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1.1.- Confirmará la exactitud de la información solicitada, mediante el uso de preguntas cortas / tag questions.
Las “tag questions”, son mini-preguntas que se le hacen a las personas con quién se esta dialogando para saber si están de acuerdo o no con el comentario que se esta vertiendo. En el idioma Español entre las más comunes están: ¿a poco no?, ¿di que no?, ¿o no?; por mencionar algunas. En Español, la “tag question”, puede ser la misma sin importar el tiempo gramatical en el que se este hablando, ni la persona o situación a la que se este haciendo referencia, mientras que en Inglés, estos dos elementos son de vital importancia, toda vez que conforman la parte esencial de la “tag question”; y estos son: el auxiliar y el pronombre que representa al sujeto de la oración. Normalmente utilizamos una tag question positiva con una oración negativa: You don’t need my help, do you? She isn’t at home now, is she? Carlos didn’t work today, did he? Y normalmente se utiliza una tag question negativa en una oración positiva: Maria will come back early, won’t she? The students visited their parents every week, didn’t they? I was in your classroom last year, wasn’t I? La tag question debe llevar al auxiliar en contracción si se trata de una minipregunta negativa, además de que no pueden ser utilizados los nombres propios en estas, por lo que solo se pueden utilizar los pronombres personales.
Excepciones: Después de Let´s… la tag question es shall we? Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?
Después de una oración imperativa la tag question es will you? Open the door, will you?
Si la oración es afirmativa de presente de “to be” con primera persona de singular la tag question es aren´t I?, debido a que no se puede hacer la contracción amn´t: I’m late, aren’t I?
EJERCICIO I.- Completar correctamente las siguientes oraciones con su correspondiente “tag question”.
1. - Luis and Tere are on vacation, _____________? 2. - Let’s have dinner, _____________? 3. - I won’t clean your bedroom, _____________? 4. - We have a camera, _____________? 5. - They weren’t listening, ______________? 6. - I am your neighbor, _____________? 7. - Marco is with us, _____________? 8. - She types very fast, _____________? 9. - The doctors arrived late today, _______________? 10.- Juan has driven a lot of cars, ______________? 11.- She isn’t going to travel by bus, _________________? 12.- Sara had an accident last year, _______________? 13.- Joe plays baseball in the yard, ______________? 14.- He doesn’t drink beer, ______________? 15.- The children were dancing all night, ______________?
Escribir “yes” si piensas que es verdad.The largest ocean in the world is the Atlantic Ocean. _______________________________________________________ 6. _______________________________________________________ . _____ . _____ . The oceans cover about three-quarters of the earth’s surface. escribir “no” si piensas que es falso. _____ . _______________________________________________________ 5. _____ 4. Chinese is the language with the most native speakers. Cats weren’t the first animals that people kept with them. _______________________________________________________ 7. The earth’s climate is getting warmer. Cats were the first animals that people kept with them. _____ . The first written alphabet appeared about 2. Geneva is the capital of Switzerland. _______________________________________________________ 8. The largest airport in the world is London’s Heathrow. Most of the world chess champions have been Russians.EJERCICIO II. _____ . Turkey lies on two continents. 10. _____ . 000 years ago in Rome.. were they? 2. _______________________________________________________ . _______________________________________________________ Yes _____ . No 1. Después escribir la Tag Question apropiada. isn’t it? 3. Chinese is the language with the most native speakers. _______________________________________________________ 9.
6. .EJERCICIO III. I am. EJEMPLO: A: You are a student. .Kathy will be in class tomorrow. 8. 4. ____________? ____________________________________ . 5. .You weren’t at home last night. . ____________? ____________________________________ . ____________? ____________________________________ .Ted came to class yesterday.You don’t live here. ____________? ____________________________________ .Erica lives in the dorm. . ____________? ____________________________________ . aren´t you? B: Yes.Mr. ____________? ____________________________________ .It snows a lot in Minneapolis.Agregar Tag Questions a los comentarios y dar la respuesta esperada. ____________? ____________________________________ .That is Mike’s dictionary. 1. 10.Our teacher didn’t give us a homework assignment.This is your pen. .. ___________? ____________________________________ . 7. . 2. . 9. ____________? ____________________________________ .. ____________? ____________________________________ . . Lee is at home now. 3. .
He never comes to class on time _____ 8.___________________________________________.__________________________________________. .. were you? 8. _____ 1.You live in Minnesota _____ 4. Isn’t he? e. Won´t you? b. Don’t you? .. didn’t she? 7.Elaborar oraciones coherentes que cumplan con la tag question que se le da. . . is he? 9. ..Relacionar correctamente la columna de la derecha con su correspondiente de la izquierda.___________________________________________. did you? 3.Gregory left class early today _____ 2. .___________________________________________...___________________________________________.. isn´t it? 2. didn´t we? EJERCICIO V .___________________________________________.___________________________________________. 1.. Weren’t you? d.He is an excellent student _____ 3. Will we? h.. Do they? c. Doesn’t he? f. am I? 6.___________________________________________.___________________________________________. was he? 4.You will call me in the morning a.They don’t know each other _____ 6... weren’t they? 5. Didn’t he? g. wasn’t it? 10...We won’t have to stand in line _____ 7.You were absent yesterday _____ 5.. ..___________________________________________.EJERCICIO IV.
The families didn’t know that their baby boys had brothers. aren’t you?” “No. The previous semester Eddy Galland was a student there.” This is the story of an amazing coincidence. Blue was their favorite color. they had similar personalities: they were talkative. perhaps. We’re going to be in math class together again this semester. Because of this. born at the same time. They both fell down some stairs at the age of fifteen. That student introduced Bobby to Eddy. another boy. One of the best-known stories is that of Daphne Goodship and Barbara Herbert. An adoption agency had sent the boys to two different families. Bobby Shafran started Sullivan Community College in New York. Well.YOU LOOK JUST LIKE ME! “Hi. Three brothers-triplets-met for the first time at the age of nineteen. They both liked their coffee cold and black. So the twins became triplets! There are many famous stories of twins who met for the first time as adults. aren’t we?” “Sorry. they got their nickname-the “Giggle” twins. Another student learned that both boys were adopted. and they laughed a lot. I don’t know you. and later they had problems with weak ankles. that isn’t very surprising.” “You’re Bobby. I’m not Eddy” “Nice to see you again. is it? But how about these similarities? They both met their future husbands at the age of sixteen at a dance. Eddy. and he realized that the boys were probably brothers. I am not. After the story was in the newspapers. Bobby. realized that he was their brother too-also born at the same time. And to scientists who studied them. The two boys found out that they were in fact twins. named David Kellman. The two teens looked exactly alike. each was wearing a beige dress and a brown jacket. . When they met. They met for the first time at the age of thirty-nine.” “Sorry. But even more amazing was this. I’m Eddy.
______ amazing 2. But are all the similarities just coincidences? What do you think? EJERCICIO VI. . a short name people call you by e. 1. . . characteristics you get from your parents EJERCICIO VII.How were the “Giggle” twins similar? _____________________________________________________. 2. raised by nonbiological parents c. “What’s more important-heredity or environmental?” Studies with twins like the “Giggle” twins seem to make a case for heredity. ______ nickname 5.Why were they called the “Giggle” twins? _____________________________________________________.What happened when one brother read the newspaper? _____________________________________________________.Relacionar correctamente las siguientes palabras con sus respectivas definiciones. three brothers born at the same time b.. 4. 3.. ______ adult 3.Contestar las siguientes preguntas acerca de la lectura. but still the twins are very similar in many ways. surprising d. 1. ______ heredity 6. ______ adopted 4.How did Bobby and Eddy first meet? _____________________________________________________. . ______ triplets a. a grownup person f.Scientists like to study such cases of twins. They want to answer the classis question. . don’t they? The twins grew up in different environments.
esta pierde el orden normal de las palabras de la pregunta.. etc..2. Did he see you? if (or whether) he saw you? Do you know .Solicitará información acerca de la ubicación de lugares. el orden de las palabras es diferente del orden de las palabras de una pregunta simple: Where has Tom gone? Do you know where Tom has gone? Cuando la pregunta (Where has Tom gone?) es parte de una pregunta más grande (Do you know…). a través del uso correcto de las preguntas indirectas / embedded questions. algunas veces iniciamos nuestra pregunta con Do you know …? ó Could you tell me …? Si inicias una pregunta de esta manera. When does the movie begin? when the movie begins? Why did Ann leave early? why Ann left early? Do you know I wonder Se utiliza if o whether cuando no hay otra pregunta de información.1. horarios. Do you have any idea When will Ann arrive? when Ann will arrive? Could you tell me What time is it? what time it is? Why are you laughing? why you are laughing? Tell us Se debe tener cuidado con las preguntas que utilizan: do / did / does. Cuando le solicitamos información a las personas. servicios.
Why didn’t Mary come to the party? _______________________________________________________.What does this word mean? _______________________________________________________.What qualifications do I need? _______________________________________________________. . 3. 4. .Where did you park your car? _______________________________________________________. .Where can I change some money? _______________________________________________________. 6.Where does Jack live? _______________________________________________________. 9.Is Ann coming to the meeting? _______________________________________________________. 7.EJERCICIO VIII. 2. .. . . .What time did he leave? _______________________________________________________. .Elaborar una nueva oración a partir de las preguntas. . 5. 8. Ejemplo: Where is the post office? Could you tell me where the post office is? 1.What time is it? _______________________________________________________. .
20.. 19.. 12.Where are my keys? _______________________________________________________..What is the teacher’s name? _______________________________________________________.Where is the nearest supermarket? _______________________________________________________..Where is the bank? _______________________________________________________.10. 17... .Why is Mona Lisa smiling? _______________________________________________________.Whom did you speak to earlier? _______________________________________________________. 16...How do you make a noun clause? _______________________________________________________. 15.Where did Sara go last night? _______________________________________________________.How much does it cost to park there? _______________________________________________________.What time does the next bus come? _______________________________________________________. 14.Where do you live? _______________________________________________________. 13. 11. 18....
Could you explain what the reporting process is? __________________________________________________________.I forgot when the class starts? __________________________________________________________. ..Do you know where the reports are? __________________________________________________________.Can you tell me when the orders are arriving? __________________________________________________________. . 6.Will you show me where the warehouse is? __________________________________________________________. 8.. .Could you tell me where the gas station is? __________________________________________________________.Do you have any idea how much the textbooks cost? __________________________________________________________. 5. 2.Do you know who orders office supplies? __________________________________________________________. 10.EJERCICIO IX. . 1. .Can you show me how to work the photocopier? __________________________________________________________. . .Transformar las siguientes embedded questions por preguntas de información. 3.Do you know why Maria buys food every day? __________________________________________________________. . . 7. 4. . 9.
animales.Describirá las características esenciales de personas. He se refiere a “the man”. Esta puede quedar sola en una oración. haciendo uso de los pronombres relativos. . cosas. Los pronombres relativos forman parte de las cláusulas adjetivas y en una oración hacen referencia de: personas. I met a man = cláusula independiente who is kind to everybody = clásula dependiente A continuación se ejemplificarán los usos de los pronombres relativos. Una cláusula es una estructura que tiene un sujeto y un verbo. objetos y lugares.1. acciones. (1) who S V who lives next to me. The man who lives next to me is friendly. ideas. The man is friendly. (2) En la oración (1): He es un pronombre personal. Una cláusula adjetiva es una cláusula dependiente.3. Who se refiere a “the man”. podemos cambiar he por who. Es decir toman la función de cualquier sujeto u objeto de la oración. etc. S V He lives next to me. Who es un pronombre personal. Una cláusula independiente es una cláusula principal. Para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. Una cláusula dependiente debe ser conectada a una cláusula independiente. Hay dos tipos de cláusulas: independiente y dependiente. Una cláusula dependiente no puede quedar sola como una oración..
EJEMPLO: a. (2) En la oración (1): Him es un pronombre del objeto. Whom viene al inicio de una cláusula adjetiva.The man was friendly. a. podemos cambiar him por whom. Whom se refiere a “the man”. EJERCICIO X. Him se refiere a “the man”. who es a menudo utilizado como un pronombre del objeto en lugar de whom: FORMAL: The man whom I met was friendly.. para hacer una cláusula adjetiva utilizando who ó whom. I called her. INFORMAL: The man who I met was friendly. En el Inglés informal. The woman gave me some information b. S V O I met him. (1) whom O whom S V I met The man whom I met was friendly. . Do you know the people? b. Whom es un pronombre del objeto. The woman whom I called game me some information.Combinar las dos oraciones en una. Para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. They live in the White House. Do you know the people who live in the white house.
______________________________________________________________. 4. a. ______________________________________________________________.1. The woman thanked me. I talked to the woman. Mr. 10. The waitress was friendly. I saw her. a. ______________________________________________________________. . He is talking to Rita. a. a. b. She served us dinner. 7. I talked to the people. He gave me directions. ______________________________________________________________. a. b. b. They live next to me. She was sitting next to me. The people have three cars. a. 12. ______________________________________________________________. 11. Do you like the mechanic? b. a. . a. I saw them at the park. The police officer was friendly. b. 2. I helped her. ______________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________. The people were very nice. ______________________________________________________________. b. They were sitting next to me. 9. ______________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________. He fixed your car. I don’t know the man. a. ______________________________________________________________. 8. The woman was walking her dog. a. 5. You can trust this mechanic. b. 6. The people were playing football. b. I met them at the party.a. a. 3. ______________________________________________________________. b. b. b. Polanski is a mechanic. b.
. . A pilot is a person… 3. 1. 10.____________________________________________________________. e. A misanthrope is a person… 8. who has many skills. 5. b.____________________________________________________________.____________________________________________________________.____________________________________________________________. g.. who studies plants. 2. . . . A Bostonian is someone… 2. .___________________________________________________________. An insomniac is somebody… 6. 9. . EJEMPLO: A Bostonian is someone who lives in Boston. who flies an airplane. 10. . 9. f.A Bostonian is someone who lives in Boston. A revolutionary is someone… 7.EJERCICIO XI. A meteorologist is a person… a.Relacionar correctamente las siguientes columnas. 7. . A botanist is a scientist… 5. 4. A jack-of-all-trades is someone… i. who has special knowledge in one area. 1. A procrastinator is someone… 4.____________________________________________________________. who seeks to overthrow the government c. who always puts off doing things. d.____________________________________________________________. h..____________________________________________________________. . An expert can be defined as a person… j. who studies weather phenomena.____________________________________________________________. 8. who hates people. 6. 3. who lives in Boston. Who has trouble sleeping.
podemos usar that como el sujeto de una cláusula adjetiva. Las oraciones (2) y (3) tienen el mismo significado. (1) whom that The man The man The man O whom that S V I met I met I met was friendly. (4) Adicionalmente a whom. En la (4) el espacio en blanco significa que nada va ahí. Un pronombre del objeto puede ser omitido por una cláusula adjetiva. . (3) En adición a who. (2) The man that lives next to me is friendly. (2).The man is friendly. Las oraciones (2) y (3) tienen el mismo significado. (1) who that S V The man who lives next to me is friendly. (3) was friendly. CORRECTO: The man who/that lives next to me is friendly. S V O I met him. INCORRECTO: The man lives next to me is friendly. Un pronombre personal no puede ser omitido. (2) was friendly. The man was friendly. S V He lives next to me. (3) y (4) tienen el mismo significado. podemos utilizar that como el objeto en una cláusula adjetiva.
___________________________________________________________. . ___________________________________________________________. ___________________________________________________________.Do you like the boy that is talking to Jennifer? ___________________________________________________________.I don’t know any of the people that Bill invited to his party. Omitir that si es posible. 4.The man that answered the phone was police. 8. . ___________________________________________________________. ___________________________________________________________.EJERCICIO XII.The woman that I saw in the park was feeding the pigeons. 7.The people that Ann is visiting live on Elm Street. ___________________________________________________________. 1.Cambiar that por who o whom. ___________________________________________________________. 5. 6.I like the barber that usually cuts my hair.The students that came to class late missed the quiz. ___________________________________________________________. The woman who(m) I met last night was interesting. ___________________________________________________________. . .. ___________________________________________________________. ___________________________________________________________. . EJEMPLO: The woman that I met last night was interesting. ___________________________________________________________. .The person that I admire most is my grandmother. . 2. ___________________________________________________________. 3. . ___________________________________________________________. The woman I met last night was interesting. . ___________________________________________________________.
podemos cambiar it por which ó that. éstos no pueden ser omitidos. En la oración (1). (5) were expensive. . Which se refiere a cosas. para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. Un pronombre del objeto puede ser omitido de una cláusula adjetiva. (3) Who y whom se refieren a personas. (6) y (7) tienen el mismo significado. That puede referirse tanto a personas como a cosas. which y that se refieren a una cosa (the river). S It V flows through town. S V The books were expensive. It. (5). Las oraciones (2) y (3) tienen el mismo significado. Cuando which y that son utilizados como el sujeto de una cláusula adjetiva. (6) were expensive. (7) Which ó that.The river is polluted. (2) is polluted. I bought O them. pueden ser utilizados como un objeto en una cláusula adjetiva como en (5) y (6). (1) which that The river The river S V which flows through town that flows through town is polluted. como en (7). (4) which that O which that S V I bought I bought I bought The books The books The books were expensive.
This animal lives in Africa. It begins at 8:00 A. ______________________________________________________________. Hacer de “b” una cláusula adjetiva. b. ______________________________________________________________. I took made me sleepy. ______________________________________________________________. a. It goes downtown. a.. I took it. ______________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________. b. ______________________________________________________________. b. I had it for lunch ______________________________________________________________. 3. ______________________________________________________________. 1. I have a class. All of the people can come. 4. ______________________________________________________________. .M. EJEMPLO: a. Dar todas las formas posibles. Where can I catch the bus? b.Combinar las dos oraciones dentro de una oración. b. ______________________________________________________________. 5. b. a. The pill The pill The pill which I took made me sleepy. A lion is an animal. ______________________________________________________________.EJERCICIO XIII. The pill made me sleepy. The soup was too salty. 2. a. a. I asked them to my party. ______________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________. that I took made me sleepy. ______________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________.
(4) En la oración 3. . I know a girl. (5) whose house. podemos cambiar. podemos cambiar his car por whose car para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. En la oración (2). We bought their house. their house por whose house. Her brother is a movie star. “whose car was stolen” es igual a una cláusula adjetiva. para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. En la oración (1).The man called the police. (6) En la oración (5). (3) whose brother I know a girl whose brother is a movie star. His car was stolen. podemos cambiar her brother por whose brother para hacer una cláusula adjetiva. (2) Whose muestra posesión. The people whose house we bought were friendly. (1) whose car The man whose car was stolen called the police. The people were friendly.
There is the boy. Over there is the man. I’m taking her course.. Her cat died. a. _____________________________________________________________. There is the man. _____________________________________________________________. Over there is the woman. There is the woman. 1. 5. You met her husband yesterday. His mother is a famous musician. His son is an astronaut. _____________________________________________________________. 4. a.Combinar las dos oraciones en una oración. _____________________________________________________________. EJEMPLO: a. a.EJERCICIO XIV.They are the people. _____________________________________________________________. b. b. a. b. b. . That is the girl. b. His car was stolen. 7. 2. a. I borrowed her camera. We visited their house last month. 6. _____________________________________________________________. b. Utilizar whose. Hacer de “b” una cláusula adjetiva. b. . 3. b. There is the man whose car was stolen. a. I’m dating his daughter. _____________________________________________________________. That is the man. b. There is the professor. 8. _____________________________________________________________.
UNIT II .
(verbo principal) Vegetables are eaten.El objeto se pone al principio y se convierte en sujeto.Después de to be.. No es incoherente decir. Para cambiar una oración a voz pasiva se siguen los pasos siguientes: 1. si el verbo principal está en pasado. la mayoría de las oraciones de voz pasiva no mencionan quien o que es responsable de la acción.Se incluye el verbo TO BE en el tiempo en que esté el verbo principal (si el verbo principal está en presente.. Todos los verbos en voz pasiva se forman con el verbo TO BE + el pasado participio del verbo principal..2. (verbo principal en presente) Vegetables are . Como una consecuencia de esto. que es más importante en inglés que en español. La voz pasiva es normalmente utilizada cuando el hablante (o escritor) no esta enterado de quien ejecuto la acción.. ACTIVA Susan eats vegetables.. ACTIVA Susan eats vegetables. TO BE estará en pasado y así sucesivamente). se incluye el verbo principal en pasado participio.1. por lo tanto.. (verbo principal en pasado participio) PASIVA . (sujeto de la oración en voz pasiva) PASIVA 2.. (objeto del verbo en voz activa) Vegetables. el verbo TO BE estará en presente.Describirá los grandes inventos y creaciones del hombre tanto en el presente como en el pasado. Lo primero que se debe decir acerca de la voz pasiva es que es más frecuentemente utilizada y en una variedad de situaciones más amplias en inglés que en español. (verbo to be en presente) PASIVA 3. ACTIVA Susan eats vegetables. hacienda uso de la voz pasiva....
Verbo to be PASO 3. . Verbo principal... A new house was bought by Mike and Sue.El sujeto se pone al final y se convierte en el objeto del verbo en voz pasiva. PASO 4.Mike and Sue bought a new house. Objeto del verbo en voz pasiva.. usualmente precedido por la preposición by. PASO 2.4. PASO 1.Mike and Sue bought a new house.. (sujeto de la oración en voz activa) Vegetables are eaten by Susan. (objeto del verbo en voz pasiva) PASIVA VEAMOS OTRO EJEMPLO: Mike and Sue bought a new house. Sujeto de la oración en voz activa. Sujeto de la oración en voz pasiva. Verbo principal en pasado.. A new house was. Verbo principal en pasado participio.Mike and Sue bought a new house. A new house was bought. ACTIVA Susan eats vegetables.. objeto A new house..Mike and Sue bought a new house.
A large number of people speak Spanish.-Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. 1. . .A doctor examined the sick child. 4. _______________________________________________________________. Hopkins invited me to dinner. _______________________________________________________________. . 7. 10.A maid cleaned our hotel room. _______________________________________________________________. .Convertir las siguientes oraciones de voz activa a voz pasiva. _______________________________________________________________. 2. . 5. _______________________________________________________________.-Ms. EJEMPLO: A druggist named John “Doc” Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886. _______________________________________________________________. 3.The police arrested James Swan. . _______________________________________________________________. _______________________________________________________________.Water surrounds an island. Coca-Cola was invented by a druggist named John “Doc” Pemberton in 1886. _______________________________________________________________... . _______________________________________________________________.The teacher’s explanation confused Carlos. 9.A plumber fixes the leaky faucet. . 6. 8.The secretary answers the letter.EJERCICIO I.
After the hydride has been formed. it could be obtained from coal. Electricity could be an alternative to gasoline. and many of them are formed simply by bringing these two elements together (M + H = MH2). converting the metal hydride into a ´fuel tank´. This has led to alternative energy sources.HYDROGEN AS AN AUTOMOTIVE FUEL Petroleum is the industrialized world’s principal source of energy but reserves are limited and so it is very expensive. the reaction can operate in both directions. This process can be repeated. Hydrogen would be an even better fuel. but it has to be stored in very heavy batteries. the chief by-product is water. A metal hydride is a chemical compound of hydrogen and metal. being developed. scientists think they have solved this problem by using metal hydrides. and in the long term. Also. depending on the gas pressure and temperature. the storage problem is immense. it can be obtained relatively cheaply from the new energy sources. a small increase in gas pressure allows even larger quantities of gas to be absorbed. Gasoline has a much greater energy density than that of its rivals. by water using electrolysis. Now. because of cost. As can be seen from the formula. The success of these new sources has meant that they will be used more and more in the future. hydrogen is clean. eventually it becomes saturated with the gas and a metal hydride is formed. In the short term. Neither of these methods is suitable for motor vehicles. the sun. the wind and the tides. Nevertheless. heavy pressurized containers or in its costly and dangerous liquid form. such as: nuclear power. The conventional methods of storing hydrogen are as a gas large. but. It is the base for all the other elements in the universe. The basic problem here is not one of energy density but of storage. The stored hydrogen is easily retrieved by heating the metal hydride to the required temperature. Hydrogen atoms enter the crystalline structure of the metal. . safely and efficiently. however. they have not solved our most immediate energy problem: how to power motor vehicles cheaply. There has been no fuel available which can be stored as efficiently and as safely as gasoline. that is not such a great advantage is its convenience. When it is burnt. However. More energy can be obtained from a kilogram of hydrogen than from a similar quantity of any other chemical fuel.
Accidents are ______________ by carelessness. the chief by-product is water.Completar las siguientes oraciones con la forma apropiada de los verbos. EJEMPLO: But reserves __________________ and so it is very expensive.When it ___________________.Completar las oraciones con la forma correcta del verbo “to be” y el pasado participio de los verbos en paréntesis.After the hydride ________________________. (obtain) 2. (store) 3. . (form) (absorb) EJERCICIO III.. 1.EJERCICIO II. (burn) 4. EJEMPLO: Most books are _____________ by companies in the private sector. . . (limit) But reserves are limited and so it is very expensive.Bridges are usually _______________ of reinforced concrete. .Very good coffee is _________________ in Colombia. . . the reaction can operate in both directions.But it has ____________________ in very heavy batteries. 1. .As can ____________________ from the formula. (see) 6. (cause) 2. (form) 5.It can ___________________ relatively cheaply from the new energy sources. . a small increase in gas pressure allows even larger quantities of gas _________________________. (make) 3. Most books are published by companies in the private sector. ..Many of them ___________________ simply by bringing these two elements together. (grow) .
After that. (invent) 7. Therefore cats were sent in by airplane and were dropped by parachute. DDT only slowed them down. It helped control malaria. they simply stored the DDT in their bodies. At that time it was cited as an environmental danger due to its effect on the food chain. (play) 6.English is _________________ all over the world.In this office all the letters are ________________ by air mail. About the same time. DDT was used in the U. Then rats moved in because there were no cats to control their population. they also ate a lot of DDT. large amounts of DDT were sent to Borneo by the World Health Organization to fight mosquitoes that spread malaria among the people. all the cats that ate lizards died from DDT poisoning.The electric light bulb was ________________ by Edison. (send) THE DAY THAT CATS WERE PARACHUTED INTO BORNEO DDT was recognized in 1947 for its effectiveness in killing mosquitoes in Third World countries. (discover) 5. .Football is _________________ in all Latin America.Arabic is _____________________ from right to left. . . Officials sent out emergency calls for cats.-Penicillin was _________________by Sir Arthur Fleming. until 1973. Some time ago. (write) 8. Also effective for the control of numerous agricultural pests.-That message was _______________ by telegraph. (transmit) 10..S. people also found that hoards of caterpillars had moved in to feed on the roofing materials of their homes. With the rats came a new danger: plague. (speak) 9. One kind of animal that fed on the roaches was a small lizard. Instead of killing them. But billions of roaches lived in the villages and they were not killed. When these lizards ate the roaches. They realized that the lizards that were keeping the caterpillar population under control had been eaten by the cats.4. . . This made it easier for cats to catch the lizards. one of their favorite food. The mosquitoes were quickly annihilated.
What had caused a whole chain reaction? _________________________________________________________. EJEMPLO: When was DDT recognized for its effectiveness in killing mosquitoes? DDT was recognized in 1947. however. even now. nevertheless. . . .One simple change in the ecosystem had caused a whole chain reaction. 7.What was prohibited? ________________________________________________________. .What were not killed by DDT? _________________________________________________________.. EJERCICIO IV. 3. DDT was very effective in certain pests. many problems are caused by its presence in our environment. 1.Where were sent large amount of DDT? _________________________________________________________. its long term effects on the environment were not determined until it was too late. . 4. .When was used DDT in USA? _________________________________________________________.What were quickly annihilated? _________________________________________________________. When we try to use technology to change something at one level of the chain.Contestar correctamente las siguientes preguntas acerca del texto. The use of DDT was prohibited. . . 5.What were not determined about DDT? _________________________________________________________. 6. it may have an unknown impact at another level. 2.
______ Ice Cream was invented 2. 9. ______ The first 200 Bibles were printed. 6. by William Shakespeare. EJEMPLO: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. ______ Coca-Cola was invented d. ______ The ballpoint pen was made famous. c.. ______ The telephone was invented. ______ The Mona Lisa was painted. h. ______ The law of gravity was discovered.EJERCICIO V. by Gutemberg in 1455 in Germany. ______ Hamlet was written a.000 years ago. by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. designed. by King Camp Gillette in 1903. j. by John Pembleton in 1886 in Atlanta. g. by Ferdinand Porsche in the early 1930´s. ______ The first Volkswagen was f. by Isaac Newton. by Leonardo da Vinci. 7. e. by the Chinese 4. _____ The first razor blade was produced. by the Hungarian Biro. i. 4. 10.Relacionar correctamente las siguientes columnas. b. 5. 1. 8. . 3.
FAST FOOD PIONEER Which quick service restaurant chain has more than 28. Their business grew and by the mid 1950s. mustard and dill pickle. But the biggest innovation was to have the food prepared and waiting so customers could place an order and immediately collect it. another made milkshakes and another put mayonnaise on the buns. The classic McDonald’s meal is a hamburger with French fries and a drink. In 1955. Then in 1954 Ray Kroc. People felt confident in taking their families because they could expect cleanliness and food of a certain quality.7 million. 000 restaurants in 120 countries. he opened a second McDonald’s restaurant in Des Plaines. has a clown as its symbol and virtually invented the idea of fast food? You probably guessed it: McDonald’s. an electric mixer salesman. They also invented the idea of specialization – one person cooked the hamburgers. He persuaded the brothers to open several other restaurants in other cities. tomato ketchup. the original restaurant was making $350. visited the restaurant. California. which is cooked on a grill and served in a bun with onion. Mac and Dick McDonald created the concept of quick service at their restaurant in San Bernardino. The food was good and cheap and business exploded. Illinois. 000 a year. In 1961. Kroc bought all rights to the McDonald’s concept from the McDonald brothers for $2. Four years later he opened the 100th restaurant in Chicago. McDonald’s hamburgers are made from 100% pure beef. .
.How much was making the business by mid 1950s: _____________________________________________________________. .Number of restaurants: _____________________________________________________________. 4. 2.Name of the McDonald’s brothers: _____________________________________________________________.Ingredients of McDonald’s hamburger: _____________________________________________________________. .Contestar correctamente las siguientes preguntas de acuerdo con el texto. 6. .Inventors of McDonald’s quick service system: _____________________________________________________________.When was opened the 100th restaurant: _____________________________________________________________.Classic McDonald’s meal: _____________________________________________________________. .. . .EJERCICIO VI. 10. 5.. . . 3.Ray Kroc’s original job: _____________________________________________________________.Where they opened their first restaurant: _____________________________________________________________. 7.Amount paid by Ray Kroc for the business: _____________________________________________________________. 8. 1. EJEMPLO: Where they cook the beef: They cook the beef on a grill. . 9.
Finally.___________________________________________________________.___________________________________________________________. and they invented gunpowder and the compass. 5. Ancient Greece invented the Olympic Games in 776 B. concrete or paper! The people in ancient Mesopotamia invented the wheel in 3880 B. They developed concrete. 1. ..C. . . They were also the first people to use cosmetics and perfumes as early as 4 000 B.ANCIENT INVENTORS Our World is to a large extent the result of things people invented. EJEMPLO: The Wheel was invented by the people in ancient Mesopotamia.___________________________________________________________.Elaborar oraciones en voz pasiva basándose en el texto anterior.___________________________________________________________. 2. It is a product of the Minoan civilization in Crete and dates from about 2 000 B. The ancient Romans were more practical in their inventions..C. as well as trial by jury and democracy.C.C. 3. Imagine a world without textiles. They also invented the sailboat and the world’s first written laws. . .D.. The ancient Egyptians calculated a number system based on ten and invented a 365-day calendar and textiles to make clothes.___________________________________________________________. paved roads and road signs. 4. . the flush toilet is not a modern invention at all. Both men and women painted their faces and cleaned their skin with oils and creams. The Chinese were prolific inventors and were responsible for inventing paper in about 100 A.! EJERCICIO VII.
Elaborar preguntas coherentes de use to que cumplan con las respuestas. EJEMPLO: A: What did you use to do in the summer? B: We used to go to the beach.Explicará el contraste entre los hábitos y costumbres de las personas en el pasado y el presente. we didn’t collect shells. A: ________________________________________________________. B: No. Por ejemplo: When I was a child I didn’t use to play soccer. we didn’t. but now I play every day. 3. B: Well. we did. EJERCICIO VIII. A: ________________________________________________________.. pero que ya no se hace. a través del uso de la forma verbal used to. I used to collect shells. We used to go swimming for hours. Si la oración es interrogativa ó negativa. we used to stay at my uncle’s beach house. Did you use to have a hobby? Yes. we used to play beach volleyball with some other kids. B: Yes. Used to. 4. A: Really? What _____________________________________________. We used to build sand castles. Por ejemplo: When I was a kid. What games did you use to play? I used to play chess. We used to win! .. 1. hacen la función de referirse al pasado.2. A: ________________________________________________________. se refiere a algo que se hacía de manera regular en el pasado. Then we played all kind of sports. B: No. 2. entonces se utiliza la forma use to debido a que el auxiliar Did y didn´t respectivamente.2.
What kind of clothes did you use to like to wear? What kind of clothes do you like to wear now? ______________________________________________________________. 4. ______________________________________________________________.EJERCICIO IX. What kind of sports did you use to play? What kind of sports do you like to play now? ______________________________________________________________. ______________________________________________________________. What hobbies did you use to have five years ago? What hobbies do you have now? I used to _______________________________________________________. Now I watch documentals and news. What kind of music did you use to like them? Who were your favorite singers? What kind of music do you like now? ______________________________________________________________.V. 3. 2. . 1. _________________________________________________________. programs did you use to watch ten years ago? What T. EJEMPLO: What T. ______________________________________________________________.. ______________________________________________________________. programs do you watch now? I used to watch sports and musical programs.V. Now. 5. What kind of food did you use to eat? What kind of food do you like to eat now? ______________________________________________________________.Contestar las siguientes preguntas con información personal.
W. Today. bug. today. Is this still true today? EJERCICIO X. which today cost approximately $600/month. EJEMPLO: COST OF GAS: The cost of gas used to be 30 cents per gallon. . . used to cost $75! So we know that life used to be cheaper…But what was the typical American mentality when Woodstock took place? Most people used to love and respect their political leaders. many people used to define happiness as peace and free love. 2. In fact.ATTITUDE TOWARDS POLITICIANS: _____________________________________________________________. A gallon of gas used to cost 30 cents. 1. used to inspire profound respect.THE TEENAGERS IN 1969! How did America’s youth live in 1969? The most popular car used to be the V. . students used to consume large quantities of illegal drugs.S. most of these people are between 40 and 50 years old-if they survived. And one-room apartment in New York.. Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King. a car which is not manufactured in the U. Do today’s young people admire current political figures? Was 1969 a great time to be young? Well. for example.Escribir oraciones completas utilizando “used to” acerca de los siguientes puntos del texto.COST OF AN APARTMENT: _____________________________________________________________. World peace used to be every young person’s dream.
but now he does.COMMON DREAM: ___________________________________________________________. . he always wore jeans. I wore a uniform to school. . 5. 4. He has to wear a suit every day. EJEMPLO: When I was a child. I went to the beach every weekend. Now I’m not shy. . 5. but now I don’t.When I was in high school. . Adam ______________________________ a suit every day. she hated cats. She _______________________ pets. but now I’m not. Now she doesn’t have a job. Sara ___________________________ cats. Algunas de las oraciones son negativas. but today she enjoys her two cats.. In the past. Rita _________________________ in a law office. .DRUG CONSUMPTION: ___________________________________________________________.Elaborar oraciones con un significado similar utilizando used to. These are her first pets. Have you always worked during summer? What ____________________________________________ in summer? . .When I lived in my home town. 6.DEFINITION OF HAPPINESS: ___________________________________________________________. . . but now I don’t. 1. EJERCICIO XI. y algunas son interrogativas. 7. but now she doesn’t.Sara has two cats that she enjoys as pets. I was shy.3.Now you have a job every summer. Now I don’t go to the beach every weekend. . Where did you live before you came here? Where ____________________________________________________? 2. I ____________________________ a uniform to school. . I used to be shy.Now you live in this city.Adam has a new job.Rita worked in a law office for many years. 4. I _________________________________ to the beach every weekend. When he was a student. 3.
UNIT III .
(Reported speech) Compare las dos oraciones: Direct speech Tom said. Por ejemplo: Am/is = was Will = would have/has = had can = could do/want/know = did/wanted/knew are = were El pasado simple (I did) puede usualmente permanecer de la misma manera en reported speech ó puede ser cambiada al pasado perfecto (I had done). lo que opino otra persona. Tu puedes repetir las palabras de Tom: Tom said: “I’m feeling sick”.. haciendo uso de la forma reported speech. Así que los verbos usualmente cambian a pasado. Cuando le queremos decir a alguien. lo podemos hacer de dos maneras. “I am feeling sick” Reported speech Tom said (that) he was feeling sick Cuando utilizamos reported speech usualmente estamos hablando acerca del pasado. Did = did ó had done Direct speech Reported speech Tom said “I woke up feeling sick and so I stayed in bed” Tom said (that) he woke (or had woken) up feeling sick and so he stayed (or had stayed) in bed. (Direct speech) Tom said (that) he was feeling sick.3.1. . con lo que en Inglés se denomina: Direct speech ó Reported speech.Reportará información recibida de terceras personas. Por ejemplo: TOM: “I’m feeling sick”.
Past perfect He said he had learned English in Canada. She said she had to/must to go to the doctor. Simple past He said he had a brother and a sister She said she didn’t like mangoes Present progressive “I’m talking to Mary”.Direct speech Reported speech Simple present “I have a brother and a sister”. “I don’t like mangoes”. Past perfect She said she hadn’t seen the movie yet. Simple past “I learned English in Canada”. Reported questions How old are you? Where were you last night? He asked how old I was. Nota: Si no hay pregunta de información (how. She said she couldn’t come to the meeting. “I can’t come to the meeting.” “I have to/must to go to the doctor” “They may raise the price” “You should lose weight” She said she would see me later. . She asked if I had enjoy the party. Modals “I will see you later”. She wanted to know where I had been the night before. etc. Are you a student? Did you enjoy the party? He asked if I was a student. She felt I should lose weight. Cambio de palabras Algunas veces en reported speech. Present perfect “I haven’t seen the movie yet”. where. I think they might raise the price.). se utiliza if. las palabras pueden ser diferentes de las que se utilizan en la oración original. when. Past progressive She said she was talking to Mary.
She said. Jim. Mary suggested we should leave right away. Analicemos esta situación: You met Ann. Now = then today = (on) that day tomorrow = the day alter/the next day yesterday = the day before No siempre es necesario cambiar el verbo cuando se utiliza reported speech. You say: “I’m surprised to see you playing tennis. Ann said (that) she wants (or wanted) to go to Turkey next year. Ann said. se debe cambiar el tiempo gramatical. “Jim is sick. Si estas reportando algo y sientes que aún es verdad.” “I think is a good idea. “I want to go to Turkey next year”. Ann said that you were sick. “New York is bigger than London. because he isn’t sick). Direct speech Reported speech Es importante señalar que si hay una diferencia entre lo que fue dicho y la verdad.” “You should leave now. .” Mother asked/wanted to know why she wasn’t at school. Tom assured the teacher that he had done his homework. Direct speech Reported speech Tom said. Nota: Las siguientes expresiones cambian en reported speech.” (not that you are sick.“Why aren’t you at school?” “Of course I did my homework. no necesitas cambiar el tiempo del verbo. My friend agreed it was a good idea.” Tom said (that) New York is (or was) bigger than London.” (direct speech) Later that day you see Jim playing tennis and looking fine.
I don’t know what Fred is doing. .I hardly ever go out these days. _______________________________________________________. . _______________________________________________________. . 8. . 1.Suponer que te encontraste con una amiga tuya y te contó las siguientes situaciones.Barbara has had a baby. .I haven’t seen Bill for a while. _______________________________________________________. 7.You can come and stay with me if you are ever in Toronto. _______________________________________________________.My father is in the hospital.. 9.. _______________________________________________________. 10.I’ve been playing tennis a lot lately. 6. 2. _______________________________________________________.Sue and Jim are getting married next month. _______________________________________________________.I work 14 hours a day. . _______________________________________________________. _______________________________________________________. EJEMPLO: I’m thinking of going to live in France. She said that she was thinking of going to live in France. 3. .I will tell Jim I saw you. . _______________________________________________________. . Convertir estas situaciones a la forma de reported speech. . 4.EJERCICIO I. 5.
and legumes. Expectant or nursing mothers and babies also need special diets. such as young children or older people. A diet aimed toward losing or gaining weight should include all the food elements. For example. If people take in more calories than they use up. A well-balanced diet for a child or an adult should include milk and milk products. fish. Special diets may be prescribed for people suffering from certain diseases. fruit and vegetables. tomatoes. have special dietary needs. but also to build new tissue. potatoes. Diets for gaining or losing weight are based on the amount of calories taken into the body in food and the amount of calories used up in activity. or nuts. seeds. strawberries. Because children grow rapidly. such as peas and soybeans. but a person with diabetes must limit the use of sugar: Doctors may prescribe low-salt diets for patients with certain heart or kidney diseases. lean meat. such as milk. But if their activity is reduced. they need fewer calories. nuts. People should seek the advice of a doctor before beginning such a diet. Older people need as many nutrients as children and young adults.DIETS FOR LOSING OR GAINING WEIGHT! Both the energy value of food and the energy spent in daily activity are measured in units of heat called kilocalories. and cereals or bread products. poultry. eggs. These people should consult a doctor. or simply calories. They will lose weight if they take in fewer calories than they use up. eggs. or pork. Some people suffer allergic or skin reactions from certain food products. they need food not only to replace worn-out tissues and provide energy. chocolate. wheat. fish. These measurements are also referred to as food calories. the healthy body needs sugar. . they will gain weight. Certain groups of people.
por reported speech. .Doctors suggest that people should seek __________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. He just didn’t want to be there when it happened.Cambiar las siguientes citas hechas por personajes famosos.Doctors say that if we take in more calories that _____________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. I just don’t want to be there when it happens” Woody Allen said that. “I’m not afraid to die..Completar las siguientes oraciones basadas en los comentarios del texto.EJERCICIO II. . he was not afraid to die. . 1.Doctors explain that older people need ____________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ EJERCICIO III. EJEMPLO: Woody Allen. ..Doctors say that children need ___________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. EJEMPLO: Doctors say that diets for gaining or losing weight are based on the amount of calories taken into the body in food and the amount of calories used up in activity. . .Doctors claim that a diet should include ___________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3.
“When you sit with a nice girl for two hours. “It is dangerous to be sincere unless you are also stupid” George Bernard Shaw said that ______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. . fools talk because they have to say something. That’s relativity.George Bernard Shaw.1.Albert Einstein. . “I’m ready to meet my maker. . “It’s easy to play any musical instrument: all you have to do is touch the right key at the right time and the instrument will play itself” Johann Sebastian Bach said that ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. “640K ought to be enough for anybody” Bill gates said that ________________________________________________ 7. but whether my maker is prepared for the great ordeal of meeting me is another matter” Winston Churchill said that _________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 8. . “Never let formal education get in the way of your learning.” Platon said that __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5.Bill Gates in 1981. “How could anyone govern a nation that has two hundred forty-six different kinds of cheese?” Charles De Gaulle said that _________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ .” Mark Twain said that ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2.Winston Churchill.” ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 6.Mark Twain.Johann Sebastian Bach. “Wise men talk because they have something to say. . . . you think it’s two hours.Platon. . But when you sit on a hot stove for a minute.Charles De Gaulle. you think it’s only a minute.
etc. . debido a que. y advice se utiliza: verb + person + infinitive. She asked me where I lived. Nota: No se utiliza signo de interrogación en una reported question. se utiliza not antes de to. He urgued the teachers to go back to work. y tampoco se utiliza say.Reportará instrucciones recibidas a terceras personas. I advised the president to leave immediately. She wants to know if/whether she should wear a dress..2. Es similar a las indirect questions. She persuaded me to have my hair cut. He said. se utiliza if ó whether. A cambio se utiliza: ask. “How old are you?” He asked me how old I am. pero la forma cambia.3. tell y say pueden ser utilizados en diferentes maneras. He told me not to tell anyone. Si no hay pregunta de información. Hay que ser cuidadoso. Para comandos negativos. Para reported commands. “Why have you come here?” “What time is it?” “Where do you live?” I asked her why she had come here. They asked me to look after their cat. He wants to know what time it is. requests. offers. The police warned people not to go out. They told us to go away. El orden de las palabras en reported questions es diferente al orden en reported speech. hacienda uso de la forma reported commands. told. Nota: say no es posible. No se invierte el sujeto y el verbo auxiliar y no existe do/does/did.
He asked me to open my suitcase. The police told people to move on. She asked me why I had come.. I asked her how much the rent was. She asked me not to leave. Utilizamos ask para reported commands y reported questions. They told us that they were going abroad. EJEMPLO: Tania: “Is that boy your neighbor? Tania asked if that boy was your neighbor or Tania asked whether that boy was your neighbor. Reported statements He told me that he was going. She told them what had been happening. EJERCICIO IV.Utilizamos tell para reported statements y reported commands. . Reported commands He told me to keep still. Reported commands I was asked to attend the interview.Convertir las siguientes preguntas a su forma de reported questions. Reported questions He asked me what I did for a living. My parents told me to clean up my room.
1. - Jeremy: “Do you like to play soccer?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. - Joshua: “Did you eat breakfast?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3.- Diana: “Have you gone to Puerto Vallarta?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. - The students: “Are you going to assign more homework?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. - Salesman: “May I help you?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 6. - Mr. Hendricks: “Should I call you tomorrow?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 7. - Mel: “Are your friends coming to the concert?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 8. - Betty: “Where do you live?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 9. - Charles: “When is your birthday?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 10.- John: “Where did you study English?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 11.- Maria: “Why are you going to give back this DVD player? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 12.- Elizabeth: “What will he do next weekend?” _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
EJERCICIO V.- Seleccionar la respuesta correcta en cada caso. EJEMPLO: “Would you like to spend the weekend with us?” They invited her to spend the weekend with them. a) advised b) ordered c) invited d) begged
1. - “Could you open the window please?” She ___________ him to open the window. a) reminded b) ordered c) asked d)warned
2. - “Go to bed immediately!” Mary’s mother _____________ her to go to bed immediately. a) advised b) begged c) asked d) ordered
3. - “Don’t forget to post the letter!” He _____________ me to post the letter. a) reminded b) ordered c) begged d) asked
4. - “Park the car behind the van!” The instructor _____________ him to park the car behind the van. a) offered b)told c) asked d) ordered
5. - “Please, please turn down the radio!” Mark’s sister _____________ him to turn the radio down. a) reminded b) ordered c) asked d) begged
6. - “Don’t play with the matches. They are very dangerous” The teacher ___________ the children not to play with the matches. a) ordered b) asked c) warned d) begged
7. - “I’ll give you a lift to the airport” Michelle ___________ to give her husband a lift to the airport. a) refused b) offered c) asked d) begged
Un verbo es considerado un phrasal verb si esta compuesto de dos o más palabras. Una de estas palabras es siempre un verbo, la otra puede ser:
1.- Un adverbio como en THROW AWAY. 2.- Una preposición como en LOOK INTO, ó 3.- Ambos, un adverbio y una preposición como en PUT UP WITH.
El significado de un phrasal verb es comúnmente muy diferente del significado del verbo por si solo. Por ejemplo:
LOOK INTO = investigar, y LOOK AFTER = cuidar de. Los dos tienen significados diferentes de LOOK. De hecho, muchos phrasal verbs son idiomatic. Un idiom es un grupo compuesto de palabras con un segundo significado, el cual es diferente del significado de las palabras de manera individual.
1.- Un phrasal verb es un verbo más una preposición ó adverbio el cual crea un significado diferente del verbo original. EJEMPLO: I ran into my teacher at the library yesterday. My brother ran away when he was 13.
run + into = meet run + away = leave home
2.- Algunos phrasal verbs son intransitivos. Un verbo intransitivo no puede ser seguido por un objeto. Recuerde que un objeto es la parte de la oración que recibe de manera directa ó indirecta la acción del verbo. EJEMPLO: The plane suddenly took off.
“take off” no puede tomar a un objeto.
3.- Algunos phrasal verbs son transitivos. Un verbo transitivo puede ser seguido por un objeto. El objeto recibe la acción del verbo directa o indirectamente. EJEMPLO: I put off the meeting.
“meeting” es el objeto de “put off”.
EJEMPLO: I ran into an old friend yesterday. EJEMPLO: I made a story up to convince my mother to let me go.Algunos phrasal verbs transitivos pueden colocar un objeto en dos lugares.NOTA: Aunque muchos phrasal verbs pueden colocar al objeto en ambos lados. se debe poner el objeto entre el verbo y la preposición si el objeto es un pronombre. . 7. EJEMPLO: I picked the clothes up from the floor. I picked up the clothes from the floor.. CORRECTO: INCORRECTO: I looked it up in the phone book. El objeto es colocado después de la preposición. I looked up it in the phone number. 6. I looked up the number in the phone book.. They are looking into the problem..Algunos phrasal verbs transitivos son inseparables. 5..Algunos verbos transitivos son separables.4. EJEMPLO: I looked the number up in the phone book. El objeto es colocado entre el verbo y la preposición. She picked the clothes up from the dry cleaners.
. . but I’d better ____________________. hang up.. My sister needs to make a call.It’s cold in here. When she was walking home last night. 2. . two men __________ her ____________ and took her purse and jewelry.I’d like to talk longer. . turn down. .You’d better get started on your report. I never thought he would _________________ me ______________.I can hardly hear the radio.Anne is very upset.Completar correctamente las siguientes oraciones con el phrasal verb que corresponda en cada caso. . . hand in. Do you mind if I turn the air conditioning off? Turn on. 3. She lent them to you over a month ago. . turn up. 1. Give back. EJEMPLO: I’m cold. 4.EJERCICIO VI. hold up. You know that you have to ___________ it ___________ at 8:30 tomorrow morning.Don’t forget to ______________ the books _______________ to your friend. Can you ___________ it ____________ a little? 2. 1. I’m going to ____________ the heater _____________? 3. but I didn’t.I thought I could borrow some money from Pete.
try out. . The mayor had to ___________ classes ______________ because of the traffic caused due to the floods.Jim was telling me that he hopes his parents _____________ their relationship problems _____________ before they get divorced. 3.I need to ________________ the report that Ben gave me this morning before I send it to the supervisor. . 1. 2.Tom’s writing is very well. 4. put off. 4.We don’t have school today.After shopping all morning for shoes. the inspection were ______________ for next Wednesday morning. .It is very important that teachers ______________ to their students the new theories and its applications.I can’t believe it! My mom __________________ me _________________ with her friend’s son. . do over. 2. ._________________ this message chair – it feels great! 4. try on.Oh. . point out. . I almost need a magnify glass to ________________ it ____________________. put on. give away. 3. .You shouldn’t _______________ those newspapers ______________. they still have valuable information regarding the research you have been working on.They _____________ a new play at the theatre last weekend.The supervisor had to attend a last minute conference. 2. no! I forgot to save my report before I turned the computer off! Now I’ll have to _________________ it all ___________________ again! Set up.Call off. . Read over. talk over. Have you had a chance to see it? 3. 1. I feel much too tired to _______________ the pants ________________ before buying them. Due to this. . . . . make out. 1.
UNIT IV .
involve. y suggest) se puede también utilizar una estructura that… He denied that he had stolen the money. When I’m on vacation. admit.4. postpone. tienen la característica de ser seguidos por otro verbo. dislike. finish. regret. I don’t miss working late every night. delay. practice. consider. Los siguientes verbos.) después de estos verbos y expresiones: I enjoy dancing. la estructura es usualmente: verbo + -ing: Stop. (not to dance) Would you mind closing the door? (not to close) Jill suggested going to the movies. Are you going to give up smoking? He kept (on) interrupting me while I was speaking Normalmente no se puede utilizar el infinitivo (to do / to dance. mind. miss. imagine. (or denied stealing) Jill suggested that we go to the movies. (not to go) Con algunos de los verbos anteriormente señalados (especialmente: admit. Have you ever considered going to live in another country? I can’t imagine George riding a motorcycle. suggest. deny. risk. (or suggested going) . regret. Las siguientes expresiones también toman la forma –ing: Give up = stop go on = continue put off = postpone Keep ó keep on = do something continuosly or repeatedly. –Describirá las funciones de los recursos tecnológicos cotidianos. etc. enjoy.1. Stop talking! I’ll do the shopping when I’ve finished cleaning the apartment. avoid. deny. I enjoy not having to get up early. utilizando correctamente los gerundios e infinitivos.
eat.If you cross the street without looking. . 9. .. make. . try and avoid ________________ water on the floor.The phone rang while Ann was having dinner. .. she just went on ____________________.Completar las siguientes oraciones con los siguientes verbos: try.She admitted ________________ the car but denied ______________ it dangerously. take. 3.They had to postpone ________________ away because their son was sick. drive.. 7.EJERCICIO I.Jack gave up _____________ to be an actor and decided to become a teacher. 10. EJEMPLO: Do you miss playing tennis every afternoon? 1. . but in the end I decided against it. you risk _______________ over by a car.Could you please stop ________________ so much noise? 2. . go.Does your job involve _________________ a lot of people? 4. .I don’t enjoy ___________________ letters.Have you finished ______________ your hair yet? 8. be run. . write.If you use the shower. . wash. splash. 5. look. .Why do you keep on _________________ at me like that? 11. 6. She didn’t answer it.. 12. steal. meet.I considered _______________ the job.
4. 1. . 7..It’s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour.Elaborar oraciones personales utilizando –ing.Maybe I’ll go out this evening.Sue said. He now regrets not studying harder when he was in college. . EJEMPLOS: Do you have to travel in your job? Does your job involve travelling? He is sorry now that he didn’t study harder when he was in college.I dislike _____________________________________________________. 5. . It’s better to avoid _______________________________________________. . .Are you sorry you didn’t take the job? Do you regret ___________________________________________________? 3. ..Why don’t you go away tomorrow instead of today? Why don’t you put off ____________________________________________? 4.I often regret ________________________________________________. EJERCICIO III. . . 5. please? Would you mind _________________________________________________? 6. .I think people should stop ______________________________________. 2. The driver of the car admitted ______________________________________. 3. 1. I wouldn’t mind __________________________________________________. .Learning English involves ______________________________________.Could you turn the radio down.EJERCICIO II. EJEMPLO: I really enjoy going for long walks in the country.” Sue suggested _________________________________________________. “Let’s have fish for dinner.Leer cada oración y escribir una segunda oración con el mismo significado. 2. .The driver of the car said it was true that he didn’t have a license. .On weekends I enjoy __________________________________________. .
but I think he tends to talk too much. remember. It was late. plan. afford. I like George. so we decided to take a taxi home. pretend. decide. mean. Por ejemplo: think y suggest: Are you thinking of buying a car? (not thinking to buy) Jill suggested going to the movies. explain. learn (how). She pretended not to see me as she passed me on the street. Tom explained (to me) Have you decided I don’t know We asked how where whether how to change to go to go to get the tire on the car. decide. fail. He needs to work harder. I didn’t mean to hurt you. I’m sorry. seem. attempt. He’ll tell you what to do. (not suggested to go) Después de los siguientes verbos se puede utilizar una pregunta de información ( what/where/how. to the station. appear. manage. Observe estos ejemplos con la forma negativa not to… We decided not to go out because of the weather. need. Con otros verbos importantes no se puede utilizar el infinitivo. refuse. hope. . forget. tend. dare. He’s lazy. la estructura es usualmente: verbo + infinitivo. etc. How old were you when you learned to drive? (or learned how to drive) They agree to lend me some money when I told them the position I was in. intend. for your vacation? to the party or not. offer. Also: show/tell/ask someone what/how/where to do something: Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? Ask Jack. know. threaten.Los siguientes verbos son seguidos por otro verbo. forget.) + infinitivo: ask. Agree. promise. understand.
Our neighbour threatened _________________ the police if we didn’t stop making noise. 2. .EJERCICIO IV.Oh no! I meant _______________ some eggs. .The thief got into the house because I forgot _______________ the window. . . .I shouted to him. 6. EJEMPLO: Don’t forget to mail the letter I gave you. He pretended not _______________ me. . . but I’m sure he did. but I forgot. 8.Why hasn’t Sue arrived yet? She promised not ________________ late. 9. Nobody dared _______________ during his class. 5.I don’t need _____________ to the meeting. 4.The teacher was very strict.Tom refused ________________ me any money.There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________ to the airport in time. 1. .Jill has decided not _____________ a car.Completar cada oración con un verbo apropiado. . 7... .. 3. . do I? 12. 10. 11.One day I’d like to learn _______________ an airplane.Ann offered _____________ care of our children while we were out.
Elaborar oraciones con: seem y appear. 6. . 5. 2. . 3. . EJERCICIO VI.EJERCICIO V. 5. . .. 2.Have they gone out? They appear ______________________________________________. EJEMPLOS: Is he waiting for someone? Has she lost weight? He appears to be waiting for someone. .Does Ann like Jack? She appears ______________________________________________. EJEMPLO: This evening I plan to go to the theater. .Not many people can afford __________________________________.Has that car broken down? It seems _________________________________________________. . 4.One day I hope ____________________________________________. 1.I intend __________________________________________________. .Elaborar oraciones con el infinitivo. 4. . 3. 1..Sometimes I tend __________________________________________. .Is that man looking for something? He appears _______________________________________________.I would like learn ___________________________________________.Is Tom worried about something? He seems ________________________________________________.I wouldn’t dare ____________________________________________. She seems to have lost weight. .
Are you interested in buying a car? Did you meet anyone interesting at the party? Someone is surprised because something is surprising: Everyone was surprised that she passed the exam.. It was surprising that she passed the exam. te convierte en ed. depress. Estudiemos esta situación: Jane ha estado haciendo el mismo trabajo por mucho tiempo.4. The movie was disappointing.Describirá características de objetos así como estados de ánimo. . Ella no disfruta más esta actividad y le gustaría hacer algo diferente. I expected it to be much better. Someone is tired because something is tiring: He is always very tired when he gets home from work. annoy. Otos pares de adjetivos con terminación en –ing y –ed son: fascinate.2. worry. Jane is bored because her job is boring. He has a very tiring job. ( not interesting in politics) Tom finds politics interesting. amaze. Someone is disappointed because something is disappointing: I was disappointed with the movie. (not Jane is boring) Analicemos estos ejemplos: Someone is interested because something (or someone) is interesting: Tom is interested in politics. embarrass. Por ejemplo: boring y bored. Todos los días ella hace exactamente lo mismo una y otra vez. astonish. satisfy. disgust. I expected it to be much better. frighten. confuse. mediante el uso de participios y adjetivos. horrorify. si algo es –ing. terrify. amuse. O. exhaust. Jane’s job is boring. shock. Existen muchos pares de adjetivos con terminación en –ing y –ed. Alguien es –ed si algo (ó alguien) es –ing. so Jane is bored. excite.
She has never been there before. We were disappointed with the movie...Ann is going to Indonesia next month. It will be an ______________________________________ experience for her.EJERCICIO VII.It’s been raining all day. (bor-) The program was ______________________________________________. I hate this weather.I turned off the television in the middle of the program. He finds astronomy very ________________________________________.Seleccionar el adjetivo correcto. EJEMPLO: The movie wasn’t as good as we had expected. (depress-) This weather is ________________________________________________. (disappoint) 1. The movie was disappointing. 3.. 4. (excit-) She is really ___________________________________________ about going. . . . Utilizar un adjetivo con terminación en –ing ó –ed para completar cada oración.Completar dos oraciones por cada situación. EJEMPLO: I was disappointing/disappointed with the movie. I was ________________________________________________________. 2. . 5. (interest-) Tom is ____________________________________________ in astronomy.Diana teaches young children. . (axhaust-) She often finds her job ___________________________________________.Astronomy is one of Tom’s main interest. This weather makes me _________________________________________. At the end of the days´s work she is often ____________________________. It’s hard job. EJERCICIO VIII. I had expected it to be better.
It was very exciting/excited. .We were all horrifying/horrified when we heard about the disaster. Afterwards everybody was very shocking/shocked. 2. 3. He never stops talking and never says anything in________________. . .Why do you always look so b_____________? Is your life really so b____________? 4. I’m really ex______________ about it. 5.Completar las oraciones con un adjetivo con terminación –ing ó –ed . 6. .I was as_____________ when I heard they were getting divorced.Are you interesting/interested in soccer? 4. 7. . .I enjoyed the soccer game.. . EJEMPLO: Jane finds her job boring .I had never expected to be offered the job. 2.I seldom visit art galleries. It was really 8. been cleaned for ages.Do you get embarrassing/embarrassed easily? EJERCICIO IX. 5. .I’m starting a new job next week. La(s) primer(as) letra(s) del adjetivo es (son) dada(s).It was a really terrifying/terrified experience. They had always seemed so happy together.1. 6. . I’m not very in____________________ in art. I was really amazing/amazed when I got it. . She wants to do something different. It was very ti_________________. 3. . 1. .It’s sometimes embarrassing/embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.We went for a very long walk. .The kitchen hadn’t disgusting/disgusted.He’s one of the most b____________ people I’ve ever met. . .
Es importante señalar que en este tipo de cláusulas cuando se utiliza el pasado de “to be” solo existe “were” para todas las personas. . Las cláusulas de condición improbable.El verbo de la oración principal esta en futuro irreal (would) 2. Si el fuera a Londres el podría ver a su hermana. usando el segundo condicional. se forman de la siguiente manera: 1. Si el fuera a Londres el vería a su hermana..3. I would buy this car. Si tú entraras a mi jardín mi perro te mordería. If he went to London he could see his sister. Si tú entraras a mi jardín mi perro podría morderte.El verbo de la oración subordinada condicional esta en pasado..Describirá diferentes acciones a tomar ante situaciones hipotéticas. a diferencia de “was y were” que se utiliza en las oraciones de pasado de “to be”.4. NOTA: En la oración principal se puede utilizar “could” como auxiliar. Ejemplos: If he went to London he would see his sister.. If you came into my garden my dog would bite you. Ejemplo: If I were you. If you came into my garden my dog could bite you. Si yo fuera tu compraría este carro.
I (take) ______________ a picture of the sunset tonight if I (have) ______________ a camera. 4. .Airplane tickets are expensive. I (take) ___________ a walk if the weather (be) __________ nice. 2.The student cafeteria is relatively inexpensive. 9. I (give. .Sometimes our teacher gives surprise quizzes. .I wish I had a camera.. 7. I (fly) ______________ to Singapore for the weekend. all of us (be) ____________ rich.If I (be) ___________ you. We (buy) __________ a house if we (have) __________ enough money for a down payment. EJEMPLO: If I (be) were you. 5. If I (teach) ______________ this English class. but houses are too expensive. 1. but the food isn’t very good. not) _____________ surprise quizzes. If he (study) ___________ harder.. .The weather isn´t nice. 8. . he (get) ______________ better grades.Completar las cláusulas de condición improbable con los verbos en paréntesis. I (eat) _____________ there all the time if the food (be) ______________ better.If money (grow) ___________ on trees.. 6.Life (be)___________ boring if everyone (have) ____________ the same opinions about everything. If they (be) _____________ cheap. 3.My wife and I want to buy a house. .EJERCICIO X. 10. . I (tell) ____________ Brian the truth. I (buy) would buy the car.Jim doesn´t study hard. ..
they (be) ____________ much nicer.If modern cities were smaller. . .nine years old 9. EJEMPLO: If you played every day.If there (be.EJERCICIO XI..a photographer __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ EJERCICIO XII..Que harías tú si fueras .Completar las siguientes cláusulas de condición improbable con los verbos que se le dan en cada una de ellas.a mouse 6.? Practicar elaborando cláusulas de condición improbable con las siguientes suposiciones. .. 3.a mountain climber 3. not) ____________ more job opportunities in large cities.an astronaut 7. EJEMPLO: What would you do if you were a cat? If I were a cat. 4. . etc. .. farmers would not leave their fields.) 1.. pollution would decrease.a teacher 4. . you (be) would be the best.If fewer people (come) ____________ to work in the city.If cities (have) ___________ more parks. . . 1. . . the transportation problems would disappear. jump into your lamp.a billionaire 8.a bird 2. .If all factories (have) __________ anti-pollution devices. I would (chase mice. 5.a surgeon 5. . . ..a police officer 10. 2. people would be happier.
.If people drove more carefully. and those in water. people could breath more fresh air. The reason for this association with life is quite clear. They are divided into two groups: Those soluble in fat. Vitamins are usually identified by letters of the alphabet.If new housing developments (be built) __________ near industrial centres. people would not have to travel long distances. Their existence was discovered in 1911 and since then the existence of twenty-five of these substances has been establish.. fewer people (buy) __________ a car. vitamins are essential to good health and normal physical development. If you read on you will find specific information about a number of vitamins or vitamin complexes. . although the function of some of them still remains a mystery. 8.If there (be) ____________ more trees in big cities. 9.People (have) ___________ better homes to live in if old buildings were remodelled. . 7. . . there (be) ____________ fewer road accidents.If the public transport services were better.6. VITAMINS If you look up the word VITAMIN in a dictionary you will find that really it is a combination of two words: VITA – life and AMINE – a type of nitrogen compound. 10. according to the order in which they were discovered.
Vitamin D contributes to the development of strong teeth and bones. nuts. Vitamin E This fat-soluble vitamin is found in: corn. fish. If we were deprived of this vitamin we would suffer from Ricketts. our growth would be affected and. nervous disorders and tiredness. If we did not receive this vitamin we would suffer from scurvy. However. butter. oatmeal. eggs. Vitamin D This vitamin is composed of a small number of fat-soluble substances (for sources see those listed under vitamin A). If we did not have sufficient amounts of this vitamin then. It used to be thought that vitamin E prevented sterility but this function has not been satisfactorily demonstrated. liver. liver and a large number of vegetables. pork and vegetables. eggs. If we did not get enough of this vitamin we would suffer from loss of appetite. yeast and wheat-germ. fish-liver oils and vegetables. eggs. a very common disease among children. we would not develop defences against infectious diseases. We need vitamin C to keep out teeth. whole grains. eggs. cereals. as well as to help cuts and burns to heal. if we cook food for too long the vitamin B1 is eliminated. as children. digestion. as adults. . milk. our skin would not be soft and our eyes could not adjust to darkness. which prevents the bones from hardening. wheat germ. Also. milk. Vitamin B1 This vitamin is found in: yeast. liver. Vitamin C This water-soluble vitamin is obtainable from liver. Vitamin B Complex This group is comprised of more than twelve identified water-soluble vitamins. If we suffered from a deficiency of this vitamin our growth. cream. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) This vitamin can be obtained from: meat. fruit and fresh vegetables. poultry. Our bodies obtain a large part of their vitamin D requirements from the sun’s rays. gums and bones in good condition. vegetables. milk. a disease which used to be common among sailors who spent long periods at sea without eating fresh fruit and vegetables. use of oxygen and eyes would all be affected.Vitamin A This vitamin includes at least four fat-soluble substances which are found in: milk.
If you read on you. Our bodies require only very small amounts of these substances and we will obtain these if we eat a balanced diet which includes the foods mentioned earlier. 1. EJERCICIO XIII. . you would find specific information. __________________________________________________________. 3. cabbage and tomatoes. __________________________________________________________. EJEMPLO: If you read on you. strepogenin. panthothenic and par-amino benzoic acids. a word of warning is necessary at this point. 5. folic acid. 2. you will find specific information. Finally. chlorine. vitamins are essential. Our blood would not clot if we did not receive this vitamin. biotin (otherwise known as vitamin H). as their name suggests.__________________________________________________________.__________________________________________________________.__________________________________________________________. . lyxoflavin and vitamin B12. . .soluble substance present in vegetables such as: cauliflower. inositol. there is vitamin P whose existence is suspected but has not been proved. __________________________________________________________.Encontrar las cláusulas del texto anterior y convertirlas a cláusulas de condición improbable. This list might well be added to in the future. . __________________________________________________________. . Although. __________________________________________________________..__________________________________________________________. 4. it is also found in eggs.__________________________________________________________.Vitamin K This is a fat. One could also mention the remaining members of the vitamin B complex: pyroxene.
SOARS. Skyline 3. 1987.php www. OXFORD. Ingrid. An intermediate course.com/library/grammar/blpassive. 1992. 2005. McGraw-Hill. Prentice-Hall. 11TH Edition. 2004. Nancy. 2nd. China. Robert. Raymond. Ingrid. Fundamentals of English Grammar. México. CREWS. GARDNER. 2001. Ian. Style 2. Vika. ENGLISH IV. México. Nueva Imagen.net/esl/learn/english/grammar/ii178/esl-test. USA. USA. Graded exercises in English. THOMSON. México. Thailand.BIBLIOGRAFÍA BREWSTER. EURO PUBLISHING. 2000. Inglés IV. 1999. 4th Edition. Inglés 4. CAMBRIDGE. Longman. México. DIXON. 1994. New Interchange 2. 2007. Focus on Grammar. Irene. U. México. English in action IV.mx/imagenes . 2001. México. CAMBRIDGE. Take care 4. SADZHAYA. Grammar in use. 1998 RICHARDS. STANLEY. Simon. 2nd Edition. CREWS. Cuatro Habilidades. Nueva Imagen. http://esl. USA. American Headway 2. México. MACMILLAN.google. Super Goal 3 y 4. Grammar 3.K. Barbara. Publicaciones Cultural. DOS SANTOS. Paula. IMNRC. 2001. 1996. Manuel.english-test. FOLEY. John. Jack. Edition. MURPHY.about. Singapore. Prentice-Hall.K. FLORES. SCHOENBERG.htm www. SCHRAMPFER.com. 2006. U. 2006. Betty. MACMILLAN.
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