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Volume 3, Issue 1, January – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456 –2165

Solar Kart
Ajay Adwait S Anand
B.Tech Scholar B-Tech Scholar
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
Amrita School of Engineering, Kollam Amrita School of Engineering, Kollam

Abstract—The conception and assembly of an experimental Nevertheless, solar energy for vehicle applications is not an
Electric Vehicle based on photovoltaic solar energy is obvious issue because several critical points must be care-fully
presented in this manuscript. The vehicle has a battery for analyzed, e.g., a) the efficiency and costs of photo-voltaic
storing the energy. The applications aim is to achieve the panels, b) how to maximize the solar radiation, and c) the
lowest possible energy consumption for the vehicles energy management and control.
movement, indicators with photovoltaic modules and
battery as its electricity source. At present there are numerous solar vehicle projects around the
world for multiple purposes. From the applied research point of
Index Terms—Electric Vehicle, Solar Vehicle, Solar Electric view, interesting contributions have been presented in the last
Vehicle, Zero-Emission, Photovoltaic Solar Energy, Photo two years. A project involving battery powered electric vehicles
voltaic, Maximum Power Point Tracker. charged by photovoltaic panels is being carried out with the
aim to investigate the cleaner production of power hence
I. INTRODUCTION reducing the use of diesel fuels in agriculture. On the other
hand, solar vehicles are built around the world to participate of
By switching out old fossil fuel burning engines for clean different solar races with the aim to test and investigate new
electric motors and solar panels, the power of the sun har- technological advancements and its potential application in
nessed showcasing renewable energy . zero-emission vehicles.

The idea of an electric vehicle is not new and has a history of The conception and construction of an experimental solar
more than 100 years. Since more than a decade ago, the vehicle that uses photovoltaic and battery for storing the
searching for developments of Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEV), harnessed energy is presented. The applications aim is to
Electric Vehicles (EV), and Hybrid Electric Vehicles has taken achieve the lowest possible energy consumption for the
a new impulse. These technologies can be observed in the vehicles movement, with photovoltaic modules as the main
consecutive auto shows around the world in the shape of electricity source. The development of the solar vehicle is an
conceptual designs. An incipient presence in the market is initiative of students The main objectives of this work are the
appreciated in the last years, basically with hybrid technology following ones:
combining two or more energy systems. In accordance with the
use of new and clean energy sources, the trend is to sup-plant a) To transfer the obtained knowledge on the new trends in
internal combustion engines by traction through electric transport, electric traction and renewable energy sources to the
motors, thus solving a problem related with greenhouse gas productive sector, b) To spread the use of alternative energies
(GHG) emissions. in all society sectors.

The need to research for achieving practical zero emission in II. DESIGN OF THE SOLAR VEHICLE
the source and consumption in addition to the challenge of
linking the scientific-technological knowledge to the global An experimental solar vehicle prototype was built in the
interests of a sustainable planet, by means of the promotion of context of an interdisciplinary project called GARUDA for the
the use of alternative energies, makes evident the aim to Eco kart competition promoting the use of clean energies in
initially possess an experimental prototype of SOLAR multipurpose vehicles. This is a vehicle with a system based on
VEHICLE. In this sense, photovoltaic solar energy plays an photovoltaic solar energy which charges the battery which
essential role in the implementation of clean energies as main helps in movement and used for indicators. One of the most
electricity source for EVs. A zero-emission solar vehicle is important points in the construction of the vehicle is closely
powered by photovoltaic solar energy by means of solar panels, related to the chassis design, with the purpose of achieving a
with storage of electric energy in batteries, and the traction is structural optimized work, and ex-pressed in the lowest
obtained by an electric motor, this is the basic idea possible energy consumption for the vehicles movement. The

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Volume 3, Issue 1, January – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456 –2165

design was conceived from a point of view of a high-efficiency, up of the silicon steel stampings with slots in the interior
lightweight and stable transport, with reduced costs, and zero surface. The slots accommodate a closed distributed armature
emission. The block diagram of a general SEV is as shown in winding. The winding is to be wound for a specified number of
the figure1 given below poles. This winding is suitably connected to a DC supply
through the power driver module which is controlled via PWM
A. General Design signals from the microcontroller PSC. Rotor made from forged
steel accommodates permanent magnet. The figure 2 shows the
The solar vehicle was made for only one rider in recumbent BLDC hub motor used in SEV.Besides, it has an
position. The high-efficiency electric traction is achieved by a accommodation for the battery behind the seat, and a rear-
48V 3kW brushless dc motor mounted structure for accommodatingelectronics and

Fig. 1.Block Diagram of SEV

Fig. 3.Parts of Electric Vehicle

A solar roof comprised by a rectangular aluminum structure

with ribs was assembled over the vehicle and covered by glass-
fiber, for distributing and supporting the photovoltaic solar
panels. The general parts of the vehicle are depicted in Fig. 3.

b). System Integration

In the design the solar panels are connected to battery assembly

through solar charge controller. Figure4 represents the
electrical system design of electrical solar vehicle. The
Fig. 2. BLDC Motor independent MPPT circuitries are monitored and controlled
centrally by a Microcontroller which has embedded MPPT
a). Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors: BLDC are Preferred for algorithm. Due to the balance between the simplicity of design
Solar Cars because . and overall efficiency Perturb and observe algorithm is selected
for tracking the maximum power point of the panels. The
Improved speed vs. torque characteristics High dynamic microcontroller will compute the power and continually adjust
response High efficiency Noiseless and interference-free the operating voltage based on the required battery charging
operation Extended speed ranges Long operation life It is mechanism. This process continues as long as the system is
mounted on the wheel, the stator of the BLDC motor is made powered on.

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Volume 3, Issue 1, January – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456 –2165

III. WORKING (or photovoltaic) cells convert the suns energy into electricity.
Whether they're adorning your calculator or orbiting our planet
Solar panel works by allowing photons, or particles of light, to on satellites, they rely on the photoelectric effect: the ability of
knock electrons free from atoms, generating a flow of matter to emit electrons when a light is shone on it. Silicon is
electricity. Solar panels actually comprise many, smaller units what is known as a semi-conductor, meaning that it shares
called photovoltaic cells. (Photovoltaic simply means they some of the properties of metals and some of those of an
convert sunlight into electricity.) Many cells linked together electrical insulator, making it a key ingredient in solar cell.
make up a solar panel. Each photovoltaic cell is basically a
sandwich made up of two slices of semi-conducting material, Sunlight is composed of miniscule particles called photons,
usually silicon the same stuff used in microelectronics. Solar which radiate from the sun. As these hit the silicon atoms.

Fig. 4. Overall control Scheme

of the solar cell, they transfer their energy to lose electrons, silicon is a semi-conductor, it can act like an insulator,
knocking them clean off the atoms. The photons could be maintaining this imbalance .As the photons smash the
compared to the white ball in a game of pool, which passes on electrons off the silicon atoms, this field drives them along in
its energy to the colored balls it strikes. Freeing up electrons is an orderly manner, providing the electric current.
however only half the work of a solar cell: it then needs to
herd these stray electrons into an electric current. This A. MPPT
involves creating an electrical imbalance within the cell,
which acts a bit like a slope down which the electrons will To increase the maximum power output from the solar panel
flow in the same direction. Creating this imbalance is made MPP tracking systems are used. Even though the temperature,
possible by the internal organization of silicon. Silicon atoms irradiation and the load characteristics varies it helps in
are arranged together in a tightly bound structure. By maintain the output of the solar PV panel constant. For high
squeezing small quantities of other elements into this efficiency output from the PV panel buck converters are used
structure, two different types of silicon are created: n-type, for DC-DC power transmission. In standalone PV systems
which has spare electrons, and p-type, which is missing buck converters are effective in dc-dc step down operation and
electrons, leaving holes in their place. When these two for battery storing operations.. For battery charging
materials are placed side by side inside a solar cell, the n-type application step down converters gives high efficiency. The
silicones spare electrons jump over to fill the gaps in the p- power output of PV module varies continuously with the
type silicon. This means that the n-type silicon becomes variation of irradiation and temperature. The maximum power
positively charged, and the p-type silicon is negatively point tracking.
charged, creating an electric field across the cell. Because

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Volume 3, Issue 1, January – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456 –2165

Fig.6. Buck Converter

IEC 61730-2 (ed.1)

TUV Safety class II3.2b

Fig. 5.Solar Panel
BATTERY Type Lead acid
(MPPT) algorithm is used for extracting the maximum power
from the solar PV module and transferring that power to the Capacity 35
load. A DC-DC converter (Step down), serves the purpose of
transferring maximum power from the PV module to the load Voltage 12v
and acts as an interface between the load and the module.
Number of cells 4
B. Solar Panels and Battery Design
Total Voltage 48v
Solar panels being available in many types we get options to
select them as per our requirements. The type which we will Dimension 97m x129m x227m
be using is polycrystalline. Though Mono crystalline panels
have more efficiency but according to the requirement and Weight 10.4kg
economy we considered polycrystalline panels to be used.
Charging current 2.5A
Mechanical: Type Multi Crystalline
No of Cells in Series 60
Total Power 1680W
Y-Axis Mounting Hole 946
X-Axis Mounting Hole 6.9
Area of one panel (m2) 0.567m2 Table 2: Battery Specification
Junction Box Cable 4 sq mm, with Plug-in
type connectors TUV certified 1000mm C. Buck Converter

Glass Type High Transmission, Low Iron, It is also known as a dc- dc converter .A buck converter circuit
Tempered, 4.0mm Electrical has a transistor, inductor and, capacitor. The capacitor is
Power Max (Pm) 250w connected parallel to the load. Buck converter continuously
switches on and off at high frequency. To maintain a
Open Circuit (Voc) 24.5V
continuous output, the circuit uses the energy stored in the
Coefficient Power (-0.45 percent / K) inductor, during the on periods of the switching transistor. The
(Percentage/k) NOCT 46C +/- 2C circuit diagram of buck converter is illustrated as given below:
The required buck convertors are 48v-12v and 48v-5v . Power
Coefficient Power (-0.45 percent/ K) requirement Indicators and Warning lights- 12v,120w Data
(Percentage/k) acquisition -12v 24w and 5v 20w cooling fan (bldc )-50w,12v.
Coefficient Voltage (-0.31 percent / K)
(Percentage/k) D. MPPT Charge Controller
Coefficient Current (+0.05 percent/ K)
(Percentage/k Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a technique that
Temperature Range (-40C) to (85C) grid connected inverters, solar battery chargers and similar
devices use to get the maximum possible power from one or
Table 1: Panel Description more photovoltaic modules. Photovoltaic solar cells have a
complex relationship between solar irradiance (W/square

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Volume 3, Issue 1, January – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456 –2165

meter), temperature and total resistance that produces a non- power; if the power increases, further adjustments in that
linear output efficiency which can be analyzed based on the I- direction are tried until power no longer increases. This is
V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the called perturb and observe method and is most common,
although this method can result in oscillations of power
output. It is referred to as a hill climbing method, because it
depends on the rise of the curve of power against voltage
below the maximum power point, and the fall above that
point. Perturb and observe is the most commonly used MPPT
method due to its ease of implementation. Perturb and observe
method may result in top-level efficiency, provided that a
proper predictive and adaptive hill climbing strategy is

F. TLP250 Mosfet Driver

TLP250 is more suitable for MOSFET and IGBT. The main

difference between TLP250 and other MOSFET drivers is that
TLP250 MOSFET driver is optically isolated. Its means input
Fig. 7.Maximum Power Point Tracking and output of TLP250 MOSFET driver is isolated from each
other. It works like an opto-coupler. Input stage has a light
Output of the PV cells and apply the proper resistance (load) emitting diode and output stage has photo diode. Whenever
to obtain maximum power for any given environmental input stage LED light falls on output stage photo detector
condition. MPPT devices are typically integrated into an diode, output becomes high.
electric power converter system that provides voltage or
current conversion, filtering, and regulation for driving various G. Capacitor
loads, including power grids, batteries, or motors.
The bulk input capacitor, C, stores enough energy from the
E. MPPT Algorithm used solar panel to power the load for the required duration and
provides the charge for starting up the power supply.
Perturb and observe in this method the controller adjusts the
voltage by a small amount from the array and measures

Fig. 8.Block Diagram of Perturb and Observe

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ISSN No:-2456 –2165


N-Channel Power MOSFETs : 200V, 18A, 0.15

Features :Ultra Low On-Resistance

Fig.9. Pin Configuration of TLP250

The panel delivers a current corresponding to its voltage to Fig.10. Temperature Ranges
either the power supply or C. When the power supply is off,
the solar panel delivers its current to the capacitor. When the
power supply is on, the capacitor and solar panel provide the
necessary current to power the load. Since C merely stores
energy and this energy is released over a relatively lengthy
period of time, C can be a low cost electrolytic capacitor. The
details given below gives the reason why we are using this
capacitor. Given its use in wide range of temperature as given
in figure 10.

RDS(ON) = 0.102 (Typ), VGS = 10V

Fig.11. Specifications of MOSFT

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Volume 3, Issue 1, January – 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456 –2165

I. Diode: 1560G them real-life experience in designing, dimensioning and

controlling both specific system components as well as user-
Features: Ultrafast 35 and 60 Nanosecond Recovery Time friendly end-products.
175C Operating Junction Temperature High Voltage
Capability to 600 V Low Forward Drop Low Leakage REFERENCES
Specified @150C Case Temperature Current Derating
Specified Both Case and Ambient Temperatures [1]. Pallavee Bhatnagar and R.K. Neema,“Maximum power
point control techniques : State of the art in Photovoltaic
IV. APPLICATION Application ,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy,
Reviews 23, pp. 224-241,2013.
In the last years, there is an increasing awareness about the [2]. G S Sawhney, “Nonconventional Energy Resources.
need to achieve a more sustainable mobility, allowing meet- [3]. G D Rai, “Nonconventional Energy Sources.
inn the mobility needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their needs (Kyoto
Protocol, 1997). The most pressing arguments towards new
solutions for personal mobility are the following: The CO2
generated by the combustion processes occurring in
conventional thermal engines contributes to the greenhouse
effects, with dangerous and maybe dramatic effects on global
warming and climatic changes; The worldwide demand for
personal mobility is rapidly growing, especially in China and
India; as a consequence, energy consumption and CO2
emissions related to cars and transportation are expected to
increase; Fossil fuels, largely used for car propulsion, are
doomed to depletion; their price is still growing, and is subject
to large and unpredictable fluctuations; renewable energy
sources is one of the most effective solution to such problems.
Is it therefore natural to wonder about possible use of solar
energy for automotive applications. The conversion from light
into direct current electricity is based on the researches
performed at the Bell Laboratories in the 50s, where the
principle discovered by the French physicist Alexander-
Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891) was applied for the first time.
The photovoltaic panels, working thanks to the semi
conductive properties of silicon and other materials, were first
used for space applications. The diffusion of this technology
has been growing exponentially in recent years, due to the
pressing need for a renewable and carbon-free energy. World
solar PV installations were 2.826 gig watts peak (GWp) in
2007, and 5.95 gig watts in 2008, with a 110So with the
application of solar vehicles people will be able to cope with
current crisis. Moreover its a cleaner fuel can be tapped almost
everywhere. These vehicles can overcome with the most
important problem faced by the people that is depletion of oil


The students also learn about the different aspects of hybrid

electric vehicles, covering subjects such as mechanical trans-
missions, energy storage systems, circuit breakers, dimension-
ing of electronic components and different power electronic
circuits. This allows them to look beyond the boundaries of
system specific problems limited to one module and gives

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