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A Thesis Proposal Presented to

The Undergraduate Faculty of
The Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science and Mathematics
MSU – Iligan Institute of Technology
Iligan City

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Course BIO 199
Undergradute Thesis



Globally, mangroves covered an estimated 137, 760 km² in 2001. Thirty-five percent of

the total 18 million ha of global mangrove forest are found in Southeast Asia (Honculada-

Primavera, 2000). And the Philippines holds at least 50% (Primavera et al., 2004) of the world’s

65 species of mangroves. The mangrove ecosystem is a crucial environment that shelters birds,

fish and invertebrates (Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001). They are responsible for coastal protection

(Sherman et al., 2001) and persist in a dynamic and physiological stressful environment that

changes over hourly to decade of time.

Today, it is recognized as one of the most threatened ecosystem due to anthropogenic

activities as well as natural catastrophes such as storm surges and tropical storms, (Friess, D.,

2016) causing damages on agriculture, infrastructure and to the environment, including the

mangrove ecosystems. Due to the intensity of damage, sometimes entire mangrove forests are

destroyed, thus, losing its rich biodiversity. The strongest storm recorded in Philippines to make

landfall was Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) which sent blasts of up to 315–375 kph and storm

surges up to 7.4 m high in 2013, destroying vast mangrove community. But rehabilitation projects

has been implemented to restore mangrove community.

In the rage of mangrove rehabilitation, the Ecosystem Research and Development Bureau

(ERDB) has pressed companies and organized groups to tie up with them on pest management-

driven mangrove farming. Growing mangrove community can recurrently experience disturbances

such as pest infestations of mollusk, worm, fungus, insects, etc., affecting its health and survival.

ERDB warns that some species of mangroves are more vulnerable to infestation like barnacles

which are considered the most destructive pests of mangroves, inhibiting the growth leads to

mangrove death (BDPH, 2017). Infestation can create large-scale diebacks by feeding and making
homes on barks, trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, weakening the structure of the tree. And

will result to poor growth and survival.

In this perspective, assessing the health of mangrove trees is therefore significant for a

variety of reasons.

Objectives of the Study

In this study the pest infecting the mangrove trees in Sitio Bayug, Brgy. Hinaplanon, Iligan

City is to be determined. The following are the specific objectives that must also be met to

thoroughly understand this study:

1. to assess the abundance and diversity of the species infesting the mangrove trees in

Sitio Bayug, Brgy. Hinaplanon, Iligan City for the occurrence of infestation and to

determine meristic characteristics of mangrove trees and diversity indices;

2. to determine the prevalence and incidence of the infestation and the specific location

of the infestation on the mangrove trees;

3. to determine the to determine the physico-chemical parameters such as water and soil

pH, air temperature, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, total suspended

solids and substrate type;

4. to correlate the abundance, extent, prevalence and incidence of infestations to the

physico-chemical parameters;

Significance of the Study

This study will provide qualitative and quantitative information on the infested mangrove

tree profile in the said area. These information can contribute as reference for future studies and

projects such as rehabilitation of mangroves, development of management and conservation

strategies in the area and can also be used as baseline source for further development of the area.

Scope and Limitations

The study was limited only on surveying the occurrence of infestation, the extent of

infection, prevalence and incidence. The abundance and diversity of mangroves in the sampling

area will also be determined and the appearance and distribution of pest(s) on the different parts

of the mangrove. And so as to compare infested mangrove tree to a healthy mangrove profile. The

physico-chemical parameters such as D.O., salinity, air and water temperature, water and soil pH,

humidity, total suspended solids, and substrate estimation will be all taken.


A. Description of the Study Area

The Study area is located in the coast of Sitio Bayug, Brgy. Hinaplanon, Iligan City with a

coordinates of 8°15'51.0"N 124°14'56.5"E that is 3.7 km northeast of Poblacion. Bayug was the

earliest pre-Spanish settlement of native sea dwellers in pre-colonial era. Bayug Island was almost

wiped out during a strong tropical storm “Sendong” hit the Philippines in 2011

(, 2012).

B. Sampling Method

A quadrat and transect line method will be used. Establishing a transect line

perpendicular to the shoreline and fixing the line on both ends. Then, laying out of the 10m

× 10m quadrats at 10m interval from the shore, seawards. All trees within the 10m × 10m

quadrat will be measured of DBH (Diameter at breast height) and will record the number

of individuals through actual count (English et al., 1997.). Samples of tree units (plants,

leaves, inflorescences etc.) will be taken at random from the field (e.g. by following a set

of random number coordinates, or a randomly chosen number of paces across the field) or

in a predetermined way (e.g. by walking across a diagonal or in a 'W or diamond pattern

across the field and taking a sample every 10 paces) to observe the extent of infestation

and determine the species that infests. Random sampling is preferred by biometricians.
C. Measurement of the Meristic Characteristic of Mangrove

Total height: The Total height will be obtained by estimation using the height of a person.

Leaf cover: A calibrated vinyl measuring tape will be used to determine the leaf cover by

measuring the distance across the tree cover.

Leaf width: A calibrated plastic ruler will be used to determine the leaf width by getting

five leaves on each tree and each of the leaves width will be measured and the average

width of the five leaves will be taken.

Diameter at breast height (DBH): As prescribed in Benfield, 2002 and Defew, 2003 the

diameter of a tree at breast height will be measured using a pre-calibrated DBH tape

measure. To ensure accuracy, the DBH tape should be level and stretched firmly against

the trunk. If the tree has already branched out, both the circumference at breast height as

well as the circumference of the larger branch will be recorded.

In studying ecological communities, some indices are used to help assess the overall

health of the ecosystem. These include species richness, relative abundance, dominance

and evenness, and species diversity. Paleontological Statistics Software (PAST) will be

used to determine these indices.

D. Infestation Assessment

Critical information in the assessment of disease is the amount of disease that is present.

This can be measured by:

Disease Scoring Method

a. Disease Incidence: Is the percentage of diseased plants or parts in the sample or

population of plants. This can be measured by counting the number of plant that is


Disease Incidence = No. of infected plant × 100

Total no. of plant assessed

b. Disease Severity: Refers to severity in the quantity of disease affecting plants within a

sample population. This is done by observing the sizes of lesion and its extent (spread)

in the diseased plant parts.

Disease Severity = Sum of all rating scale × 100

Total no. of plant unit observed

Visual Assessment Methods

a. Standard area diagrams: Allows estimation of intermediate levels of disease

severity by comparing a diseased plant with diagrams showing both more and less

disease. Standard area diagrams e.g. leaf rust provide 1, 5, 10, 20, 50% leaf area

Figure 1.1 Disease assessment keys. (A) Common scab of potatoes caused by
Streptomgces scabres. (From James 1971.) (B) Mycosphaerella leaf diseases of
eucalypts. (From Carnegie et al. 1994.) (C) phytophthora blight (P. coLocasise) of
taro (Colocasta esculenta). (From Golliferand Brown, 1974.)

b. Descriptive scales: The descriptive keys have also been standardized for various

diseases. This is widely used and are of many types ranging from disease rating on

numerical scale to subjective estimates as severe, moderate, etc.

Table 1.1 Key for the assessment of leaf rust (From Beaumont, 1954.)
% Severity Symptoms

0.1 Lesions found with difficulty, and on less than one plant in fifty.

1 Lesions on most plants, but only on a few leaves.

5 Lesions on every plant, and on most leaves except the young ones,
but only about two to ten spots per leaf
10 All except the youngest leaves affected, with ten to fifty spots per
25 All except the youngest leaves affected, but with about three-
quarters of the leaf area green, although lowest leaves may be
severely attacked.
50 All leaves affected. Most of the middle leaves showing only half
their area green.
75 All leaves affected. Most of the middle leaves show only one-
quarter of the leaf green, giving a grey appearance to the crop as a
90 Very little green visible on middle and lower leaves, but youngest
leaves show green.
100 All leaves completely covered with the lesions.

Table 1.2 Key for the assessment of root rot (From Greenhalgh and Lucas, 1984.)
Scale Symptoms

0 Healthy roots (no visible lesions)

1 Slight lateral root rot (less than 1% of lateral root tips necrotic)

2 Moderately severe lateral root rot (10-50% of lateral root tips

necrotic) or slight tap root rot (tip of tap root rotted) or both
3 Severe lateral root rot (greater than 50% of lateral root tips
necrotic) or moderately severe tap root rot (5-30% of tap root
rotten from tip) or both
4 Severe tap root rot (greater than 30% of tap root necrotic with
healthy laterals above lesion or lesion girdling tap root
immediately below hypocotyl)
5 Tap and lateral roots completely rotted or plant dead.
Counting and determining the specific location of the parasite infesting on the mangrove tree

will be done. On each trees, all parasites found will be counted from the roots, the stem and the

leaves. Different species will counted separately and their location on the mangrove parts is noted.

A representative sample per species will be collected and put inside a zip-lock bag and will be

brought to the laboratory, cleaned with fresh water and then identified using FAO’s The Living

Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific Vol. 1(K. Carpenter and V. Niem 1998).

E. Determination of the physico-chemical parameters

To establish background information on the sampling site, the following environmental

parameters will be determined:

a. Temperature
Field thermometer will be used to measure the water temperature on site.

b. Salinity
Determination of salinity will be measured with the help of a refractometer.

c. pH
The soil and water pH will be measured using pH meter on site.

d. Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

1-Liter water sample will be collected at mid depth for TSS analysis. Analysis will
be done in the laboratory.

e. Dissolved oxygen
The Dissolved oxygen of the seawater in the study area will be determined with the
help of a D.O. meter.

f. Humidity
Relative humidity will be measured using a psychrometer.
F. Statistical Analysis

Pearson Correlation

The correlation between disease infestation and meristic characters will be obtained

using Pearson correlation. A correlation analysis is a bivariate method applied to describe

the degree of relation between physicochemical and biological parameters.


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