You are on page 1of 7


Thonney Chapter 8: Integrating Source Material into Academic Writing


• Bibliography: The generic term referring to a list of sources at the end of a text.
In MLA, this is called the Works Cited page; in APA, this is called the References
• Common knowledge: Information widely published or widely known by people
with a high school education or members of the intended audience. This includes
uncontested facts available and essentially identical in numerous sources.
Documentation is not required for common knowledge if the information is conveyed
in the writer’s own words.
• Patchwriting: Using language and sentence patterns that closely imitate the
original text when summarizing or paraphrasing.
Additional term:
• Cherry-picking: Skimming sources just to look for quotes to add to your paper
rather than trying to understand the main argument and claims. This results in a
paper where the research doesn’t feel integrated.

Definition: When it is useful:

• Briefly conveying just the essence or • In the introduction to set the context
main ideas of a text using different words
• In the body to support claims
and sentence structure. Documentation
of the original source is required. • When you are trying to convey the
author’s main argument
• When you want to condense a large
amount of information into a shorter

Pg. 307 offers a template for writing an effective summary.


Definition: When it is useful:

• Conveying all or most of the details of a • When you want to reduce a portion of the
sentence or short passage in different text
words and sentence structure.
Documentation of the original source is • When the wording isn’t essential to the
required. ideas expressed
• When you want to use the author’s ideas
to support your claims
• To make the information accessible to a
wider audience

Pg. 309 offers a detailed discussion of how to paraphrase.


Definition: When it is useful:

• When you want to let the author speak for
• Using a writer or speaker’s exact words.
Quotations are either enclosed in • When presenting a counterclaim
quotation marks or set off as block
quotations. • To incorporate highly technical information
• To analyze specific language or word choice
in a passage
• When paraphrasing or summarizing would
change the meaning
• To bring authority to your paper by relying
on the words of an expert

Pgs. 315-320 offer detailed instructions for how to incorporate quotes.


• Use the rest of class time to carefully read through your sources to
understand the main ideas and identify information that will be useful to you in
writing your essay by taking notes and completing the following tasks:
• Write a summary of the main claim being made by the author.
• Identify any passages that you want to use as evidence in your paper by writing down
page numbers along with a paraphrase or direct quote from the source.
• Bring all of your sources and notes to class.
• Draft an overall claim about the conversation
surrounding your topic.
• Read Ch 9, pgs. 355-369 on how to synthesize
• Most of the class will be spent workshopping
your outline, main claim, and introduction for
the essay, so please bring your laptops to class.

Reminder: The rough draft of your essay is due

on Monday, February 5.You will need a hard copy
of your paper to participate in peer review. If you
do not have a hard copy of your paper, you will be
counted absent.