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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

DESIGN GUIDE
Calculations for Electricians and Designers
2nd Edition
Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom

The Institution of Engineering and Technology is registered as a Charity in England & Wales
(no. 211014) and Scotland (no. SC038698).

The Institution of Engineering and Technology is the new institution


formed by the joining together of the IEE (The Institution of Electrical
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© 2008, 2013 The Institution of Engineering and Technology

First published 2008 (978-0-86341-555-0)


Reprinted September 2008
Reprinted (with amendments) November 2008
Second edition (incorporating BS 7671:2008 (2011)) 2013 (978-1-84919-657-4)

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention.
All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study,
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of Engineering and Technology, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, SG1 2AY,
United Kingdom.

Copies of this publication may be obtained from:


The Institution of Engineering and Technology
PO Box 96, Stevenage, SG1 2SD, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1438 767328
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While the publisher and contributors believe that the information and guidance given in this
work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of
them. The author, publisher and contributors do not assume any liability to anyone for any loss
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the result of negligence or any other cause. Where reference is made to legislation it is not to be
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ISBN 978-1-84919-657-4

Typeset in the UK by Carnegie Book Production, Lancaster


Printed in the UK by TBC
Contents

Cooperating organisations 6
Preface 7

Chapter 1 Design sequence 9


1.1 Load characteristics 9
1.2 Supply characteristics 10
1.3 Installation outline 10
1.4 Distribution design 10
1.5 Standard final circuits 11
1.6 Isolation and switching 11
1.7 Final assessment 11
1.8 Compliance with BS 7671 11

Chapter 2 Simple installations and final circuits 13


2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Supply characteristics 13
2.3 Fault rating of switchgear 15
2.4 Final circuit overcurrent devices and cables 16
2.5 Final circuit voltage drop limitations 19
2.6 Fault protection 22
2.7 Short-circuit current protection 23
2.8 Protective conductors 24
2.9 Standard final circuits 24

Chapter 3 Maximum demand and diversity 25


3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Installation outline 27
3.3 Final circuit current demand 28
3.4 Diversity between final circuits 31
3.5 Complex installations 34

Chapter 4 Selection of cables for current-carrying capacity 41


4.0 Symbols 41
4.1 Preliminary design 42
4.2 Overcurrent requirements 42
4.3 Current-carrying capacity tables 44

Calculations for Electricians and Designers 3


© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
4.4 Protection against overload and short-circuit 51
4.5 Protection against fault current only 52
4.6 Corrections for grouping not liable to simultaneous overload 54
4.7 Motors 56

Chapter 5 Voltage drop 59


5.1 Voltage drop in consumers’ installations 59
5.2 Distribution system voltage drop 59
5.3 Basic voltage drop calculation 60
5.4 Correction for inductance 62
5.5 Correction for load power factor 64
5.6 Correction for conductor operating temperature 65
5.7 Correction for both conductor operating temperature and load power factor 66

Chapter 6 Calculation of fault current 67


6.1 Determination of prospective fault current 67
6.2 Determined by enquiry 69
6.3 Determined by calculation 72

Chapter 7 Shock protection 79


7.1 Shock protection 79
7.2 Protective measure: automatic disconnection of supply 80
7.3 Circuit calculations 83

Chapter 8 Protection against fault current 85


8.1 The adiabatic equation 85
8.2 Selection from Table 54.7 87
8.3 Introduction to calculations 89
8.4 Simple calculation 89
8.5 Energy let-through calculation 91
8.6 Plotting protective conductor adiabatics 95
8.7 Protective conductor as a sheath or armour of a cable 98
8.8 Plotting of cable armour adiabatics 99
8.9 Calculation of armour capability 100
8.10 Conduit and trunking 103
8.11 Earthing and bonding conductors 104

Chapter 9 Calculations associated with testing 109


9.1 General 109
9.2 Continuity 110
9.3 Earth fault loop impedance Z s 110
9.4 Reduced section protective conductors 112

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Chapter 10 Impedance of copper and aluminium
conductors 115
10.1 Introduction 115
10.2 Conductor resistance and temperature 115
10.3 Impedance of cables from voltage drop tables 116

Chapter 11 Harmonics 119


11.1 Introduction 119
11.2 Cable ratings 120
11.3 Voltage drop 121
11.4 Overcurrent protection 123

Chapter 12 Protection against voltage disturbances 125


12.1 Introduction 125
12.2 The overvoltages 125
12.3 Power frequency fault voltage 125
12.4 Power frequency stress voltages 129
12.5 Earthing of 11 kV substations 129

Chapter 13 Busbar trunking 131


13.1 Symbols 131
13.2 Voltage drop 131
13.3 Fault currents 132

Appendix A Symbols 135

Appendix B Standard final circuits 139

Appendix C Avoidance of unintentional operation of


circuit-breakers 155
C.1 Lighting circuit applications 156

Appendix D Further cable calculations 159


D.1 Cable life 159
D.2 Temperatures (core and sheath) 160
D.3 Inductance of cables in parallel 160
D.4 Calculation of sheath voltages 161

Appendix E Symbols from CENELEC report R064-003 165

Appendix F Equipment data 167

Index 187

Calculations for Electricians and Designers 5


© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Preface

This book provides step-by-step guidance on the design of electrical installations,


from domestic installation final circuit design to fault level calculations for LV/large LV
systems. Apprentices and trainees will find it very helpful in carrying out the calculations
necessary for a basic installation.

The book has also been prepared to provide a design sequence, calculations and
data for a complete design. All necessary cable and equipment data to carry out the
calculations is included. Consultants will be able to check the calculations of their
design packages. It includes calculations and necessary reference data not found in the
design packages, such as cable conductor and sheath temperatures and allowances for
harmonics.

Calculations for Electricians and Designers 7


© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

A
Adiabatic, equation 2.8, 4.5, 8.1, 8.4
curve plotting 8.6, 8.8
After-diversity demand 3.4
Aluminium,
cables Table F.9
coefficient of resistance 10.2, Tables F.4, F.17
conductors Ch. 10
resistance Tables F.1, F.7A, F.8A, F.9
Aluminium strip armour cables Table F.9
Ambient temperature,
correction factor 4.3.2, 9.3.2
multiplier 4.3.2, Table F.2
Area, steel underfloor trunking Table F.10
Armour, current rating 8.9
Attenuation of fault level 6.2.2
Automatic disconnection of supply 7.2

B
Basic protection 7.1
Bonding conductors, supplementary 8.11.3
BS 88 fuse characteristics 8.6, 8.8
BS 88 fuse disconnection times Tables 8.6, 8.8
BS 3036 fuse disconnection times Table 8.7
BS 7671 Appendix 4 4.3, 4.6, 5.3
Table 4B1 4.3.2
Table 4C1 4.3.3
Table 41.1 7.2.1
Table 41.3 7.2.3
Table 54.7 8.2
Busbar trunking, general Ch. 13
fault currents 13.3
voltage drop 13.2
Ca 4.3.2
Cc 4.3.5
Cd 4.3.5
Cf 4.3.5
Cg 4.3.3
Ci 4.3.4
Cr 6.3.2, 9.3.2, Table F.3
Cs 4.3.5
Ct 5.6
Cable
adiabatics 8.8
armour 8.7, Table F.8B
armour area Tables 8.9, F.7B, F.8B
armour as protective conductor 8.7, Table 8.9
calculations, further Appx D

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

core temperature D.2


data Appx F
impedance 10.3
life D.1
ratings, harmonics 11.2
reactance D.3
sheath earth 8.7
sheath temperature D.2
voltage drop 10.3
Cables buried in ground 4.3.5
Cables, in parallel, inductance D.3
in thermal insulation 4.3.4
Calculations
final circuit current demand 3.3
current-carrying capacity Ch. 4
motor 4.7
prospective fault levels 6.3
shock protection 7.3
voltage drop 5.3
Cartridge fuse short-circuit capacity 6.1
CENELEC Report R064-003 13.1
symbols Appx E
Certificates 1.8, 2.2.1
Circuit-breaker
characteristics Appx C, 4.5
energy let-through 8.4.2, 8.5
short-circuit capacity 6.1
unintentional operation Appx C
Circuit
cooker 3.3.1 Ex2
demand 3.3
final Ch. 2, Appx B
immersion heater 3.3.1 Ex4
lighting 3.3.1 Ex3
motor 3.3.1 Ex5
protective conductor sizes 2.8, Ch. 8
shower 2.4.1, 2.6, 3.3.1 Ex1
Circuits, lightly loaded 4.3.3
standard Appx B
Coefficient of resistance 10.2, Table F.4
Completion certificates 1.8
Complex installations 3.5
Conductor
adiabatics 8.6
impedance Ch. 10
operating temperature 4.3.6, D.2, Table F.3
Conduit 8.10
Continuity testing 9.2
Cooker circuit 3.3.1 Ex2
Cooking diversity 3.4
Coordination load, device and cable characteristics 2.4
Copper,
coefficient of resistance 10.2, Tables F.4, F.17
conductor resistance Tables F.1, F.6, F.7A, F.8A, F.14, F.15, F.16
conductors Ch. 10
Core temperature D.2
Correction factors 6.3.2, Table F.17

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

Cross-sectional area,
armour Tables F.7B, F.8B
steel conduit Table F.10
trunking Table F.10
Current-carrying capacity 4.3
Currents fault 4.2.1
Currents overload 4.2.2

D
Definitions, symbols 4.0, Appx A
Demand Ch. 3
commercial 3.4.1 Ex1
domestic 3.1, 3.4.1 Ex2
final circuit 3.3
Departures from BS 7671 1.8
Design Ch. 1
Design current Ib 2.4
Design, preliminary 4.1
Design responsibility 1.8
Deterioration of cables Appx D
Direct contact see Basic protection
Disconnection times 7.2.1
Distribution circuit,
overcurrent protection 4.2
diversity 3.4
Distribution design 1.4
Distribution system,
calculations 6.3.3
voltage drop 5.2
Distribution transformer
impedance Table F.5
Diversity Ch. 3, 3.4
Domestic demand 3.1, 3.4.1 Ex2

E
Earthing arrangements 2.2.2
Earthing conductor 8.11.1
Earthing of 11 kV substations 12.5
Embedded generation 1.1.2
Equipment tables Appx F
External earth fault loop
impedance 2.2.3, 6.2

F
Fault currents 4.2.1, Ch. 6
busbar trunking 13.3
determined by enquiry 6.2
Fault protection 2.6, 7.1, 8.1.3
Fault rating, switchgear 2.3
Fault voltage 12.3
Final circuit 1.5, Ch. 2, 2.9, Appx B
demand 3.3
diversity 3.4
formulae Appx B
thermal insulation Appx B
voltage drop 2.5, 5.1
Formulae, circuits Appx B
Fundamental frequency 11.1
Fuse characteristics 4.5, 8.4.1, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

G
Grouping,
three-phase 4.3.3
lightly loaded 4.3.3
overload 4.6
rating factor 4.3.3

H
Harmonics Ch. 11
cable ratings 11.2
discharge lamps 11.1
overcurrent protection 11.4
switch mode power supplies 11.1
voltage drop 11.3
Household demand 3.1
HV supplies 1.2
HV system earth faults 12.3

I
I2t 8.1
characteristics 4.5
energy let-through 8.5
Immersion heater circuit 3.3.1 Ex4
Impedance Ch. 10
steel conduit Table F.11
steel trunking Tables F.12, F.13
transformers Table F.5
Indirect contact see Fault protection
Inductance of cables in parallel D.3
Inrush current Appx C
Installation
certificates 1.8.2
design overcurrent 4.2
outline 1.3, 3.2
schematic 3.2
small 2.2.1
voltage drop Ch. 5
Isolation 1.6
It tabulated cable rating 2.4.1, 4.3.1

J
no entries

K
k factor 8.2
Kitchen demand 3.1

L
Lead, coefficient of resistance 10.2, Table F.4
Let-through energy 4.5
Life of cables D.1
Lighting circuits 3.3.1 Ex3, Appx B
voltage drop 2.5
Load
characteristics 1.1
diversity 3.1
power factor – voltage drop 5.4

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

M
Main bonding conductors 8.11.1
Maximum demand Ch. 3
Maximum earth fault loop impedance 7.2.3
Maximum prospective short-circuit current 6.2
Mineral cable
heavy duty Tables F.15, F.16
light duty Table F.14
Motor circuit 3.3.1 Ex5, 4.7
Motor diversity 3.4
(mV/A/m) Ch. 5, 10.3

N
New supplies 2.2

O
Office design 3.4.1
Overcurrent devices, cables, circuits 2.4
Overcurrent protection 4.2
Overload currents 4.2.2
not simultaneous 4.6
parallel cables 4.4.2
protection 8.1.2
protection against 4.4
protection, omission 2.4.3, 4.5
small 4.2.3
Overvoltage protection Ch. 12

P
Parallel cables D.3
Part 7 1.4.6
Peak tripping current Appx C
Phase displacement Ch. 11
PME 6.2.4
Power factor – voltage drop 5.5
Power frequency stress voltages 12.4
Prospective fault current 1.4.3, Ch. 6
Prospective short-circuit currents
single-phase Table F.18A
three-phase Table F.18B
Protection against
electric shock 7.1
overload and short-circuit 2.7, 4.4
Protective conductor
adiabatic 2.8, 8.3, 8.6, 8.8
armour as 1.4.5, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9
conduit as 8.10
cross-sectional area 8.2
reduced section 1.4.5, 9.4
sheath of cable 8.7
sizes Ch. 8
trunking as 8.10
Protective measures, shock 7.1
PVC cables Tables F.7A, F.7B
single-core Table F.6

Q
no entries

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

R
R1 + R 2 9.2
Radial final circuits 2.4.1, Appx B
voltage drop 2.5
Rated short-circuit capacities 6.1
Rating factors 4.3.1
Reactance of cable D.3
Reduced section, protective conductors
testing 9.4
Regulation 28 of ESQCR 6.2
Regulation 410 7.1
Regulation 431.1.1 4.2
Regulation 432 4.4, 4.5
Regulation 433 4.2.2
Regulation 434 4.2.1, Ch. 6, 8.1.3
Regulation 434.1 6.1
Regulation 434.5.2 8.1
Regulation 435.1 8.1.2
Regulation 512.1.2 4.3.6
Regulation 523.9 4.3.4
Regulation 525 5.1
Regulation 534.1.4 8.2
Regulation 543 Ch. 8
Regulation 543.1.3 8.1
Resistance,
coefficient 10.2, Table F.4
correction factors 6.3.2, Table F.17
mineral cable Tables F.14, F.15, F.16
of conductors Ch. 10, Table F.1
Rewireable fuses 4.3.5
Ring final circuits 2.4.2, Appx B
voltage drop 2.5
R0604-003 13.1, Appx E

S
Schedule of test results 9.1
Schematic 3.2
Sheath, temperature D.2
voltages D.4
Shock protection 1.4.4, Ch. 7
circuit calculations 7.3
Short-circuits 4.4
capacities switchgear 6.1
current three-phase supply 6.2.3
single-phase 2.7, 6.2.2
Shower circuit 2.4.1, 2.6, 3.3.1 Ex1
Simple installations Ch. 2, 3.4.1
Simultaneous overload, not liable 4.6
Single-core cables Tables F.6, F.9
Socket circuits, radial 2.5.1
Special installations or locations 1.4.6
Standard circuits 1.5, Ch. 2, Appx B
Standby systems 1.1.2
Star-delta starting 4.7
Starting current Appx C
Steel,
coefficient of resistance Table F.4
conduit, impedance Table F.11

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

trunking impedance Tables F.12, F.13


underfloor trunking Table F.10
Storage heater diversity 3.4
Stress voltage 12.4
Submains 3.4
Substations – Earthing of 11 kV 12.5
Supplementary bonding conductors 8.11.3
Supply, characteristics 1.2, 2.2
earth fault loop impedances 2.2.3, 6.2
fault level attenuation 6.2
system fault levels 6.2
Switchgear fault rating 2.3
short-circuit capacities 6.1
Switching 1.6
Symbols 4.0, Appx A
CENELEC Appx E
System earthing 2.2.2

T
Table 4B1 4.3.2
Tables 4C1–4C6 4.3.3
Table 52.2 4.3.4
Tables 54.2 to 54.6 8.2
Table 54.7 8.2
Temperature conductor corrections 7.3
Temperature correction Tables F.2, F.3
Testing Ch. 9
continuity 9.2
earth fault loop impedance 9.3
Thermal insulation 4.3.4
final circuits Appx B
Thermoplastic cables Tables F.7A, F.7B
Thermosetting cables Tables F.8A, F.8B
Third harmonics Ch. 11
Three-phase voltage drop 5.3.2
TN systems 2.2.2
Transformer impedance Table F.5
Triplen harmonics Ch. 11
Trunking 8.10
TT systems 2.2.2
Typical distribution system 6.3.3

U
Unintentional operation, lighting circuits Ch. 1

V
Voltage disturbances protection Ch. 12
Voltage drop 1.4.2, 2.5, Ch. 5
busbar trunking 13.2
cables 10.3
conductor operating temperature 5.6
distribution system 5.2
final circuit 2.5
inductance 5.4
lighting circuit 2.5
multiplier Cr Table F.3
power factor 5.5
radial final circuit 2.5.1

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Index

ring final circuit 2.5.2


temperature correction 5.6, 7.3
three-phase 5.3.2
Voltage factor c Table A.1
Voltages, sheath D.4

W
Water heater diversity 3.4

XY
no entries

Z
Z41 7.3
Ze 2.2.3
Z s 7.2.3, 9.3

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© The Institution of Engineering and Technology