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English 1 English 1

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Rev 0, Jan 2003 Rev 0, Jan 2003
ENGLISH 1 ENGLISH 1
CONTENTS CONTENTS

Chapter page Chapter page

1. Abstract Nouns 1-1 1. Abstract Nouns 1-1

2. Verbs 2-5 2. Verbs 2-5

3. Adjectives 3-11 3. Adjectives 3-11

4. Adverbs 4-18 4. Adverbs 4-18

5. Conjunctions 5-26 5. Conjunctions 5-26

6. Prepositions 6-31 6. Prepositions 6-31

7. Pronouns 7-38 7. Pronouns 7-38

8. Simple Present Tense 8-44 8. Simple Present Tense 8-44

9. Present Continuous Tense 9-50 9. Present Continuous Tense 9-50

10. Simple Past Tense 10-55 10. Simple Past Tense 10-55

11. Past Continuous Tense 11-58 11. Past Continuous Tense 11-58

12. Present Perfect Vs Simple Past 12- 61 12. Present Perfect Vs Simple Past 12- 61

13. Future Tense / Going To 13- 65 13. Future Tense / Going To 13- 65

14. Past Perfect 14- 68 14. Past Perfect 14- 68

15. Active and Passive Voice 15- 72 15. Active and Passive Voice 15- 72
ABSTRACT NOUN ABSTRACT NOUN
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or x An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or
state. state.
x How do we use an abstract noun? An abstract noun answers to x How do we use an abstract noun? An abstract noun answers to
the question, “What?” the question, “What?”
x Abstract Nouns are formed from adjectives, verbs and common x Abstract Nouns are formed from adjectives, verbs and common
nouns nouns
x The names of Arts and Science are also Abstract Nouns. x The names of Arts and Science are also Abstract Nouns.
x Suffixes such as -sion, -tion, -ance, -ence, -ness, etc can be x Suffixes such as -sion, -tion, -ance, -ence, -ness, etc can be
added to a word to form an abstract noun. added to a word to form an abstract noun.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

Kindness, brightness, honesty, bravery, Kindness, brightness, honesty, bravery,


Quality Quality
darkness, goodness, wisdom darkness, goodness, wisdom
Action Movement, promotion, expansion, laughter, Action Movement, promotion, expansion, laughter,
judgement, theft, elevation judgement, theft, elevation
State Happiness, sadness, weakness, strength, State Happiness, sadness, weakness, strength,
childhood, poverty, confusion childhood, poverty, confusion

Chapter 1: Abstract Noun Chapter 1: Abstract Noun


1-1 1-1
Exercise 1 Form abstract nouns from the following words. Exercise 1 Form abstract nouns from the following words.

1. Cautious 11. Cruel 1. Cautious 11. Cruel

2. Choose 12. Think 2. Choose 12. Think

3. Strong 13. Friend 3. Strong 13. Friend

4. Collect 14. Oppose 4. Collect 14. Oppose

5. Inspect 15. Mad 5. Inspect 15. Mad

6. Try 16. Deep 6. Try 16. Deep

7. Present 17. Describe 7. Present 17. Describe

8. Resist 18. Promote 8. Resist 18. Promote

9. Conduct 19. Stupid 9. Conduct 19. Stupid

10. Sweet 20. Happy 10. Sweet 20. Happy

Chapter 1: Abstract Noun Chapter 1: Abstract Noun


1-2 1-2
Exercise 2 Give the correct noun forms in the sentences below. Exercise 2 Give the correct noun forms in the sentences below.

1. There is a great different between 1. There is a great different between


economics and electronics. economics and electronics.

2. If you visit Cameron Highlands, you’ll enjoy the peaceful 2. If you visit Cameron Highlands, you’ll enjoy the peaceful
of the mountains. of the mountains.

3. Without active old age can be boring. 3. Without active old age can be boring.

4. It is foolish to ignore the dangerous of not 4. It is foolish to ignore the dangerous of not
wearing the proper shoes in the laboratory. wearing the proper shoes in the laboratory.

5. The true is, the machine you sent me has some 5. The true is, the machine you sent me has some
faulty parts. faulty parts.

6. Selfish is the cause of most problems today. 6. Selfish is the cause of most problems today.

7. Teaching is a profession that needs a lot of patient . 7. Teaching is a profession that needs a lot of patient .

8. Weak in grammar is my biggest problem in 8. Weak in grammar is my biggest problem in


English. English.

9. Despite his success, Jason is a very humble person. 9. Despite his success, Jason is a very humble person.

10. During the teacher’s absent students often 10. During the teacher’s absent students often
become noisy. become noisy.

EXERCISE 3 Form Abstract Nouns from the Adjectives below: EXERCISE 3 Form Abstract Nouns from the Adjectives below:

1. Famous 1. Famous

2. Long 2. Long

3. Wise 3. Wise

4. Generous 4. Generous

5. Sweet 5. Sweet

6. Vacant 6. Vacant

Chapter 1: Abstract Noun Chapter 1: Abstract Noun


1-3 1-3
EXERCISE 4 Form Abstract Nouns from the Verbs below: EXERCISE 4 Form Abstract Nouns from the Verbs below:

1. Occupy 1. Occupy

2. Know 2. Know

3. Think 3. Think

4. Please 4. Please

5. Excel 5. Excel

6. Starve 6. Starve

EXERCISE 5 Form Abstract Nouns from the Common Nouns below: EXERCISE 5 Form Abstract Nouns from the Common Nouns below:

1. Child 1. Child

2. Friend 2. Friend

3. Owner 3. Owner

4. Thief 4. Thief

5. Agent 5. Agent

6. Man 6. Man

Chapter 1: Abstract Noun Chapter 1: Abstract Noun


1-4 1-4
VERBS VERBS
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x A verb is a saying-word. x A verb is a saying-word.
x It is the most important word in a sentence. x It is the most important word in a sentence.
x Every sentence must have a verb. x Every sentence must have a verb.
x The verb is a word used to say something about a person or x The verb is a word used to say something about a person or
thing. thing.
x It tells us what a person or thing does. x It tells us what a person or thing does.

PART 1 SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT PART 1 SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT

DEFINITION DEFINITION
x A verb has a person and a number. x A verb has a person and a number.
x So a verb changes with the person or number of the subject of x So a verb changes with the person or number of the subject of
the sentence. the sentence.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

Person Number Number Person Number Number


Singular Plural Singular Plural
First Person I check We check First Person I check We check
Second Person You check You check Second Person You check You check
Third Person He checks They check Third Person He checks They check
She checks They check She checks They check
It checks They check It checks They check

x If the word ‘not’ comes before a verb in the third person x If the word ‘not’ comes before a verb in the third person
singular of the present tense, the verb does not end in ‘s’. singular of the present tense, the verb does not end in ‘s’.

Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement


2-5 2-5
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1a. He keeps. 1b. He does not keep. 1a. He keeps. 1b. He does not keep.
(Affirmative Sentence) (Negative Sentence) (Affirmative Sentence) (Negative Sentence)
2a. She fits. 2b. She does not fit. 2a. She fits. 2b. She does not fit.
(Affirmative Sentence) (Negative Sentence) (Affirmative Sentence) (Negative Sentence)
3a. The student fills. 3b. The student does not fill. 3a. The student fills. 3b. The student does not fill.
(Affirmative Sentence) (Negative Sentence) (Affirmative Sentence) (Negative Sentence)

x In Question or Interogative Sentence also, the verb does not x In Question or Interogative Sentence also, the verb does not
end in ‘s’. end in ‘s’.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

Affirmative (Yes) Interrogative (Question) Affirmative (Yes) Interrogative (Question)


1. He packs. Does he pack? 1. He packs. Does he pack?
2. She proposes. Does she propose? 2. She proposes. Does she propose?
3. The technician repairs. Does the technician repair? 3. The technician repairs. Does the technician repair?
4. The clerk types. Does the clerk type? 4. The clerk types. Does the clerk type?

EXERCISE 1 Fill in the blanks with the correct alternative. EXERCISE 1 Fill in the blanks with the correct alternative.

Machine Maintenance Machine Maintenance


1. Preventive maintenance (form) the very 1. Preventive maintenance (form) the very
basis of everything. basis of everything.
2. Preventive maintenance (encompass) three 2. Preventive maintenance (encompass) three
principles. principles.
3. We (practise) preventive maintenance so that 3. We (practise) preventive maintenance so that
nothing (suffer) any common breakdown. nothing (suffer) any common breakdown.
4. The technicians (conduct) early preventive 4. The technicians (conduct) early preventive
repairs before any large breakdown (occur). repairs before any large breakdown (occur).
5. The maintenance specialist (function) as 5. The maintenance specialist (function) as
the doctor for the machinery and equipment. the doctor for the machinery and equipment.

Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement


2-6 2-6
EXERCISE 2 Identify the verbs in the following passages. EXERCISE 2 Identify the verbs in the following passages.

PASSAGE 1 PASSAGE 1

The solid-state construction also eliminates the need for The solid-state construction also eliminates the need for
filaments or heaters as found in all vacuum tubes. This means filaments or heaters as found in all vacuum tubes. This means
that additional power is not required to operate that additional power is not required to operate
the filaments and component operation is cooler and the filaments and component operation is cooler and
more efficient. By eliminating the filaments, a prime source of more efficient. By eliminating the filaments, a prime source of
trouble is also avoided because the filaments generally have a trouble is also avoided because the filaments generally have a
limited life expectancy. The absence of filaments also means that limited life expectancy. The absence of filaments also means that
a warm-up period is not required before the device can operate a warm-up period is not required before the device can operate
properly. In other words, the solid-state component operates the properly. In other words, the solid-state component operates the
instant it receives electrical power. instant it receives electrical power.

PASSAGE 2 PASSAGE 2

Supervisors have to make the workplace as safe as possible by Supervisors have to make the workplace as safe as possible by
establishing and following practices which minimize accident establishing and following practices which minimize accident
potential, enforce the use of protective devices on area potential, enforce the use of protective devices on area
specified and evaluate his/her workplace in terms of potential specified and evaluate his/her workplace in terms of potential
hazards and inform the safety committee for further hazards and inform the safety committee for further
investigation. investigation.

PASSAGE 3 PASSAGE 3

Chemicals present different problems in storage, handling, use Chemicals present different problems in storage, handling, use
and control. Some explode when heated, react with water, heat and control. Some explode when heated, react with water, heat
spontaneously, decompose into hazardous substances, or cause spontaneously, decompose into hazardous substances, or cause
ignition on contact with combustible materials. It is essential ignition on contact with combustible materials. It is essential
that the properties of each chemical you work with to be that the properties of each chemical you work with to be
known and understood. Always check with your supervisor known and understood. Always check with your supervisor
prior to using any chemical that you are not familiar with. prior to using any chemical that you are not familiar with.
Don’t take chances. If you don’t know, as. Don’t take chances. If you don’t know, as.

Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement


2-7 2-7
EXERCISE 3 Fill in the blanks with the verbs given below. EXERCISE 3 Fill in the blanks with the verbs given below.

organizes introduces run refers organizes introduces run refers


proliferates reveal stress open proliferates reveal stress open
evolves refuses eliminate notify evolves refuses eliminate notify

1. Courses are for the different levels of 1. Courses are for the different levels of
experience. experience.
2. She to let them interfere in her personal 2. She to let them interfere in her personal
affair. affair.

3. The secretary tea meetings for the senior 3. The secretary tea meetings for the senior
managers at least once a month. managers at least once a month.

4. Membership is to all regardless of whether 4. Membership is to all regardless of whether


they are students, professionals or housewives. they are students, professionals or housewives.

5. The speakers that self-improvement is a 5. The speakers that self-improvement is a


matter of personal priorities. matter of personal priorities.

6. The club into a community service 6. The club into a community service
organization. organization.

7. The technician to that maintenance handbook 7. The technician to that maintenance handbook
when he needs more information. when he needs more information.

8. Joanna her knowledge on computer 8. Joanna her knowledge on computer


programming to her colleagues. programming to her colleagues.

9. Our factory a running program for all its 9. Our factory a running program for all its
employees. employees.

10. The studies that people have to put a 10. The studies that people have to put a
distance between themselves and their jobs. distance between themselves and their jobs.

Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement


2-8 2-8
PART 2 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS PART 2 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

x A transitive verb must have an object to complete its sense x A transitive verb must have an object to complete its sense
or meaning. or meaning.
x The object is a noun or pronoun. x The object is a noun or pronoun.
x To locate the object of a verb, find the verb and ask whether x To locate the object of a verb, find the verb and ask whether
there are any words on which the action of the verb is carried there are any words on which the action of the verb is carried
out. out.
x We ask the question, “What?” or “Whom?” after the verb to x We ask the question, “What?” or “Whom?” after the verb to
find its object. find its object.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
1 She checks the machine regularly. 1 She checks the machine regularly.
(checks = verb; the machine = object) (checks = verb; the machine = object)
2 He operates a forklift in the store area. 2 He operates a forklift in the store area.
(operates = verb; a forklift = object) (operates = verb; a forklift = object)
3 The factory will furnish you with appropriate 3 The factory will furnish you with appropriate
protective equipment. protective equipment.
(will furnish = verb; you = object) (will furnish = verb; you = object)

x An intransitive verb does not need an object to complete its x An intransitive verb does not need an object to complete its
meaning or sense. meaning or sense.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
1 She types very fast. 1 She types very fast.
2 He talks loudly. 2 He talks loudly.
3 They will meet tomorrow. 3 They will meet tomorrow.

x The words, fast, loudly and tomorrow do not answer the x The words, fast, loudly and tomorrow do not answer the
question “What?” or “Whom?” after the verbs. question “What?” or “Whom?” after the verbs.
x They answer the question, “When?” or “How?” They are x They answer the question, “When?” or “How?” They are
therefore not nouns or objects. They are adverbs. therefore not nouns or objects. They are adverbs.
x It is possible for a verb to be transitive in some cases, and x It is possible for a verb to be transitive in some cases, and
intransitive in others. intransitive in others.
x For example: x For example:

1a. I shall return your notes tomorrow. 1a. I shall return your notes tomorrow.
1b. I shall return tomorrow. 1b. I shall return tomorrow.
2a. He won the competition again. 2a. He won the competition again.
2b. The group won again. 2b. The group won again.

Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement


2-9 2-9
EXERCISE 4 Say whether the verbs in the following sentences are transitive EXERCISE 4 Say whether the verbs in the following sentences are transitive
or intransitive. or intransitive.

1. Daniel will retire in two months’ time. 1. Daniel will retire in two months’ time.
2. This machine has never broken down. 2. This machine has never broken down.
3. You have to correct that sentence. 3. You have to correct that sentence.
4. Do not start that machine. 4. Do not start that machine.
5. He copies the notes carefully. 5. He copies the notes carefully.
6. She reads the newspaper daily. 6. She reads the newspaper daily.
7. Please fill in the forms. 7. Please fill in the forms.
8. When shall we discuss the problem? 8. When shall we discuss the problem?
9. She speaks clearly during the presentation. 9. She speaks clearly during the presentation.
10. They have invited him for the function. 10. They have invited him for the function.
11. Never drop lighted cigarettes in waste containers. 11. Never drop lighted cigarettes in waste containers.
12. He can’t understand you. 12. He can’t understand you.
13. Fred hasn’t spoken at all. 13. Fred hasn’t spoken at all.
14. Make others in the area aware of exposed hazards. 14. Make others in the area aware of exposed hazards.
15. They left early for the airport. 15. They left early for the airport.

Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 2: Subject-Verb Agreement


2-10 2-10
ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVES
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x A word which tells something more about a noun. x A word which tells something more about a noun.
x An adjective is therefore a describing-word. x An adjective is therefore a describing-word.

A. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES A. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

1. Adjectives of Quality 1. Adjectives of Quality


x An adjective which tells us something about the color, size, x An adjective which tells us something about the color, size,
shape or condition of a noun. shape or condition of a noun.
x It answers the question, ‘What kind of?’ x It answers the question, ‘What kind of?’
x It is also called a Descriptive Adjective. x It is also called a Descriptive Adjective.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN
hot day hot day
round table round table
big class big class
dirty room dirty room

2. Adjectives of Quantity 2. Adjectives of Quantity


x An adjective which tells us ‘how many’ or ‘how much’. x An adjective which tells us ‘how many’ or ‘how much’.
x It shows quantity or amount. x It shows quantity or amount.
x Some Adjectives of Quantity may be used with both x Some Adjectives of Quantity may be used with both
countable and plural countable nouns. countable and plural countable nouns.
x For example: some x For example: some

some water (uncountable noun) some water (uncountable noun)


some students (countable nouns) some students (countable nouns)

x Much, a little, little, less are used with uncountable nouns. x Much, a little, little, less are used with uncountable nouns.
x For example: x For example:

Martin doesn’t have much money. [negative idea] Martin doesn’t have much money. [negative idea]
Sally has a little money. [some money] Sally has a little money. [some money]
He has little money. [not enough money] He has little money. [not enough money]
Nowadays Michelle is spending less money (than before) Nowadays Michelle is spending less money (than before)
[comparison] [comparison]

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


3-11 3-11
x Many, a few, few, fewer are used with countable nouns. x Many, a few, few, fewer are used with countable nouns.
x For example: x For example:

James has many friends. James has many friends.


He has a few friends. He has a few friends.
He has few friends. He has few friends.
Fewer Americans are smoking (than before). Fewer Americans are smoking (than before).

B. Order of Opinion and Fact Adjectives B. Order of Opinion and Fact Adjectives

x Adjectives such as new, old, large, round or wooden are x Adjectives such as new, old, large, round or wooden are
Fact Adjectives. Fact Adjectives.
x They give us objective information about something. x They give us objective information about something.
x For example, size, shape, color, age, etc. x For example, size, shape, color, age, etc.
x Adjectives such as attractive, interesting, beautiful or x Adjectives such as attractive, interesting, beautiful or
hardworking are Opinion Adjectives. hardworking are Opinion Adjectives.
x They tell us what someone thinks of something. x They tell us what someone thinks of something.
x For example, quality, appearance, etc. x For example, quality, appearance, etc.
x When opinion and fact adjectives are used together, x When opinion and fact adjectives are used together,
opinion adjectives usually appear before fact adjectives. opinion adjectives usually appear before fact adjectives.
x For example: x For example:
A beautiful, (opinion) new ( fact) house. A beautiful, (opinion) new ( fact) house.

C. Adjectives ending in –ed and –ing C. Adjectives ending in –ed and –ing

1 An adjective ending in –ing placed before a noun 1 An adjective ending in –ing placed before a noun
describes what the noun is actively doing. describes what the noun is actively doing.
2 An adjective ending in –ing also describes the general 2 An adjective ending in –ing also describes the general
use of the noun or what the noun is intended for. use of the noun or what the noun is intended for.
3 An adjective ending in –ed describes what happened to 3 An adjective ending in –ed describes what happened to
the noun (usually earlier) the noun (usually earlier)

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
1a boiling water (the water is boiling) 1a boiling water (the water is boiling)
1b sinking ship (the ship is sinking) 1b sinking ship (the ship is sinking)
2a washing machine (a machine which washes) 2a washing machine (a machine which washes)
2b dining table (a table for dining) 2b dining table (a table for dining)
3a registered letter (the letter has been registered) 3a registered letter (the letter has been registered)
3b painted door (the door has been painted) 3b painted door (the door has been painted)

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


3-12 3-12
EXERCISE 1 Pick out the adjectives in the passage below. EXERCISE 1 Pick out the adjectives in the passage below.

Preventive maintenance forms the very basis of everything. We will repeat over Preventive maintenance forms the very basis of everything. We will repeat over
and over again that in order to understand a major aspect of plant maintenance, and over again that in order to understand a major aspect of plant maintenance,
you must think of it as being “health care” for the equipment. For human beings, you must think of it as being “health care” for the equipment. For human beings,
health care greatly improved with the development of preventive medicine. health care greatly improved with the development of preventive medicine.
Statistics show that Japanese have the longest life span. This is probably due to Statistics show that Japanese have the longest life span. This is probably due to
the extent to which preventive medicine has developed in Japan. Preventive the extent to which preventive medicine has developed in Japan. Preventive
medicine encompasses three principles. First is the prevention of common, medicine encompasses three principles. First is the prevention of common,
everyday illness. Second, is periodical health check-ups with a doctor. And, early everyday illness. Second, is periodical health check-ups with a doctor. And, early
treatment of anything out of the ordinary represents the third principle. treatment of anything out of the ordinary represents the third principle.
Preventive maintenance involves the same principles. When we talk about Preventive maintenance involves the same principles. When we talk about
prevention of ordinary illness, for equipment, illness of course means breakdowns. prevention of ordinary illness, for equipment, illness of course means breakdowns.
Thus, we practice preventive maintenance so that nothing suffers any common Thus, we practice preventive maintenance so that nothing suffers any common
breakdown. In other words, we practice “daily maintenance” This includes breakdown. In other words, we practice “daily maintenance” This includes
cleaning, replenishing oil, and conducting general checks. Now, regular health cleaning, replenishing oil, and conducting general checks. Now, regular health
examinations with a doctor would be equated to periodical inspections and examinations with a doctor would be equated to periodical inspections and
examinations of the equipment. Lastly, conducting early preventive repairs before examinations of the equipment. Lastly, conducting early preventive repairs before
any large breakdown occurs would be equivalent to receiving prompt medical any large breakdown occurs would be equivalent to receiving prompt medical
treatment for anything wrong before it develops into something serious in the treatment for anything wrong before it develops into something serious in the
future. future.
Who takes these daily preventive measures. For we human beings, we do it Who takes these daily preventive measures. For we human beings, we do it
ourselves as part of our own personal health care program. For machinery, it is ourselves as part of our own personal health care program. For machinery, it is
imperative that each operator who uses that piece of machinery or equipment is imperative that each operator who uses that piece of machinery or equipment is
responsible for its preventive maintenance. In addition to the operators, an responsible for its preventive maintenance. In addition to the operators, an
“equipment doctor”… a maintenance specialist must conduct periodical “equipment doctor”… a maintenance specialist must conduct periodical
inspections and conduct any repairs that could not be prevented. inspections and conduct any repairs that could not be prevented.

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


3-13 3-13
EXERCISE 2 Arrange the adjectives in the correct order. Use the correct EXERCISE 2 Arrange the adjectives in the correct order. Use the correct
Article. Article.

1. A , spanner. 1. A , spanner.
(short, useful) (short, useful)

2. A , city. 2. A , city.
(ugly, industrial) (ugly, industrial)

3. A , technician. 3. A , technician.
(young, hardworking) (young, hardworking)

3. A , cabinet. 3. A , cabinet.
(ugly, brown) (ugly, brown)

4. A , man. 4. A , man.
(bad-tempered, old) (bad-tempered, old)

5. A , car. 5. A , car.
(German, luxurious) (German, luxurious)

6. A , machine. 6. A , machine.
(efficient, cutting) (efficient, cutting)

7. A , fiction. 7. A , fiction.
(interesting, science) (interesting, science)

8. A , restaurant. 8. A , restaurant.
(popular, Chinese) (popular, Chinese)

9. A , chair. 9. A , chair.
(leather, comfortable) (leather, comfortable)

10. A , day. 10. A , day.


(sunny, lovely) (sunny, lovely)

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


3-14 3-14
EXERCISE 3 Complete the sentences with –ed adjectives made from the EXERCISE 3 Complete the sentences with –ed adjectives made from the
words below. words below.

appreciate injure dress puncture appreciate injure dress puncture


retire lock stripe detach retire lock stripe detach
worry furnish startle surprise worry furnish startle surprise
register cook mark repair register cook mark repair

1. The man had such a look on his face when 1. The man had such a look on his face when
he heard the news. he heard the news.

2. Adrian lives with his family in a apartment 2. Adrian lives with his family in a apartment
near the industrial area. near the industrial area.

3. The mechanic wore a blue shirt and black 3. The mechanic wore a blue shirt and black
trousers. trousers.

4. My sister and I like home- food and we seldom 4. My sister and I like home- food and we seldom
eat out. eat out.

5. The students couldn’t get in because of the 5. The students couldn’t get in because of the
door. door.

6. The receptionist received three letter this 6. The receptionist received three letter this
morning. morning.

7. The lecturer returned the assignments to them 7. The lecturer returned the assignments to them
yesterday. yesterday.

8. The motorist was taken to the hospital. 8. The motorist was taken to the hospital.

9. An early appointment with your manager would be much 9. An early appointment with your manager would be much

. .

10. The cat dashed down the road chased by the 10. The cat dashed down the road chased by the
dog. dog.

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


3-15 3-15
11. The sales manager is considered one of the best- 11. The sales manager is considered one of the best-
women in the office. women in the office.

12. The candidates waited while the names of 12. The candidates waited while the names of
those chosen were being read. those chosen were being read.

13. A semi house in Penang costs around 13. A semi house in Penang costs around
RM650, 000. RM650, 000.

14. The girl couldn’t ride her bicycle because it had a 14. The girl couldn’t ride her bicycle because it had a
tyre. tyre.

15. Richard’s father is a police inspector. 15. Richard’s father is a police inspector.

EXERCISE 4 Choose the correct alternative EXERCISE 4 Choose the correct alternative

1. Everyone in the group was amazed / amazing when she won 1. Everyone in the group was amazed / amazing when she won
the competition. the competition.

2. Why do you look so worried / worrying. Have you had bad 2. Why do you look so worried / worrying. Have you had bad
news? news?

3. The moved / moving train raced past us at great speed. 3. The moved / moving train raced past us at great speed.

4. We were very excited / exciting when we heard the good news. 4. We were very excited / exciting when we heard the good news.

5. My supervisor was shocked / shocking to hear that Rachel had 5. My supervisor was shocked / shocking to hear that Rachel had
resigned. resigned.

6. We couldn’t find Samantha’s house as the directions she gave 6. We couldn’t find Samantha’s house as the directions she gave
us were very confused / confusing. us were very confused / confusing.

7. Mario had taken up swimming as he finds jogging bored / 7. Mario had taken up swimming as he finds jogging bored /
boring. boring.

8. It’s been raining all day. I find this kind of weather depressed / 8. It’s been raining all day. I find this kind of weather depressed /
depressing. depressing.

9. Nicholas doesn’t go to football matches as he is not interested / 9. Nicholas doesn’t go to football matches as he is not interested /
interesting in football. interesting in football.

10. We cheered the won / winning team as they scored another goal. 10. We cheered the won / winning team as they scored another goal.

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


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EXERCISE 5 Complete the sentences with few, a few, little, or a little. EXERCISE 5 Complete the sentences with few, a few, little, or a little.

1. She left that factory months ago. 1. She left that factory months ago.

2. I don’t have much money but Grace has . 2. I don’t have much money but Grace has .

3. The bus service is so good that there is need for 3. The bus service is so good that there is need for
her to buy a car. her to buy a car.

4. The streets are very quiet as there is traffic this late 4. The streets are very quiet as there is traffic this late
at night. at night.

5. I’ll be attending the forum as there are talks which 5. I’ll be attending the forum as there are talks which
I’m interested in. I’m interested in.

6. She works so hard that she has energy at the end of 6. She works so hard that she has energy at the end of
the day. the day.

7. It was a boring talk and he paid attention to it. 7. It was a boring talk and he paid attention to it.

8. There are more technicians who are interested in 8. There are more technicians who are interested in
that course. that course.

9. people were at the exhibition because of the rain. 9. people were at the exhibition because of the rain.

10. students did not understand the lesson. 10. students did not understand the lesson.

EXERCISE 6 Examine these sentences. Correct the adjectives if necessary. EXERCISE 6 Examine these sentences. Correct the adjectives if necessary.

1. He didn’t sleep well last night because he was bitten by much 1. He didn’t sleep well last night because he was bitten by much
mosquitoes. mosquitoes.

2. Wendy is very intelligent although she has had few education. 2. Wendy is very intelligent although she has had few education.

3. My manager dislikes lazy people. He doesn’t have some 3. My manager dislikes lazy people. He doesn’t have some
patience with them at all. patience with them at all.

4. He should drink more water and less coffee and tea. 4. He should drink more water and less coffee and tea.

5. There are too much children and too little schools. 5. There are too much children and too little schools.

Chapter 3: Adjectives Chapter 3: Adjectives


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ADVERBS ADVERBS
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x Adverbs add to the meaning of the verb, an adjective or another x Adverbs add to the meaning of the verb, an adjective or another
adverb. adverb.
x This means, it is a word that says something more about a verb, x This means, it is a word that says something more about a verb,
an adjective or another adverb. an adjective or another adverb.
x Adverbs answer the questions, “When?”, “Where?”, “How?”, x Adverbs answer the questions, “When?”, “Where?”, “How?”,
etc an action is done. etc an action is done.

TYPES OF ADVERBS TYPES OF ADVERBS

1. Adverbs of Manner 1. Adverbs of Manner

x Adverbs of Manner show how an action or something is x Adverbs of Manner show how an action or something is
done. done.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
1 You’ll have to walk quickly 1 You’ll have to walk quickly
2 He failed the test badly. 2 He failed the test badly.
3 I don’t remember that salesman very well 3 I don’t remember that salesman very well

x Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives. x Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives.
x For example: x For example:

1. He is a fast driver. 1. He is a fast driver.


2. He normally drives very fast. 2. He normally drives very fast.
3. This is a hard job. 3. This is a hard job.
4. I have to work hard to achieve good grades. 4. I have to work hard to achieve good grades.

x Adverbs of Manner are not placed between a verb and its x Adverbs of Manner are not placed between a verb and its
object. object.
x For example: x For example:

1. He counted the units carefully. 1. He counted the units carefully.


(verb + object + adverb) (verb + object + adverb)

2. That Japanese engineer spoke English fluently. 2. That Japanese engineer spoke English fluently.
(verb + object = adverb) (verb + object = adverb)

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-18 4-18
x We often change an adjective into an adverb by adding -ly x We often change an adjective into an adverb by adding -ly

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

ADJECTIVE ADVERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB


Hopeful Hopefully Hopeful Hopefully
Real Really Real Really
Dangerous Dangerously Dangerous Dangerously
Complete Completely Complete Completely
Sincere Sincerely Sincere Sincerely

x If an adjective ends in –y, we change it to – ily x If an adjective ends in –y, we change it to – ily
x For example: x For example:

angry - angrily angry - angrily


easy - easily easy - easily
lazy - lazily lazy - lazily

x If an adjective ends in –ic, we add – ally. x If an adjective ends in –ic, we add – ally.
x For example: x For example:

tragic - tragically tragic - tragically


frantic - frantically frantic - frantically
romantic - romantically romantic - romantically

2. Adverbs of Place 2. Adverbs of Place

x This adverb shows where an action or something is done or x This adverb shows where an action or something is done or
happens. happens.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 William is standing outside 1 William is standing outside


2 She is in her office now 2 She is in her office now
3 They are eating in the cafeteria 3 They are eating in the cafeteria

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-19 4-19
3. Adverbs of Time 3. Adverbs of Time

x This adverb shows when an action or something is done or x This adverb shows when an action or something is done or
happens. happens.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 He the bus will arrive soon. 1 He the bus will arrive soon.
2 He told me then. 2 He told me then.
3 She went out for a movie last night 3 She went out for a movie last night

4. Adverbs of Frequency 4. Adverbs of Frequency

x These adverbs tell us how often something happens or is x These adverbs tell us how often something happens or is
done. done.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 He has never been to Japan 1 He has never been to Japan


2 She normally eats in the canteen 2 She normally eats in the canteen
3 They seldom make spelling mistakes 3 They seldom make spelling mistakes

x Adverbs of Frequency are usually placed in mid-position x Adverbs of Frequency are usually placed in mid-position
(after auxiliary verbs, verbs-to-be and before other verbs) (after auxiliary verbs, verbs-to-be and before other verbs)
x For example: x For example:

1. You can always prepare the presentation earlier. 1. You can always prepare the presentation earlier.
(auxiliary verb + adverb) (auxiliary verb + adverb)

2. They are seldom at home during the holidays, 2. They are seldom at home during the holidays,
(verb-to-be + adverb) (verb-to-be + adverb)

3. The machine sometimes breaks down when it gets 3. The machine sometimes breaks down when it gets
overloaded. (adverb + other verb) overloaded. (adverb + other verb)

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-20 4-20
5. Adverbs of Degree 5. Adverbs of Degree

x This adverb answers the questions, “To what degree?” or x This adverb answers the questions, “To what degree?” or
“How much?” “How much?”

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 He is good enough for that team. 1 He is good enough for that team.
2 I am very sorry for what happened. 2 I am very sorry for what happened.
3 He talks too much. 3 He talks too much.

MANNER, PLACE, MANNER, PLACE,


TIME TIME
x Adverbs usually come in the order manner, place, time at the x Adverbs usually come in the order manner, place, time at the
end of a clause. end of a clause.
x For example: x For example:

1. They played very well in the field yesterday. 1. They played very well in the field yesterday.
(manner, place, time) (manner, place, time)

2. She went to her manager’s office immediately. 2. She went to her manager’s office immediately.
(place, time) (place, time)

3. He worked especially hard last week. 3. He worked especially hard last week.
(manner, time) (manner, time)

HOW TO DETERMINE AN ADJECTIVE FROM AN HOW TO DETERMINE AN ADJECTIVE FROM AN


ADVERB ADVERB

ADJECTIVE An adjective answers the questions, “How much?”, “How many?” ADJECTIVE An adjective answers the questions, “How much?”, “How many?”
“What kind?” etc. together with a noun. “What kind?” etc. together with a noun.

ADVERB An adverb answers the questions, “How much?”, “How?”, ADVERB An adverb answers the questions, “How much?”, “How?”,
“Where?”, “When?” etc. together with a verb, adjective or “Where?”, “When?” etc. together with a verb, adjective or
another adverb; but never with a noun. another adverb; but never with a noun.

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-21 4-21
EXERCISE 1 Form adverbs from the following EXERCISE 1 Form adverbs from the following

1. Smooth - 1. Smooth -
2. Moody - 2. Moody -
3. Dramatic - 3. Dramatic -
4. Good - 4. Good -
5. Fast - 5. Fast -
6. Heavy - 6. Heavy -
7. Terrible - 7. Terrible -
8. Lucky - 8. Lucky -
9. Foolish - 9. Foolish -
10. Hungry - 10. Hungry -

EXERCISE 2 Which of the words in bold are adjectives and which are EXERCISE 2 Which of the words in bold are adjectives and which are
adverbs. adverbs.

1. He is a habitually fast driver. 1. He is a habitually fast driver.

2. He drove very fast towards the airport. 2. He drove very fast towards the airport.

3. She called early yesterday. 3. She called early yesterday.

4. Early participants have enough time to make the necessary 4. Early participants have enough time to make the necessary
arrangements. arrangements.

5. The night is very still. 5. The night is very still.

6. You’ll have to sit still while I do your face. 6. You’ll have to sit still while I do your face.

7. He is still talking to his friend on the phone. 7. He is still talking to his friend on the phone.

8. He is required to edit the magazine weekly. 8. He is required to edit the magazine weekly.

9. Weekly meetings are held with the shift supervisors. 9. Weekly meetings are held with the shift supervisors.

10. They have completely forgotten about the gathering. 10. They have completely forgotten about the gathering.

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-22 4-22
EXERCISE 3 Point out the correct words in the brackets. EXERCISE 3 Point out the correct words in the brackets.

1. The food in the cafeteria tastes (good / well). 1. The food in the cafeteria tastes (good / well).

2. She writes very (neat / neatly) and (clear / clearly) 2. She writes very (neat / neatly) and (clear / clearly)

3. There is no fear; she will do it (easy / easily), even if you 3. There is no fear; she will do it (easy / easily), even if you
cannot. cannot.

4. He walks very (feeble / feebly) after an illness. 4. He walks very (feeble / feebly) after an illness.

5. He reads rather (indistinct / indistinctly) and requires practice. 5. He reads rather (indistinct / indistinctly) and requires practice.

6. He will help you (sincere / sincerely) if you ask him. 6. He will help you (sincere / sincerely) if you ask him.

7. They came to school very (regular / regularly) the whole of last 7. They came to school very (regular / regularly) the whole of last
week. week.

8. He treated us all (free / freely) and (fair / fairly); so we can’t 8. He treated us all (free / freely) and (fair / fairly); so we can’t
complain. complain.

9. She helped me (considerable / considerably) 9. She helped me (considerable / considerably)

10. Do your job (quick / quickly) 10. Do your job (quick / quickly)

EXERCISE 4 Pick out the adverbs in these sentences. EXERCISE 4 Pick out the adverbs in these sentences.

1. The resistor is made of finely divided carbon mixed with an 1. The resistor is made of finely divided carbon mixed with an
insulating material. insulating material.
2. Color stripes are printed at one end of the insulating body. 2. Color stripes are printed at one end of the insulating body.
3. This formula tells us to simply divide the voltage by the ohms 3. This formula tells us to simply divide the voltage by the ohms
of the resistance. of the resistance.
4. The barrier voltage within a diode cannot be directly measured. 4. The barrier voltage within a diode cannot be directly measured.
5. The most commonly used filter component is a large capacitor 5. The most commonly used filter component is a large capacitor
connected across the load. connected across the load.
6. Generally, these circuits generate an output signal. 6. Generally, these circuits generate an output signal.
7. In the next two days, we will be looking into the different 7. In the next two days, we will be looking into the different
components. components.
8. There are special devices that are designed to operate in this 8. There are special devices that are designed to operate in this
region. region.

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-23 4-23
EXERCISE 5 Check the position of the adverbs in bold and correct them if EXERCISE 5 Check the position of the adverbs in bold and correct them if
they are wrong. they are wrong.

1. Michael is probably the tallest guy in his class. 1. Michael is probably the tallest guy in his class.

2. The instructor went through the exercises slowly. 2. The instructor went through the exercises slowly.

3. She placed carefully the units in the machine. 3. She placed carefully the units in the machine.

4. She often goes to America for industrial training. 4. She often goes to America for industrial training.

5. Definitely, that was the biggest computer fair ever held by that 5. Definitely, that was the biggest computer fair ever held by that
company. company.

6. She told him confidently that she would get the job. 6. She told him confidently that she would get the job.

7. That Korean manager speaks fluently English. 7. That Korean manager speaks fluently English.

8. She was walking towards her house when she slowly heard a 8. She was walking towards her house when she slowly heard a
loud noise. loud noise.

9. The seminar, last year took place in Shanghai. 9. The seminar, last year took place in Shanghai.

10. Safely, the pilot landed the plane. 10. Safely, the pilot landed the plane.

EXERCISE 6 Complete the sentences with so, most, too or very where EXERCISE 6 Complete the sentences with so, most, too or very where
suitable. suitable.

1. She was tired that she went to bed early. 1. She was tired that she went to bed early.

2. He looks happy this morning. 2. He looks happy this morning.

3. He bought a second-hand car in good condition. 3. He bought a second-hand car in good condition.

4. This room is big for a class of ten students. 4. This room is big for a class of ten students.

5. I won’t buy that painting. It’s expensive. 5. I won’t buy that painting. It’s expensive.

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-24 4-24
6. It was late when we arrived at Hong Kong. 6. It was late when we arrived at Hong Kong.

7. Hilary is a helpful friend. She is busy to 7. Hilary is a helpful friend. She is busy to
listen to my problems. listen to my problems.

8. I decided to go to the library after class as it was 8. I decided to go to the library after class as it was
early. early.

9. You’re welcome to join us for the discussion. 9. You’re welcome to join us for the discussion.

10. Krishnan is slow for that computer class. 10. Krishnan is slow for that computer class.

Chapter 4: Adverbs Chapter 4: Adverbs


4-25 4-25
CONJUNCTIONS CONJUNCTIONS
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x A conjunction is used to join two clauses. x A conjunction is used to join two clauses.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
and, but, as, before, after, if, or, nor, because, and, but, as, before, after, if, or, nor, because,
that, till, until, while, unless, yet, since, though, that, till, until, while, unless, yet, since, though,
although, eventhough, whereas, so that, than. although, eventhough, whereas, so that, than.

1 She tried hard but she couldn’t understand. 1 She tried hard but she couldn’t understand.
2 He’s tired and he wants to go home early. 2 He’s tired and he wants to go home early.
3 It was getting late, so we had to stop working. 3 It was getting late, so we had to stop working.
4 She is unhappy because she failed the test. 4 She is unhappy because she failed the test.
5 She bought the furniture although it is expensive. 5 She bought the furniture although it is expensive.

x And, but, so, and that are used between two clauses. Most x And, but, so, and that are used between two clauses. Most
other conjunctions can be used at the beginning of a sentence. other conjunctions can be used at the beginning of a sentence.

I’d inform you if I knew. I’d inform you if I knew.


Although it is expensive, she bought the furniture. Although it is expensive, she bought the furniture.
Because she failed the test, she was unhappy. Because she failed the test, she was unhappy.

x We use only one conjunction to join two clauses. x We use only one conjunction to join two clauses.

Even though she was tired, she went to the party. Even though she was tired, she went to the party.
She was tired but she went to the party. She was tired but she went to the party.
(NOT: Although she was tired, but she went to the (NOT: Although she was tired, but she went to the
party.) party.)

As you know, she works very hard. As you know, she works very hard.
You know that she works very hard. You know that she works very hard.
(NOT: As you know, that she works very hard) (NOT: As you know, that she works very hard)

Chapter 5: Conjunctions Chapter 5: Conjunctions


5-26 5-26
x Although / though / even though x Although / though / even though
in spite of / despite in spite of / despite

Although it was raining, we went out. Although it was raining, we went out.
In spite of the rain, we went out. In spite of the rain, we went out.
Despite the rain, we went out. Despite the rain, we went out.

1. Although must be followed by a subject + verb. 1. Although must be followed by a subject + verb.

Although he jogs very often, he is still fat. Although he jogs very often, he is still fat.
Although she is rich, she is a humble person. Although she is rich, she is a humble person.

2. In spite of and despite must be followed by a noun, a 2. In spite of and despite must be followed by a noun, a
pronoun (this/that/what etc.) or -ing. pronoun (this/that/what etc.) or -ing.

In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our stay in Singapore. In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our stay in Singapore.
Despite his age, he learns very fast. Despite his age, he learns very fast.
She wasn’t very interested but in spite of this she She wasn’t very interested but in spite of this she
went for the walk. went for the walk.

Note that we say ‘in spite of’ but ‘despite’ (without of) Note that we say ‘in spite of’ but ‘despite’ (without of)

3. We can sometimes use though instead of although. 3. We can sometimes use though instead of although.

He didn’t win the competition though he tried very He didn’t win the competition though he tried very
hard. hard.
She came to class though she wasn’t feeling very well. She came to class though she wasn’t feeling very well.

Even though is a stronger form of although. Even though is a stronger form of although.

Even though it was flooded, I arrive on time. Even though it was flooded, I arrive on time.

4. Compare in spite of / despite and although. 4. Compare in spite of / despite and although.

They continued working although they were very They continued working although they were very
tired. tired.
Although the food was good, they couldn’t finish it. Although the food was good, they couldn’t finish it.
In spite of the good food, they couldn’t finish it. In spite of the good food, they couldn’t finish it.

Chapter 5: Conjunctions Chapter 5: Conjunctions


5-27 5-27
EXERCISE 1 Choose the correct conjunction. EXERCISE 1 Choose the correct conjunction.
although / even though / even if or whether. although / even though / even if or whether.

1. He is going to employ that salesman he knows he 1. He is going to employ that salesman he knows he
has very little sales experience. has very little sales experience.

2. she turns up or not, it is not very important. 2. she turns up or not, it is not very important.

3. she is very old, she cycles to the 3. she is very old, she cycles to the
market everyday. market everyday.

4. The nurse will attend to you it is during lunch 4. The nurse will attend to you it is during lunch
time. time.

5. the team is new, their performance is very 5. the team is new, their performance is very
good. good.

6. we work here or in Kuala Lumpur, we can 6. we work here or in Kuala Lumpur, we can
visit them as often as we want to. visit them as often as we want to.

7. I’ll help you I’ll have to stay back until 7. I’ll help you I’ll have to stay back until
7.00 o’clock. 7.00 o’clock.

8. He is going to open a computer shop he has no 8. He is going to open a computer shop he has no
experience in that business. experience in that business.

9. We cannot be lazy we have a lot of money. 9. We cannot be lazy we have a lot of money.

10. she made the sweater by herself, it looks 10. she made the sweater by herself, it looks
very nice on her. very nice on her.

Chapter 5: Conjunctions Chapter 5: Conjunctions


5-28 5-28
EXERCISE 2 Complete the sentence with the suitable conjunction. EXERCISE 2 Complete the sentence with the suitable conjunction.

1. The manager spoke kindly firmly. 1. The manager spoke kindly firmly.

2 She is in her office in the meeting room. 2 She is in her office in the meeting room.

3. I cannot go home the job is finished. 3. I cannot go home the job is finished.

4. She takes a bath she goes to bed. 4. She takes a bath she goes to bed.

5. Our group scored 75 the other group was making 5. Our group scored 75 the other group was making
30. 30.

6. I’ll call you work. 6. I’ll call you work.

7. she is very young, she is a skilled artist. 7. she is very young, she is a skilled artist.

8. I can’t read your handwriting you write neatly. 8. I can’t read your handwriting you write neatly.

9. Please inform him we are waiting for him. 9. Please inform him we are waiting for him.

10. Please switch off all the lights leaving the office. 10. Please switch off all the lights leaving the office.

11. Has the technician come ? 11. Has the technician come ?

12. I haven’t written the report . 12. I haven’t written the report .

13. I’ll take the job the pay is not too low. 13. I’ll take the job the pay is not too low.

14. Will you stay they leave? 14. Will you stay they leave?

15. I’m not sure I’ll have the time. 15. I’m not sure I’ll have the time.

Chapter 5: Conjunctions Chapter 5: Conjunctions


5-29 5-29
EXERCISE 3 Complete the following using suitable Conjunctions. EXERCISE 3 Complete the following using suitable Conjunctions.

1. I cannot go out … 1. I cannot go out …

2. I will help you … 2. I will help you …

3. Will you go with me … 3. Will you go with me …

4. Do you know … 4. Do you know …

5. He is angry … 5. He is angry …

EXERCISE 4 Place a suitable sentence before each Conjunction in the EXERCISE 4 Place a suitable sentence before each Conjunction in the
following. following.

1. and see what happens. 1. and see what happens.

2. or you will find yourself in 2. or you will find yourself in


trouble. trouble.

3. but don’t trust him too far. 3. but don’t trust him too far.

4. because it isn’t worth the 4. because it isn’t worth the


money. money.

5. or I may not. 5. or I may not.

Chapter 5: Conjunctions Chapter 5: Conjunctions


5-30 5-30
PREPOSITION PREPOSITION
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x A word that expresses the relationship between a noun (or x A word that expresses the relationship between a noun (or
pronouns) and some other part of the same sentence, which pronouns) and some other part of the same sentence, which
may be a verb, an adjective or another noun (or pronoun) may be a verb, an adjective or another noun (or pronoun)

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

Verb + Noun Verb + Noun


She lives near the factory. She lives near the factory.

Noun + Noun Noun + Noun


She lives in a flat near the factory. She lives in a flat near the factory.

Adjective + Noun Adjective + Noun


He is full of ideas. He is full of ideas.

Some common examples of prepositions are: in, on, at, to with, Some common examples of prepositions are: in, on, at, to with,
without, near, from, beneath, during, for, after, before, below, without, near, from, beneath, during, for, after, before, below,
beside, by, around, above, across, along, among, into. beside, by, around, above, across, along, among, into.

x In / at / on x In / at / on

1. We use in/at with buildings or when we want to say that 1. We use in/at with buildings or when we want to say that
someone is at an event. We normally use at when we want to someone is at an event. We normally use at when we want to
say where an event takes place. say where an event takes place.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

All the technicians were present at the meeting. All the technicians were present at the meeting.
We saw Julie at the trade fair yesterday. We saw Julie at the trade fair yesterday.
We went for the dinner at the Shangri-La hotel. We went for the dinner at the Shangri-La hotel.

Other examples are: Other examples are:

at the factory at the airport at the factory at the airport


at a party at home at a party at home

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-31 6-31
x We usually use in when we are thinking of the building itself. x We usually use in when we are thinking of the building itself.
We can use in with countries and towns. We can use in with countries and towns.
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

He has to stay in bed as he is not well. He has to stay in bed as he is not well.
The living room in Jessica’s house is very spacious. The living room in Jessica’s house is very spacious.
Robert’s parents live in San Diego. Robert’s parents live in San Diego.
He will be arriving in Singapore tomorrow. He will be arriving in Singapore tomorrow.

x We can use in or on with the word time. x We can use in or on with the word time.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

He didn’t get a ticket for the show because he didn’t get He didn’t get a ticket for the show because he didn’t get
there in time. there in time.
The dinner they organized never starts on time. The dinner they organized never starts on time.

x Prepositions at the end of clauses. x Prepositions at the end of clauses.


There are times when prepositions come at the end of There are times when prepositions come at the end of
clauses. clauses.

a) Questions a) Questions
When the questions begin with what, who, where, etc. When the questions begin with what, who, where, etc.

What is she looking for? What is she looking for?


Who did she go with? Who did she go with?
Where did he buy it from? Where did he buy it from?

b) Passive structures b) Passive structures

She hates being laughed at. She hates being laughed at.

c) Infinitive structures c) Infinitive structures

It’s an interesting place to live in. It’s an interesting place to live in.
I need someone to talk to. I need someone to talk to.

d) relative clauses d) relative clauses

That is the salesman (that) I told you about. That is the salesman (that) I told you about.
Do you remember the project I was working on? Do you remember the project I was working on?

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-32 6-32
x There are certain prepositions that are always used with certain x There are certain prepositions that are always used with certain
words. words.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

a) nouns with prepositions a) nouns with prepositions

ability at reason for ability at reason for

proof of the thought of proof of the thought of

tendency to tendency to

b) adjectives with prepositions b) adjectives with prepositions

different from interested in different from interested in

compared with/to bad at compared with/to bad at

polite to polite to

c) verbs with prepositions c) verbs with prepositions

acquiesce with prevent from acquiesce with prevent from

insist on remind of insist on remind of

aim at aim at

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-33 6-33
EXERCISE 1 Complete these sentence with in, at, with, or on. EXERCISE 1 Complete these sentence with in, at, with, or on.

1. We saw a parade the way to the airport. 1. We saw a parade the way to the airport.

2. The team is having a training session the field. 2. The team is having a training session the field.

3. The manager came the consultant to inspect the 3. The manager came the consultant to inspect the
factory. factory.

4. The engineer is doing his work his cubicle. 4. The engineer is doing his work his cubicle.

5. The General Manager’s office is the first floor. 5. The General Manager’s office is the first floor.

6. There is another entrance t he back. 6. There is another entrance t he back.

7. All the rooms have a number the door. 7. All the rooms have a number the door.

8. You’ll find the answers the back page of the book. 8. You’ll find the answers the back page of the book.

9. the end of the road, take a right turn and you’ll see 9. the end of the road, take a right turn and you’ll see
the building you’re looking for your right. the building you’re looking for your right.

10. I’ll meet you the canteen 10 o’clock. 10. I’ll meet you the canteen 10 o’clock.

11. Would you like some sugar your coffee? 11. Would you like some sugar your coffee?

12. I didn’t see you the function. Who did you come 12. I didn’t see you the function. Who did you come
? ?

13. He speaks Japanese quite well. He worked 13. He speaks Japanese quite well. He worked
Japan for 5 years. Japan for 5 years.

14. Do call me tomorrow evening. I’ll be home. 14. Do call me tomorrow evening. I’ll be home.

15. What time do you expect to arrive Manila? 15. What time do you expect to arrive Manila?

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-34 6-34
EXERCISE 2 Fill in the blanks with the prepositions below: EXERCISE 2 Fill in the blanks with the prepositions below:

from of on about through from of on about through

1. We have received several complaints your 1. We have received several complaints your
attitude. attitude.

2. She became a well-known producer hard work 2. She became a well-known producer hard work
and determination. and determination.

3. They were scared that manager when he first came. 3. They were scared that manager when he first came.

4. the first day at work, he looked very happy. 4. the first day at work, he looked very happy.

5. She likes him because he is different everybody else 5. She likes him because he is different everybody else
here. here.

6. He bought a handful chocolates for her daughter. 6. He bought a handful chocolates for her daughter.

7. The talk had a great effect Azura. 7. The talk had a great effect Azura.

8. They want to test public awareness their product. 8. They want to test public awareness their product.

9. The instructor gave examples prepositions. 9. The instructor gave examples prepositions.

10. They had a long discussion politics. 10. They had a long discussion politics.

11. She is afraid being left alone at home. 11. She is afraid being left alone at home.

12. Congratulations your new job. 12. Congratulations your new job.

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-35 6-35
EXERCISE 3 Choose the correct word below and insert it in the correct EXERCISE 3 Choose the correct word below and insert it in the correct
place. place.

with for at to about with for at to about

1. When I said those things, I wasn’t referring you. 1. When I said those things, I wasn’t referring you.

2. The students intend to protest the committee’s decision. 2. The students intend to protest the committee’s decision.

3. We searched the notes all day and at last we found them in 3. We searched the notes all day and at last we found them in
between the files. between the files.

4. What is it that you are worried? 4. What is it that you are worried?

5. The Managing Director will officiate the opening of the 5. The Managing Director will officiate the opening of the
gymnasium. gymnasium.

6. The new nursery will cater the needs of 150 children. 6. The new nursery will cater the needs of 150 children.

7. Please supply the girls a file each. 7. Please supply the girls a file each.

8. Can you provide me the course curriculum and schedule? 8. Can you provide me the course curriculum and schedule?

9. The letters pertaining your claim is at the Human Resource 9. The letters pertaining your claim is at the Human Resource
Office. Office.

10. People have always been kind me. 10. People have always been kind me.

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-36 6-36
EXERCISE 4 Match the verbs in column I with the expressions in II. EXERCISE 4 Match the verbs in column I with the expressions in II.

COLUMN 1 COLUMN II COLUMN 1 COLUMN II


1 emphasize A talk about 1 emphasize A talk about
2 enquire B go into 2 enquire B go into
3 enter C grieve at 3 enter C grieve at
4 comprise D lay stress on 4 comprise D lay stress on
5 ignited E dive into 5 ignited E dive into
6 hail F consist of 6 hail F consist of
7 tell G call to 7 tell G call to
8 remain H set fire to 8 remain H set fire to
9 plunge I come back 9 plunge I come back
10 raise J ask for 10 raise J ask for
11 imagine K talk to 11 imagine K talk to
12 discuss L left behind 12 discuss L left behind
13 regret M bring up 13 regret M bring up
14 cope with N put up with 14 cope with N put up with
15 return O think about 15 return O think about

EXERCISE 4 Supply the correct prepositions EXERCISE 4 Supply the correct prepositions

1. agree 11. explain 1. agree 11. explain


2. apologize 12. good 2. apologize 12. good
3. believe 13. laugh 3. believe 13. laugh
4. depend 14. look 4. depend 14. look
5. disappointed 15. paid 5. disappointed 15. paid
6. divided 16. shocked 6. divided 16. shocked
7. dream 17. smile 7. dream 17. smile
8. answer 18. satisfied 8. answer 18. satisfied
9. submit 19. confident 9. submit 19. confident
10. weak 20. liable 10. weak 20. liable

Chapter 6: Preposition Chapter 6: Preposition


6-37 6-37
PRONOUNS PRONOUNS
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x Pronouns are used to take the place of nouns. x Pronouns are used to take the place of nouns.
x There are several types of pronouns: personal pronouns, x There are several types of pronouns: personal pronouns,
reflexive pronouns, possessive pronouns and demonstrative reflexive pronouns, possessive pronouns and demonstrative
pronouns. pronouns.

1. Personal pronouns 1. Personal pronouns


x I, we, you, he, she and it are Personal Pronouns because x I, we, you, he, she and it are Personal Pronouns because
they stand for the three persons: they stand for the three persons:

(i) the person speaking, (i) the person speaking,


(ii) the person spoken to, (ii) the person spoken to,
(iii) the person spoken to. (iii) the person spoken to.

x The Pronouns I and we which denote the person or persons x The Pronouns I and we which denote the person or persons
speaking are said to be Personal Pronouns of the First speaking are said to be Personal Pronouns of the First
Person. Person.
x The Pronoun you which denotes the second person or x The Pronoun you which denotes the second person or
persons spoken to, is said to be a Personal Pronoun of the persons spoken to, is said to be a Personal Pronoun of the
Second Person. You is used both in the singular and plural. Second Person. You is used both in the singular and plural.
x The Pronouns he, she and they which denote the person or x The Pronouns he, she and they which denote the person or
persons spoken of, are said to be Personal Pronouns of the persons spoken of, are said to be Personal Pronouns of the
third Person. It although it denotes the thing spoken of, is third Person. It although it denotes the thing spoken of, is
also called a Personal Pronoun. also called a Personal Pronoun.

2. Reflexive pronouns 2. Reflexive pronouns

x A reflexive pronouns is used when the action done by the doer x A reflexive pronouns is used when the action done by the doer
goes back to himself (i.e. the subject and the object are the goes back to himself (i.e. the subject and the object are the
same person). same person).
Example: Example:

He has hurt himself. He has hurt himself.


She was talking to herself just now. She was talking to herself just now.

Chapter 7: Pronouns Chapter 7: Pronouns


7-38 7-38
x A reflexive pronoun can also be used as emphasizing pronoun. x A reflexive pronoun can also be used as emphasizing pronoun.
Example: Example:

I’ll send the letter myself. I’ll send the letter myself.

In this sentence, the word myself stresses I and no one else did In this sentence, the word myself stresses I and no one else did
it. it.

x We use a reflexive pronoun after the preposition by to mean x We use a reflexive pronoun after the preposition by to mean
that a person does something alone or without help. For that a person does something alone or without help. For
example: example:

She often likes to spend time by herself. She often likes to spend time by herself.
(alone) (alone)

He repaired the television by himself. He repaired the television by himself.


(without help) (without help)

x Singular forms of reflexive pronouns end in –self and the plural x Singular forms of reflexive pronouns end in –self and the plural
forms in –selves. forms in –selves.
x Reflexive pronouns are often used wrongly in place of personal x Reflexive pronouns are often used wrongly in place of personal
pronouns. For example: pronouns. For example:

My sister and myself will be glad to come. My sister and myself will be glad to come.
We haven’t seen your parents and yourself for two We haven’t seen your parents and yourself for two
years already. years already.

x These two sentences are incorrect and personal pronouns x These two sentences are incorrect and personal pronouns
should be used. should be used.

My sister and I will be glad to come. My sister and I will be glad to come.
We haven’t seen your parents and you for two years We haven’t seen your parents and you for two years
already. already.

Chapter 7: Pronouns Chapter 7: Pronouns


7-39 7-39
3. Possessive pronouns 3. Possessive pronouns

x Possessive pronoun takes the place of a noun. They are not x Possessive pronoun takes the place of a noun. They are not
followed by nouns and do not have apostrophes. followed by nouns and do not have apostrophes.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs

The responsibility is yours. The responsibility is yours.


The letter is hers. The letter is hers.
Which one is his? Which one is his?

4. Demonstrative pronouns 4. Demonstrative pronouns

x Pronouns that are used to point out the objects to which x Pronouns that are used to point out the objects to which
they refer are called Demonstrative Pronouns. they refer are called Demonstrative Pronouns.
x We use them with countable and uncountable nouns. x We use them with countable and uncountable nouns.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

this, these, that, those this, these, that, those

That is Azizah’s book. That is Azizah’s book.


Those are Azizah’s books. Those are Azizah’s books.

Do you like this painting? Do you like this painting?


Do you like these paintings? Do you like these paintings?

Chapter 7: Pronouns Chapter 7: Pronouns


7-40 7-40
EXERCISE 1 Choose the correct word and fill in the blanks. EXERCISE 1 Choose the correct word and fill in the blanks.

1. You were right, it was we saw at the mall yesterday. 1. You were right, it was we saw at the mall yesterday.
(he, him) (he, him)

2. My sister and are going to Singapore tomorrow. (she, 2. My sister and are going to Singapore tomorrow. (she,
her) her)

3. You and make a good pair for the competition. (he, 3. You and make a good pair for the competition. (he,
him) him)

4. Our friends and have stayed in Japan for five years. 4. Our friends and have stayed in Japan for five years.
(they, them) (they, them)

5. Malaysians have much to be proud of. (We, Us) 5. Malaysians have much to be proud of. (We, Us)

6. Will you let Suzanne and handle that project? (I, me) 6. Will you let Suzanne and handle that project? (I, me)

7. Marcus took Kelly and to the exhibition. (I, me) 7. Marcus took Kelly and to the exhibition. (I, me)

8. I met Tom yesterday. He invited to his house. (I, me) 8. I met Tom yesterday. He invited to his house. (I, me)

9. I have two sisters and are all married. (they, them) 9. I have two sisters and are all married. (they, them)

10. These notes aren’t mine. Are yours? (they, them) 10. These notes aren’t mine. Are yours? (they, them)

Chapter 7: Pronouns Chapter 7: Pronouns


7-41 7-41
EXERCISE 2 The sentences below have unnecessary pronouns. Remove the EXERCISE 2 The sentences below have unnecessary pronouns. Remove the
pronoun in the sentences. pronoun in the sentences.

1. The girls they talked happily about their success. 1. The girls they talked happily about their success.

2. The food in the cafeteria it is good. 2. The food in the cafeteria it is good.

3. George, he is a hardworking person. 3. George, he is a hardworking person.

4. She was informed that the meeting it was cancelled. 4. She was informed that the meeting it was cancelled.

5. My dog it is very obedient. 5. My dog it is very obedient.

EXERCISE 3 Fill in the blanks with the correct pronouns EXERCISE 3 Fill in the blanks with the correct pronouns

1. The dog hurt chasing after the cat. 1. The dog hurt chasing after the cat.

2. Does she always talk to ? 2. Does she always talk to ?

3. It’ll be better if you do your assignment . 3. It’ll be better if you do your assignment .

4. Roger and his friends have to go to the game by . 4. Roger and his friends have to go to the game by .

5. I went to the movie by . 5. I went to the movie by .

6. She cooked something to eat. 6. She cooked something to eat.

7. They enjoyed very much that day. 7. They enjoyed very much that day.

Chapter 7: Pronouns Chapter 7: Pronouns


7-42 7-42
EXERCISE 4 Choose the correct demonstrative. EXERCISE 4 Choose the correct demonstrative.

1. This / These manuals 1. This / These manuals

2. That / Those tools 2. That / Those tools

3. This / These battery 3. This / These battery

4. This / These gloves 4. This / These gloves

5. This / These components 5. This / These components

6. That / Those objectives 6. That / Those objectives

7. That / Those projectors 7. That / Those projectors

8. This / These advantages 8. This / These advantages

9. That / Those insulators 9. That / Those insulators

10. This / These diagrams 10. This / These diagrams

11. That / Those resistors 11. That / Those resistors

12. This / These directions 12. This / These directions

Chapter 7: Pronouns Chapter 7: Pronouns


7-43 7-43
PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE
DEFINITION DEFINITION
A. We use the present simple to talk about things in general. A. We use the present simple to talk about things in general.
x The present simple does not only imply that things are x The present simple does not only imply that things are
happening now or that they were actually happening at the happening now or that they were actually happening at the
time of speaking. time of speaking.
x We use it to talk about things which happen at any time, or x We use it to talk about things which happen at any time, or
repeatedly or that something is true in general. repeatedly or that something is true in general.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 Lawyers speak for their clients in court 1 Lawyers speak for their clients in court
2 The sun rises in the East and sets in the West 2 The sun rises in the East and sets in the West
3 He goes to Singapore about twice a year. 3 He goes to Singapore about twice a year.
4 The shop opens at 11.00 a.m. 4 The shop opens at 11.00 a.m.

x Note that for he/she/it, we need to add –s to the verb. For x Note that for he/she/it, we need to add –s to the verb. For
verbs ending in s, -z, -x, -ch and –sh, we add -es. verbs ending in s, -z, -x, -ch and –sh, we add -es.

Examples: misses, buzzes, touches, dashes. Examples: misses, buzzes, touches, dashes.

x For verbs ending in consonant + y, we add -ies. x For verbs ending in consonant + y, we add -ies.

Examples: worries, hurries. Examples: worries, hurries.

B. Do/Does are used to ask questions and make negative B. Do/Does are used to ask questions and make negative
sentences. sentences.

QUESTIONS NEGATIVE QUESTIONS NEGATIVE


Do I print? I don’t print Do I print? I don’t print
Do you print? You don’t print Do you print? You don’t print
Does he/she/it print? He/She/It doesn’t print Does he/she/it print? He/She/It doesn’t print
Do we print? We don’t print Do we print? We don’t print
Do they print? They don’t print. Do they print? They don’t print.

Chapter 8: Present Simple Chapter 8: Present Simple


8-44 8-44
Excuse me, do you speak Japanese? Excuse me, do you speak Japanese?
‘Would you like a cigarette?’ ‘No, thanks. I don’t smoke.’ ‘Would you like a cigarette?’ ‘No, thanks. I don’t smoke.’
How does this machine work? How does this machine work?
(NOT: How this machine work?) (NOT: How this machine work?)
She doesn’t like staying up late. She doesn’t like staying up late.

C. Take note that we say ‘Where do you come from?’ C. Take note that we say ‘Where do you come from?’
(NOT: Where are you coming from?) (NOT: Where are you coming from?)

D. When we want to make a suggestion, we can say: D. When we want to make a suggestion, we can say:
Why don’t you …….? Why don’t you …….?

For example: For example:

I’m hungry. Why don’t we eat now?’ I’m hungry. Why don’t we eat now?’

Chapter 8: Present Simple Chapter 8: Present Simple


8-45 8-45
EXERCISE 1 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb. EXERCISE 1 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb.

1. Everyday she (leave) the house at 7.30 a.m. 1. Everyday she (leave) the house at 7.30 a.m.

and (return) at seven in the evening. and (return) at seven in the evening.

2. How (you/like) your new table. I 2. How (you/like) your new table. I
(like) it very much. (like) it very much.

3. Please (help) me to find my pencil. 3. Please (help) me to find my pencil.

4. He (not live) here. He (stay in 4. He (not live) here. He (stay in


that corner house. that corner house.

5. It often (rain) at this time of the year. 5. It often (rain) at this time of the year.

Sometimes our area (get) flooded. Sometimes our area (get) flooded.

6. She usually (keep) quiet and (do) her work. 6. She usually (keep) quiet and (do) her work.

7. She (go) to the library at least once a week. 7. She (go) to the library at least once a week.

8. We (know) that the supervisor. He (live) 8. We (know) that the supervisor. He (live)
nearby the factory. nearby the factory.

9. Where (you/keep) your files? I cannot 9. Where (you/keep) your files? I cannot
(find) them. (find) them.

10. He usually (speak) English but sometimes he 10. He usually (speak) English but sometimes he
(try) to speak French. (try) to speak French.

Chapter 8: Present Simple Chapter 8: Present Simple


8-46 8-46
EXERCISE 2 Supply the correct form of the verb EXERCISE 2 Supply the correct form of the verb

1. The library (open) at 11.00 a.m. and 1. The library (open) at 11.00 a.m. and
(close) at 10.00 p.m. everyday. (close) at 10.00 p.m. everyday.

2. What time (the supermarkets/close) 2. What time (the supermarkets/close)


in Singapore? in Singapore?

3. She has a computer but she (not/use) it very often. 3. She has a computer but she (not/use) it very often.

4. How many units (you/test) a day? 4. How many units (you/test) a day?

5. ‘What (you/do)?’ ‘I’m an engineer’ 5. ‘What (you/do)?’ ‘I’m an engineer’

6. ‘Where (the consultant/come) from?’ 6. ‘Where (the consultant/come) from?’

‘He (work) in Arizona.’ ‘He (work) in Arizona.’

7. If you (need) to use a hand-phone, I 7. If you (need) to use a hand-phone, I


(think) you should get one. (think) you should get one.

8. I don’t understand the word ‘adept’. What 8. I don’t understand the word ‘adept’. What
(adept/mean)? (adept/mean)?

9. I (play) basketball but I (not/play) 9. I (play) basketball but I (not/play)


very well. very well.

10. He (pack) the boxes and (take) them to 10. He (pack) the boxes and (take) them to
the store. the store.

Chapter 8: Present Simple Chapter 8: Present Simple


8-47 8-47
EXERCISE 3 Make questions with the sentences below. Begin the question EXERCISE 3 Make questions with the sentences below. Begin the question
with the word (s) in brackets. with the word (s) in brackets.

1. Thomas plays squash twice a week. (How often?) 1. Thomas plays squash twice a week. (How often?)

2. I visit my parents on Sunday. (When?) 2. I visit my parents on Sunday. (When?)

3. I like to read in the evening. (What time/usually) 3. I like to read in the evening. (What time/usually)

4. Mike works at Motorola. (Where?) 4. Mike works at Motorola. (Where?)

5. They keep the boxes in the store. (Why?) 5. They keep the boxes in the store. (Why?)

6. The machine breaks down once in a while. (How often?) 6. The machine breaks down once in a while. (How often?)

7. I attend class five days a week (How often?) 7. I attend class five days a week (How often?)

8. I watch television at night. (What time/usually?) 8. I watch television at night. (What time/usually?)

9. She leaves her keys under the doormat. (Where?) 9. She leaves her keys under the doormat. (Where?)

10. The students have to attend the computer course. (Why?) 10. The students have to attend the computer course. (Why?)

Chapter 8: Present Simple Chapter 8: Present Simple


8-48 8-48
EXERCISE 4 Correct the verbs if they are wrong. EXERCISE 4 Correct the verbs if they are wrong.

1. The questionnaire consist of two sections. 1. The questionnaire consist of two sections.

2. Advertising are essential for modern businesses. 2. Advertising are essential for modern businesses.

3. You need to learn some standard rule in technical drawing. 3. You need to learn some standard rule in technical drawing.

4. She try to pins the paper on the top edge of the board. 4. She try to pins the paper on the top edge of the board.

5. Practical circuits contain a combination of resistors. 5. Practical circuits contain a combination of resistors.

6. It is possible to constructs a triangle when the length of the 6. It is possible to constructs a triangle when the length of the
three sides is known. three sides is known.

7. She do her work without wasting time referring to her notes. 7. She do her work without wasting time referring to her notes.

8. The current flow through a series of circuits containing three 8. The current flow through a series of circuits containing three
resistors. resistors.

9. The circuit consume a lot of power. 9. The circuit consume a lot of power.

10. Success requires a lot of hard work and determination. 10. Success requires a lot of hard work and determination.

Chapter 8: Present Simple Chapter 8: Present Simple


8-49 8-49
PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT CONTINUOUS
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x We use the present continuous to talk about an action that is x We use the present continuous to talk about an action that is
happening now or around the time of speaking. happening now or around the time of speaking.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

‘The phone is ringing. Can you take the call, please?’ ‘The phone is ringing. Can you take the call, please?’
Listen to him carefully. He is explaining the last part of Listen to him carefully. He is explaining the last part of
the process. the process.
‘Where is Jean?’ ‘She is looking for some books in ‘Where is Jean?’ ‘She is looking for some books in
the library.’ the library.’

x We often use the present continuous to talk about the future. x We often use the present continuous to talk about the future.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

What are you doing tomorrow evening? What are you doing tomorrow evening?
Are you playing tennis tomorrow? Are you playing tennis tomorrow?
What time is she leaving tomorrow? What time is she leaving tomorrow?

x We can also use the present continuous for a temporary x We can also use the present continuous for a temporary
situation. situation.
Example: Example:
I’m using her table until they deliver mine. I’m using her table until they deliver mine.
That machine isn’t working. It broke down That machine isn’t working. It broke down
yesterday. yesterday.

x We can use always with the present continuous to mean ‘very x We can use always with the present continuous to mean ‘very
often’ often’
Example: Example:
I’m always losing my paper clips. I’m always losing my paper clips.
Susie’s nice. She’s always doing things for her Susie’s nice. She’s always doing things for her
friends. friends.
I’m always running into Pauline lately. I’m always running into Pauline lately.

Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense


9-50 9-50
x There are verbs that can only be used in simple tenses. x There are verbs that can only be used in simple tenses.
x For example, you can say I remember but you cannot say I’m x For example, you can say I remember but you cannot say I’m
remembering. remembering.
x Below is a list of verbs that are not normally used in the x Below is a list of verbs that are not normally used in the
continuous tenses. continuous tenses.

believe like believe like


belong love belong love
forget hate forget hate
know hear know hear
suppose mean suppose mean
realize see realize see
prefer need prefer need
remember understand remember understand
want seem want seem

Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense


9-51 9-51
EXERCISE 1 Decide whether the verbs in the sentences below are right or EXERCISE 1 Decide whether the verbs in the sentences below are right or
wrong. Correct those that are incorrect. wrong. Correct those that are incorrect.

1. I can’t hear him. He is talking too softly. 1. I can’t hear him. He is talking too softly.

2. It rains very heavily now. Let’s run for shelter. 2. It rains very heavily now. Let’s run for shelter.

3. ‘What do you talk about? I don’t understand a word you say.’ 3. ‘What do you talk about? I don’t understand a word you say.’

4. Are you believing in what he just said? 4. Are you believing in what he just said?

5. I’m realizing that it would be a good idea for him to join our 5. I’m realizing that it would be a good idea for him to join our
group. group.

6. I’m usually discussing my problems with him. 6. I’m usually discussing my problems with him.

7. He is thinking that he is very good looking. 7. He is thinking that he is very good looking.

8. Why you stand here alone? 8. Why you stand here alone?

9. Please closes the window. The rain is coming in. 9. Please closes the window. The rain is coming in.

10. Can you see what I hold in my hand? 10. Can you see what I hold in my hand?

Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense


9-52 9-52
EXERCISE 2 Fill in the blanks with the present continuous or the present EXERCISE 2 Fill in the blanks with the present continuous or the present
simple Tense of the verbs in brackets. simple Tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. Please listen. I (talk) to you. 1. Please listen. I (talk) to you.

2. He seldom (work) hard, but he 2. He seldom (work) hard, but he


(work) hard now. (work) hard now.

3. Kumar (wait) for the train. He often 3. Kumar (wait) for the train. He often
(go) to Singapore by train. (go) to Singapore by train.

4. Look at Nancy. She (run) to catch the bus 4. Look at Nancy. She (run) to catch the bus
because it (move) away. because it (move) away.

5. Steve (visit) his uncle once a year. He 5. Steve (visit) his uncle once a year. He
usually (go) there during the long holidays. usually (go) there during the long holidays.

6. Listen! Who (shout) over there? 6. Listen! Who (shout) over there?

7. He (not/use) the computer now. He 7. He (not/use) the computer now. He


(walk) away. (walk) away.

8. He (not/belong) to our team. 8. He (not/belong) to our team.

9. You can use my computer. I (not/need) it at 9. You can use my computer. I (not/need) it at
the moment. the moment.

10. Krishnan says he isn’t married but I (not/believe) 10. Krishnan says he isn’t married but I (not/believe)
him. him.

11. David is in Kuala Lumpur at the moment. He 11. David is in Kuala Lumpur at the moment. He
(stay) at the Hilton Hotel. (stay) at the Hilton Hotel.

12. We (have) a party next Sunday. Would 12. We (have) a party next Sunday. Would
you like to (come)? you like to (come)?

13. What time (the next train/leave)? 13. What time (the next train/leave)?

14. I (work) tomorrow morning. 14. I (work) tomorrow morning.

15. How long (stay) in Manila? 15. How long (stay) in Manila?

Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense


9-53 9-53
EXERCISE 3 Fill the blanks with the Simple Present or Present EXERCISE 3 Fill the blanks with the Simple Present or Present
Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets. Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. We always (go) to the park for a jog. We 1. We always (go) to the park for a jog. We

(go) now. (go) now.

2. She (not read) that manual now. 2. She (not read) that manual now.

3. What (be) the time, please? It (be) 3. What (be) the time, please? It (be)
seven by my watch. seven by my watch.

4. Look! There (be) a fire. The fire-engine 4. Look! There (be) a fire. The fire-engine
(be) not here yet. (be) not here yet.

5. Do not (clean) any part of the machine tool 5. Do not (clean) any part of the machine tool
while it is in operation. while it is in operation.

6. He usually (go) home at 6.00 p.m. but this 6. He usually (go) home at 6.00 p.m. but this
evening he (work) late. evening he (work) late.

7. I (like) going to the gym. I 7. I (like) going to the gym. I


(go) there now. (go) there now.

8. We cannot (go) out because it 8. We cannot (go) out because it


(rain) now. (rain) now.

9. We (know) that salesman. He 9. We (know) that salesman. He


(sell) computer. (sell) computer.

10. Bats usually (sleep) during the day. They 10. Bats usually (sleep) during the day. They
(go) looking for food at night. (go) looking for food at night.

Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense Chapter 9: Present Continuous Tense


9-54 9-54
SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE PAST
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x The Simple Past is used to indicate an action completed in the x The Simple Past is used to indicate an action completed in the
past. past.
x It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time. x It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time.
x This tense is also used for past habits x This tense is also used for past habits

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 I received this letter a week ago 1 I received this letter a week ago
2 Ben lost his spectacles last Friday 2 Ben lost his spectacles last Friday
3 Henry studied many hours every day 3 Henry studied many hours every day
4 She always carried an umbrella 4 She always carried an umbrella

x We use the verb to do did to ask questions and make x We use the verb to do did to ask questions and make
negative sentences. negative sentences.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

QUESTION NEGATIVE QUESTION NEGATIVE


Did I check my grades? I did not check my grades Did I check my grades? I did not check my grades
Did you check? You did not check Did you check? You did not check
Did he/she/it check? He/She/It did not check Did he/she/it check? He/She/It did not check

x We can also use a past tense to ask when something happens. x We can also use a past tense to ask when something happens.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

What time did he leave? What time did he leave?


(NOT Have they left?) (NOT Have they left?)

When was he born? When was he born?


(NOT Has he been born?) (NOT Has he been born?)

Chapter 10: Simple Past Tense Chapter 10: Simple Past Tense
10-55 10-55
EXERCISE 1 Complete the sentences with the simple present or Simple EXERCISE 1 Complete the sentences with the simple present or Simple
Past of the verbs given. Past of the verbs given.

say accept wonder increase say accept wonder increase

send leave agree read send leave agree read

break contain realize pretend break contain realize pretend

1. The managers to introduce a technical 1. The managers to introduce a technical


training program for their technicians. training program for their technicians.

2. I if you were free yesterday evening. 2. I if you were free yesterday evening.

3. The resistance of a semiconductor as 3. The resistance of a semiconductor as


the temperature decreases. the temperature decreases.

4. The instructor that the N-type and P-type 4. The instructor that the N-type and P-type
semiconductors have a much higher conductivity than semiconductors have a much higher conductivity than
pure semiconductor. pure semiconductor.

5. Holes in the semiconductor readily electrons 5. Holes in the semiconductor readily electrons
from other atoms. from other atoms.

6. When an electron away from a covalent bond, a 6. When an electron away from a covalent bond, a
hole is created. hole is created.

7. Intrinsic semiconductors (not) impurities. 7. Intrinsic semiconductors (not) impurities.

8. She the report to her supervisor yesterday 8. She the report to her supervisor yesterday
morning. morning.

9. Her manager (leave) for the airport an hour ago. 9. Her manager (leave) for the airport an hour ago.

10. Rachel (prepare) her assignment last week. 10. Rachel (prepare) her assignment last week.

Chapter 10: Simple Past Tense Chapter 10: Simple Past Tense
10-56 10-56
EXERCISE 2 Make questions using the words given. EXERCISE 2 Make questions using the words given.

For example: For example:

Where/stay? Service/good Where/stay? Service/good


Where did he stay? Was the service good? Where did he stay? Was the service good?

1. When / arrive? 1. When / arrive?

2. Talk / boring? 2. Talk / boring?

3. Match / exciting? 3. Match / exciting?

4. How / repair machine? 4. How / repair machine?

5. Meeting / finish? 5. Meeting / finish?

6. Heavy materials / pack properly? 6. Heavy materials / pack properly?

7. Why / not wear / gloves? 7. Why / not wear / gloves?

8. How / injure / her knee? 8. How / injure / her knee?

EXERCISE 3 In which of the sentences is there a verb in the past tense. EXERCISE 3 In which of the sentences is there a verb in the past tense.

1. There was nobody in the room. 1. There was nobody in the room.
2. She has not seen him for several years 2. She has not seen him for several years
3. When did she send the letter? 3. When did she send the letter?
4. They were very angry with her yesterday. 4. They were very angry with her yesterday.
5. Are they on leave today? 5. Are they on leave today?
6. He walked past the warehouse. 6. He walked past the warehouse.
7. As they grew up, they went less often. 7. As they grew up, they went less often.
8. She intended to send her daughter to America. 8. She intended to send her daughter to America.
9. She remained at home while they went to the party. 9. She remained at home while they went to the party.
10. Is there any truth in the story? 10. Is there any truth in the story?

Chapter 10: Simple Past Tense Chapter 10: Simple Past Tense
10-57 10-57
PAST CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x We use the past continuous to show a continuous action at a x We use the past continuous to show a continuous action at a
certain time in the past. certain time in the past.
x The time of the action may or may not be indicated. x The time of the action may or may not be indicated.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 What were you doing at 9 o’clock last night? 1 What were you doing at 9 o’clock last night?
2 I was watching television last night. 2 I was watching television last night.
3 They were installing the new machines all yesterday. 3 They were installing the new machines all yesterday.

x We can use the past continuous and the simple past together to x We can use the past continuous and the simple past together to
show two actions that went on at the same time. show two actions that went on at the same time.
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 While I was doing my assignment, the phone rang. 1 While I was doing my assignment, the phone rang.
2 We were discussing when our lecturer walked in. 2 We were discussing when our lecturer walked in.
3 The light went out while I was reading. 3 The light went out while I was reading.

x We can use the verb-to-be (was, were) to ask questions and to x We can use the verb-to-be (was, were) to ask questions and to
form negative sentences. form negative sentences.
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

QUESTION NEGATIVE QUESTION NEGATIVE


Was I/he/she/it working? I/he/she/it wasn’t working Was I/he/she/it working? I/he/she/it wasn’t working
Were you/we/they working? You/we/they weren’t working Were you/we/they working? You/we/they weren’t working

Chapter 11: Past Continuous Chapter 11: Past Continuous


11-58 11-58
EXERCISE 1 Use the words given to form sentences. EXERCISE 1 Use the words given to form sentences.

1. (Carol/summarize/the passage in her office) 1. (Carol/summarize/the passage in her office)


2. (They/try/determine/the total voltage) 2. (They/try/determine/the total voltage)
2. (She/talk/to the representative/yesterday) 2. (She/talk/to the representative/yesterday)
4. (They/knock/the walls of the old building) 4. (They/knock/the walls of the old building)
5. (Thomas/draw/posters for the convention) 5. (Thomas/draw/posters for the convention)
6. (She/prepare/the foils for the seminar) 6. (She/prepare/the foils for the seminar)
7. (The tour buses/travel/at great speed) 7. (The tour buses/travel/at great speed)
7. (Andy and Michael/repair/the roof/last week) 7. (Andy and Michael/repair/the roof/last week)

EXERCISE 2 Make sentences from the words in the brackets. Use the EXERCISE 2 Make sentences from the words in the brackets. Use the
simple past or past continuous. simple past or past continuous.

1. (While I/have my bath/the lights go off) 1. (While I/have my bath/the lights go off)

2. (We walk/home/when/we meet/Alice) 2. (We walk/home/when/we meet/Alice)

3. (He fall/when/he run down/the stairs) 3. (He fall/when/he run down/the stairs)

4. (We talk/to her/when/the manager/come) 4. (We talk/to her/when/the manager/come)

5. (It rain/when /I leave/my house) 5. (It rain/when /I leave/my house)

5. (They write/when/we enter/the room) 5. (They write/when/we enter/the room)

6. (The phone ring/when/I prepare/to leave the office) 6. (The phone ring/when/I prepare/to leave the office)

7. (The light/go out/while/they eat/their dinner) 7. (The light/go out/while/they eat/their dinner)

Chapter 11: Past Continuous Chapter 11: Past Continuous


11-59 11-59
EXERCISE 3 Fill in the blanks with the simple past or the past continuous EXERCISE 3 Fill in the blanks with the simple past or the past continuous
tense of the verbs in brackets. tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. I (find) your pencil when I 1. I (find) your pencil when I


(look) for mine. (look) for mine.

2. While the boy climb) up the tree, he 2. While the boy climb) up the tree, he

(slip) and (fall). (slip) and (fall).

3. Angela (do) her work while her friends 3. Angela (do) her work while her friends

(watch) television. (watch) television.

4. When I (see) Nick, he (wear) 4. When I (see) Nick, he (wear)

a blue shirt. a blue shirt.

5. You (listen) while 5. You (listen) while


(talk) to your group just now. (talk) to your group just now.

6. they (paint) the house all last Sunday. 6. they (paint) the house all last Sunday.

7. What you (do) when the postman 7. What you (do) when the postman
(arrive)? (arrive)?

8. We (do) our project when Harry 8. We (do) our project when Harry
(come ) into the room. (come ) into the room.

9. She (lose) her handbag while she 9. She (lose) her handbag while she
(shop) yesterday afternoon. (shop) yesterday afternoon.

10. She (get) into the car when I (call) 10. She (get) into the car when I (call)
her. her.

Chapter 11: Past Continuous Chapter 11: Past Continuous


11-60 11-60
PRESENT PERFECT Vs SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT Vs SIMPLE PAST

DEFINITION DEFINITION
x The Present Perfect is used to denote an action beginning at x The Present Perfect is used to denote an action beginning at
some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment. some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment.
x It is also used to express past actions whose time is not given x It is also used to express past actions whose time is not given
and not definite and not definite
x NOTE: We use the simple past to talk about past events. x NOTE: We use the simple past to talk about past events.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
David has lost his spectacles. (Present Perfect) David has lost his spectacles. (Present Perfect)

This means that he hasn’t got his spectacles now. This means that he hasn’t got his spectacles now.

David lost his spectacle yesterday. (Simple Past) David lost his spectacle yesterday. (Simple Past)

In this sentence, the only thing we know is that he lost In this sentence, the only thing we know is that he lost
some time in the past. some time in the past.

If we say: Now he has found his spectacles. If we say: Now he has found his spectacles.
This means that he has got his spectacles now. This means that he has got his spectacles now.

He lost (Simple Past) his spectacles but now he has found He lost (Simple Past) his spectacles but now he has found
(Present Perfect) it. (Present Perfect) it.

x We don’t use the present perfect when we are talking about a x We don’t use the present perfect when we are talking about a
finished time in the past. finished time in the past.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE
He broke the window yesterday. He broke the window yesterday.
(NOT has broken) (NOT has broken)

Did you watch the late night movie last night? Did you watch the late night movie last night?
(NOT have you watched) (NOT have you watched)

Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past
12-61 12-61
x We use a past tense to ask when something happened. x We use a past tense to ask when something happened.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

What time did he leave yesterday? What time did he leave yesterday?
(NOT have they left) (NOT have they left)

When was he born? When was he born?


(NOT has he been born) (NOT has he been born)

x We use the present perfect to talk about an action which x We use the present perfect to talk about an action which
happened in the past and continued in the present. happened in the past and continued in the present.

I have lived here since 1985. I have lived here since 1985.

I have known him for ten years. I have known him for ten years.

I have always liked sentimental songs. I have always liked sentimental songs.

How long has he been here? How long has he been here?

Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past
12-62 12-62
EXERCISE 1 Give the correct form, Present Perfect or Simple Past for EXERCISE 1 Give the correct form, Present Perfect or Simple Past for
the verbs in brackets. the verbs in brackets.

1. He (hang) the posters on the wall. 1. He (hang) the posters on the wall.

2. When the rain (come), I (shut) the 2. When the rain (come), I (shut) the
windows. windows.

3. The secretary (send) your letter. 3. The secretary (send) your letter.

4. Last night he (leave) the factory at 9 o’clock. 4. Last night he (leave) the factory at 9 o’clock.
Then he (take) a bath before he (go) to Then he (take) a bath before he (go) to
bed. bed.

5. Where (you/buy) those cabinets? 5. Where (you/buy) those cabinets?

6. Why (Jamie/not/join) us last night? 6. Why (Jamie/not/join) us last night?

7. While you were at the meeting, I (answer) your 7. While you were at the meeting, I (answer) your
calls. calls.

8. The group (win) the competition 8. The group (win) the competition
again. again.

9. He (leave) these books for you. 9. He (leave) these books for you.

10. Your table isn’t here anymore. They (remove) it. 10. Your table isn’t here anymore. They (remove) it.

11. Your car looks very clean. (you/wash) it? 11. Your car looks very clean. (you/wash) it?

12. I (not/finish) the project yet. 12. I (not/finish) the project yet.

13. The plane (fly) in from Los Angeles last night. 13. The plane (fly) in from Los Angeles last night.

14. It (begin) to rain after we 14. It (begin) to rain after we


(decide) to go for a show. (decide) to go for a show.

15. you (throw) the plastic bags yesterday? 15. you (throw) the plastic bags yesterday?

Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past
12-63 12-63
EXERCISE 2 Make sentences or ask questions using the words given EXERCISE 2 Make sentences or ask questions using the words given

1. (He/visit London/twice so far this year) 1. (He/visit London/twice so far this year)

2. (She/not attend/the meeting this week) 2. (She/not attend/the meeting this week)

3. (How many times/be/you/on leave last year) 3. (How many times/be/you/on leave last year)

4. (How many projects/the group/finish last year?) 4. (How many projects/the group/finish last year?)

5. (How many projects/the group/finish/so far this year?) 5. (How many projects/the group/finish/so far this year?)

6. (I/edit/the article/last week) 6. (I/edit/the article/last week)

7. (I/not see/that engineer/since last Friday) 7. (I/not see/that engineer/since last Friday)

8. (I/work/in this factory/since 1978) 8. (I/work/in this factory/since 1978)

Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past Chapter 12: Present Perfect Vs Simple Past
12-64 12-64
FUTURE / GOING TO FUTURE / GOING TO
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x The Future Tense is used for an action that has still to take x The Future Tense is used for an action that has still to take
place. place.
x This tense generally express pure or colorless future. x This tense generally express pure or colorless future.
x When the future is colored with intention, the ‘going to’ form x When the future is colored with intention, the ‘going to’ form
is used is used

1. Shall/will 1. Shall/will
x We use shall with I and we. Will is used with other nouns or x We use shall with I and we. Will is used with other nouns or
pronouns. pronouns.
x The negative of shall is shan’t and the negative of will is x The negative of shall is shan’t and the negative of will is
won’t. won’t.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 I shall speak to her tomorrow. 1 I shall speak to her tomorrow.


2 We shall meet you there tonight. 2 We shall meet you there tonight.
3 He will finish his work in an hour. 3 He will finish his work in an hour.
4 The buses will leave at 10 o’clock. 4 The buses will leave at 10 o’clock.

2. Going to 2. Going to

x We use the going to form to show that we have already x We use the going to form to show that we have already
decided to do the action. decided to do the action.
x In other words, it is used to show that something is certain x In other words, it is used to show that something is certain
to happen. to happen.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1a I have borrowed a typewrite 1a I have borrowed a typewrite


1b I am going to type my report. 1b I am going to type my report.
2a The sky is dark. 2a The sky is dark.
2b It is going to rain 2b It is going to rain
3a It’s my birthday. 3a It’s my birthday.
3b My mother is going to buy me a present. 3b My mother is going to buy me a present.

Chapter 13: Future / Going To Chapter 13: Future / Going To


13-65 13-65
EXERCISE 1 Give the correct form of the verb in brackets using will EXERCISE 1 Give the correct form of the verb in brackets using will
or going to. or going to.

1. Shirley: I have decided to visit my friend in London. 1. Shirley: I have decided to visit my friend in London.
Joanne: Oh, have you? Joanne: Oh, have you?

When (you/visit) her? When (you/visit) her?

2. A: Did you bring my book? 2. A: Did you bring my book?


B: Oh, I’m sorry. I completely forgot. B: Oh, I’m sorry. I completely forgot.

I (bring) it tomorrow. I (bring) it tomorrow.

3. A: I need some bolts. 3. A: I need some bolts.


B: Do you? I (give) you some. B: Do you? I (give) you some.

4. Jacintha: Rahim, can you give me a lift home? I have 4. Jacintha: Rahim, can you give me a lift home? I have
sent my car for repair. sent my car for repair.

Rahim: Sure, I (give) you a lift home. Rahim: Sure, I (give) you a lift home.

5. Aslida: Jacintha, do you want a lift home? 5. Aslida: Jacintha, do you want a lift home?
Jacintha: No thanks, Aslida. Rahim Jacintha: No thanks, Aslida. Rahim
(send) me home. (send) me home.

6. Danny: I (buy) some fruits. 6. Danny: I (buy) some fruits.


Do you want anything from the canteen? Do you want anything from the canteen?
Mohan: Yes, can you get me two pieces of cake? Mohan: Yes, can you get me two pieces of cake?

Danny: Okay, I ………………………(get) them for you. Danny: Okay, I ………………………(get) them for you.

7. A: It’s Father’s Day tomorrow. 7. A: It’s Father’s Day tomorrow.

B: That’s right. We (take) dad out B: That’s right. We (take) dad out
for dinner. for dinner.

8. A: I don’t know how to do that sum. 8. A: I don’t know how to do that sum.

B: It’s not difficult. I (show) B: It’s not difficult. I (show)


you. you.

Chapter 13: Future / Going To Chapter 13: Future / Going To


13-66 13-66
9. A: Where are you going? Are you going to the 9. A: Where are you going? Are you going to the
library? library?
B: Yes, I (borrow) some B: Yes, I (borrow) some
books. books.

10. A: The air-condition is not working. 10. A: The air-condition is not working.

B: I (call) the technician B: I (call) the technician


to repair it. to repair it.

EXERCISE 2 Choose the correct form of the verb. EXERCISE 2 Choose the correct form of the verb.

1. I shall go / am going to the late night movie tomorrow. 1. I shall go / am going to the late night movie tomorrow.
Would you like to join me? Would you like to join me?

2. A: Have you decided which car to buy? 2. A: Have you decided which car to buy?

B: Yes, I shall buy / am going to buy the Proton B: Yes, I shall buy / am going to buy the Proton
Waja. Waja.

3. I cannot meet you this afternoon. The salesman will 3. I cannot meet you this afternoon. The salesman will
come / is coming to see me. come / is coming to see me.

4. A: I hope I won’t be late. 4. A: I hope I won’t be late.

B: Don’t worry. The plane will arrive / is going to B: Don’t worry. The plane will arrive / is going to
arrive on time. arrive on time.

5. A: I don’t know how to repair the machine. Can 5. A: I don’t know how to repair the machine. Can
help me? help me?

B: Sure, I’ll help / am going to help you. B: Sure, I’ll help / am going to help you.

Chapter 13: Future / Going To Chapter 13: Future / Going To


13-67 13-67
PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT

DEFINITION DEFINITION
x The past perfect is used to talk about things that had already x The past perfect is used to talk about things that had already
happened at the time of speaking. happened at the time of speaking.
x It is used for an action that was completed before another x It is used for an action that was completed before another
action took place. action took place.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 When I arrive at her office, she had already gone 1 When I arrive at her office, she had already gone
out. out.
2 When she was in school, she had read that story 2 When she was in school, she had read that story
twice. twice.

x We often use the past perfect in reported speech. x We often use the past perfect in reported speech.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

Direct Speech Reported Speech Direct Speech Reported Speech


I have found my badge. She said that she had found her I have found my badge. She said that she had found her
badge. badge.
I have sent the cheque He stressed that he has sent the I have sent the cheque He stressed that he has sent the
two days ago. cheque two days before. two days ago. cheque two days before.

Chapter 14: Past Perfect Chapter 14: Past Perfect


14-68 14-68
EXERCISE 1 Make sentences with the words in brackets. EXERCISE 1 Make sentences with the words in brackets.

1. They weren’t playing darts when I joined them. 1. They weren’t playing darts when I joined them.
(They /just/finish/the game) (They /just/finish/the game)

2. When I went to her house, she wasn’t at home. 2. When I went to her house, she wasn’t at home.
(She/just/go/out) (She/just/go/out)

3. She apologized for being late. 3. She apologized for being late.
(Her car/just/break down) (Her car/just/break down)

4. She arrived at the gymnasium late. 4. She arrived at the gymnasium late.
(The aerobic class/just/begin) (The aerobic class/just/begin)

5. We invited Mike and Nancy for dinner last Sunday but they 5. We invited Mike and Nancy for dinner last Sunday but they
couldn’t come. couldn’t come.
(They/already/arrange/to go somewhere) (They/already/arrange/to go somewhere)

Chapter 14: Past Perfect Chapter 14: Past Perfect


14-69 14-69
EXERCISE 2 Change the following sentences into reported speech. EXERCISE 2 Change the following sentences into reported speech.

1. I have called her. 1. I have called her.


He said that He said that

2. I have not locked the gate. 2. I have not locked the gate.
She told me that She told me that

3. We went there at six o’clock. 3. We went there at six o’clock.


They said that They said that

4. I saw Mario in the computer shop. 4. I saw Mario in the computer shop.
He told us that He told us that

5. I have borrowed that book. 5. I have borrowed that book.


The engineer said that The engineer said that

6. I have cleaned the car. 6. I have cleaned the car.


He said that He said that

7. I have repaired the machine. 7. I have repaired the machine.


The technician said that The technician said that

8. I have typed your letter. 8. I have typed your letter.


The secretary said that The secretary said that

9. We have attended the course. 9. We have attended the course.


The girls told me that The girls told me that

10. I have brought some samples. 10. I have brought some samples.
The salesman said that The salesman said that

Chapter 14: Past Perfect Chapter 14: Past Perfect


14-70 14-70
EXERCISE 3 Put in the Past Perfect or Simple Past tense of the verbs EXERCISE 3 Put in the Past Perfect or Simple Past tense of the verbs
in brackets. in brackets.

1. I (ask) the shopkeeper what 1. I (ask) the shopkeeper what


(happen) to him. (happen) to him.

2. Before the firemen (arrive), the fire 2. Before the firemen (arrive), the fire
(burn) up the whole building. (burn) up the whole building.

3. After I (explain) to her, I (leave) 3. After I (explain) to her, I (leave)


the room. the room.

4. She (post) the letter after her boss 4. She (post) the letter after her boss
(sign) it. (sign) it.

5. They (say) that they (buy) a new 5. They (say) that they (buy) a new
computer. computer.

6. She (agree) to buy the poster after the man 6. She (agree) to buy the poster after the man

(reduce) the price. (reduce) the price.

7. I (tell) my sister that I (paint) the 7. I (tell) my sister that I (paint) the
ceiling. ceiling.

8. After the bus (stop), the passengers 8. After the bus (stop), the passengers
(get) out. (get) out.

9. After he (have) a bath, he (go) to bed. 9. After he (have) a bath, he (go) to bed.

10. They (tell) us that they (decide) 10. They (tell) us that they (decide)
to visit Japan. to visit Japan.

Chapter 14: Past Perfect Chapter 14: Past Perfect


14-71 14-71
ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE
DEFINITION DEFINITION
x A verb is in the Active voice when its form shows that the x A verb is in the Active voice when its form shows that the
person or thing denoted by the Subject does something. person or thing denoted by the Subject does something.

x A verb is in the Passive voice when its form shows that x A verb is in the Passive voice when its form shows that
something is done to the person or thing denoted by the something is done to the person or thing denoted by the
Subject. Subject.

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1a The salesman delivered the computers. 1a The salesman delivered the computers.
1b The computers were delivered by the salesman. 1b The computers were delivered by the salesman.
2a He will finish the project in two weeks’ time. 2a He will finish the project in two weeks’ time.
2b The project will be finished by him in two weeks’ time 2b The project will be finished by him in two weeks’ time

x Both sentences have the same meaning but there is a slight x Both sentences have the same meaning but there is a slight
difference of emphasis. difference of emphasis.
x In the first sentence, the emphasis is placed on the subject, x In the first sentence, the emphasis is placed on the subject,
the salesman. the salesman.
x In the second sentence, the emphasis is on the letter, which x In the second sentence, the emphasis is on the letter, which
is the subject of the sentence. is the subject of the sentence.
x When the subject of the verb, does the action described in x When the subject of the verb, does the action described in
the verb, the verb is in the active voice. the verb, the verb is in the active voice.
x When the subject of the verb receives the action of the x When the subject of the verb receives the action of the
verb, the verb is in the passive voice. verb, the verb is in the passive voice.

x Sometimes the passive voice is used when the subject of x Sometimes the passive voice is used when the subject of
the verb in the active voice is unknown. the verb in the active voice is unknown.

Example: Example:

This factory was built in 1983. This factory was built in 1983.
(We do not know who built the factory) (We do not know who built the factory)

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x When we want to mention about whom or what cause the x When we want to mention about whom or what cause the
action, we use by. action, we use by.

Example: Example:

The graphics were done by that engineer. The graphics were done by that engineer.
The memo was sent out by the manager’s The memo was sent out by the manager’s
secretary. secretary.

x The passive infinitive be + present perfect x The passive infinitive be + present perfect
x We can use the infinitive after modal verbs. (can, must, x We can use the infinitive after modal verbs. (can, must,
will, ought to) will, ought to)

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE

1 That lock must be repaired before tonight. 1 That lock must be repaired before tonight.
2 She out to be told about the problem. 2 She out to be told about the problem.
3 The new plant will be opened next year. 3 The new plant will be opened next year.

x In passive sentences, we use the different tense of be x In passive sentences, we use the different tense of be
(is, are, was, were) + present perfect. (is, are, was, were) + present perfect.

1. Simple present : am/is/are + pp 1. Simple present : am/is/are + pp

Active : Somebody sends the letter everyday. Active : Somebody sends the letter everyday.
Passive: The letter is sent everyday. Passive: The letter is sent everyday.

2. Present continuous : am/is/are being + pp 2. Present continuous : am/is/are being + pp

Active : Somebody is painting the roof. Active : Somebody is painting the roof.
Passive: The roof is being painted now. Passive: The roof is being painted now.

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3. Simple past: was/were + pp 3. Simple past: was/were + pp

Active : He didn’t invite her to the party. Active : He didn’t invite her to the party.
Passive: She wasn’t invited to the party. Passive: She wasn’t invited to the party.

4. Past continuous: was/were being + pp 4. Past continuous: was/were being + pp

Active : Somebody was playing the piano Active : Somebody was playing the piano
when we left. when we left.
Passive: The piano was being played Passive: The piano was being played
when we left. when we left.

5. Present perfect: has/have been + pp 5. Present perfect: has/have been + pp

Active : Somebody has informed him. Active : Somebody has informed him.
Passive: He has been informed. Passive: He has been informed.

6. Past perfect: has been + pp 6. Past perfect: has been + pp

Active: Somebody had chosen him. Active: Somebody had chosen him.
Passive: He had been chosen. Passive: He had been chosen.

7. Future: will be + pp 7. Future: will be + pp

Active: They will solve the problem. Active: They will solve the problem.
Passive: The problem will be solved. Passive: The problem will be solved.

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EXERCISE 1 Pick out the verbs in the passive voice and state their EXERCISE 1 Pick out the verbs in the passive voice and state their
subjects. subjects.

1. That engineer was sent to America for two years. 1. That engineer was sent to America for two years.

2. They will be informed about the meeting. 2. They will be informed about the meeting.

3. All students should carefully read the instructions. 3. All students should carefully read the instructions.

4. She has been warned several times. 4. She has been warned several times.

5. That will teach them a lesson. 5. That will teach them a lesson.

6. They will be leaving on Monday. 6. They will be leaving on Monday.

7. Has he been told about our plans? 7. Has he been told about our plans?

8. The new regulation was favorably accepted. 8. The new regulation was favorably accepted.

9. My sister will probably buy that house. 9. My sister will probably buy that house.

10. This work can easily be done by yourself. 10. This work can easily be done by yourself.

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EXERCISE 2 Complete these sentences with the correct form of the EXERCISE 2 Complete these sentences with the correct form of the
verbs given. verbs given.

send pack post make send pack post make

delay throw repair translate delay throw repair translate

tell speak tell speak

1. Has the technician of the problem? 1. Has the technician of the problem?

2. English all over the world. 2. English all over the world.

3. Your letter is still on the desk. It yet. 3. Your letter is still on the desk. It yet.

4. The train for an hour yesterday. 4. The train for an hour yesterday.

5. Parcels can by air or by sea. 5. Parcels can by air or by sea.

6. That manual into the Malay language. 6. That manual into the Malay language.

7. It’s an old watch. It several times already 7. It’s an old watch. It several times already

8. Corrections must after every lesson. 8. Corrections must after every lesson.

9. The units every morning and sent to the store. 9. The units every morning and sent to the store.

10. The boxes away last week. 10. The boxes away last week.

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EXERCISE 3 Change these sentences into the passive forms. EXERCISE 3 Change these sentences into the passive forms.

1. Somebody tore the magazine just now. 1. Somebody tore the magazine just now.

2. Someone has locked the door from the inside. 2. Someone has locked the door from the inside.

3. No one has won the prize yet. 3. No one has won the prize yet.

4. Somebody broke the glass. 4. Somebody broke the glass.

5. They will bring the files tomorrow. 5. They will bring the files tomorrow.

6. They have changed the schedule. 6. They have changed the schedule.

7. They are building a new plant. 7. They are building a new plant.

8. She cancelled her flight to Singapore yesterday. 8. She cancelled her flight to Singapore yesterday.

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