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I.

PSYCHIATRIC –MENTAL NURSING:


: A challenging experience that
provides an opportunity for personal
and professional growth.

: A specialized area of nursing practice that uses


theories of human behaviour as its SCIENTIFIC
FRAMEWORK and requires the purposeful use of
self as its ART of expression.
: Concerned with promoting optimum health for
society
: Comprehensive services focus on prevention of
mental illness, health maintenance, management
of and referral for mental and physical health
problems, diagnosis and treatment of mental
disorders, and rehabilitation.

: Involves the diagnosis and treatment of human


responses to actual or potential mental health
problems.

: According to ANA, psychiatric nurses must be


able to make rapid comprehensive assessments;
use effective problem-solving skills in making
complex clinical decisions; act autonomously as
well as collaboratively with other professionals; be
sensitive to issues such as ethical dilemmas,
cultural diversity, and access to psychiatric care.
1. MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHIATRIC NURSING
Mental Health : (WHO) a state of complete
physical, mental, and social wellness, not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity.
: A state of emotional, psychological, and social
wellness evidenced by satisfying relationships,
effective behaviour and coping, positive self-
concept, and emotional stability.
: The successful adaptation from the internal or
external environment, evidenced by thoughts,
feelings, behaviours that are age-appropriate and
congruent with local or external norms.
FACTORS INFLUENCING MENTAL HEALTH

- Inherited characteristics : Some Theorists


believe that no one is completely normal and that
the ability to maintain a mentally healthy outlook
on life is due, in part, to one’s genes.

- Nurturing during childhood: refers to the


interaction between the family and child which also
affects the development of mental health.

Positive nurturing: begins with bonding at


childbirth and includes development of the
feelings of love , security, and acceptance.
Negative nurturing: Includes circumstances
such as maternal deprivation, parental
rejection, sibling rivalry, and early
communication failures.

RESULTS TO:
poor self-esteem or poor communication skills.
They may also display socially unacceptable
behaviour as they seek to meet their basic
needs.

-Life circumstances : Can influence one’s


mental health from birth. Individuals who
experience positive circumstances are
generally emotionally secure and successful in
school and are able to establish healthy
interpersonal relationships.
Negative circumstances: poverty, poor physical
-

health, unemployment, abuse, neglect, and


unresolved childhood loss

RESULT TO:
Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, or
worthlessness.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A MENTAL
HEALTH:
BASIS: MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
-Used to describe an individual’s motivation to
experience SELF-ACTUALIZATION/MENTAL
HEALTH through the progression on its 5 levels.
On the other hand, reverse progression may
also occur.

TO MASLOW, A MENTALLY HEALTHY


PERSON WHO ACHIEVED SELF-
ACTUALIZATION IS ABLE TO:
-have positive concept and relate well to people
-form close relationships with others
-Make decisions pertaining to reality rather than
fantasy
-be optimistic; appreciates and enjoys life
-display behaviour that is consistent, as they
appreciate and respect the rights of others.
SELF ACTUALIZATION
Need to be self-
fulfilled, learn, create,
understand, and
experience one’s
potential
SELF ESTEEM
Need to be well
thought of by oneself
as well as others

LOVE
Need for affection,
feelings of
belongingness, and
meaningful relations
with others

PHYSIOLOGIC
Need for oxygen, food,
water, rest, and
elimination. The need
for sex is unecessary
for individual survival,
but is necessary for
the survival of
humankind.
FACTORS AFFECTING MENTAL
HEALTH MAINTENANCE:
1. Interpersonal communication
2. Ego-defense mechanisms
3. Significant others or support
people

5 LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION:
LEVEL 5: Cliche Conversation: No sharing of
oneself occurs during the interaction. No personal
growth can occur at this level

LEVEL 4: Reporting of Facts: Reveals very little


about oneself and minimal or no interaction is
expected from others. No personal interaction
occurs at this level
LEVEL 3: Revelation of ideas and judgements:
occurs under strict censorship by the speaker, who
is watching the listener’s response for an indication
of acceptance or approval .if the speaker is unable
to read the reactions of the listener, the speaker
may revert to safer topics rather than face
disapproval or rejection.
LEVEL 2: Spontaneous, Here-and-now Emotions:
:revealing one’s feelings or emotions takes courage
because one faces the possibility of rejection by
the listener.

LEVEL 1: Open, Honesty Communication: When


two people share emotions. This may not occur
until people relate to each other over a period of
time, getting to know and trust each other.

EGO-DEFENSE MECHANISMS
-Considered protective barriers used to manage
instinct and affect in stressful situations.

-Coping Mechanisms (protective defenses) of the


ego that attempt to protect the individual from
feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness and
prevent awareness of anxiety.
-When anxiety is too painful, the individual copes
by using defense mechanisms to protect the ego
and decrease anxiety.

FACTORS INFLUENCING A PERSON’S MENTAL


HEALTH IS CATEGORIZED INTO:

-Biological make-up
-Sense of harmony in
INDIVIDU life, vitality
AL -Ability to find meaning
in life
FACTORS -Emotional resilience or
hardening
-Spirituality
-Positive identity
INTER- -Effective
communication
PERSONA -sense of community
L -Ability to help others
SOCIO/ -access to adequate
FACTORS
CULTURA -Intimacy
resources
L -Balance between
-intolerance of violence
FACTORS separateness and