1.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o c o n t a i n e r
control range o f chemical composition, a n d t h e Register carriers i n c o r p o r a t i n g e x t r e m e l y t h i c k steel plates i n
determines t h a t a d d i t i o n a l testing is necessary i n order t o accordance w i t h 3.19.1.2.1.
c o n f i r m t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e test result data; a n d 3.19.1.1.2 T h i s S e c t i o n g i v e s t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s
.5 w h e n t h e R e g i s t e r d e t e r m i n e s t h a t i t i s for a p p l i c a t i o n o f Y P 4 7 steel plates t o l o n g i t u d i n a l
necessary, f o r reasons o t h e r t h a n cases i n structural members i n t h e upper deck region o f
3.18.17.3.3.1-3.18.17.3.3.4. c o n t a i n e r carriers ( s u c h as h a t c h side c o a m i n g , h a t c h
3.18.17.3.4 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e coaming t o p a n d the attached longitudinals). T h e
c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel s h a l l b e w i t h i n t h e range S e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f Y P 4 7 steel plates,
specified f o r r o l l e d steel f o r h u l l . E l e m e n t s t o be as w e l l a s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r tests, s u r v e y a n d
a d d e d f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e c o r r o s i o n resistance a n d f o r application o fwelding consumables a n d approval o f
w h i c h c o n t e n t is n o t specified shall be generally w e l d i n g p r o c e d u r e . A p p l i c a t i o n o f Y P 4 7 steel plate
within 1 % i n total. for other h u l l structures shall be a p p r o v e d b y t h e
3.18.17.4 C a r r y i n g o u t t h e a p p r o v a l t e s t . Register.
3.18.17.4.1 T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a l l c a r r y o u t t h e 3.19.1.1.3 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e
a p p r o v a l test f o r c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel a n d f o r Section, the requirements o f 3.2 shall be applied t o
obtaining a Recognition Certificate for Manufacturer Y P 4 7 steel plates. I n case o f the r e q u i r e d u s e o f Y P 4 7
i n accordance w i t h t h e a p p r o v e d test p r o g r a m . steel r e g u l a t e d b y t h e S e c t i o n , i t s c r a c k resistance
3.18.17.5 A t t e n d a n c e o f t h e s u r v e y o r t o t h e shall c o m p l y w i t h 3.19.2.3.3 o f the Section.
R e g i s t e r f o r test. 3.19.1.1.4 Y P 4 7 s t e e l p l a t e s m e a n t h e s t e e l p l a t e s
3.18.17.5.1 T h e s u r v e y o r t o t h e R e g i s t e r s h a l l b e o f specified m i n i m u m y i e l d stress o f 4 6 0 M P a . T h e
present, as a r u l e , w h e n t h e test samples f o r t h e scope o f application is defined u n d e r 3.19.1.2 a n d
a p p r o v a l test a r e being i d e n t i f i e d a n d f o r a p p r o v a l 3.19.1.3.
tests (refer also t o 3.1). 3.19.1.1.5 T h e w e l d e d j o i n t p r o p e r t i e s , i n c l u d i n g
3.18.17.6 T e s t r e s u l t s . susceptibility t o brittle fracture, shall meet t h e
3.18.17.6.1 A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a p p r o v a l t e s t requirements o f 2.4 a n d 3.19, Part X I V "Welding"
for c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel a n d f o r o b t a i n i n g a and the requirements o fthe Chapter.
Recognition Certificate f o r Manufacturer, the m a n - 3.19.1.2 T h i c k n e s s .
u f a c t u r e r shall p r o d u c e t h er e p o r t o f the a p p r o v a l test 3.19.1.2.1 T h i s S e c t i o n g i v e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
and submit i t t o t h e Register. steel plates w i t h thickness o f o v e r 5 0 m m a n d n o t
3.18.17.6.2 T h e R e g i s t e r w i l l g i v e a p p r o v a l f o r greater t h a n 100 m m inclusively, used f o r manufac-
c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel a n d issue a R e c o g n i t i o n ture o fthe hatch coamings a n dupper deck structural
Certificate f o r M a n u f a c t u r e r w h e r e a p p r o v a l tests c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e c o n t a i n e r ships.
are considered b y t h e Register t o have given 3.19.1.2.2 T h e p r o p e r t i e s o f Y P 4 7 s t e e l p l a t e s
satisfactory results based o n t h e data submitted i n shall be approved b y t h e Register.
accordance w i t h this Section. 3.19.1.3 A p p l i c a t i o n .
3.18.17.6.3 T h e R e c o g n i t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e f o r M a n - 3.19.13.1 I n t h e c a s e t h a t Y P 4 7 s t e e l p l a t e s a r e u s e d
ufacturer shall contain the manufacturer's name, the for longitudinal structural m e m b e r s i n t h e upper deck
period o f validity o f the Certificate, t h e grades a n d r e g i o n ( s u c h as h a t c h side c o a m i n g a n d h a t c h c o a m i n g
thickness o f the steel a p p r o v e d , w e l d i n g m e t h o d s a n d top a n d their attached longitudinals), t h e grade o f Y P 4 7
welding consumables approved. steel plates s h a l l b e E H 4 7 specified hereinafter.
3.18.17.7 A c c e p t a n c e c r i t e r i a f o r r e s u l t s o f c o r r o - 3.19.2 G e n e r a l .
s i o n resistance tests o f w e l d e d j o i n t . 3.19.2.1 H u l l s t r u c t u r e s .
88 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.19.2.1.1 M a t e r i a l f a c t o r o f h i g h t e n s i l e steel K . T a b l e 3.19.2.2.1-2


Chemical compositions for Y P 4 7 steel plates
3.19.2.1.1.1 M a t e r i a l f a c t o r o f h i g h t e n s i l e steel К
used f o rassessment o fh u l l girder strength shall be Chemical composition г 1

taken 0,62.
M i n i m u m value < 0,49 < 0,22
T h e f a c t o r v a l u e s f o r Y P 3 6 a n d Y P 4 0 steels a r e 1
T h e carbon equivalent С value shall b e calculated f r o m
щ
specified i n 1.1.4.3, P a r t I I " H u l l " . the ladle analysis u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a C = C + M n / 6 + ( C r +
e ?

3.19.2.1.2 F a t i g u e a s s e s s m e n t . M o + V ) / 5 + ( N i + C u ) / 1 5 , %.
3.19.2.1.1 F a t i g u e a s s e s s m e n t o n t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l 2
C o l d cracking susceptibility shall b ecalculated using t h e
formula P = + Si/30+ Mn/20 + Cu/20 + Ni/60 + Cr/20 +
structural members shall be performed i n accordance c m

M o / 1 5 + V / 1 0 + 5 B , %.
w i t h the Register procedure.
3.19.2.1.3 D e t a i l s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n d e s i g n .
3.19.2.1.3.1 S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a l l b e p a i d t o
the details o f constructions o f structural m e m b e r s
w h e r e Y P 4 7 steel plates a r e a p p l i e d such as connec­
tions between outfitting a n d h u l l structures. Connec­
tions shall be i n accordance w i t h t h e documents
approved b y t h e Register.
3.19.2.2 M a t e r i a l specifications.
3.19.2.2.1 M a t e r i a l specifications f o r Y P 4 7 steel
plates a r e given i n Tables 3.19.2.2.1-1 a n d 3.19.2.2.1-2.
3.19.2.3 M a n u f a c t u r i n g a p p r o v a l test.
3.19.2.3.1 G e n e r a l .
3.19.2.3.1.1 T h e tests s h a l l b e c o n d u c t e d i n
c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 3.2. A p p r o v a l test i t e m s , test m e t h o d s F i g . 3.19.2.3.3.1.1 P l a t e s a n d flats
a n d acceptance criteria n o t specified i n this C h a p t e r
s h a l l b e i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.
3.19.2.3.2 R a n g e o f a p p r o v a l . l o n g i t u d i n a l C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t s (KVL)
3.19.2.3.2.1 O n e test p r o d u c t w i t h t h e m a x i m u m - top and bottom;
thickness t o be approved ( t o obtain a Recognition t r a n s v e r s e C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t s (KVT) -
Certificate f o r Manufacturer) shall be submitted b y top only;
the manufacturer, provided t h e approved target aged l o n g i t u d i n a l C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t tests -
chemical composition range remains unchanged. top only.
3.19.2.3.3 B a s e m e t a l test. C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t s (KV) a r e r e q u i r e d
3 . 1 9 . 2 . 3 . 3 . 1 C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t s (KV). f r o m b o t h the quarter a n d m i d thickness locations o f
3.19.2.3.3.1.1 G e n e r a l l y C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t the test samples.
testing shall b e carried o u t i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 2.2.3. O n e set o f 3 C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t specimens
Test samples shall b e t a k e n f r o m t h e plate correspond­ ( K V ) i s r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h i m p a c t test. T h e p a c t test
ing t o t h e t o p o f t h e i n g o t , unless o t h e r w i s e specified. t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l b e - 4 0 °C .
I n t h e case o f c o n t i n u o u s castings, test samples I n addition t o t h e determination o f t h e energy
shall b e t a k e n f r o m a r a n d o m l y selected plate. v a l u e , d u r i n g i m p a c t tests t h e percentage c r y s t a l l i n i t y
T h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e test s a m p l e s h a l l b e a t t h e square shall be also determined.
cut e n d o f t h e plate, a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e quarter w i d t h The aged samples shall be strained t o 5 %
f r o m a n edge, as s h o w n i n F i g . 3.19.2.3.3.1.1. f o l l o w e d b y h e a t i n g t o 250°C f o r 1 h p r i o r t o t e s t i n g .
S a m p l e s shall b e t a k e n w i t h respect t o t h e p r i n c i p a l Additionally a t each location, C h a r p y V - n o t c h
rolling direction o fthe plate a t locations representing i m p a c t tests s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e
the t o p a n d b o t t o m o f t h e plate as follows: temperature intervals t o properly define t h e full
T a b l e 3.19.2.2.1-1
Conditions o f supply, grade a n d mechanical properties for Y P 4 7 steel plates

Supply Grade Mechanical properties I m p a c t test


condition
Yield strength, Tensile strength, Elongation, Test Average impact energy, J , m i n .
MPa, MPa %, temperature,
min min °C 50<г<70 70<г<85 8 5 < г< 100

TMCP 1
EH47 460 570/720 17 -40 53 64 75

'if specified i n t h edocumentation a p p r o v e d b y t h e Register.


N o t e , t — thickness, i nm m .
P a r t XIII. Materials 89

t r a n s i t i o n r a n g e ( - 2 0 °C, - 4 0 °C, - 6 0 °C, - 8 0 °C) o n 3.19.2.4.1.1 W e l d e r s e n g a g e d i n Y P 4 7 s t e e l w e l d i n g


K V t y p e o f s a m p l e s f r o m 1/4 s t r i p t h i c k n e s s . shall possess welder's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s specified i n accor­
3.19.2.3.3.2 T e s t f o r r e s i s t a n c e t o b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e . dance w i t h Section 4, P a r t I I I "Technical Supervision
3.19.2.3.3.2.1 C T O D t e s t s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t a n d during Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules f o r
the result shall be reported. Technical Supervision during Construction o fShips a n d
Test methods shall be i n compliance w i t h 2.2, M a n u f a c t u r e o f Materials a n d Products f o r Ships.
P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " o f t h e Rules f o r t h e Classifica­ 3.19.2.4.2 S h o r t b e a d s .
tion, Construction a n d Equipment o f M o b i l e Off­ 3.19.2.4.2.1 S h o r t b e a d l e n g t h f o r t a c k a n d r e p a i r s
shore Drilling U n i t s a n d F i x e d Offshore Platforms. o f w e l d s b y w e l d i n g s h a l l n o t b e less t h a n 5 0 m m .
3.19.2.3.3.3 D r o p w e i g h t t e s t i n g f o r d e t e r m i n i n g I n t h e case w h e r e P c m < 0,19,25 m m o f short
nil-ductility temperature ( N D T ) . bead length m a y be adopted.
3.19.2.3.3.3.1 T e s t m e t h o d s s h a l l b e i n c o m p l i a n c e 3.19.2.43 P r e h e a t i n g .
with A S T M E208, 2.3,Part X I I "Materials" o f the 3 . 1 9 . 2 . 4 3 . 1 P r e h e a t i n g s h a l l b e 50°C o r o v e r
Rules f o r the Classification, Construction a n d w h e n a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i s 5 °C o r b e l o w .
Equipment o f Mobile Offshore Drilling Units a n d I n t h e case w h e r e P c m < 0,19,air temperature
Fixed Offshore Platforms. o f 0 °C o r b e l o w m a y b e a d o p t e d .
Nil-ductility temperature ( N D T ) shall be re­ 3.19.2.4.4 W e l d i n g c o n s u m a b l e s .
p o r t e d f o r reference a n d m a y be used f o r qualifica­ 3.19.2.4.4.1 S p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f w e l d i n g c o n s u m a b l e s
t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n test m e t h o d s . f o r Y P 4 7 steel plates a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 3.19.2.4.4.1-1.
3.19.2.3.3.4 B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g t e s t .
T a b l e 3.19.2.4.4.1-1
3.19.2.3.3.4.1 E S S O t e s t d e s c r i b e d i n 3 . 2 0 . 6 o r Mechanical propertiesfor deposited metal tests
o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e test ( d o u b l e t e n s i o n test) shall be for welding consumables
carried o u t i n order t o obtain the brittle crack
Mechanical properties I m p a c t test
stopping toughness.
Yield Tensile Elongation, Test Average
3.19.2.3.4 W e l d a b i l i t y t e s t strength, strength, %, m i n . t e m p e r a t u r e , impact
3.19.2.3.4.1 C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t (KV). MPa, min. MPa °C energy,
3.1923.4.1.1 C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t s s h a l l b e J, min.
t a k e n a t a p o s i t i o n o f 1/4 t h i c k n e s s f r o m t h e p l a t e s u r f a c e 460 570/720 19 -20 53
o n t h e face side o f t h e w e l d w i t h t h e n o t c h p e r p e n d i c u l a r
t o t h e plate surface. O n e set o f t h e specimens transverse
to t h e w e l d shall be taken w i t h t h e n o t c h located a t t h e M e c h a n i c a l properties o f b u t t w e l d assemblies f o r
fusion line a n d a t a distance 2,5 a n d m i n i m u m 2 0 m m acceptance o f consumables shall be i n accordance
f r o m t h e fusion line. T h e fusion b o u n d a r y shall be w i t h T a b l e 3.19.2.4.4.1-2.
identified b y etching t h e specimens w i t h a suitable T a b l e 3.19.2.4.4.1-2
reagent. O n e a d d i t i o n a l set o f t h e specimens s h a l l b e Mechanical properties for butt weld tests
t a k e n f r o m t h e r o o t side o f t h e w e l d w i t h t h e n o t c h for welding consumables
located a t t h e same p o s i t i o n a n d a t t h e s a m e d e p t h as f o r
C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t tests
t h e f a c e side. T h e i m p a c t t e s t t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l b e - 4 0
°C. A d d i t i o n a l l y a t e a c h l o c a t i o n , i m p a c t t e s t s s h a l l b e Average impact energy,
Test J, min.
carried o u t w i t h appropriate temperature intervals t o Tensile Bend
tempe­
properly define t h e full transition range. strength, test ratio: Welding position
rature,
MPa D/t
3.19.23.4.2 Y - s h a p e w e l d h y d r o g e n c r a c k r e s i s ­ °C Downhand, Vertical
t a n c e test. horizontal- (upward and
vertical, downward)
3.19.2.3.4.2.1 T h e t e s t m e t h o d s s h a l l b e i n
overhead
compliance w i t h recognized national o r international
standards such as G O S T 26388, I S O 17 642 (2), K S В 570 — 7 2 0 4 -20 53 53

0870, J I S Z 3158, G B 4675.1.


Acceptance criteria shall be i n accordance w i t h
the Register practice. 3.19.2.4.5 O t h e r s .
3.19.23.43 T e s t f o r resistance t o b r i t t l e fracture. 3.19.2.4.5.1 S p e c i a l c a r e s h a l l b e p a i d t o t h e final
3.19.23.43.1 C T O D test s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t . w e l d i n g so t h a t h a r m f u l defects d o n o t r e m a i n .
T e s t m e t h o d a n d results shall be considered appro­ Jigs s h a l l b e c o m p l e t e l y r e m o v e d w i t h n o defects,
priate b y t h e Register-approved documentation. otherwise the treatment o f t h e jigs shall be agreed
3.19.2.4 W e l d i n g . w i t h the Register.
3.19.2.4.1 W e l d e r s .
90 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.19.2.5 W e l d i n g p r o c e d u r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t . applied f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l structural members, as w e l l


3.19.2.5.1 G e n e r a l . as b a s i c v a r i a n t s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f e x t r e m e l y t h i c k
3.19.2.5.1.1 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s steel plate i n t h e h u l l l o n g i t u d i n a l m e m b e r s o f t h e
C h a p t e r , q u a l i f i c a t i o n test items, test m e t h o d s a n d u p p e r d e c k , s u c h as: u p p e r d e c k p l a t i n g , h a t c h side
acceptance criteria shall be i n compliance w i t h coaming, hatch c o a m i n g t o p , etc.
Section 6, P a r t I I I " T e c h n i c a l Supervision d u r i n g 3.20.1.1.3 T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r e s
Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for Technical specified i n 3.20.2 t o 3.20.4 shall c o m p l y w i t h 3.20.5.
Supervision during Construction o f Ships a n d 3.20.1.1.4 T h e p r o p e r t i e s o f w e l d e d j o i n t s s h a l l
M a n u f a c t u r e o f Materials a n d Products f o r Ships. comply w i t h 2.4, 3.19, Part X I V " W e l d i n g " a n d
3.19.2.5.2 R a n g e o f a p p r o v a l . requirements o f the present Chapter.
3.19.2.5.2.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f S e c t i o n 6 , 3.20.1.2 S t e e l g r a d e .
Part I I I "Technical Supervision during Manufacture 3.20.1.2.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o t h e c o n -
o f Materials" o fthe Rules f o rTechnical Supervision tainer carriers, t o w h i c h a n y o f Y P 3 6 , Y P 4 0 a n d
during Construction o f Ships a n d Manufacture o f Y P 4 7 steel plates a r e u s e d f o r t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l
Materials a n d Products f o r Ships shall be followed structure members.
for range o f approval. 3.20.1.2.2 S t e e l d e s i g n a t i o n s u s e d h e r e i n : Y P 3 6 ,
3.19.2.5.3 C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t t e s t (KV). Y P 4 0 a n d Y P 4 7 m e a n t h e steel plates h a v i n g t h e
3.19.2.5.3.1 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f S e c t i o n 6, m i n i m u m specified yield p o i n t s o f 3 5 5 , 3 9 0 a n d
Part I I I "Technical Supervision during Manufacture 460 M P a , respectively.
o f Materials" o f the Rules f o r Technical Supervision 3.20.1.3 T h i c k n e s s .
during Construction o f Ships a n d M a n u f a c t u r e o f 3.20.1.3.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o t h e s t e e l
Materials a n d Products f o rShips shall be followed f o r plates w i t h thickness f r o m 5 0 t o 100m m inclusive.
C h a r p y V - n o t c h i m p a c t test. A v e r a g e i m p a c t e n e r g y 3.20.1.3.2 F o r c o n t a i n e r s h i p s ' h u l l s t r u c t u r e s
6 4 J a t - 2 0 °C s h a l l b e s a t i s f i e d f o r i m p a c t t e s t . m a d e o f steel plates w i t h thickness exceeding 100 m m
3.19.2.5.4 H a r d n e s s . appropriate measures f o rprevention o f brittle crack
3.19.2.5.4.1 V i c k e r s h a r d n e s s H V 1 0 , a s d e f i n e d i n initiation a n d propagation shall be agreed w i t h the
Section 6, P a r t I I I " T e c h n i c a l Supervision d u r i n g Register.
Manufacture o f Materials" o f the Rules for Technical 3.20.2 N o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g ( N D T ) d u r i n g
Supervision during Construction o f Ships a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n ( m e a s u r e 1 , T a b l e 30.2.5.1).
Manufacture o f Materials a n d Products f o r Ships 3.20.2.1 W h e r e N D T d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i s
shall be n o t m o r e t h a n 380. M e a s u r e m e n t points shall required i n 3.20.5, t h e N D T shall be i n accordance
include mid-thickness position i n addition t o the w i t h 3.20.2.1 a n d 3.20.2.2. E n h a n c e d N D T as
p o i n t s required b y Section 6. specified i n 3.20.4.3.1.2.4 shall be carried o u t i n
3.19.2.5.5 T e n s i l e t e s t . compliance w i t h the documents approved by the
3.19.2.5.5.1 T e n s i l e s t r e n g t h i n t r a n s v e r s e t e n s i l e Register a n d recognized standards.
test s h a l l b e n o t less t h a n 5 7 0 M P a . 3.20.2.1.1 G e n e r a l .
3.19.2.5.6 T e s t f o r r e s i s t a n c e t o b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e . 3.20.2.1.1.1 U l t r a s o n i c t e s t i n g i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h
3.19.2.5.6.1 C T O D t e s t m a y b e r e q u i r e d . Section 3, P a r t X I V " W e l d i n g " shall be carried o u t o n
Test m e t h o d s a n d acceptance criteria shall be i n all block-to-block butt joints o f a l l upper flange
compliance w i t h 2.2, P a r t X I I " M a t e r i a l s " , Rues f o r t h e longitudinal structural members i n the cargo hold
Classification, Construction a n d E q u i p m e n t o f M o b i l e region, including include t h e t o p m o s t strakes o ft h e
Offshore Drilling Units a n d Fixed Offshore Platforms. i n n e r h u l l / b u l k h e a d , t h e sheer strake, m a i n deck,
c o a m i n g plate, c o a m i n g t o p plate, a n d a l l attached
l o n g i t u d i n a l stiffeners (refer t o F i g . 3.20.2.1.1.1).
3.20 R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R U S E O F E X T R E M E L Y THICK 3.20.2.2 A c c e p t a n c e c r i t e r i a o f u l t r a s o n i c t e s t i n g .
S T E E L P L A T E S I NC O N T A I N E R S H I P S 3.20.2.2.1 A c c e p t a n c e c r i t e r i a o f u l t r a s o n i c t e s t -
ing shall be i n compliance w i t h Section 3, P a r t X I V
3.20.1 S c o p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n . "Welding" documentation approved b y the Register
3.20.1.1 G e n e r a l . and/or recognized standards.
3.20.1.1.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o t h e c o n - 3.20.2.2.2 T h e a c c e p t a n c e c r i t e r i a m a y b e a d -
t a i n e r carriers i n c o r p o r a t i n g e x t r e m e l y t h i c k steel justed under consideration o fthe appertaining brittle
plates i n accordance w i t h 3.20.1.2 a n d 3.20.1.3. crack initiation prevention procedure, a n dwhere this
3.20.1.1.2 T h e S e c t i o n g i v e s m e a s u r e s f o r i d e n t i - is m o r e severe t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n t h e R u l e s a n d
fication a n dprevention o f brittle fractures o f contain- standards t o be amended accordingly t o a m o r e
er carriers t o w h i c h e x t r e m e l y t h i c k steel plates a r e severe sensitivity.
P a r t XIII. Materials 91

a c r a c k a t a p r o p e r p o s i t i o n a n d t o p r e v e n t large scale
fracture o f t h e h u l l girder:
.1 the p o i n t o f a brittle crack initiation shall be
considered i n the block-to-block butt joints b o t h o f
h a t c h side c o a m i n g s a n d u p p e r deck;
.2 t h e f o l l o w i n g cases s h a l l b e c o n s i d e r e d :
.2.1 w h e r e t h e brittle crack runs straight a l o n g t h e
butt joint;
.2.2 w h e r e t h e b r i t t l e c r a c k starts i n t h e b u t t j o i n t
b u t deviates a w a y f r o m t h e w e l d a n d runs i n t o t h e
plate o r starts i n a secondary w e l d a n d runs i n t o t h e
plate (refer t o F i g . 3.20.4.2.1.2.2).

F i g . 3.20.2.1.1.1 U p p e r f l a n g e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s

3.20.3 P e r i o d i c N D T after d e l i v e r y ( m e a s u r e 2 ,
Table 30.2.5.1).
3.20.3.1 W h e r e periodic N D T after delivery is
required, t h e N D T shall be i n accordance w i t h
3.20.3.1 — 3.20.3.3.
3.20.3.1.1 General.
3.20.3.1.1.1 T h e procedure o f the N D T shall be i n
accordance w i t h 3.2 a n d the documentation ap-
p r o v e d w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r f o r t h e steel supply.
3.20.3.2 T i m i n g o f u l t r a s o n i c testing.
3.20.3.2.1 W h e r e ultrasonic testing is carried o u t ,
the frequency o f survey shall be i n compliance w i t h
the Register requirements.
3.20.4 Brittle crack stopping design (measures 3,
4 a n d 5, Table 30.2.5.1).
3.20.4.1 General.
F i g . 3.20.4.2.1.2.2 Z o n e s o f t h e s e c o n d a r y w e l d s t h r o u g h t h e
3.20.4.1.1 Measures f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f brittle example o f the support securing
crack propagation i n the cargo h o l d region. I - fillet w e l d s i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e h a t c h side c o a m i n g ( i n c l u d i n g t h e
3.20.4.1.2 I t shall be n o t e d t h a t cracks c a ninitiate c o a m i n g t o p ) c o n t a c t w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l m e m b e r s ; 2 - fillet w e l d s i n
the place o fthe hatch side c o a m i n g (includingthe c o a m i n g t o p a n d
and propagate away f r o m such joints, therefore, longitudinal member) contactwith attachment joints. F o r example,
appropriate measures shall be considered i n accor- fillet w e l d s i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e h a t c h c o v e r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u p p o r t ;
3 - fillet w e l d s i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e h a t c h c o a m i n g t o p c o n t a c t w i t h
dance w i t h 3.20.4.2.1.2.2.
t h e h a t c h side c o a m i n g ; 4 - fillet w e l d s i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e h a t c h side
3.20.4.13 T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t o c r a c k resistance c o a m i n g c o n t a c t w i t h t h e u p p e r d e c k plating; 5 - fillet w e l d s i n t h e
specified i n t h e S e c t i o n c o v e r t h e Y P 3 6 , Y P 4 0 a n d place o f the upper deck plating contact with the bulkheads;
6 - fillet w e l d s i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e u p p e r d e c k p l a t i n g c o n t a c t w i t h
Y P 4 7 steels e q u a l l y . C r a c k r e s i s t a n c e s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d
t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l b e a m s ; 7 - fillet w e l d s i n t h ep l a c e o f t h e
according t o this P a r a a t t h e stage o f m a n u f a c t u r e r sheerstrake contact with the upper deck plating
r e c o g n i t i o n . B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g steel i s d e f i n e d as steel
plate w i t h measured crack stopping properties at -
3 2
1 0 °C > 6 0 0 0 N / m m ' W h e r e t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s t e e l 3.20.43 Concept examples o f brittle crack stop-
exceeds 8 0 m m , t h e r e q u i r e d value shall be approved p i n g design.
b y t h e Register as p a r t o f t h e s u b m i t t e d d o c u m e n t a t i o n . 3.20.43.1 T h e following are considered t o be
B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g steel p a r a m e t e r s , as w e l l as acceptable examples o f brittle crack stopping design.
the appropriate methods t o determine shall be agreed 3.20.43.1.1 Brittle crack stopping design
w i t h t h e R e g i s t e r ( e . g . T n o t e x c e e d i n g - 1 0 °C). T h e
kb for 3.20.4.2.12.2:
tests shall be c a r r i e d o u t i n a l a b o r a t o r y recognized .1 b r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g steel s h a l l be used f o r t h e
by the Register. upper deck along the cargo h o l d region i n a w a y
3.20.4.2 F u n c t i o n a l requirements o f brittle crack suitable t o stop a brittle crack initiating f r o m the
stopping design. coaming a n d propagating into the structure below.
3.20.4.2.1 T h e purpose o f t h e brittle crack 3.20.43.1.2 Brittle crack stopping design
stopping design is a i m e d a t stopping propagation o f for 3.20.4.2.1.2.1:
92 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

.1 w h e r e t h e b l o c k - t o - b l o c k b u t t w e l d s o f t h e .4 t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f e n h a n c e d N D T p a r t i c u l a r l y
h a t c h side c o a m i n g a n d t h o s e o f t h e u p p e r d e c k time o f flight diffraction ( T O F D ) technique using
plating a r e shifted, this shift shall be greater t h a n o r stricter defect acceptance i n lieu o f standard u l t r a ­
e q u a l t o 3 0 0 m m . B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g steel s h a l l b e sonic testing technique specified i n 3.20.2 c a n b e a n
p r o v i d e d f o r t h e h a t c h side c o a m i n g ; alternative t o 3.20.4.3.1.2.1 - 3.20.4.3.1.2.3.
.2 w h e r e c r a c k s t o p p i n g h o l e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n 3.20.5 M e a s u r e s f o r d e t e c t i n g a n d p r e v e n t i o n o f
w a y o f the block-to-block butt welds a t t h e region brittle fracture o f hull structures o f container carrier
w h e r e h a t c h side c o a m i n g w e l d m e e t s t h e d e c k w e l d , ships m a d e o f extremely thick steel plates.
the fatigue strength o fthe lower e n d o fthe butt w e l d 3.20.5.1 T h e t h i c k n e s s a n d t h e y i e l d s t r e n g t h
s h a l l b e assessed. A d d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s s h a l l s h o w n i n T a b l e 3.20.5.1 apply t o t h e h a t c h c o a m i n g
be t a k e n f o r t h e possibility t h a t a r u n n i n g b r i t t l e t o p s t r u c t u r e a n d h a t c h side c o a m i n g steel, a n d a r e
crack m a y deviate f r o m t h e w e l d line into upper deck the controlling parameters f o r t h e application o f
o r h a t c h side c o a m i n g . T h e s e c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s s h a l l countermeasures.
i n c l u d e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f b r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g steel I f the as-built thickness o fthe hatch t o p c o a m i n g
i n h a t c h side c o a m i n g ; a n d h a t c h side c o a m i n g s t r u c t u r e i s b e l o w t h e v a l u e s
3 w h e r e stopping insert plates o f brittle crack given i n Table 3.20.5.1, countermeasures aren o t
s t o p p i n g steel o r w e l d m e t a l inserts w i t h h i g h c r a c k necessary regardless o f t h e thickness a n d yield
stopping toughness properties a r e p r o v i d e d i n w a y o f s t r e n g t h o f t h e u p p e r deck steel.
the block-to-block butt welds a tthe region where hatch 3.20.6 S t a n d a r d E S S O t e s t .
side c o a m i n g w e l d m e e t s t h e d e c k w e l d , a d d i t i o n a l 3.20.6.1 S c o p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n .
countermeasures shall be taken f o rthe possibility that 3.20.6.1.1 T h e E S S O t e s t m e t h o d i s u s e d t o
a r u n n i n g brittle crack m a y deviate f r o m t h e w e l d line estimate t h e brittle crack stopping toughness value
i n t o u p p e r d e c k o r h a t c h side c o a m i n g . T h e s e c o u n t e r - K o f r o l l e d steel plates f o r h u l l o fthickness 100 m m
ca

measures shall include t h eapplication o f brittle crack o r less.


s t o p p i n g steel i n h a t c h side c o a m i n g ;

T a b l e 3.20.5.1
S y m b o l s used a n d their meanings
1
Tensile strength, Thickness, Option Measures
MPa mm
1 2 3+ 4 5

36 50<г«85 — N/A N/A N/A N/A

85<г«100 — X N/A N/A N/A

40 50<г«85 — X N/A N/A N/A

85<г«100 А X N/A X X

2 3
В х N/A N/A X

47FCAW 50<г«100 А X N/A X X

2 3
В х N/A N/A X

47EGW 50<г«100 — X N/A X X

1
Selectable f r o m option A o r B .
2
R e f e r t o 3.20.4.3.4.
3
R e f e r t o 3.20.4.3.

Symbol:
x — t o b e applied.

M e a s u r e s ( t o T a b l e 3.20.5.1):
1 . N o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g o f a l l w e l d e d j o i n t s a c c o r d i n g t o 3.20.2 ( d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) .
2. P e r i o d i c n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t e s t i n g a f t e r d e l i v e r y o f s t e e l ( d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) .
3. B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g d e s i g n a g a i n s t s t r a i g h t p r o p a g a t i o n o f b r i t t l e c r a c k a l o n g w e l d l i n e ( d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) .
R e f e r t o 3 . 2 0 . 4 . 3 . 1 . 2 . 1 , 3.20.4.3.1.2.2.
4. B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g d e s i g n a g a i n s t d e v i a t i o n o f b r i t t l e c r a c k f r o m w e l d l i n e ( d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . R e f e r t o 3 . 2 0 . 4 . 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 .
5. B r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g d e s i g n a g a i n s t p r o p a g a t i o n o f c r a c k s f r o m s e c o n d a r y w e l d a r e a s ( r e f e r t o F i g . 3.20.4.2.1.2.2) s u c h a s f i l l e t s
a n d a t t a c h m e n t w e l d s ( d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . R e f e r t o 3.20.4.3.1.1.1.
P a r t XIII. Materials 93

3.20.6.2 S y m b o l s . 3.20.6.4.2 T h e thickness a n d w i d t h o f t h e test


T a b l e 3.20.6.2 specimen shall b e i n accordance w i t h T a b l e 3.20.6.4.2.
S y m b o l s used a n d their meanings
T a b l e 3.20.6.4.2
T h i c k n e s s a n d width o f test specimen
Symbol Unit Meaning
Thickness t s 100 m m a n d b e l o w
ts m m T h i c k n e s s o ftest specimen
W i d t h o ftest s p e c i m e n W s 500 m m
Ws m m W i d t h o ftest specimen
L m m L e n g t h o ftest specimen
s
N o t e . I f t h e w i d t h o fthe test s p e c i m e n c a n n o t b e m a d e
t, m m Thickness o ft a b plate a t 500 m m , i t m a y b e t a k e n a s 600 m m .
Wr m m W i d t h o ft a b plate
L r
m m L e n g t h o ft a b plate
m m Distance between pins
a m m Length o f crack projected o n surface 3.20.6.4.3 T h e test specimens shall b e t a k e n f r o m
n o r m a l t o the line o f l o a d the s a m e steel plate.
a a
mm M a x i m u m crack length a t brittle crack 3.20.6.4.4 T e s t specimens shall be t a k e n i n such a
stopping position
way that the axial direction o f the load is parallel t o
T °c T e m p e r a t u r e o ftest specimen
dT/da "С/ T e m p e r a t u r e gradient o ftest specimen the r o l l i n g d i r e c t i o n o f t h e steel plate.
<y N/mm 2
G r o s s stress i ntested part (load / Wsts) 3.20.6.4.5 T h e thickness o f the test specimen shall
3 2
N/mm ' Brittle crack stopping toughness value be t h e s a m e as t h e thickness o ft h e steel plate t o b e
used i nt h e ship's h u l l structures.
3.20.6.5 Test e q u i p m e n t .

Ж W, Tab plate W Specimen


3.20.6.5.1 T h etest e q u i p m e n t t o b e used shall

vw consist o f p i n l o a d type h y d r a u l i c test e q u i p m e n t


s

c a p a b l e o f tensile tests.
r r - - - - ~ " > • • • -1 3.20.6.5.2 T h edistance b e t w e e n t h e pins shall b e
n o t less t h a n 2 0 0 0 m m .
3.20.6.5.3 D r o p w e i g h t type o r a i r g u n type
impact equipment m a y be used for t h eimpact energy
F i g . 3.20.6.2 C o n c e p t u a l v i e w o f t e s t s p e c i m e n , t a b a n d l o a d j i g
required f o r generating brittle cracks.
3.20.6.5.4 T h e wedge shall h a v e a n angle greater
3.20.6.3 P u r p o s e . t h a n t h e u p p e r n o t c h o f t h e test specimen, a n da n
3.20.6.3.1 T h e p u r p o s e o f this test shall encourage opening force shall be applied o n t h e notch.
the p e r f o r m a n c e o f a s t a n d a r d test f o r assessment o f 3.20.6.6 Test p r e p a r a t i o n .
brittle crack stopping toughness w i t h temperature 3.20.6.6.1 T h etest piece shall be fixed directly t o
gradient a n d t o obtain t h e corresponding brittle the p i n load j i g o rb y means o f weld j o i n t t h r o u g h the
c r a c k s t o p p i n g t o u g h n e s s v a l u e K^. tab plate. T h e o v e r a l l l e n g t h o f the test specimen a n d
3.20.6.4 S t a n d a r d test specimen. t a b p l a t e s h a l l b e n o t l e s s t h a n 3W . T h e t h i c k n e s s a n d
S

3 . 2 0 . 6 . 4 . 1 F i g . 3 . 2 0 . 6 . 4 . 1 s h o w s t h e s h a p e a n d size w i d t h o f t h e t a b plate shall be i n accordance w i t h


o f the s t a n d a r d test specimen. Table 3.20.6.6.1.
T a b l e 3.20.6.6.1
Allowable dimensions o ftab plate
4 _ Y
Thickness t r
Width W r

Rolling direction Dimensions o ftab plate 0,8г «г «1,5г


а г а W ^W ^2W
s r s

N o t e s : 1. t — thickness o ftest s p e c i m e n .
s

2. I f t h e t a b p l a t e h a s a t h i c k n e s s s m a l l e r t h a n t h e t e s t
specimen, the reflection o f stress w a v e will b e o n the safer side
for the assessment; therefore, the m i n i m u m value o f thickness
i s t a k e n a s 0,8г .а

Initial thickness

3.20.6.6.2 T h e r m o c o u p l e s shall b e fitted a t 5 0 m m


500 and above
p i t c h o n t h e n o t c h e x t e n s i o n line o f the test specimen.
3.20.6.6.3 I f t h e brittle c r a c k is estimated t o
U n i t : mm
deviate f r o m i t s presumed course, thermocouples
F i g . 3.20.6.4.1 S h a p e a n d s i z e o f t e s t s p e c i m e n shall be fitted a t t w o points separated b y 100 m m o n
the line o fload f r o m t h e n o t c h extension line a t t h e
centre o f w i d t h o f t h e test specimen.
94 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

3.20.6.6.4 I f d y n a m i c m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e neces­ 3.20.6.8.2 F r o m t h e results o f t h e r m o c o u p l e


sary, s t r a i n gauges s h a l l b e fitted a t specific locations. measurement, the temperature distribution curve
3.20.6.6.5 T h e test specimen shall b e fixed t o t h e shall be plotted, a n d the stopping crack temperature
testing machine together w i t h t h e t a b plate after shall be measured corresponding t o t h e stopping
welding a n d the p i nload jig. crack length.
3.20.6.6.6 T h e i m p a c t e q u i p m e n t shall b e m o u n t e d . 3.20.6.8.3 T h e brittle crack s t o p p i n g toughness
T h e construction o f the impact equipment shall be such v a l u e K o f each test shall b e d e t e r m i n e d b y u s i n g t h e
ca

that t h e impact energy is correctly transmitted. A n following formula:


a p p r o p r i a t e j i g shall b e a r r a n g e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e effect
K
ca = , J n a • ^2 Ws/ка - t a n ( 7 i a / 2 W ) . s
o f bending load due t o the impact equipment.
3.20.7 Test m e t h o d . 3.20.9 R e p o r t
3.20.6.7.1 T o e l i m i n a t e t h e effect o f r e s i d u a l stress 3.20.6.9.1 T h e f o l l o w i n g items shall be reported:
or correct the angular deformation o f tab welding, a .1 testing m a c h i n e specifications; testing m a c h i n e
p r e l o a d less t h a n t h e test l o a d m a y b e a p p l i e d b e f o r e capacity, distance between pins L ; p

cooling. .2 l o a d j i g d i m e n s i o n s ; t a b p l a t e t h i c k n e s s t, r

3.20.6.7.2 C o o l i n g a n d h e a t i n g m a y b e i m p l e ­ tab plate w i d t h W, test specimen l e n g t h i n c l u d i n g t a b


r

m e n t e d f r o m o n e side o n t h e side o p p o s i t e t h e side o n plate L + 2 L ;


s r

w h i c h t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e i s f i t t e d , o r f r o m b o t h sides. .3 t e s t s p e c i m e n d i m e n s i o n s ; p l a t e t h i c k n e s s t ; s

3.20.6.7.3 T h e t e m p e r a t u r e gradient shall be test specimen w i d t h W a n d l e n g t h L ;


s s

c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e r a n g e o f 0 , 2 5 °C/mm t o 0 , 3 5 °C/mm .4 t e s t c o n d i t i o n s ; p r e l o a d stress, t e s t stress, t e m ­


i n t h e r a n g e o f w i d t h f r o m 0,3 W t o 0,7 W a t t h e
s s perature distribution (figure o r table); i m p a c t energy;
central p a r t o f t h e test specimen. .5 test results; c r a c k a r r e s t l e n g t h a , t e m p e r a t u r e
a

3.20.6.7.4 W h e n t h e specific t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t gradient a t stopping position, brittle crack stopping


is reached, t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s h a l l b e m a i n t a i n e d f o r toughness K ; ca

m o r e t h a n 1 0m i n , after w h i c h t h e specified test l o a d .6 d y n a m i c m e a s u r e m e n t results ( i f m e a s u r e m e n t


shall then be applied. is c a r r i e d o u t ) ; c r a c k g r o w t h r a t e , s t r a i n change;
3.20.6.7.5 5 A f t e r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e test l o a d f o r a t .7 test s p e c i m e n p h o t o s ; f r a c t u r e r o u t e , f r a c t u r e d
l e a s t 3 0 s, a b r i t t l e c r a c k s h a l l b e g e n e r a t e d b y i m p a c t . surface.
T h e standard impact energy is taken as 2 0t o 6 0 J p e r 3.20.6.9.2 I f t h e c o n d i t i o n s b e l o w a r e n o t satisfied,
1 m mplate thickness. I f the brittle crack initiation the test results shall b e treated as reference values.
characteristics o f t h e base m e t a l a r e h i g h , a n d i tis .1 the brittle crack stopping position shall be i n the
difficult t o generate a brittle crack, t h e impact energy range o f the hatched part s h o w n i n F i g . 3.20.6.9.2.1. I n
m a y be increased t ot h eupper limit o f 120 J per 1 m m t h i s case, i f t h e b r i t t l e c r a c k s t o p p i n g p o s i t i o n i s m o r e
plate thickness. t h a n 5 0 m m a w a y f r o m t h e centre o f the test specimen i n
3.20.6.7.6 L o a d i n g is stopped w h e n t h e initiation, t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e test specimen, t h e
propagation, a n d stopping o f brittle crack have been t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e a t t h e ±100 m m
confirmed. N o r m a l temperature is restored, a n d i f p o s i t i o n s h a l l b e w i t h i n + 3 °C o f t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e a t
necessary, t h e l i g a m e n t is b r o k e n b y gas c u t t i n g a n d the centre;
forcibly t h e specimen is b r o k e n b y using t h e testing
machine. O r , after t h e ductile crack h a s been
propagated t o a n adequate length w i t h t h e testing
machine, the ligament is broken b y gas cutting.
3.20.6.7.7 A f t e r f o r c i n g t h e fracture, p h o t o s o f
the fractured surface a n d t h e p r o p a g a t i o n r o u t e shall 0.7Щ
be t a k e n , a n d t h e crack l e n g t h shall b e measured.
3.20.8 Test results.
3.20.6.8.1 T h e distance f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e test
specimen, including then o t c h t o them a x i m u m length
in t h eplate thickness direction o fthe arrested crack
tip, shall be measured. I f t h e crack surface deviates
f r o m t h e surface n o r m a l t o t h e line o f l o a d o f the test
specimen, t h e projected l e n g t h o n t h e surface n o r m a l
t o t h e l i n e o f l o a d s h a l l b e m e a s u r e d . I n t h i s case, i f
the trace o f brittle crack stopping is clearly visible o n
the fractured surface, t h e first crack stopping p o s i t i o n F i g . 3.20.6.9.2.1 N e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s
is t a k e n as t h e s t o p p i n g c r a c k p o s i t i o n . of stopping crack position
P a r t XIII. Materials 95

.2 t h e b r i t t l e c r a c k s h a l l n o t h a v e a d i s t i n c t c r a c k and K ca at the desired t e m p e r a t u r e shall be calcu-


bifurcation while it propagates. lated. I n this case, d a t a s h a l l exist o n b o t h sides, t h a t
3.20.6.9.3 F r o m effective test results m e a s u r e d at is, t h e h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e a n d l o w t e m p e r a t u r e sides
m o r e than 3 points, the linear a p p r o x i m a t i o n a r o u n d t h e assessed t e m p e r a t u r e .
e q u a t i o n shall be d e t e r m i n e d o n the A r r h e n i u s p l o t ,
96 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

4 COPPER AND COPPER-BASE ALLOYS

4.1 S E M I - F I N I S H E D P R O D U C T S O F C O P P E R
for d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f mechanical properties ( R e H ,
AND COPPER-BASE A L L O Y S

for fabrication testing.


4.1.1 G e n e r a l . T h e scope o f testing f o r semi-finished products
These requirements apply to semi-finished pro- (rolled products, forgings, castings) shall be d e t e r m i n e d
ducts o f copper and copper-base alloys (rolled, according t o standards recognized by the Register.
forged, d r a w n , p r e s s - f o r m e d , etc.) a n d castings, C u Z n a l l o y tubes f o r heat exchangers shall be
w h i c h are used i n shipbuilding a n d m a r i n e engineer- subjected t o t h e f o l l o w i n g tests:
ing, a n d the m a n u f a c t u r e o f w h i c h is subject t o the mercuric nitrate or a m m o n i a treatment according
Register survey. Semi-finished products o f copper to the requirements o f appropriate standards (one
a n d copper-base a l l o y s shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d at specimen per lot);
w o r k s r e c o g n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o 1.3.1.2. flattening ( t w o specimens cut f r o m t w o tubes,
4.1.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l p r o p - H=3t);
erties. expanding ( t w o specimens f r o m t w o tubes, w i t h
The chemical composition and mechanical prop- t h e a n g l e o f m a n d r e l t a p e r a = 45°, a n d t h e
erties o f copper a n d copper-base alloys p r o d u c t s such expansion degree o f 30 % ) ;
as pipes, plates, bars, r o l l e d sections, f o r g i n g s a n d microstructure check (one specimen per lot).
castings shall m e e t the requirements o f appropriate A v e r a g e g r a i n d i a m e t e r shall be 0,01 t o 0,05 m m .
standards o r specifications approved by the Register. T u b e s shall be subjected t o h y d r a u l i c testing; the
W h e n selecting copper-base alloys, o n e shall test pressure s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d b y standards o r
consider the required level o f mechanical properties at specifications.
i n d o o r o r h i g h e r temperatures, c o r r o s i o n resistance, I n j u s t i f i e d cases s u b s t i t u t i o n o f n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e
and other properties determined by their application. testing f o r h y d r a u l i c testing is p e r m i t t e d .
4.1.3 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y . 4.1.6 I n s p e c t i o n .
If, i n the process o f manufacture, parts m a d e o f Products submitted for the Register inspection
copper a n d copper-base alloys are subjected to heat shall c o m p l y w i t h the requirements o f corresponding
t r e a t m e n t , t h e t y p e o f h e a t t r e a t m e n t s h a l l be standards o r specifications, o n the basis o f w h i c h t h e y
reported t o the Register a n d stated i n the m a t e r i a l are accepted.
certificate. T h e p r o d u c t s s h a l l n o t h a v e defects, w h i c h are
R o l l e d p r o d u c t s m a d e o f C u Z n a l l o y s (brasses) d e t r i m e n t a l f o r t h e i r i n t e n d e d use.
s h a l l be a n n e a l e d f o r stress r e l i e v i n g . 4.1.7 M a r k i n g a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n .
4.1.4 S a m p l i n g . Identification, m a r k i n g a n d issued d o c u m e n t a -
Tensile test samples shall be c u t f r o m plate t i o n — i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4.
material transversely to the direction o f rolling
(forging), a n d f r o m tubes, rods, sections a n d forgings
— longitudinallyto the direction o f rolling. 4.2 P R O P E L L E R CASTINGS
T u b e s , rods a n d sections w i t h a diameter ( o r
t h i c k n e s s ) o f 4 0 m m a n d less m a y b e s u b j e c t e d t o
tensile tests i n t h e r o u g h c o n d i t i o n . 4.2.1 General.
F o r g i n g samples m a y be forged separately o r 4.2.1.1 T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p l y t o c a s t i n g s
forged o n the forgings. T h e samples shall have the i n t e n d e d f o r cast propellers, blades a n d bosses o f
s a m e degree o f u p s e t t i n g as t h e f o r g i n g i n i t s h i g h e s t propellers w i t h detachable blades.
loaded cross-section. The requirements are applicable t o m o u l d i n g ,
C a s t i n g samples m a y be separately cast, cast-on casting, inspection o f n e w propellers, blades a n d
or cut o u t f r o m the casting. bosses as w e l l as r e p a i r o f n e w p r o p e l l e r s i n t h e
I n a n y case, t h e samples s h a l l be c u t after t h e course o f their m a n u f a c t u r e . U p o n special considera-
final heat treatment (in the supply condition). t i o n these r e q u i r e m e n t s m a y also be applied f o r the
4.1.5 S c o p e o f t e s t i n g . repair a n d inspection o f propellers becoming da-
I f n o t o t h e r w i s e specified, the f o l l o w i n g samples m a g e d d u r i n g service.
shall be t a k e n f r o m each batch: 4.2.1.2 A l l p r o p e l l e r s a n d t h e i r c o m p o n e n t s s h a l l
for d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f chemical c o m p o s i t i o n (heat be cast b y f o u n d r i e s a p p r o v e d b y the Register i n
analysis); c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.1.2. T h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r ap-
P a r t XIII. Materials 97

p r o v a l shall be accompanied b y specifications o f t h e The structure C U l a n d C U 2 type alloys shall con­


propeller materials, manufacturing procedures, re­ t a i n a n a l p h a p h a s e c o m p o n e n t o f a t l e a s t 2 5 %. T h e
pair, non-destructive testing a n d a description o f the content o f alpha phase shall be measured b y t h e
f o u n d r y facilities, including the m a x i m u m capacity o f manufacturer. T h e zinc equivalent defined b y t h e
the ladles. f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a s h a l l n o t e x c e e d a v a l u e o f 4 5 %.
4.2.1.3 T h e a p p r o v a l t e s t s s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n
100% C u
c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.5 u n d e r t h e p r o g r a m m e a p ­ Zinc equivalent ( % ) = 1 0 0 - %
Ш + А
p r o v e d b y t h e Register. T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e tests s h a l l
verify t h a t t h e castings a n d their quality, i n c l u d i n g where A is t h e algebraic s u m o f the following
chemical composition a n d mechanical properties, values:
c o m p l y w i t h these requirements. 1 x % Sn;
4.2.1.4 T h e f o u n d r y s h a l l h a v e a n a d e q u a t e l y 5 x % Al;
equipped laboratory, m a n n e d b y experienced person­ -0,5 x % M n ;
nel, f o r t h e testing o f m o u l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , c h e m i c a l -0,1 x % Fe;
analyses, mechanical testing a n d m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l -2,3 x Ni.
testing o fmetallic materials. P r o v i s i o n shall be made The negative sign i nfront o f the elements M n , F e
for n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e testing. I f these test facilities a r e a n d N i signifies t h a t these elements t e n d t o reduce t h e
not available, details shall be provided o f a n p r o p o r t i o n o f beta phase.
approved local laboratory w h i c h will provide such Copper-base alloys o f chemical composition
services. T h e l a b o r a t o r y , s h a l l b e r e c o g n i z e d b y a n different f r o m those given i n T a b l e 4.2.2 m a y bea l l
authorized national body and/or Register. allowed i n accordance w i t h national o r international
4.2.1.5 T h e p o u r i n g s h a l l b e c a r r i e d o u t i n t o d r i e d standards recognized b y t h e Register.
m o u l d s using degassed liquid m e t a l . T h e p o u r i n g 4.2.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
shall be c o n t r o l l e d as t o a v o i d turbulences o f flow. M e c h a n i c a l properties o f standardized a l l o y s as
Special devices a n d / o r procedures shall p r e v e n t slag applied t o test specimens t a k e n f r o m separately cast
flowing into the mould. samples shall c o m p l y w i t h T a b l e 4.2.3.
4.2.1.6 S u b s e q u e n t s t r e s s r e l i e v i n g h e a t t r e a t m e n t These properties are a measure o f the mechanical
m a y b e p e r f o r m e d t o r e d u c e t h e r e s i d u a l stresses. F o r quality o f each heat; a n d they are generally n o t
this purpose, the manufacturer shall submit a representative o f t h e mechanical properties o f the
specification containing t h e details o f t h e heat propeller casting itself, w h i c h m a y be u p t o 3 0 % l o w e r
treatment t o t h e Register f o r a p p r o v a l (refer t o t h a n t h a t o f a separately cast samples.
Tables 4.2.8.5-1 a n d 4.2.8.5-2). The requirements f o r mechanical properties o f
4.2.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n a n d s t r u c t u r e cast-on specimens o r those c u t o u t f r o m t h e casting
characteristics. are specified i n accordance w i t h t h e a p p r o v e d
4.2.2.1 T h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t y p i c a l documentation.
copper-base alloys f o r propellers shall c o m p l y w i t h Copper alloys w i t h mechanical characteristics
the requirements o f T a b l e 4.2.2. different f r o m those given i n Table 4.2.3 m a y be
allowed o n l y after their approval b y t h e Register i n
N o t e . T h e m a i n constituents o f the microstructure i n t h e
copper-base alloys categories C U l a n d C U 2 are alpha a n d beta
c o m p l i a n c e w i t h 1.3.2.
phase. 4.2.4 S a m p l i n g .
I m p o r t a n t properties such a s ductility a n d resistance t o Separately cast samples f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
corrosion fatigue are strongly influenced b y the relative propor­
tion o f beta phase (too high percentage o f beta phase having a mechanical properties o f propeller alloys shall be
negative effect o n these properties). T o ensure adequate c o l d taken f r o m each ladle a n d shall have t h e dimensions
ductility a n d corrosion fatigue resistance, the proportion o f beta
as s h o w n i n F i g . 4 . 2 . 4 . S a m p l e s m a y b e p r e p a r e d i n
phase shall b e kept low. T h e concept o f the zinc equivalent shall
be u s e d a s control since it s u m m a r i z e s the effect o f the t e n d e n c y accordance w i t h the standards approved b y the
of various chemical elements to produce beta phase i n t h e Register. F o r t h e purpose o f approval o f a f o u n d r y
structure.

T a b l e 4.2.2

Alloy type Chemical composition o fcopper-base alloys for propellers, %

Cu Al Mn Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb

CUl 52 — 62 0,5 — 3,0 0,5 — 4,0 35 — 40 0,5 — 2,5 max 1,0 m a x 1,5 m a x 0,5
CU2 50 — 57 0,5 — 2,0 1,0 — 4,0 33 — 38 0,5 — 2,5 3,0 — 8,0 m a x 1,5 m a x 0,05
CU3 77 — 82 7,0—11,0 0,5 — 4,0 max 1,0 2,0 — 6,0 3,0 — 6,0 m a x 0,1 m a x 0,03
CU4 70 — 80 6,5 — 9,0 8,0 — 20,0 max 6,0 2,0 — 5,0 1,5 — 3,0 m a x 1,0 m a x 0,05

N o t e . C h e m i c a l composition shall b e determined for the metal o f e a c h ladle.


98 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

T a b l e 4.2.3 be d e t e r m i n e d as t h e average v a l u e o f 5 counts. T h e


(separatelyf c a s t s a m p l e s ) requirements o f 4.2.2.1 shall be fulfilled.
Alloy type Y i e l d stress Tensile strength Elongation 4.2.6 S e v e r i t y zones (repair zones).
Rp0,2, r n i n , M P a R , m i n , M P a
m
A;, min, 4.2.6.1 I n o r d e r t o relate t h e degree o f i n s p e c t i o n
% t o t h e criticality o f defects i n p r o p e l l e r blades a n d t o
C Ul 175 440 20 h e l p r e d u c e t h e risk o f f a i l u r e b y f a t i g u e c r a c k i n g
C U2 175 440 20 after repair, propeller blades are divided i n t o t h e
C U3 245 590 16
t h r e e z o n e s d e s i g n a t e d А, В a n d С ( r e f e r t o
C U4 275 630 18
Figs. 4.2.6.2-1 a n d 4.2.6.3).

N o t e . P r o p e l l e r s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h s k e w propellers, i.e.
t h e tests i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4.2.1.3 m a y b e c a r r i e d o u t p r o p e l l e r s w i t h a s k e w a n g l e g r e a t e r t h a n 25°, a n d l o w s k e w
o n separately cast samples a n d specimens o f cast-on p r o p e l l e r s w i t h a s k e w a n g l e o f u p t o 25°.
metal o r casting metal. T h e skew o f the propeller is defined as the angle, i n
projected v i e w o f t h e blade, b e t w e e n a line d r a w n t h r o u g h t h e
blade t i pa n d t h eshaft centreline a n d a second line t h r o u g h t h e
shaft centreline, w h i c h acts a s a tangent t o t h elocus o f the m i d ­
p o i n t s o f t h e h e l i c a l b l a d e s e c t i o n ( r e f e r t o F i g . 4.2.6.1).

Skew angle

Leading

Locus of
mid-chord line

F i g . 4.2.4
Separately cast sample with dimensions i n m m :
H = 100; В = 50; L > 150; T = 15; D = 25

4.2.5 S c o p e o f tests.
Projected
O u t o f each sample a t least o n e c y l i n d r i c a l
specimen is m a c h i n e d t o u n d e r g o t h e tensile test
F i g . 4.2.6.1 D e f i n i t i o n o f s k e w a n g l e
(refer t o T a b l e 2.2.2.3). T h e tensile strength, p r o o f
stress a n d e l o n g a t i o n s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d b y tensile
test. 4.2.6.2 S e v e r i t y z o n e s f o r l o w - s k e w p r o p e l l e r b l a d e s .
Generally, t h e specimens shall be t a k e n f r o m Z o n e A is i n t h e a r e a o n t h e pressure side o f
separately cast samples (refer t o 4.2.4). T h e samples t h e b l a d e , f r o m a n d i n c l u d i n g t h e f i l l e t t o 0,4Л, a n d
shall be cast i n m o u l d s m a d e o f t h e same m a t e r i a l as b o u n d e d o n e i t h e r side b y lines a t a distance
the m o u l d f o r propeller. T h e y shall be cooled d o w n 0,15 t i m e s t h e c h o r d l e n g t h C f r o m t h e leading edge
r

u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n s as t h e propeller. I f a n d 0,2 t i m e s C f r o m t h e t r a i l i n g edge, respectively,


r

propellers are subjected t o a heat t r e a t m e n t t h e as s h o w n i n F i g . 4 . 2 . 6 . 2 - 1 ( C i s t h e c h o r d w i d t h o f


r

samples shall be heat treated together w i t h t h e m . t h e b l a d e o n r a d i u s 0,4Л).


W h e r e use o f cast-on samples specimens is approved W h e r e t h e h u b r a d i u s ( R ) exceeds 0,27R, t h e o t h e r
b

by t h e Register, they shall, wherever possible, be b o u n d a r y o f zone A shall be increased t o l , 5 R . b

l o c a t e d o n t h e b l a d e s i n a n a r e a l y i n g b e t w e e n 0,5R t o Z o n e i also includes t h e parts o f the separate


0,6R, w h e r e R i s t h e r a d i u s o f t h e p r o p e l l e r . T h e cast propeller h u b , w h i c h lie i n t h e area o f t h e
sample material shall be r e m o v e d f r o m the casting b y w i n d o w s as described i n F i g . 4.2.6.2-2, a n d t h e flange
non-thermal procedures. F o r C U l a n d C U 2 alloy a n d fillet area o f controllable p i t c h a n d b u i l t - u p
types t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f alpha phase is determined. propeller blades as described i n F i g . 4.2.6.2-3.
F o r this purpose, a t least o n e specimen shall be t a k e n Z o n e В is t h e area o n t h e pressure a n d suction
f r o m each cast. T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a l p h a p h a s e s h a l l sides o f t h e b l a d e . O n t h e p r e s s u r e side z o n e В i s t h e
P a r t XIII. Materials 99

F i g . 4 . 2 . 6 . 2 - 1 S e v e r i t y z o n e s f o r i: i t e g r a l l y c a s t l o w s k e w p r o p e l l e r s

Zone С
4.2.6.3 S e v e r i t y z o n e s f o r h i g h - s k e w p r o p e l l e r s .
Z o n e A is t h e a r e a o n pressure a n d s u c t i o n
sides o f t h e b l a d e as d e s c r i b e d i n F i g . 4 . 2 . 6 . 3 .
O n the pressure face z o n e A is c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n
the blade root-fillet and a line r u n n i n g f r o m the
j u n c t i o n o f t h e l e a d i n g e d g e w i t h t h e r o o t fillet t o t h e
t r a i l i n g a t 0,9R a n d a t p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e m i d - p o i n t
o f t h e b l a d e c h o r d a t 0,1 R a n d a p o i n t s i t u a t e d a t 0 , 3
o f the c h o r d length f r o m the leading edge at 0,4R.
Z o n e A also includes a n area between the above line
a n d the edge f r o m the r o o t to the c h o r d at 0,4R.
Z o n e A includes a n area a l o n g the t r a i l i n g edge
o n t h e s u c t i o n s i d e o f t h e b l a d e f r o m t h e r o o t t o 0,9R
a n d w i t h its i n n e r b o u n d a r y at 0,15 o f the c h o r d
u*d 2 lengths f r o m the t r a i l i n g edge.
Z o n e В is the area o f the pressure a n d suction
sides o f t h e b l a d e as d e s c r i b e d i n F i g . 4 . 2 . 6 . 3 .
F i g . 4.2.6.2-2 S e v e r i t y z o n e s f o r c o n t r o l l a b l e p i t c h p r o p e l l e r b o s s
Z o n e В includes the blade surfaces n o t included
in zone A .
r e m a i n i n g a r e a u p t o 0,1R (the area w i t h i n the 4.2.6.4 Z o n e A is a r e g i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the
b o u n d a r i e s o f 0,4R a n d 0,7R plus areas o n the h i g h e s t o p e r a t i n g stresses a n d t h e greatest t h i c k ­
leading a n d t r a i l i n g edges b o u n d e d b y lines 0 , 1 5 C r nesses, a n d t h e r e f o r e i t requires the h i g h e s t degree o f
a n d 0,2C , respectively, a n d the line over the blade
r inspection and performance o f all repair w o r k s .
l e n g t h w i t h a r a d i u s o f 0 , 4 R ) as d e s c r i b e d i n Z o n e В is also a r e g i o n w h e r e the o p e r a t i n g
Fig. 4.2.6.2-1. stresses m a y be h i g h , a n d t h e r e f o r e w e l d i n g s h a l l
O n t h e s u c t i o n side z o n e В is t h e a r e a f r o m t h e p r e f e r a b l y be a v o i d e d i n r e p a i r w o r k s .
fillet t o 0 , 7 R . Z o n e С is a region, i n w h i c h the o p e r a t i n g
Z o n e С i s t h e a r e a o u t s i d e 0,1 R o n b o t h stresses are l o w a n d w h e r e t h e b l a d e thicknesses are
p r e s s u r e a n d s u c t i o n s i d e s o f t h e b l a d e ( b e t w e e n 0,1 R r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . R e p a i r w e l d i n g is safer a n d is
a n d R ) as d e s c r i b e d i n F i g . 4 . 2 . 6 . 2 - 1 . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s permitted i n accordance w i t h a procedure approved
all the surfaces o f the h u b other t h a n those by the Register.
designated zone A above.
100 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

Zone Л

Leading <

Trailing edge

a
!5y

Zone A

Zone A Zone Б
Zone В (including bore hoies)

Section a-a

F i g . 4.2.6.2-3 S e v e r i t y z o n e s f o r c o n t r o l l a b l e p i t c h a n d b u i l t - u p p r o p e l l e r

Leading edge

Pressure side Suction side

F i g . 4.2.6.3 S e v e r i t y z o n e s i n b l a d e s w i t h s k e w a n g l e s g r e a t e r t h a n 25°

4.2.7 Inspection. T h e surface shall b e free f r o m defects liable t o result i n


4.2.7.1 Propeller castings shall be visually tested a t damage o f propellers i n the course o f operation.
a l l stages o f m a n u f a c t u r e . T h e castings shall b e subjected
N o t e . C a s t i n g defects, w h i c h m a y i m p a i r the serviceability
to a comprehensive visual testing i n t h e finished o f t h e castings, e.g. m a j o r non-metallic inclusions, shrinkage
c o n d i t i o n b y t h e s u r v e y o r t o t h e R e g i s t e r . A t t h e final cavities, b l o w holes a n d cracks, are n o t permitted. T h e s e defects
m a y b e r e m o v e d b y o n e o f t h e m e t h o d s d e s c r i b e d i n 4.2.8 a n d
stage o f m a n u f a c t u r e t h e i n s p e c t i o n shall i n c l u d e t h e
repaired within the limits a n d restrictions for the severity areas.
bore. T h e castings subject t o inspection shall b e fettled Full description a n d documentation shall b e presented to the
a n d their surface prepared f o r non-destructive testing. surveyor to the Register before commencement o f works.
P a r t XIII. Materials 101

4.2.7.2 T h e d i m e n s i o n s a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n a l a n d T h e indications detected i n each o f such areas


geometrical tolerances shall c o m p l y w i t h t h e require­ a r e , w i t h respect t o t h e i r size a n d n u m b e r , s h a l l n o t
ments o f the drawings approved b y the Register a n d exceed t h e values g i v e n i n T a b l e 4.2.7.3.1.
order documentation. T h e above documents a n d t h e Areas, w h i c h a r e prepared f o rwelding, shall,
results o f measurements a n d inspection d r a w n u p i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n , a l w a y s b e assessed
f o r m o f a report shall be submitted t othe surveyor t o according t o zone A . T h e same applies t o t h e wel­
t h e R e g i s t e r a t t h e t i m e o f t h e test. U n l e s s e x p r e s s l y ded areas after being finished m a c h i n e d and/or
provided otherwise, the accuracy a n d verification o f the grinded.
dimensions are the responsibility o f the manufacturer. T a b l e 4.2.7.3.1
Static balancing shall be carried o u t o n a l l t h e Allowable n u m b e r a n d size o f indications i n a reference area
2
o f 100 c m , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s e v e r i t y z o n e s
propellers i n accordance w i t h t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n
approved b y t h e Register. D y n a m i c balancing is Severity M a x . total Type of Max. number of Dimen­
necessary f o r propellers r u n n i n g above 5 0 0 r p m . zones number of indication each type o f sion
indications indications a or I
4.2.7.3 Non-destructive testing.
4.2.7.3.1 P e n e t r a n t testing. A 7 circular 5 4
T h e severity zones A (refer t o 4.2.6) shall b e linear 2 3
subjected t o p e n e t r a n t testing i n t h e presence o f t h e aligned 2 3
surveyor t o t h e Register. I n zones В a n d С t h e penetrant
В 14 circular 10 6
testing shall be p e r f o r m e d b y t h e manufacturer a n d m a y linear 4 6
be witnessed b y t h e surveyor. aligned 4 6
I f repairs have been m a d e either b y grinding o r
b y w e l d i n g t h erepaired areas shall b e additionally С 20 circular 14 8
linear 6 6
subjected t o penetrant testing independent o f their aligned 6 6
location and/or severity zone.
N o t e s : 1. S i n g u l a r circular idications less t h a n 2 m m f o r
T h e penetrant testing shall be carried o u t i n zone A a n d less t h a n 3 m mf o r t h e other zones m a y b e
accordance w i t h a standard o r specification approved disregarded.
by t h e Register. T h e following definitions shall be 2. T h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c i r c u l a r i n d i c a t i o n s m a y b e i n c r e a s e d t o
the m a x i m u m total n u m b e r represented b y t h eabsence o f linear/
applied:
aligned indications. T h e total n u m b e r o fcircular indications m a y
I n d i c a t i o n i s t h e presence o f detectable also b e increased d u e t o t h e absence o fpart o flinear and/or
bleed-out o f t h e penetrant f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l dis­
continuities appearing a t least 1 0 m i n u t e s after t h e
developer has been applied. T h e shape o f indications
shall bedetermined i n accordance w i t h F i g .4.2.7.3.1. 4.2.7.3.2 R a d i o g r a p h i c a n d u l t r a s o n i c testing.
2
R e f e r e n c e a r e a is a n area o f 100 c m , w h i c h W h e r e serious doubts exist t h a t t h e castings a r e
m a y be square o r rectangular w i t h t h e m a j o r n o t free f r o m i n t e r n a l defects f u r t h e r r a d i o g r a p h i c
dimension n o t exceeding 2 5 0 m m . and/or ultrasonic testing shall be carried o u t . T h e
F o r e v a l u a t i o n o f surface q u a l i t y b y penetrant evaluation a n d acceptance criteria shall be agreed as
testing m e t h o d t h e entire surface t o be inspected shall part o f the documentation o f the manufacturer and/
be d i v i d e d i n t o reference area. T h e area shall be t a k e n or the standards recognized b ythe Register.
in t h em o s t unfavourable locations relative t o t h e I t shall n o tbeed that the absorption o fthe X - r a y s
indication being evaluated i.e. the shape a n d dimen­ and gamma-rays is stronger i n copper-base alloys
sions o f each reference area are chosen so t h a t they t h a n i n a steel. F o r p r o p e l l e r b r o n z e s , 3 0 0 k V X - r a y s
c o v e r t h e m a x i m u m n u m b e r o f defects w i t h o u t t h e i r can n o r m a l l y be used u p t o 5 0 m m a n d
distribution t o a n adjacent reference area. C o 6 0gamma-rays u p t o 160 m m thickness. D u e t o

l.a/b<3 2.a/b>3 3. 0<d<2mm

F i g . 4.2.7.3.1 S h a p e o f i n d i c a t i o n s : 1 — c i r c u l a r ; 2 — l i n e a r ; 3 — a l i g n e d
102 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

the limited thicknesses that c a n b e radiographed as


well as f o r other practical reasons radiographic
Discard
testing is generally n o t a suitable m e t h o d f o r c h e c k i n g Macro-etch
o f the thickest parts o f large propellers. specimen

A s a general rule, ultrasonic testing o fC U l a n d Tensile test


specimen
C U 2 is n o t feasible due t o the h i g h d a m p i n g capacity
Macro-etch
o f these materials. F o r C U 3 a n d C U 4 , u l t r a s o n i c specimen
testing o f subsurface defects i s possible. Tensile test
4.2.8 R e p a i r o f defects. specimen

4.2.8.1 D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s o f t h e surface causing Macro-etch


specimen
indications w h e n penetrant testing is carried o u t
Discard
and n o t meeting the requirements o f Table 4.2.7.3.1,
such as cracks, s h r i n k a g e cavities, sand, slag a n d Face to be macro-etched
o t h e r n o n - m e t a l l i c i n c l u s i o n s , b l o w h o l e s , etc., w h i c h
m a y i m p a i r t h e safe service o f t h e p r o p e l l e r , s h a l l b e
eliminated o r welded.
D i m e n s i o n s , n u m b e r a n d l o c a t i o n o f defects
F i g . 4.2.8.5-1
allowable w i t h o u t repairs, as w e l l as o f those subject
t o repair shall b e specified i n the p r o d u c t d o c u m e n t a ­
-280
tion submitted t ot h eRegister for approval.
10 10.
I n general t h e repairs shall be carried o u t b y
mechanical means, e.g. b y grinding, chipping o r
milling. W e l d i n g m a y be applied i f the requirements
stated here a r ec o m p l i e d w i t h .
After milling o r chipping grinding shall be
a p p l i e d f o r s u c h defects, w h i c h s h a l l n o t b e w e l d e d . R50

Grinding shall be carried out i n such a manner that


the contour o f the g r o u n d depression isas s m o o t h as F i g . 4.2.8.5-2 T e n s i l e t e s t s p e c i m e n : 1 — w e l d e d g e
possible i n o r d e r t o a v o i d stress c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o r t o
minimize cavitation corrosion.
2
W e l d i n g o f a r e a s less t h a n 5 c m s h a l l b e a v o i d e d . T w o transverse r o u n d tensile test specimens shall
4.2.8.2 R e p a i r o f defects i n z o n e A . be t a k e n f r o m samples as s h o w n i n F i g . 2.2.2.3, b a n d
I n zone A , repair welding isn o t allowed. three macro-etch specimens shall b e prepared. A s a n
G r i n d i n g shall becarried o u t t o a nextent, w h i c h alternative, tensile test specimens m a y b eprepared i n
maintains t h e blade thickness o f t h e d r a w i n g compliance w i t h t h e methods approved b yt h e
approved b yt h e Register. Register o rthe recognized standards.
4.2.8.3 R e p a i r o f defects i n z o n e B . T h e above w o r k s shall be performed b y t h e
D e f e c t s t h a t a r e n o t d e e p e r t h a n dB = t/40 m m manufacturer before commencement o f welding
(t = m i n i m u m l o c a l t h i c k n e s s , i n m m , a c c o r d i n g t o operations.
the Rules) o r 2 m m (whichever is greater) shall be W e l d i n g specification t o b e submitted t ot h e
r e m o v e d b y g r i n d i n g . T h o s e defects, w h i c h are deeper Register for approval shall be made taking into account
than allowable f o rremoval b y grinding, m a y be the following requirements and recommendations:
repaired b y welding. defects s h a l l b e r e p a i r e d b y m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s i n
4 . 2 . 8 . 4 R e p a i r o f d e f e c t s i n z o n e C. accordance w i t h 4.2.8, using penetrant testing f o r
I n z o n e C, r e p a i r w e l d s a r e g e n e r a l l y p e r m i t t e d . d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e t e r e m o v a l o f t h e defects;
4.2.8.5 R e p a i r welding. selection o f w e l d i n g consumables, selection o f
The welding procedure and welding consumables preheat temperature and heat treatment temperature
used i n repair welding shall be recognized b y t h e f o r stress relief s h a l l b e m a d e i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e
Register as required b yPart X I V " W e l d i n g " . requirements o fTable 4.2.8.5-1. I t shall noted that
Defects shall be repaired b y welders o f adequate w i t h the exception o f alloy C U 3 all w e l d repairs shall
qualification, allowed b y t h e Register t o p e r f o r m be stress relief h e a t treated, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d stress
such w o r k s . corrosion cracking;
T h e approval o fthe welding procedure shall be w h e r e stress relief h e a t t r e a t m e n t o f a l l o y C U 3
based o n w e l d i n g o f samples as s h o w n i n F i g . 4.2.8.5-1, propeller castings i s required after m a j o r repairs i n
w h i c h shall b e subjected t o non-destructive testing zone В and/or zone A o r i fa welding consumable
(penetrant a n d radiographic testing). susceptible t o stress c o r r o s i o n c r a c k i n g i s used, t h e
P a r t XIII. Materials 103

T a b l e 4.2.8.5-1 T a b l e 4.2.8.5-3
R e c o m m e n d e d filler m e t a l s a n d h e a t t r e a t m e n t s Required tensile strength values
for coppre-basealloys welded joints
Alloy Filler metal Preheat Interpass Stress Hot
type temperature, tempe- relief straighte- Alloy type Tensile strength, M P a
°C, m i n rature, tempe- ning
°C, m a x rature, tempe- CI 370
°C r a t u r e , °C C2 410
1
C3 500
CUl Al-bronze 150 300 350-550 500-800 C4 550
Mn-bronze 150 300 350-550 500-800

CU2 Al-bronze 150 300 350-550 500-800


4.2.8.6 S t r a i g h t e n i n g .
Ni-Mn-bronze 150 300 350-550 500-800
F o r h o t a n d c o l d straightening, static l o a d i n g
CU3 Al-bronze 50 250 450-500 700-900 o n l y shall be used.
2
Ni-Al-bronze 50 250 450-500 700-900 Straightening o f a bent propeller blade o r pitch
Mn-Al-bronze 50 250 450-500 700-900
modification shall be carried o u t after heating t h e
CU4 Mn-Al-bronze 100 300 450-600 700-850 bent region a n d approximately 5 0 0 m m wide zones
o n e i t h e r side o f i t . T h e t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e s h a l l
'Ni-Al-bronze a n d Mn-Al-bronze are acceptable. comply w i t h the requirements o fTable 4.2.8.5-1; the
Stress relieving is n o t required.
heating shall be slow a n d uniform.
T h e concentrated f l a m e such as oxy-acetylene
p r o p e l l e r s h a l l be e i t h e r stress relief h e a t t r e a t e d i n a n d o x y - p r o p a n e shall n o t be used.
t h e t e m p e r a t u r e 4 5 0 t o 5 0 0 °C o r a n n e a l e d i n t h e C o l d straightening shall be used for m i n o r repairs
t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e 6 5 0 t o 8 0 0 °C, d e p e n d i n g o n t h e o f tips a n d edges o n l y . C o l d straightening o n C U l
extent o f repair (refer t o T a b l e 4.2.8.5-1); a n d C U 2 as w e l l as C U 4 b r o n z e s h a l l be a l w a y s
t h e defects s h a l l b e r e p a i r e d as f a r as possible i n f o l l o w e d b y a stress r e l i e v i n g h e a t t r e a t m e n t i n
the d o w n - h a n d position, using arcwelding w i t h coated accordance w i t h Table 4.2.8.5-1.
electrodes o r " w i r e — shielded gas" c o m b i n a t i o n . 4.2.9 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d m a r k i n g .
W h e r e t h e d o w n - h a n d position is impossible f o r 4.2.9.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n .
repairs, o n l y " w i r e — shielded gas" c o m b i n a t i o n shall T h e manufacturer's shall employ a m o n i t o r i n g
be used; system, w h i c h enables a l l castings t o be traced back
N o t e . U s e o f argon-shielded tungsten welding is n o t to their heat. T h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e availability o f
r e c o m m e n d e d d u e t o the higher specific h e a t input o fthis process.
such system a t manufacturer's shall be given d u r i n g
for C U l a n d C U 2materials having a thickness the manufacturer's survey.
3 0 m m a n d less g a s w e l d i n g m a y g i v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y 4.2.9.2 M a r k i n g .
weldment; M a r k i n g shall be made i n compliance w i t h the
the t i m e o f c o n d i t i o n i n g f o r stress relief h e a t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 1.4. Besides, m a r k i n g s h a l l c o n t a i n
treatment o fcopper alloy propellers is determined i n the f o l l o w i n g data:
accordance w i t h T a b l e 4.2.8.5-2. T h e cooling rate number o f the Register Certificate;
s h a l l n o t e x c e e d 5 0 °C/h u n t i l t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f skew angle f o rhigh-skew propellers;
2 0 0 °C i s r e a c h e d . ice class s y m b o l , w h e r e applicable.
4.2.9.3 T h e M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e t o b e
T a b l e 4.2.8.5-2
T i m e o f conditioning for stress relief heat treatment submitted t o the surveyor t o the Register shall
of copper alloy propellers c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g details:
Stress Alloy grade C U l a n dC U 2 Alloy grade C U 3 a n dC U 4
purchaser a n d order number;
relief shipbuilding project number, i f k n o w n ;
Hours per Max. recom- Hours per Max. recom-
tempe-
25 m m m e n d e d total 25 m m m e n d e d total
description o f t h e casting w i t h d r a w i n g number;
r a t u r e , °C diameter, n u m b e r o f blades, pitch, direction o f
thickness time, hours thickness time, hours
turning;
350 5 15 grade o f alloy a n d chemical composition o f each
400 1 5 heat;
450 0,5 2 5 15
heat a n d casting number;
500 0,25 1 1 5
550 0,25 0,5 0.5 1
2 1 final weight;
600 0.25 1
l 1
results o f n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e tests, i f used;
^ 5 0 a n d 6 0 0 °C o n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o C U 4 a l l o y s .
portion o falpha phase f o rC U l a n d C U 2 alloys;
results o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l tests;
casting identification number;
skew angle f o rhigh-skew propellers.
104 Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships

5 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

5.1 W R O U G H T A L U M I N I U M A L L O Y S
.2 p r e s s e d s e c t i o n s ( f u l l s e c t i o n s , h o l l o w s e c t i o n s ,
5.1.1 General. panels, angles a n d b a r s etc.):
T h e present requirements apply to semi-fin­ 5083, 5383, 5059, 5086;
ished products o f w r o u g h t a l u m i n i u m alloys temper conditions: O, H i l l , H I 12, and 6 0 0 5 A ,
(plates, sections, p a n e l s etc.) o f 3 t o 50 m m i n 6061, 6082;
thickness intended for ship hulls, superstructures temper conditions: T 5 , T 6 ;
and other marine constructions. Generally, the n a t i o n a l alloys: 1530, 1550, 1 5 6 1 , 1561, 1565, 1575;
requirements f o r a l u m i n i u m alloys designed f o r the temper conditions: 0 / H 1 1 1 / H 1 1 2 .
s t r u c t u r e s , c a r g o s t o r a g e systems o f t h e gas c a r r i e r s A l l o y s 6 0 0 5 A , 6 0 6 1 a n d 6 0 0 0 series s h a l l n o t be
and/or operating at l o w cryogenic temperatures are u s e d i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h sea w a t e r u n l e s s p r o t e c t e d
given i n 10.2.3. by anodes and/or coating system.
D e s i g n a t i o n o f a l u m i n i u m a l l o y s is b a s e d o n the 5.1.2 C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n .
designations o f the A l u m i n i u m Association. Desig­ The chemical composition o f wrought a l u m i n i u m
n a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l a l l o y s a p p r o v e d b y t h e R e g i s t e r is alloys determined f o r each cast shall m e e t the
given i n accordance w i t h the Russian standards. r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e 5.1.2.
T h e use o f w r o u g h t a l u m i n i u m alloys t h a t d o n o t Samples for testing o f chemical c o m p o s i t i o n shall
comply w i t h the present requirements i n terms o f be b l a n k e d directly f r o m the semi-finished products
chemical composition, mechanical properties o r the (plates, panels, etc.).
c o n d i t i o n o f d e l i v e r y m a y be a l l o w e d i n case the d a t a 5.1.3 M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s .
o n alloy properties, corrosion resistance w e l d i n g Mechanical properties o f w r o u g h t a l u m i n i u m alloys
t e c h n o l o g y features, as w e l l as t h e a l l o y s ' b e h a v i o r shall m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a b l e s 5.1.3-1 a n d 5.1.3-2.
i n the w o r k i n g conditions, are provided. N o r m a t i v e 5.1.4 C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y .
technical d o c u m e n t a t i o n a n d / o r respective standards C o n d i t i o n o f s u p p l y s h a l l be specified i n accor­
shall be s u b m i t t e d t o the Register f o r a p p r o v a l . dance w i t h E N 5 1 5 . N a t i o n a l a l u m i n i u m w r o u g h t
A l l a l u m i n i u m alloys shall be m a n u f a c t u r e d u n d e r a l l o y s s h a l l be d e l i v e r e d w i t h i n d i c a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n
the technical supervision o f the Register at the o f supply i n accordance both w i t h E N 5 1 5 and
enterprises recognised b y the Register i n accordance applicable n a t i o n a l standards.
w i t h 1.3.1.2. T h e s c h e m e o f w r o u g h t a l u m i n i u m a l l o y T h e parameters o f thermal and thermomechani-
m a n u f a c t u r e r s c h e m e r e c o g n i t i o n is g i v e n i n 2.2, P a r t cal treatment p r o v i d i n g alloys properties are deter­
I I I "Technical supervision during manufacture o f m i n