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– UNIT V

Geometric Objects & Transformations

By K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor

Dept. of CSE,

Cambridge Institute of Technology,

Bangalore - 36

TRANSLATION, ROTATION, AND SCALING

Introduce Standard Transformations

Rotation

Translation

Scaling

Shear

Derive homogeneous coordinate transformation matrices

Learn to build arbitrary transformation matrices from simple

transformations

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TRANSLATION, ROTATION, AND SCALING cont’d….

A transformation maps points to other points and / or vectors to

other vectors

v=T(u)

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TRANSLATION, ROTATION, AND SCALING cont’d….

Line preserving Characteristic of many physically

important transformations

Rigid Body Transformations:

ROTATION, TRANSLATION,

Non-Rigid Body Transformations:

SCALING and SHEAR

Importance in graphics is that only the endpoints of

line segments need to be transformed and then the

implementation draws line segment between the

transformed endpoints

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 4

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Pipeline Implementation

T

frame

T(u) buffer

u

Transformation Rasterizer

v

T(v) T(v)

T(v)

u T(u) T(u)

vertices vertices pixels

v

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011

Bangalore - 560036.

5

Notation

We will be working with both coordinate free representations of

Transformations and Representations within a particular

frame

P,Q, R: points in an affine space

u, v, w: vectors in an affine space

α, β, γ: scalars

p, q, r: representations of points

- Array of 4 scalars in homogeneous coordinates

u, v, w: representations of points

- Array of 4 scalars in homogeneous

coordinates

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Translation

Move (translate, displace) a point to a new location

P’

z

d

y

P

x

Displacement determined by a vector d

There are 3 degrees of freedom

P’= P + d

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How many ways can Translation be done?

Although a point can be moved to a new location in infinite

ways, when many points are moved, there is usually only one

way

by same vector

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 8

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Translation Using Representations

Using the homogeneous coordinate representation in some

frame

p = [ x y z 1]T

p’ = [x’ y’ z’ 1]T

d=[dx dy dz 0]T

Hence p’ = p + d or

x’ = x + dx

y’ = y + dy

z’ = z + dz

note that this expression is in

four dimensions and expresses

point = vector + point

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Translation Matrix

We can also express translation using a 4 x 4 matrix T in

homogeneous coordinates

p’ = Tp where

1 0 0 dx

0 1 0 dy

T = T(dx, dy, dz) =

0 0 1 dz

0 0 0 1

transformations can be expressed this way and multiple

transformations can be concatenated together

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Rotation (2D)

Consider rotation about the origin by θ degrees

radius stays the same, angle increases by θ from

φ. COS(A + B) = COSA .COSB – SINA .SINB

SIN( A + B) = SINA .COSB + COSA .SINB

y' = r sin (φ + θ) y’ = x sin θ + y cos θ

x = r cos φ

y = r sin φ

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EXPAND THIS FORM TO 3-D

1. There is one point—the origin, in this case—that is

unchanged by the rotation.

This point is called as the fixed point of the

transformation.

Figure 36 shows a 2-D rotation about a fixed point in

the center of the object rather than about the origin

of the frame.

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EXPAND THIS FORM TO 3-D cont’d….

2. Knowing that the 2-D plane is part of 3-D space,

This rotation in 3-D can be re-interpreted. In a Right-

Handed System, when the x- and y-axes are drawn in

the standard way, the positive z-axis comes out of

the page.

The definition of rotation in a positive direction means

that the rotation of the object is done in

counterclockwise direction when we look down the

positive z-axis toward the origin.

Same definition is used for defining positive rotations

about other axes.

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EXPAND THIS FORM TO 3-D cont’d….

3. Rotation in the 2-D plane z = 0 (i.e. XY-plane) is

equivalent to a 3-D rotation about the z-axis.

Points in planes of constant z will all rotate in a similar

manner, leaving their z values unchanged.

specified as shown in

the Figure 37:

A fixed point (Pf), a

Rotation Angle (θ), and

a line or vector ‘v’ about

which the object is to be

rotated.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 14

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EXPAND THIS FORM TO 3-D cont’d….

For a given fixed point, there are 3 degrees of freedom: the two

angles necessary to specify the orientation of the vector and

the angle that specifies the amount of rotation about the

vector.

Rotation and Translation are known as Rigid Body

Transformations.

No combination of Rotations and Translations can alter the

shape or volume of an object; they can alter only the object's

location and orientation.

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Scaling

Scaling is an Affine non rigid-body transformation by which an

object can be made bigger or smaller.

scaling in all directions and non

uniform scaling in a single

direction.

A non-uniform scaling is needed

to build up the full set of affine

transformations that are used in

Uniform Scaling

modeling and viewing by

combining a properly chosen

sequence of Scalings,

Translations, and Rotations.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 16

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Scaling cont’d….

Scaling transformations have a fixed point, as seen in Figure 40.

Hence, to specify a scaling, a fixed point can be specified, a direction in which

the object is to be scaled, and a scale factor (α).

For α > 1, the object gets longer in the specified direction; for 0 < α < 1, the

object gets smaller in that direction.

Negative values of α give us Reflection (Figure 41) about the fixed point, in

the scaling direction.

Scaling has six degrees of freedom because we can specify an arbitrary fixed

point and three independent scaling factors. sx = -1 sy = 1 original

sx = -1 sy = -1 sx = 1 sy = -1

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 17

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TRANSFORMATIONS IN HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES

All graphics APIs force us to work within some reference system.

Hence, we cannot work with high-level expressions such as

Instead, we work with representations in homogeneous

coordinates and with expressions such as

Within a frame, each affine transformation is represented by a

4 x 4 matrix of the form

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Translation

Translation displaces points to new positions defined by a

displacement vector.

If we move the point p to p' by displacing through a distance d,

then p' = p + d.

Looking at their Homogeneous Coordinate forms

component as = 1x + 0y + 0z + αx

= 0x + 1y + 0z + αy

= 0x + 0y + 1z + αz

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 19

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Translation cont’d….

This method of representing translation using the addition of

column matrices does not combine well with the

representations of other affine transformations.

However, we can also get this result using the matrix

multiplication of the form: p' = Tp, where

Sometimes it is written as T(αx, αy, αz) to emphasize the three

independent parameters.

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Translation cont’d….

The inverse of a translation matrix can be obtained by

either applying an inversion algorithm or by noting

that if a point is displace by the vector ‘d’, we can

return to the original position by a displacement of ‘-

d’.

By either method, we find that

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Scaling

For both scaling and rotation, there is a fixed point that is

unchanged by the transformation.

Let the fixed point be the origin, then it can be shown as to how

transformations can be concatenated to obtain the

transformation for an arbitrary fixed point.

A scaling matrix with a fixed point of the origin allows for

independent scaling along the coordinate axes. The three

equations are

= βx x + 0 y + 0z

= 0 x + βy y + 0z

= 0 x + 0y + βz z

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Scaling cont’d….

These three equations can be combined in

homogeneous form as p' = S p, where

the reciprocals of the scale factors:

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Rotation about the Z axis

Rotation about Z axis in three dimensions leaves all

points with the same z

Equivalent to rotation in two dimensions in planes of

constant z x’= x cos θ – y sin θ

y’ = x sin θ + y cos θ

z’ = z

or in homogeneous coordinates p’ = Rz(θ)

θ p

cos θ − sin θ 0 0

sin θ cos θ 0 0

R = Rz(θ) =

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011

Bangalore - 560036. 24

Rotation about X and Y axes

Same argument as for rotation about z axis

For rotation about X axis, x is unchanged

For rotation about Y axis, y is unchanged

1 0 0 0

0 cos θ - sin θ 0

R = Rx(θ) =

0 sin θ cos θ 0

0 0 0 1

cos θ 0 sin θ 0

0 1 0 0

R = Ry(θ) =

- sin θ 0 cos θ 0

0 0 0 1

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011

Bangalore - 560036. 25

Rotation cont’d….

The signs of the sine terms are consistent with the

definition of a positive rotation in a right-handed

system.

Suppose that R denotes any of the three rotation

matrices. A rotation by θ can always be undone by a

subsequent rotation by —θ; hence, R-1(θ) = R(-θ).

In addition, noting that all the cosine terms are on the

diagonal and the sine terms are off-diagonal, the

following trigonometric identities can be used

cos(—θ) = cos θ; sin(—θ) = — sin θ to find

R -1(θ)=RT(θ).

April 29, 2011 26

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Rotation cont’d….

To construct any desired Rotation Matrix, with a fixed point at

the origin, as a product of individual rotations about the three

axes R = R R R . Rx Ry Rz

y x y z 1 0 cos θ 0 sin θ 0 cos θ − sin θ 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

θ v

0 cos θ - sin θ 0 1 0 0 sin θ cos θ

0 sin θ cos θ 0 - sin θ 0 cos θ 0 0 0 1 0

R=

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

x

the transposes in the reverse order, It can be seen that for any

rotation matrix, R-1 = RT.

A matrix whose inverse is equal to its transpose is called an

Orthogonal Matrix.

Normalized orthogonal matrices correspond to rotations about

the origin.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 27

Bangalore - 560036.

Shear

Helpful to add one more basic transformation

Equivalent to pulling faces in opposite directions

Consider a cube centered at the origin, aligned with the axes and

viewed from the positive z-axis, as shown in Figure 42. If the

top is pulled to the right and the bottom to the left, the object

is sheared in the x direction.

Note: Here neither the y nor the z values are changed by the

shear, so this operation can be called x shear to distinguish it

from shears of the cube in other possible directions.

Using simple trigonometry on

Figure 43, It can be seen that each

shear is characterized by a single

angle θ;

Figure 42 Figure 43

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 28

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Shear cont’d….

the equations for this shear are

sheared in only the opposite direction; hence

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CONCATENATION OF TRANSFORMATIONS

Consider the Affine Transformations obtained by multiplying

together, or concatenating, sequences of the basic

transformations.

Suppose that three successive transformations are carried out

on a point p, creating a new point q. Because the matrix

product is associative, so it can be written as the sequence

matrices, although in practice they most likely will be affine.

The order in which the transformations are carried out, affects

the efficiency of the calculation.

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CONCATENATION OF TRANSFORMATIONS cont’d….

To transform a single point, this order is the most efficient

because each matrix multiplication involves multiplying a

column matrix by a square matrix.

If many points are to be transformed, then we can proceed in

two steps.

Step I: Calculate M = CBA.

Step II: Use this matrix on each point q = Mp.

This order corresponds to the pipeline shown in Figure 45, where

M is computed first; then it is loaded into a pipeline

transformation unit.

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Rotation About a Fixed Point

Consider a cube with its center at pf and its sides aligned with

the axes.

This cube is to be rotated about the z-axis, about its center pf,

which becomes the fixed point of the transformation, as

shown in Figure 46 below.

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Rotation About a Fixed Point cont’d….

If pf were the origin, then to solve the problem: the

transformation Rz(θ) is used.

This observation suggests the strategy

Step – I: move the cube to the origin.

Step – II: Apply Rz(θ) and

Step – III: move the object back such that its center is again at pf .

This sequence is shown in the following Figure 47.

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Rotation About a Fixed Point cont’d….

In terms of our basic affine transformations, the first is T(—pf),

the second is Rz(θ), and the final is T(pf).

Concatenating them together, to obtain the single matrix

obtained

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General Rotation of a Cube about Origin

Consider the cube, again centered at the origin with its sides

aligned with the axes, as shown in Figure 48(a).

Step – I: Rotate the cube about the z-axis by an angle α to orient

it, as shown in Figure 48(b).

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General Rotation of a Cube about Origin cont’d….

Step – II: Rotate the cube by an angle β about the Y-axis, as

shown in a top view as shown in Figure 49 below:

shown in a side view in Figure 50.

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The Instance Transformation

Consider a scene composed of many simple

objects, such as that shown in Figure 51.

One option is to define each of these

objects, through its vertices, in the desired

location with the desired orientation and size.

An alternative is to define each of the

object types once at a convenient size, place, and an orientation.

object's prototype, and the desired size, orientation, and

location can be obtained by applying an affine transformation

called as the Instance Transformation to the prototype.

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The Instance Transformation cont’d….

The instance transformation is applied in the order shown in

Figure 52.

Objects are usually defined in their own frames, with the origin

at the center of mass and the sides aligned with the model

frame axes.

First, the object is scaled to the desired size. Then it is oriented

with a rotation matrix.

Finally, it is translated to the desired orientation. Hence, the

instance transformation is of the form

M = TRS

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Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis

Consider rotating a cube, as shown in Figure 53.

Three entities are needed to specify this rotation. There is a fixed

point p0 that assumed to be the center of the cube, a vector

‘u’ about which the object is to be rotated, and an angle of

rotation θ.

The vector about which the cube is to be

rotated can be specified in various ways.

One way is to use two points, p1 and p2,

defining the vector u = p2 – p1 .

Note: The order of the points determines

the positive direction of rotation for θ and

that even though u passes through p0,

only the orientation of u matters.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 39

Bangalore - 560036.

Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis cont’d….

Replacing u with a unit length vector ‘v’

in the same direction as that of vector ‘u’.

Now moving the fixed point p0 to the origin.

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Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis cont’d….

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Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis cont’d….

Considering the components of v, as v is a unit-length vector.

(αx, αy, αz).

This line segment has unit length and the orientation of v. Next,

draw the perpendiculars from the point (αx, αy, αz) to the

coordinate axes, as shown in Figure 56.

The three direction angles (Øx, Øy, Øz) are

the angles between the line segment (or v) v

and the axes.

The direction cosines are given by

Satisfying the condition:

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Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis cont’d….

We can now compute θX and θY using these angles. N

Consider Figure 4.57.

It shows that the effect of the desired rotation on P’

the point (αx, αy, αz) is to rotate the line segment

into the plane Y = 0 (XZ-Plane). O

(before the rotation) on the plane x = 0, we see a M

light source located far down the positive x-axis.

αy

The line that we see on the wall is the shadow of the θx

Here since αx = o (in YZ-Plane).

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 43

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Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis cont’d….

1 0 0 0 cos θ 0 sin θ 0

0 cos θ - sin θ 0

0 & R (θ ) = 0 1 0

Rx(θx) = y y

0 sin θ cos θ 0 - sin θ 0 cos θ 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

αx

cosine of θx. θy

d

Thus, we never need to compute θx; rather,

αx

we need to compute only

We compute Ry(θy), in a similar manner. Figure 58 above shows the rotation.

This angle is clockwise about the y-axis; therefore, we have to be careful of

the sign of the sine terms in the matrix, which is

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Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis cont’d….

Finally, we concatenate all the matrices to find

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OPENGL TRANSFORMATION MATRICES cont’d….

The Current Transformation Matrix: The Current Transformation

Matrix (CTM) is a generalization common to most graphics

systems.

It is the matrix that is applied to any vertex that is defined

subsequent to its setting.

The CTM is part of the pipeline (Figure 59); thus, if p is a vertex

specified in the application, then the pipeline produces Cp.

The CTM is a 4 x 4 matrix; it can be altered by a set of

functions provided by the graphics package.

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OPENGL TRANSFORMATION MATRICES cont’d….

The CTM is defined in the user program and loaded into a

transformation unit.

If the symbol <-- is used to denote replacement, then the

initialization operation can be written as

The functions which alter C are of two forms: those that load it

with some matrix and those that modify it by pre-

multiplication or post-multiplication by a matrix.

The operations in post-multiplication form is written as

April 29, 2011 47

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OPENGL TRANSFORMATION MATRICES

Most systems allow us to load the CTM with an arbitrary matrix

M, or to post-multiply by an arbitrary matrix M,

Rotation, Translation, and Scaling in OpenGL: OpenGL has a

model-view and a projection matrix in the pipeline which are

concatenated together to form the CTM as shown below in

the figure.

Each of theses Matrices can be manipulated by first setting the

correct matrix mode

glLoadMatrixf(pointer_to_matrix);

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 48

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OPENGL TRANSFORMATION MATRICES cont’d….

or set a matrix to the identity matrix with the function

dimensional array of 16 entries organized by the columns of

the desired matrix.

The selected matrix can be altered with

following three functions:

glRotatef(angle, vx, vy, vz);

glTranslatef(dx, dy, dz);

glScalef(sx, sy, sz);

For rotation, the angle is specified in degrees, and the variables vx, vy, and

vz are the components of a vector about which object is to be rotated.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 49

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Rotation About a Fixed Point in OpenGL

The following sequence sets the matrix mode, then

forms the required matrix for a 45-degree rotation

about the line through the origin and the point (1, 2,

3) with a fixed point of (4, 5, 6):

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Order of Transformations

The rule in OpenGL for applying the transformation is this: The

transformation specified last is the one applied first.

forming the matrix

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Spinning of the Cube

Cube is defined with its vertices specified as follows:

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Spinning of the Cube cont’d….

Colour of each face of the cube is defined as follows:

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Spinning of the Cube cont’d….

The Cube is rotated using the three buttons of the mouse. The

following three callback functions will be defined as :

sets a model-view

matrix using the values

of three angles

determined by the

mouse callback.

It then draws a cube,

using the colorcube()

function

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 54

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Spinning of the Cube cont’d….

chosen axis by 2 degrees each time:

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Spinning of the Cube cont’d….

the program can be terminated by using the

keyboard with the simple keyboard callback as

follows:

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A Virtual Trackball

The use of the mouse position to control rotation about two axes

provides us with most of the functionality of a trackball.

Consider the trackball shown in Figure 4.61. We assume that the

ball has a radius of 1 unit.

A position on the surface of the Trackball can be mapped to the

plane y = 0 by doing an orthogonal projection to the plane, as

shown in Figure 62.

The position (x, y, z) on the surface of the ball is mapped to

(x, 0, z) on the plane

Y = 0.

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A Virtual Trackball cont’d….

This projection is reversible because it is

known that the 3D point (x, y, z) which is

projected to the point (x, 0, z) on the

plane Y = 0 must satisfy the equation of

the sphere

Thus, given the point (x, 0, z) on the plane

Y = 0, the corresponding point on the

hemisphere must be (x, y, z), where

.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 58

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A Virtual Trackball cont’d….

Suppose p1 and p2 be two positions on the

hemisphere; then the vectors from the origin

to these points determine the orientation of a

plane, as shown in Figure 63, whose normal

‘n’ is defined by their cross product

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A Virtual Trackball cont’d….

The motion of the trackball which moves from

pt to p2 can be achieved by a rotation about

n.

The angle of rotation θ is the angle between the

vectors p1 and p2, which can be computed by

using the magnitude of the cross product.

Because both p1 and p2 have unit length,

April 29, 2011 60

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A Virtual Trackball cont’d….

If the mouse is tracked at a high rate, then the changes detected

will be small; so, rather than using an inverse trigonometric

function to find θ, we can use the approximation

the virtual trackball can be implemented through the use of the

idle, motion, and mouse callbacks in GLUT.

We the process in terms of three logical variables can think of, or

flags, that control the tracking of the mouse and of the display

redrawing.

These are set initially as follow:

If redrawContinue is true, the idle function posts a redisplay. If

trackingMouse is true, the trackball position is updated as

part of the motion callback.

If trackballMove is true, the rotation matrix which is used in the

display routine is updated.

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 61

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QUATERNIONS

Quaternions: The Quaternions are an extension of complex

numbers that provide an alternative method for describing

and manipulating the rotations.

Complex Numbers and Quaternions: suppose that we let i

denote the pure imaginary number such that i2 = — 1.

Recalling Euler's identity: .

The polar representation of a complex number c can be written

as where a = r.cosθ; b = r.sinθ with

found using a rotation matrix, or the polar representation can

be used to write

K. Satyanarayan Reddy, Professor, CiTech,

April 29, 2011 62

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QUATERNIONS cont’d….

In 3-D the problem is more difficult; because to specify a rotation

about the origin both a direction (a vector) and the amount of

rotation need to be specified about the origin (a scalar).

Usually, this representation is written as the Quaternion.

The operations among Quaternions are based on the use of

three "complex" numbers i, j and k with the properties

These numbers are similar to the unit vectors in 3-D, and q can

be written as:

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QUATERNIONS cont’d….

Now using the relationships among i, j , and k the quaternion addition and

multiplication can be derived.

Consider the two quaternion a, b is given by equations:

a = (q0, q1, q2, q3) = (q0, q) and b = (p0, p1, p2, p3) = (p0, p)

Where q = q1i + q2j + q3k and p = p1i + p2j + p3k

then using the concept of dot and cross products for vectors we can derive

quaternion addition and multiplication as follows:

The magnitude for quaternions can also be defined in the normal manner as

to verify that the inverse of a quaternion is given by

Where 0 = 0i + 0j + 0k

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Quaternions and Rotation

Suppose that we use the vector part of a quaternion to

represent a point in space .

Thus, the components of p = (x, y, z) give the location of the

point.

Consider the quaternion where v has unit length.

It can be shown that the quaternion r is a unit quaternion

(|r| = 1), and therefore

If we consider the Quaternion product of the quaternion p

(which represents a point) with r, we obtain the quaternion

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Quaternions and Rotation cont’d….

and thus p' is the representation of a point.

Where p' is the result of rotation of the point p by θ degrees

about the vector v.

Example: Suppose that we consider the rotation about the z-axis

by θ with a fixed point at the origin.

The desired unit vector v is (0,0,1) yielding the quaternion

quaternion

April 29, 2011 66

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Quaternions and Rotation cont’d….

For rotation in 3-D, we can use the product of the corresponding

quaternions to form rxryrz ; representing a sequence of

rotations about the coordinate axes.

The elements of p' = rpr-1 can be used to find the elements of the

homogeneous coordinate rotation matrix embedded in M.

For the Rotation matrix is given by

April 29, 2011 67

Bangalore - 560036.

Advantages of Quaternions

Quaternion products can be used to form r and then form the

rotation part of M by matching terms between R and r.

In addition to the efficiency of using quaternions over the

rotation matrices is that, the quaternions can be interpolated

to obtain smooth sequences of rotations for animation.

April 29, 2011 68

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END OF UNIT V

THANK YOU

April 29, 2011 69

Bangalore - 560036.

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