September 2007

Dear CAESAR II User,
Enclosed please find Version 5.10 of the CAESAR II Pipe Stress Analysis program. This package
includes a program CD-Rom and associated documentation.
This version of CAESAR II incorporates many new features and technical capabilities. Some of the more
significant changes are listed in the table below (for a complete list of changes, refer to Chapter 1 of the
User’s Manual).
• Added flange rating evaluation per B16.5 and NC-3658.
• Revised due to “code” changes the following piping codes: B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, Z662,
EN-13480
• Revised Wind and Seismic load calculations to ASCE #7 2005.
• Added many graphics improvements.
The CD-ROM has an Auto-Run feature that should start the installation driver as soon as the CD tray is
closed. The installation of Version 5.10 will create a group on the startup menu for subsequent access.
Additionally a desktop shortcut icon to C2.EXE will be placed on the desktop. Please refer to Chapter 2
of the User’s Manual for additional details, and the “silent install” option.
Please be aware that Version 5.10 is not downward compatible with any previous version of the software.
Input files from older versions are upward compatible as always.
Version 5.10 (like all previous versions) of CAESAR II has been tested according to the QA standards
established at COADE. Jobs created on earlier versions are compatible with Version 5.10 and should
yield the same results as earlier versions (except as noted in the Technical Changes on the next page).
Regards,

CAESAR II Development Staff

CAESAR II Version 5.10 Changes
This list details the new or changed capabilities and features of CAESAR II Version 5.10.
• Added flange rating evaluation per B16.5 and NC-3658.
• Graphics Improvements:
o Improved graphics rendering speed proved by 20% to 50% depending on the job.
o Added additional controls to view corrosion and densities.
o Added the ability to import an Autocad (CADWorx) model directly into the piping input, to
provide visualization of supporting steel, vessels and other equipment.
• Static Output Processor Improvements:
o Reduced report generation times by 70% or better
o Added Presentation in “tabbed” window to allow viewing multiple reports, and immediate
switching between reports.
o Added ability to select Individual items from “Miscellaneous Report”
o Added ability to zoom Reports and individually direct to an output device via a “context
menu”
o Added Custom report templates can be imported and exported.
• Static Load Case Editor enhancements
o Added In-Line Flange Evaluation at the load case level.
o Added the ability to alter the “occasional load multiplier” on a “per load case basis”.
o Added the ability to “import” static load data from different jobs
o Added the ability to copy wind and wave vectors.
• Added user control over whether or not insulation should be considered in hydro test cases.
• Added the following new piping codes: PD-8010 Part 1 and Part 2.
• Revised the following piping codes due to “code” changes: B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, Z662,
EN-13480
• Added support for B31.3 Section 319.2.3(c), allowing axial stress to be included in the Expansion
Code Stress.
• Revised API-661 to 6
th
Edition.
• Revised Wind and Seismic load calculations to ASCE #7 2005.
• Added a number of European materials to the material database.
• Updated stainless steel pipe specification data per B36.19M.
• Updated DIN pipe size specification to comply with EN-10220 (seamless) instead of DIN-2458
(welded).
• Added Chinese structural steel and expansion joint databases.
• Added spring hanger data from Gradior Power, (Czech Republic).
• Updated the flange material database per ASME Sect VIII Div 1, 2007 Edition.
• Updated the Inoflex Spring Hanger data.
CAESAR II Version 5.10 - Technical Changes
The following list details changes to CAESAR II for Version 5.10, which may affect the numeric results.
• Corrected the system weight distribution in the “restrained weight” case when hanger
operating loads are defined by the user), (060301 build).
• Modified the SIF calculations for ASME NC/ND (July 2005 addendum), (060301 build).
• Corrected the determination of the governing "code stress" for combination load cases for
Offshore, Z662, and BS-7159 codes.
• Corrected the auto-computation of the “B31.3 Wc” value for bends, (070122 build).
• For EN-13480:
o Corrected the use of sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded tees so that they use the same
SIF computations as Unreinforced tees.
o Changed the “default occasional load factor” from 1.33 to 1.00.
o Corrected the computation of the allowable stress for the EN-13480 (060426 build) and
CODETI (060707 build) codes Expansion case.
o Corrected the usage of the “effective section modulus” for reducing tees for both CODETI
and EN-13480.
• For CODETI:
o The code now enforces corrosion allowance, if specified.
• Modified the usage of the hanger stiffness values when using the “as designed“ option for hanger
design, (060426 build).
• Updated ASCE #7 wind load generation to 2005 Edition:
o Updated Table 6-1 for Importance Factor
o Updated Table 6-2 for Exposure Constants zg and alpha
o Updated the equation for Kz.
o Updated limiting conditions for the determination of Kzt.
o Updated the computation of the “gust factor”.
• B31.1 A2005 introduced a number of changes that will affect existing jobs. These changes are:
o If the program is allowed to update the allowable stresses, higher values will be acquired.
o The Sc and Sh values used to determine the Expansion allowable are now limited to 20
ksi.
o In Table 102.1.2.a, “note a” changes the “y” value from 0.4 to 0.0. This will only affect the
“minimum wall thickness” calculation.
o Corrections have been made to the butt weld and branch connection restrictions
o The addendum exchanged the equations (between the figure and the notes) used to
compute the "flexibility characteristic" for welding tees and welded-in contour inserts
(sweepolets). This change will cause the SIFs for these fittings to change accordingly.
CAESAR II defaults to the updated equation in the figure, which is more conservative.
Users can control this choice with a new configuration option. B31.1 and B31.3 now
match in this regard.

Printed on 18 September, 2007

Version 5.10 CAESAR II User Guide
Copyright © 1985-2008 COADE, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2
Preface
CAESAR II LICENSE AGREEMENT
Licensor: COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc., 12777 Jones Road., Suite. 480, Houston, Texas 77070

ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT BY THE USER
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE USING THIS
PACKAGE. USING THIS PACKAGE INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS.
The enclosed proprietary encoded materials, hereinafter referred to as the Licensed Program(s), are the property of COADE
and are provided to you under the terms and conditions of this License Agreement. You assume responsibility for the
selection of the appropriate Licensed Program(s) to achieve the intended results, and for the installation, use and results
obtained from the selected Licensed Program(s).

LICENSE GRANT
In return for the payment of the license fee associated with the acquisition of the Licensed Program(s) from COADE,
COADE hereby grants you the following non-exclusive rights with regard to the Licensed Program(s):
a Use of the License Program(s) on one machine. Under no circumstance is the License Program to be executed without a
COADE External Software Lock (ESL).
b To transfer the Licensed Program(s) and license it to a third party if the third party acknowledges in writing its
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of the Licensed Program(s) is with you.
3
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of limited warranties, and, in those jurisdictions the above exclusions may not
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COADE does not warrant that the functions contained in the Licensed Program(s) will meet your requirements or that the
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COADE warrants that any program errors will be fixed by COADE, at COADE’s expense, as soon as possible after the
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ENTIRE AGREEMENT
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LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES
COADE’s entire liability and your exclusive remedy shall be:
a The replacement of any CD not meeting COADE’s “Limited Warranty” as defined herein and which is returned to
COADE or an authorized COADE dealer with a copy of your receipt, or
b If COADE or the dealer is unable to deliver a replacement CD which is free of defects in materials or workmanship you
may terminate this License Agreement by returning the Licensed Program(s) and associated documentation and you
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PURSUANT TO THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT.

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You may not sublicense, assign, or transfer your rights under this License Agreement or the Licensed Program(s) except as
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such updates and support are optional at the then current update fee.
4
Questions concerning this License Agreement, and all notices required herein, shall be made by contacting COADE in
writing at COADE, 12777 Jones Road, Suite 480, Houston, Texas, 77070, or by telephone, 281-890-4566.

EXPORT RESTRICTIONS
You acknowledge the Software is subject to U.S. export jurisdiction. You agree to comply with all applicable international
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end-use, and destination restrictions issued by U.S. and other governments. For additional information see
http://www.bis.doc.gov (http://www.bis.doc.gov/ \o http://www.bis.doc.gov/).”

DISCLAIMER - CAESAR II
Copyright (c) COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc., 2008, all rights reserved.
This proprietary software is the property of COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc. and is provided to the user pursuant
to a COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc. program license agreement containing restrictions on its use. It may not be
copied or distributed in any form or medium, disclosed to third parties, or used in any manner accept as expressly permitted
by the COADE/Engineering Physics Software, Inc. program license agreement.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED. COADE/ENGINEERING PHYSICS SOFTWARE, INC. SHALL NOT HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO THE
USER IN EXCESS OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT PAID TO COADE UNDER THE COADE/ENGINEERING PHYSICS
SOFTWARE, INC. LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR THIS SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT WILL COADE/ENGINEERING
PHYSICS SOFTWARE, INC. BE LIABLE TO THE USER FOR ANY LOST PROFITS OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE EVEN IF
COADE/ENGINEERING PHYSICS, INC. HAS BEEN ADVISED AS TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IT
IS THE USERS RESPONSIBILITY TO VERIFY THE RESULTS OF THE PROGRAM.

HOOPS‘ License Grant
COADE grants to CAESAR II Users a non-exclusive license to use the Software Application under the terms stated in this
Agreement.
CAESAR II Users agree not to alter, reverse engineer, or disassemble the Software Application. CAESAR II Users will not
copy the Software except: (i) as necessary to install the Software Application onto a computer(s)... or (ii) to create an
archival copy. CAESAR II Users agree that any such copies of the Software Application shall contain the same proprietary
notices which appear on and in the Software Application.
Title to and ownership of the intellectual property rights associated with the Software Application and any copies remain
with COADE and its suppliers.
CAESAR II Users are hereby notified that Tech Soft 3D, L.L.C 931 Ashby Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710 ("Tech Soft 3D") is
a third-party beneficiary to this Agreement to the extent that this Agreement contains provisions which relate to CAESAR II
Users’ use of the Software Application. Such provisions are made expressly for the benefit of Tech Soft 3D and are
enforceable by Tech Soft 3D in addition to COADE.
In no event shall COADE or its suppliers be liable in any way for indirect, special, or consequential damages of any nature,
including without limitation, lost business profits, or liability or injury to third persons, whether foreseeable or not,
regardless of whether COADE or its suppliers have been advised of the possibility of such damages.

Contents
Preface ..........................................................................................................................................................2
CAESAR II LICENSE AGREEMENT.............................................................................................2
ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT BY THE USER...................................................2
LICENSE GRANT............................................................................................................................2
TERM................................................................................................................................................2
LIMITED WARRANTY...................................................................................................................2
ENTIRE AGREEMENT ...................................................................................................................3
LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES ......................................................................................................3
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................3
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS ..............................................................................................................4
DISCLAIMER - CAESAR II ............................................................................................................4
HOOPS‘ License Grant .....................................................................................................................4
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1
What is CAESAR II?................................................................................................................................ 1-2
What are the Applications of CAESAR II? .............................................................................................. 1-3
What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress Packages? ....................................................... 1-4
About the CAESAR II Documentation..................................................................................................... 1-5
Program Support/User Assistance ............................................................................................................ 1-6
Software Revision Procedures .................................................................................................................. 1-7
Identifying Builds.......................................................................................................................... 1-7
Can Builds Be Applied To Any Version? ..................................................................................... 1-7
Announcing Builds........................................................................................................................ 1-7
Obtaining Builds............................................................................................................................ 1-7
What is Contained In A Specific Build?........................................................................................ 1-7
Installing Builds............................................................................................................................. 1-7
Detecting/Checking Builds............................................................................................................ 1-8
Archiving and Reinstalling an Old, Patched Version.................................................................... 1-8
Updates and License Types ...................................................................................................................... 1-9
Full Run......................................................................................................................................... 1-9
Lease.............................................................................................................................................. 1-9
Limited Run................................................................................................................................... 1-9
Program Changes.................................................................................................................................... 1-10
Technical Changes.................................................................................................................................. 1-12
Chapter 2 Installation 2-1
Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 2-2
System and Hardware Requirements ........................................................................................................ 2-3
Installing CAESAR II Overview.............................................................................................................. 2-4
Installation..................................................................................................................................... 2-5
Installing CAESAR II in Silent Mode......................................................................................... 2-13
ESL Installation on a Network................................................................................................................ 2-15
Novell File Server ESL Installation............................................................................................. 2-15
Novell Workstation ESL Installation........................................................................................... 2-15
Windows Server Installation ....................................................................................................... 2-15
2 Contents
Notes on Network ESLs ......................................................................................................................... 2-16
Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-1
CAESAR II Quick Start............................................................................................................................ 3-2
Starting CAESAR II ...................................................................................................................... 3-2
Basic Operation ........................................................................................................................................ 3-5
Piping Input Generation................................................................................................................. 3-5
Error Checking the Model ............................................................................................................. 3-9
Building the Load Cases.............................................................................................................. 3-11
Executing Static Analysis............................................................................................................ 3-12
Static Output Review................................................................................................................... 3-13
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-1
The CAESAR II Main Menu.................................................................................................................... 4-2
File Menu.................................................................................................................................................. 4-3
Input Menu................................................................................................................................................ 4-5
Analysis Menu.......................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Output Menu............................................................................................................................................. 4-7
Tools Menu............................................................................................................................................... 4-8
Diagnostics Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 4-9
ESL Menu............................................................................................................................................... 4-10
View Menu ............................................................................................................................................. 4-11
Help Menu .............................................................................................................................................. 4-12
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-1
Spreadsheet Overview.............................................................................................................................. 5-2
Customize Toolbar ........................................................................................................................ 5-3
Data Fields ................................................................................................................................................ 5-4
Node Numbers............................................................................................................................... 5-4
Element Lengths............................................................................................................................ 5-4
Element Direction Cosines ............................................................................................................ 5-5
Pipe Section Properties.................................................................................................................. 5-5
Operating Conditions: Temperatures and Pressures ...................................................................... 5-6
Special Element Information......................................................................................................... 5-6
Boundary Conditions..................................................................................................................... 5-7
Loading Conditions ....................................................................................................................... 5-7
Piping Material .............................................................................................................................. 5-8
Material Elastic Properties............................................................................................................. 5-8
Densities ........................................................................................................................................ 5-8
Auxiliary Data Area.................................................................................................................................. 5-9
Flanges........................................................................................................................................... 5-9
Bend Data .................................................................................................................................... 5-10
Rigid Weight ............................................................................................................................... 5-11
Restraints ..................................................................................................................................... 5-12
Expansion Joint ........................................................................................................................... 5-13
Displacements.............................................................................................................................. 5-14
Forces .......................................................................................................................................... 5-15
Uniform Loads............................................................................................................................. 5-16
Wind/Wave.................................................................................................................................. 5-17
Allowable Stresses....................................................................................................................... 5-18
Stress Intensification Factors/Tees .............................................................................................. 5-19
Flexible Nozzles .......................................................................................................................... 5-20
Contents 3
Hangers........................................................................................................................................ 5-21
Node Names ................................................................................................................................ 5-22
Offsets ......................................................................................................................................... 5-23
Menu Commands.................................................................................................................................... 5-24
File Menu .................................................................................................................................... 5-24
Edit Menu.................................................................................................................................... 5-26
Model Menu ................................................................................................................................ 5-31
Break ........................................................................................................................................... 5-31
Environment Menu...................................................................................................................... 5-36
3-D Modeler............................................................................................................................................ 5-39
3D Graphics Configuration ......................................................................................................... 5-43
User Options................................................................................................................................ 5-46
HOOPS Toolbar Manipulations .................................................................................................. 5-49
3D Graphic Highlights - Materials, Diameters, Wall Thickness, Insulation ............................... 5-50
3D Graphics Highlights: Temperature and Pressure ................................................................... 5-51
3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads, Wind/Wave Loads............... 5-52
Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info; Find Node, Range & Cutting Plane ............................ 5-53
Save an Image for Later Presentation: TIF, HTML, BMP, JPEG and PDF ................................ 5-54
3D Graphics Interactive Feature: Walk Through......................................................................... 5-56
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-1
Error Checking.......................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Fatal Error Message....................................................................................................................... 6-3
Warning Message .......................................................................................................................... 6-4
Note Message ................................................................................................................................ 6-5
Building Static Load Cases....................................................................................................................... 6-8
Providing Wind Data ................................................................................................................................ 6-9
Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters.................................................................................................... 6-11
Execution of Static Analysis................................................................................................................... 6-12
Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases .......................................................................................................... 6-15
Definition of a Load Case............................................................................................................ 6-15
Load Case Options Tab ............................................................................................................... 6-19
User Control of Produced Results Data....................................................................................... 6-20
Output Status ............................................................................................................................... 6-20
Output Type................................................................................................................................. 6-20
Snubbers Active?......................................................................................................................... 6-20
Hanger Stiffness .......................................................................................................................... 6-20
Friction Multiplier ....................................................................................................................... 6-21
Elastic Modulus ........................................................................................................................... 6-21
User-Controlled Combination Methods....................................................................................... 6-21
Algebraic ..................................................................................................................................... 6-21
Scalar ........................................................................................................................................... 6-21
SRSS............................................................................................................................................ 6-22
ABS ............................................................................................................................................. 6-22
Max.............................................................................................................................................. 6-22
Min .............................................................................................................................................. 6-22
SignMax ...................................................................................................................................... 6-22
SignMin....................................................................................................................................... 6-22
Recommended Load Cases.......................................................................................................... 6-22
Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection........................................................................ 6-23
4 Contents
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-1
Entering the Static Output Processor ........................................................................................................ 7-2
Custom Reports Toolbar........................................................................................................................... 7-6
Custom Reports ........................................................................................................................................ 7-7
Report Template Editor ................................................................................................................. 7-7
Report Options........................................................................................................................................ 7-10
Displacements.............................................................................................................................. 7-10
Restraints ..................................................................................................................................... 7-11
Restraint Summary ...................................................................................................................... 7-11
Global Element Forces ................................................................................................................ 7-12
Local Element Forces .................................................................................................................. 7-12
Stresses ........................................................................................................................................ 7-13
Stress Summary........................................................................................................................... 7-14
Code Compliance Report............................................................................................................. 7-15
Cumulative Usage Report............................................................................................................ 7-16
General Computed Results ..................................................................................................................... 7-17
Load Case Report ........................................................................................................................ 7-17
Hanger Table with Text ............................................................................................................... 7-18
Input Echo ................................................................................................................................... 7-18
Miscellaneous Data ..................................................................................................................... 7-19
Warnings ..................................................................................................................................... 7-19
Output Viewer Wizard............................................................................................................................ 7-20
Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes ............................................................................................. 7-21
3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor ............................................................................. 7-23
Animation of Static Results Notes.......................................................................................................... 7-26
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-1
Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II ....................................................................................................... 8-2
Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................. 8-3
Major Steps in Dynamic Input....................................................................................................... 8-4
Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview.......................................................................................... 8-5
Entering the Dynamic Analysis Input Menu ................................................................................. 8-5
Input Overview Based on Analysis Category........................................................................................... 8-7
Modal............................................................................................................................................. 8-7
Specifying the Loads ..................................................................................................................... 8-7
Snubbers ........................................................................................................................................ 8-7
Control Parameters ........................................................................................................................ 8-8
Advanced Parameters Show Screen .............................................................................................. 8-8
Harmonic .................................................................................................................................................. 8-9
Specifying the Loads ..................................................................................................................... 8-9
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model.......................................................................................... 8-10
Control Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 8-11
Earthquake (Spectrum) ........................................................................................................................... 8-12
Specifying the Loads ................................................................................................................... 8-12
Spectrum Load Cases .................................................................................................................. 8-14
Static/Dynamic Combinations ..................................................................................................... 8-15
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model.......................................................................................... 8-16
Control Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 8-16
Advanced Parameters .................................................................................................................. 8-16
Relief Loads (Spectrum) ......................................................................................................................... 8-17
Specifying the Loads ................................................................................................................... 8-17
Relief Load Synthesis.................................................................................................................. 8-17
Contents 5
DLF/Spectrum Generator - The Spectrum Wizard ................................................................................. 8-18
Save to File.................................................................................................................................. 8-19
OK............................................................................................................................................... 8-19
Cancel .......................................................................................................................................... 8-19
UBC............................................................................................................................................. 8-20
Spectrum Name ........................................................................................................................... 8-20
Importance Factor........................................................................................................................ 8-20
Seismic Coefficient Ca ................................................................................................................ 8-21
Seismic Coefficient Cv................................................................................................................ 8-21
ASCE7......................................................................................................................................... 8-21
Spectrum Name ........................................................................................................................... 8-22
Importance Factor........................................................................................................................ 8-22
Site Coefficient Fa....................................................................................................................... 8-22
Site Coefficient Fv....................................................................................................................... 8-22
Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS)...................................................................................... 8-22
Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)....................................................................................... 8-23
Response Modification R ............................................................................................................ 8-23
IBC.............................................................................................................................................. 8-23
Spectrum Name ........................................................................................................................... 8-24
Importance Factor........................................................................................................................ 8-24
Site Coefficient Fa....................................................................................................................... 8-24
Site Coefficient Fv....................................................................................................................... 8-24
Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS)...................................................................................... 8-24
Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)....................................................................................... 8-25
Response Modification R ............................................................................................................ 8-25
B31.1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response Spectrum.................................................... 8-25
Spectrum Name ........................................................................................................................... 8-26
Opening Time (milliseconds) ...................................................................................................... 8-26
User Defined Time History Waveform....................................................................................... 8-26
Spectrum Name ........................................................................................................................... 8-26
Max. Table Frequency................................................................................................................. 8-27
Number of Points......................................................................................................................... 8-27
Enter Pulse Data .......................................................................................................................... 8-27
Generate Spectrum...................................................................................................................... 8-28
Spectrum Definitions................................................................................................................... 8-28
Force Sets .................................................................................................................................... 8-29
Spectrum/Load Cases .................................................................................................................. 8-30
Static/Dynamic Combinations ..................................................................................................... 8-30
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model.......................................................................................... 8-30
Control Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 8-31
Advanced..................................................................................................................................... 8-31
Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) ................................................................................................... 8-32
Specifying the Load..................................................................................................................... 8-32
Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generation....................................................................................... 8-32
Spectrum Definitions................................................................................................................... 8-32
Force Sets .................................................................................................................................... 8-32
Spectrum Load Cases .................................................................................................................. 8-32
Static/Dynamic Combinations ..................................................................................................... 8-32
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model.......................................................................................... 8-32
Time History........................................................................................................................................... 8-33
Specifying The Load ................................................................................................................... 8-33
Time History Profile Definitions ................................................................................................. 8-33
Force Sets .................................................................................................................................... 8-34
Time History Load Cases ............................................................................................................ 8-34
Static/Dynamic Combinations ..................................................................................................... 8-34
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Models ........................................................................................ 8-34
6 Contents
Control Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 8-35
Advanced..................................................................................................................................... 8-35
Error Handling and Analyzing the Job ................................................................................................... 8-36
Performing the Analysis .............................................................................................................. 8-36
Modes .......................................................................................................................................... 8-37
Harmonic ..................................................................................................................................... 8-37
Selection of Phase Angles ........................................................................................................... 8-38
Spectrum...................................................................................................................................... 8-38
Time History................................................................................................................................ 8-38
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-1
Entry into the Processor ............................................................................................................................ 9-2
Report Types............................................................................................................................................. 9-5
Displacements................................................................................................................................ 9-5
Restraints ....................................................................................................................................... 9-5
Local Forces .................................................................................................................................. 9-7
Global Forces................................................................................................................................. 9-8
Stresses .......................................................................................................................................... 9-9
Forces/Stresses ............................................................................................................................ 9-10
Cumulative Usage ....................................................................................................................... 9-11
Mass Participation Factors........................................................................................................... 9-12
Natural Frequencies..................................................................................................................... 9-13
Modes Mass Normalized............................................................................................................. 9-14
Modes Unity Normalized ............................................................................................................ 9-14
Included Mass Data ..................................................................................................................... 9-15
Input Listing ................................................................................................................................ 9-15
Mass Model ................................................................................................................................. 9-15
Boundary Conditions................................................................................................................... 9-16
Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File ........................................................................................ 9-17
3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor .................................................................................. 9-18
Save Animation to File ................................................................................................................ 9-19
Animation of Static Results - Displacements .............................................................................. 9-19
Animation of Dynamic Results – Modal/Spectrum..................................................................... 9-20
Animation of Dynamic Results – Harmonic................................................................................ 9-20
Animation of Dynamic Results – Time History .......................................................................... 9-20
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-1
Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II.................................................................................. 10-2
3D/HOOPS Graphics.............................................................................................................................. 10-8
Sample Input ......................................................................................................................................... 10-10
Structural Steel Example #1.................................................................................................................. 10-11
Structural Steel Example #2.................................................................................................................. 10-18
Structural Steel Example #3.................................................................................................................. 10-31
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-1
CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler ................................................................................................ 11-2
Using the Underground Pipe Modeler .................................................................................................... 11-3
Notes on the Soil Model ......................................................................................................................... 11-9
Recommended Procedures.................................................................................................................... 11-11
Original Unburied Model...................................................................................................................... 11-12
Contents 7
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-1
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors .............................................................................................. 12-3
Bend Stress Intensification Factors......................................................................................................... 12-6
Pressure Stiffening....................................................................................................................... 12-8
Flanges Attached to Bend Ends................................................................................................... 12-8
Bends with Trunnions.................................................................................................................. 12-8
Stress Concentrations and Intensification.................................................................................... 12-9
WRC 107 Vessel Stresses..................................................................................................................... 12-10
WRC 107 Stress Summations.................................................................................................... 12-15
WRC Bulletin 297 ................................................................................................................................ 12-17
Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations ..................................................................................................... 12-20
Note on Bolt Tightening Stress.................................................................................................. 12-24
Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler ..................................................................................... 12-25
Leak Pressure Ratio................................................................................................................... 12-25
Effective Gasket Modulus ......................................................................................................... 12-25
Flange Rating............................................................................................................................. 12-26
Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G............................................................................... 12-28
Expansion Joint Rating ......................................................................................................................... 12-32
Structural Steel Checks - AISC............................................................................................................. 12-39
Global Parameters ..................................................................................................................... 12-39
Structural Code.......................................................................................................................... 12-40
Allowable Stress Increase Factor............................................................................................... 12-40
Stress Reduction Factors Cmy and Cmz.................................................................................... 12-40
Young’s Modulus ...................................................................................................................... 12-40
Material Yield Strength ............................................................................................................. 12-40
Bending Coefficient................................................................................................................... 12-40
Form Factor Qa.......................................................................................................................... 12-40
Allow Sidesway......................................................................................................................... 12-41
Resize Members Whose Unity Check Value Is . . . ................................................................... 12-41
Minimum Desired Unity Check................................................................................................. 12-41
Maximum Desired Unity Check................................................................................................ 12-41
Local Member Data................................................................................................................... 12-42
Member Start Node ................................................................................................................... 12-42
Member End Node .................................................................................................................... 12-42
Member Type ............................................................................................................................ 12-42
In- And Out-Of-Plane Fixity Coefficients Ky And Kz.............................................................. 12-43
Unsupported Axial Length ........................................................................................................ 12-43
Unsupported Length (In-Plane Bending)................................................................................... 12-43
Unsupported Length (Out-Of-Plane Bending)........................................................................... 12-43
Double Angle Spacing............................................................................................................... 12-43
Young’s Modulus ...................................................................................................................... 12-43
Material Yield Strength ............................................................................................................. 12-43
Axial Member Force.................................................................................................................. 12-44
In-Plane Bending Moment......................................................................................................... 12-44
Out-of-Plane Bending Moment ................................................................................................. 12-44
In-Plane “Small” Bending Moment........................................................................................... 12-44
In-Plane “Large” Bending Moment........................................................................................... 12-44
Out-of-Plane “Small” Bending Moment.................................................................................... 12-44
Out-of-Plane “Large” Bending Moment.................................................................................... 12-44
AISC Output Reports................................................................................................................. 12-45
Differences Between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Codes .............................................................. 12-46
NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) ........................................................................................................... 12-47
NEMA Turbine Example........................................................................................................... 12-48
8 Contents
API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) ............................................................................................................... 12-54
Vertical In-Line Pumps ............................................................................................................. 12-59
API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) ..................................................................................................... 12-60
API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) ............................................................................................... 12-62
Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters........................................................ 12-67
API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) ....................................................................... 12-68
Chapter 1 Introduction
In This Chapter
What is CAESAR II?............................................................................... 1-2
What are the Applications of CAESAR II? ............................................. 1-3
What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress Packages?...... 1-4
About the CAESAR II Documentation.................................................... 1-5
Program Support/User Assistance ........................................................... 1-6
Software Revision Procedures ................................................................. 1-7
Updates and License Types ..................................................................... 1-9
Program Changes..................................................................................... 1-10
Technical Changes................................................................................... 1-12

C H A P T E R 1
1-2 Introduction
What is CAESAR II?
CAESAR II is a PC-based pipe stress analysis software program developed, marketed and sold by COADE Engineering
Software. This software package is an engineering tool used in the mechanical design and analysis of piping systems. The
CAESAR II user creates a model of the piping system using simple beam elements and defines the loading conditions
imposed on the system. With this input, CAESAR II produces results in the form of displacements, loads, and stresses
throughout the system. Additionally, CAESAR II compares these results to limits specified by recognized codes and
standards. The popularity of CAESAR II is a reflection of COADE’s expertise in programming and engineering, as well as
COADE’s dedication to service and quality.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-3
What are the Applications of CAESAR II?
CAESAR II is most often used for the mechanical design of new piping systems. Hot piping systems present a unique
problem to the mechanical engineer—these irregular structures experience great thermal strain that must be absorbed by the
piping, supports, and attached equipment. These “structures” must be stiff enough to support their own weight and also
flexible enough to accept thermal growth. These loads, displacements, and stresses can be estimated through analysis of the
piping model in CAESAR II. To aid in this design by analysis, CAESAR II incorporates many of the limitations placed on
these systems and their attached equipment. These limits are typically specified by engineering bodies (such as the ASME
B31 committees, ASME Section VIII, and the Welding Research Council) or by manufacturers of piping-related equipment
(API, NEMA, or EJMA).
CAESAR II is not limited to thermal analysis of piping systems. CAESAR II also has the capability of modeling and analyzing
the full range of static and dynamic loads, which may be imposed on the system. Therefore, CAESAR II is not only a tool for
new design but it is also valuable in troubleshooting or redesigning existing systems. Here, one can determine the cause of
failure or evaluate the severity of unanticipated operating conditions such as fluid/piping interaction or mechanical vibration
caused by rotating equipment.

1-4 Introduction
What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress
Packages?
COADE treats CAESAR II more as a service than a product. Our staff of experienced pipe stress engineers are involved in
day-to-day software development, program support, and training. This approach has produced a program, which most
closely fits today’s requirements of the pipe stress industry. Data entry is simple and straight forward through annotated
input screens and/or spreadsheets. CAESAR II provides the widest range of modeling and analysis capabilities without
becoming too complicated for simple system analysis. Users may tailor their CAESAR II installation through default setting
and customized databases. Comprehensive input graphics confirms the model construction before the analysis is made. The
program’s interactive output processor presents results on the monitor for quick review or sends complete reports to a file or
printer. CAESAR III is an up-to-date package that not only utilizes standard analysis guidelines but also provides the latest
recognized opinions for these analyses.
CAESAR II also offers seamless interaction with COADE’s CADWorx/PIPE, an AutoCAD based design and drafting system
for creating orthographic, isometric and 3D piping drawings. The 2-way-link automatically generates stress analysis models
of piping layouts, or creates spectacular stress isometrics in minutes from CAESAR II models.
CAESAR II is a field-proven engineering analysis program. It is a widely recognized product with a large customer base and
an excellent support and development record. COADE is a strong and stable company where service is a major
commitment.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-5
About the CAESAR II Documentation
To address the sheer volume of information available on CAESAR II and present it in a concise and useful manner to the
analyst the program documentation is presented in three separate manuals:
1. The User Guide describes the basic operation and flow of the many routines found in CAESAR II. This document
provides necessary installation information, gives an overview of the program capabilities, and introduces model
creation, analysis, and output review. It is intended as a general road map for the program. This general document is
the first source of information.
2. The Technical Reference Manual explains, in detail, the function of, input for, and output from each module of the
program. This manual also explains much of the theory behind CAESAR II calculations. The Technical Reference
Manual should be referred to whenever the user needs more information than is provided by the User Guide.
3. The Application Guide provides examples of how to use CAESAR II. These examples illustrate methods of modeling
individual piping components as well as complete piping systems. Here one can find tutorials on system modeling
and analysis. The Application Guide is a reference providing quick “how to” information on specific subjects.
In addition to these three manuals, a Quick Reference Guide is included with the software package. The Quick Reference
Guide provides the user with commonly referenced information in a lightweight, easy-to-carry notebook.

1-6 Introduction
Program Support/User Assistance
COADE’s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also, at times, an elaborate process—one
that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to address the questions raised regarding
piping analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all the answers can be quickly found in these volumes.
COADE understands the engineer’s need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To that end, COADE
has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II issues raised by all users. CAESAR II support is available
by telephone, fax, the Internet, and by mail; literally hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE provides
this service at no additional charge to the user. It is expected, however, that questions focus on the current version of the
program.
Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE conducts regular training
classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance courses around the world. These courses focus on the
expertise available at COADE—modeling, analysis, and design.
COADE Technical Support:
Phone: 281-890-4566 E-mail: techsupport@coade.com
Fax: 281-890-3301 Web: www.coade.com

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-7
Software Revision Procedures
COADE software products are not static; they are changed continually to reflect engineering code addenda, operational
enhancements, user requests, operating system modifications, and corrections. New versions are planned and targeted for a
specific release date. However, there may be corrections necessary to the “currently shipping” version, before the next
version can be released. When this occurs, a correction to the “currently shipping” version is made. This correction is
referred to as a “Build.”
Changes and corrections are accumulated until an error producing incorrect results is found. When this occurs, the build is
finalized, announced, and posted to the Web site. Some COADE users have expressed concern over tracking, archiving, and
distributing the various builds generated between major releases. In order to alleviate this problem for our users, all
maintenance Builds for new releases contain all previous builds. In other words, Build Y contains Build X. This increases
the download size and time required to obtain the Build, but only one build is required at any given time.

Identifying Builds
When posted on the Web, builds are identified with the program identifier and the date the Build was generated for example
C2YYY-YYMMDD.EXE.

Can Builds Be Applied To Any Version?
No! As new versions are released, additional input items become necessary and must be stored in the program data files. In
addition, file formats change; databases grow, and so on. A Build is intended for one specific version of the software. Using
a Build on a different version (without specific advice from COADE personnel) is a sure way to cripple the software.

Announcing Builds
When a Build becomes available, the NEWS file maintained on the Web site is updated. All entries in this news file are
dated for ease of reference. Users should check one of these news files at least once a month to ensure they stay current with
the software.
Corrections and Builds are also published in the COADE newsletter, Mechanical Engineering News.
If users register with an E-mail address, they will be notified via E-mail of all new Builds.

Obtaining Builds
Builds are posted to COADE’s Internet Web site http://www.coade.com and are arranged in subdirectories by program.
Each file contained in the directory includes a description defining what it contains, its size, and the date it was created.
Decide which Build file you need and download it.

What is Contained In A Specific Build?
Each patch file contains a file named BUILD.TXT. This is a plain ASCII text file that can be viewed with any text editor or
sent to the system printer. This text file contains a description of all corrections and enhancements made, which are
contained in the current patch. When necessary, additional usage instructions may be found in this file.

Installing Builds
Builds distributed for Windows applications use a Windows installation procedure. The EXE is a self-extracting archive,
which extracts to a number of sub-directories; each containing sufficient files to fit on a CD The CD contains a standard
SETUP.EXE program to actually install the Build. This procedure ensures that necessary files are registered with the system
and that the “Uninstall” utility can perform its task.

1-8 Introduction
Detecting/Checking Builds
When a Build is ready to be released, the Main Menu module is revised to reflect the Build level. This allows the user to
see, on the Main Program Menu, which Build is in use. To see which program modules have been modified, you can run a
COADE utility program from within the program directory.
From the Diagnostics menu, select the Build Version option. This option scans each of the EXE modules in the program
directory and lists its size, memory requirements, and Build Level. A sample display from this utility is shown in the table
below.
By reviewing the following table, users can determine which modules have been patched and to what level.
Archiving and Reinstalling an Old, Patched Version
When a new version of the software is released, what should be done with the old, existing version? The distribution disks
sent from COADE should obviously be saved. Additionally, any Builds obtained should also be archived. This will allow
full usage of this version at some later time, if it becomes necessary.
To reinstall an older version of the software, the distribution CDs from COADE should be installed first. Then, the last
Build should be installed. Each Build includes the modifications made in all prior Builds.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-9
Updates and License Types
Users can identify CAESAR II update sets by their version number. The current release of CAESAR II is Version 5.10.
COADE schedules and distributes these updates approximately every nine months, depending on their scope and necessity.
The type of CAESAR II license determines whether or not a user receives these updates. There are three types of
CAESAR II licenses:

Full Run
A full run provides unlimited access to CAESAR II and one year of updates, maintenance, and support. Updates,
maintenance, and support are available on an annual basis after the first year.

Lease
A lease provides unlimited access to CAESAR II with updates, maintenance, and support provided as long as the lease is in
effect.

Limited Run
A limited run provides 50 static or dynamic analyses of piping system models over an unlimited period of time, but does not
include program updates. The user is upgraded (if necessary) whenever a new set of 50 “runs” is purchased.
COADE only ships the current version of CAESAR II, no matter which type of license. Updates are automatically delivered
to all full run users who purchase updates, maintenance, and support, and all lease users.

1-10 Introduction
Program Changes
This list details the new or changed capabilities and features of CAESAR II Version 5.10.
Added PD-8010 Part 1 and Part 2.
Revised due to “code” changes: B31.1, B31.3, Z662, EN-13480
Updated stainless steel pipe specification data per B36.19M.
Revised Wind and Seismic load calculations to ASCE #7 2005.
Revised API-661 to 6
th
Edition.
Added a number of European materials to the material database.
Added Chinese structural steel and expansion joint databases h
Enhanced Static Load Case Editor
Added In-Line Flange Evaluation at the load case level.
Added the ability to alter the “occasional load multiplier” on a “per load case basis”.
Added the ability to “import” static load data from different jobs
Added the ability to copy wind and wave vectors.
Graphics Improvements:
Graphics rendering speed improved by 20% to 50% depending on the job.
Added the ability to import an Autocad (CADWorx) model directly into the piping input, to provide visualization
of supporting steel, vessels and other equipment.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-11
Static Output Processor Improvements
Reduced report generation times by 70% or better
Changed presentation in tabbed window to allow viewing multiple reports, and immediate switching between
reports.
Added ability to select Individual items from the Miscellaneous Report
Added ability to zoom reports and individually direct reports to an output device via a “context menu”
Added import and export of custom report templates.
Added support for B31.3 Section 319.2.3(c), allowing axial stress to be included in the Expansion Code Stress.
Added user control over whether or not insulation should be considered in hydro test cases.
Updated DIN pipe size specification to comply with EN-10220 (seamless) instead of DIN-2458 (welded).
Added spring hanger data from Gradior Power, (Czech Republic).
Added flange rating evaluation per B16.5.

1-12 Introduction
Technical Changes
The following list details changes to CAESAR II for Version 5.10, which may affect the numeric results.
Corrected the system weight distribution in the restrained weight case when hanger operating loads are defined by the
user), (060301 build).
Modified the SIF calculations for ASME NC/ND (July 2005 addendum), (060301 build).
Corrected the determination of the governing code stress for combination load cases for Offshore, Z662, and BS-7159
codes.
Corrected the auto-computation of the “B31.3 Wc” value for bends, (070122 build).
EN-13480:
Corrected the use of sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded tees so that they use the same SIF computations as
Unreinforced tees.
Changed the “default occasional load factor” from 1.33 to 1.00.
Corrected the computation of the allowable stress for the EN-13480 (060426 build) and CODETI (060707 build) codes
Expansion case.
Corrected the usage of the effective section modulus for reducing tees for both CODETI and EN-13480.
Modified the usage of the hanger stiffness values when using the as designed option for hanger design, (060426 build).
Updated ASCE #7 wind load generation to 2005 Edition:
Updated Table 6-1 for Importance Factor
Updated Table 6-2 for Exposure Constants zg and alpha
Updated the equation for Kz.
Updated limiting conditions for the determination of Kzt.
Updated the gust factor computation.
B31.1 A2005 introduced a number of changes that will affect existing jobs. These changes are:
If the program is allowed to update the allowable stresses, higher values will be acquired.
The Sc and Sh values used to determine the Expansion allowable are now limited to 20 ksi.
In Table 102.1.2.a, “note a” changes the “y” value from 0.4 to 0.0. This will only affect the minimum wall thickness
calculation.
Corrections have been made to the butt weld and branch connection restrictions
The addendum exchanged the equations (between the figure and the notes) used to compute the flexibility characteristic
for welding tees and welded-in contour inserts (sweepolets). This change will cause the SIFs for these fittings to
change accordingly. CAESAR II defaults to the updated equation in the figure, which is more conservative. Users can
control this choice with a new configuration option. B31.1 and B31.3 now match in this regard.

Chapter 2 Installation
In This Chapter
Overview ................................................................................................. 2-2
System and Hardware Requirements ....................................................... 2-3
Installing CAESAR II Overview............................................................. 2-4
ESL Installation on a Network................................................................. 2-15
Notes on Network ESLs .......................................................................... 2-16

C H A P T E R 2
2-2 Installation
Overview
This chapter explains the CAESAR II installation process.

Chapter 2 Installation 2-3
System and Hardware Requirements
CAESAR II requires either Windows 2000 or Windows XP to operate efficiently. Any computer configured to run either one
of these operating systems will be sufficient to run CAESAR II provided the graphics card is capable of at least 1024x768
resolution.

2-4 Installation
Installing CAESAR II Overview
To begin installation, insert the CD in to the drive. The installation routine will start and the following screen displays.
This dialog contains four main controls and enables users to:
• Install – Initiates the actual installation procedure.
• Products – Lists all of the COADE products.
• Contact Info – Displays COADE contact information.
• Exit – Closes this dialog.

Chapter 2 Installation 2-5
Installation
Begin installation by clicking Install, the dialog changes to show all of the installation options, as shown in the figure
below.
Selecting Install CAESAR II 5.10 launches the installation of CAESAR II software. The first operation is the extraction of
the MSI file.
Selecting Install ESL Driver launches Aladdin’s stand-alone installation for the HASP driver, necessary to access the
hardware key.
Selecting Install Acrobat Reader launches Adobe’s stand-alone installation for Acrobat Reader, necessary to access the
CAESAR II documentation files.
From the dialog click Install under the CAESAR II 5.10 link. As installation begins, a dialog opens displaying a progress
indicator and the name of the file extracted.
2-6 Installation
Note: It is best if nothing else is running while the installation program runs. Most unsuccessful installation attempts can
be attributed to other software running at the same time as the installation.
After the program completes extracting all the necessary files the Welcome message displays click Next to continue the
installation.
The CAESAR II License Agreement displays.
Chapter 2 Installation 2-7
To continue the installation users must click the I accept the terms in the license agreement option.
Click Next to continue. The dialog to set the installation folder displays next, as shown in the figure below.
Tip: The default destination directory is “c:\program files\coade\<product name>”, where “<product name>” reflects the
program name and version.
2-8 Installation
To install the software in another location, click the Change button to the right of the dialog and the following dialog
displays.
In the Folder Name box, type the new destination folder, or use the buttons to the right to browse for the desired location.
After defining the proper destination folder click OK. This will return control to the Destination Folder dialog (shown
above), from which Next should be clicked to continue the installation process
Once this dialog is complete, the Language dialog displays; this dialog allows the user to select from various languages,
which dictate the language resource files that are installed.
After selecting the language click Next The Select ESL Color dialog displays.
Chapter 2 Installation 2-9
This selection defines whether a Local or Network key will be used, which determines which driver gets loaded. Select the
appropriate ESL color, and then click Next.
Tip: An additional dialog is presented to allow one last chance to abort the installation.
Click Install to transfer the software from the CD to the target destination directory.
2-10 Installation
As the installation progresses, the status displays in a series of progress bars, as depicted in the figure below.
Chapter 2 Installation 2-11
Once the files have been transferred, the CAESAR II Configuration Module screen follows.
This module enables users to set the default configuration for this particular workstation. Click Exit w/ Save to continue.
Note: It is highly recommended that users familiarize themselves with the configuration directives. A full discussion of
them can be found in the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual.
2-12 Installation
After the Configuration directives are set the Aladdin device driver installation routine is launched to install the driver for
the hardware lock, as shown in the figure below.
After installing the Aladdin Device Drivers the installation routine cleans up and presents the next dialog.
To view the Readme.doc file click the Show the readme file check box before clicking Finish.
Chapter 2 Installation 2-13
Since a device driver was loaded, it is a good idea to restart Windows®. The final dialog provides options to immediately
restart Windows, or to terminate the installation. Select the appropriate button.
Installing CAESAR II in Silent Mode
In some instances it may be desired to install CAESAR II without dealing with the dialogs, such as a network installation or a
corporate repackaging. To launch the installation in “silent mode”, with no interaction from the user, perform these steps:
1. Navigate to the CAESAR II subdirectory on the CD.
2. Issue the installation command as detailed below. Typically the ESL_ON_MACHINE and INSTALL_SILENT
options are not necessary.
Command
Cmd= setup.exe /v"/qb PROPERTY_NAME="value" PROPERTY_NAME2="Value""
The /v switch is to pass msi commands
The /qb is a silent switch
Example:
Setup.exe /v"/qb INSTALL_SILENT="Yes" LANG="Eng" ESL_COLOR="Green""
This example installs silent with language English and ESL color green.
Setup.exe /v"/qb INSTALL_SILENT="Yes" LANG="Eng" ESL_COLOR="Red" ESL_ON_MACHINE="Yes""
This example installs silent with ESL color red and ESL install locally.
Properties
•INSTALLDIR (The path to load the installation files)
·<target_dir>
•LANG (The language to install)
·Eng (English)
·Span (Spanish)
·Ger (Germen)
·Fren (French)
2-14 Installation
•ESL_COLOR (The ESL color)
·Red
·Green
•ESL_ON_MACHINE (This is only set if ESL color is red which is if the ESL will be on local machine or server)
·Yes
·No
•INSTALL_SILENT (Is to tell the install it's silent)
·Yes
·No
Chapter 2 Installation 2-15
ESL Installation on a Network
COADE software programs support two different ESLs, “local” ESLs and “network” ESLs. Both types of ESLs are intended
to be attached to the USB ports of the applicable computers. The local ESLs provide the maximum flexibility in using the
software, since these devices can be moved between computers (i.e., between desktops and laptops). If your computer uses a
local ESL, the remainder of this section can be skipped.
The network ESL must be attached to the USB port of any machine on the network (this can be a workstation or the file
server). The file server is a better location for this ESL, since it will usually be up and running. If the network ESL is
attached to a workstation, the workstation must be running and/or logged onto the network before anyone can use the
software.
In order for the network to recognize the ESL, a utility program must be loaded on the machine controlling the ESL. The
actual utility used depends on whether the ESL is on the file server or a workstation and the type of network. The drivers for
network ESL usage can be found in the sub-directory ASSIDRV beneath the CAESAR II program directory. The
documentation files in this sub-directory contain instructions for a variety of networks and operating systems.

Novell File Server ESL Installation
If the network ESL is to be located on a Novell file server, the driver HASPSERV.NLM is needed. This driver should be
copied onto the file server, into the top level SYSTEM directory. Then, the system startup file (AUTOEXEC.NCF) should
be modified to include the command LOAD HASPSERV.
This modification can be accomplished with SYSCON (or equivalent) assuming Supervisor rights.

Novell Workstation ESL Installation
If the network ESL is to be located on a workstation, the driver HASPSERV.EXE is needed. This driver should be copied
onto the workstation. The actual location (directory) on the workstation is not important, as long as the program can be
located for startup. Place the command, HASPSERV, in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file of the workstation, after the commands
which load the network drivers. The workstation does not need to be logged in. Note, however, the workstation must always
be up and running for users to access the software.

Windows Server Installation
For a Windows server installation, refer to the documentation files NETHASP.TXT and ESL_RED.TXT found in the
Assidrv subdirectory for network specific instructions.

2-16 Installation
Notes on Network ESLs
There are advantages and disadvantages in utilizing a network ESL. The prime advantage is that many users (up to the
number of licenses) have access (from a variety of computers) to the software on a single server.
The prime disadvantage is that users cannot transfer the ESL between machines in order to take the software to a remote
location.
Since both a network and several local ESLs may be initialized on the same system (there is no network-specific version of
the software), it is suggested that only 70 to 80 percent of the desired licenses be assigned to a network ESL. The remaining
20 to 30 percent of the licenses should be assigned to local ESLs. This enables the local ESLs to be moved between
computers, to run the software at remote locations. Alternatively, if all of the licenses are on the network ESL, a user must
then be logged into the network to access the software. A few local ESLs provide much greater operating flexibility.

Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation
In This Chapter
CAESAR II Quick Start........................................................................... 3-2
Basic Operation ....................................................................................... 3-5

C H A P T E R 3
3-2 Quick Start and Basic Operation
CAESAR II Quick Start
This chapter explains the basics of CAESAR II operation, to enable users to quickly perform a static piping analysis. All
necessary user operations are discussed; however, details have been kept to a minimum. Each topic includes references to
other sections of the CAESAR II User Guide for additional detailed information.
The use of CAESAR II assumes that the software has been installed as per the instructions detailed in Chapter 2.
There are several steps required to perform a static analysis, the major steps (and the chapters in which they are described)
display below. These steps are explained briefly in this chapter.
• START CAESAR II (Chapter 4)
• GENERATE INPUT (Chapter 5)
• PERFORM ERROR CHECKING (Chapter 6)
• BUILD LOAD CASES (Chapter 6)
• EXECUTE STATIC ANALYSIS (Chapter 6)
• REVIEW OUTPUT (Chapter 7)
Note: A complete tutorial is provided in the CAESAR II Applications Guide.
Starting CAESAR II
Launch CAESAR II by double-clicking the CAESAR II icon, which should point to the program C2.EXE in the CAESAR II
Installation directory. Note that launching any of the other executable programs in the CAESAR II Installation directory
can result in unpredictable behavior, at this point the Main Menu displays. It is from the Main Menu that users select jobs,
analysis types, invoke executions, and initiate output reviews. Main Menu options are described in detail in Chapter 4 of
this document—for the purposes of this “Quick Start” chapter, only the File, Input, Analysis, and Output menus are used.
Main Menu
Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-3
All CAESAR II analyses require a job name for identification purposes—subsequent input, analysis, or output review
references the job name specified. The job name is selected using the File menu, using one of three methods.
New Job Name Dialog
Whenever users wish to begin a new job, selecting File-New (or clicking the New icon from the toolbar) requires the user to
enter a job name and data directory. For the purposes of this example, users should enter a name, select Piping Input, and
select an alternate directory for the file, if desired.
Note: Selecting FILE-OPEN (or clicking the Open icon on the toolbar) presents users with a dialog to select an existing file.
Select recently used files from the RECENT PIPING/STRUCTURAL FILE option on the File Menu.
Note: Enabling Structural Input opens the Structural Steel Wizard. See Chapter 4 of the CAESAR II Technical
Reference Manual for more information.
3-4 Quick Start and Basic Operation
Selecting a job name does not open the file; as noted, it indicates the job on which input modeling, analysis, output review,
or other operations will be done. Users must still select one of these operations from the menu.
Open Dialog
CAESAR II gives users the option to archive input files. Enter a password between 6 and 24 characters in length. You are
prompted to repeat this information to eliminate the possibility of incorrectly entering the password. Archived input files
cannot be altered and/or saved without this password however; they can be opened and reviewed.
Archive Password Dialog
Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-5
Basic Operation
Once you have started the program and opened the file, you will choose the required operation.

Piping Input Generation
After specifying the job name users can launch the interactive model builder by selecting INPUT-PIPING from the Main Menu.
Input generation of the model consists of describing the piping elements, as well as any external influences (boundary
conditions or loads) acting on those elements. Each pipe element is identified by two node numbers, and requires the
specification of geometric, cross sectional, and material data. The preferred method of data entry is the Piping Spreadsheet.
Piping Input Spreadsheet
3-6 Quick Start and Basic Operation
Each pipe element is described on its own spreadsheet. Data, which is likely to be constant, is automatically duplicated by
CAESAR II to subsequent spreadsheets. This means that for many elements, the user must only confirm the numbers and
enter the delta-dimensions. When necessary, point specific data can easily be entered on the appropriate element’s
spreadsheet.
The menus, toolbars, and accelerators offer a number of additional commands that users can invoke to enter auxiliary
processors or use special modelers or databases. The commands and general input instructions of the piping spreadsheet are
discussed in detail in Chapter 5.
Entering the First Element (Element 10-20) of a Simple Model:
1 Enter the value 10-0 (10 ft) in the DX field.
2 Enter the value 8 (8-in. nominal) in the Diameter field. The program automatically converts this value to the actual
diameter.
3 Enter “S” (standard schedule pipe wall) in the Wt/Sch field. This is automatically converted to wall thickness.
4 Enter 600 (degrees Fahrenheit) in the Temp 1 field.
5 Enter 150 (psig) in the Pressure 1 field.
6 Double-click the Bend check box. The Bends tab displays. This adds a long radius bend at the end of the element, and
adds intermediate nodes 18 and 19 at the near weld and mid points of the bend respectively (node 20 physically
represents the far weld point of the bend).
Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-7
7 Double-click the Restraint check box. The Restraint tab displays. In the first Node field enter 10; then select ANC
from the first Type drop list.
8 Select A106 B from the Material drop list. This selection fills in the material parameters such as density and modulus
elasticity.
9 Double-click the Allowable Stress check box and select the B31.3 code from the Code drop list.
Note: Allowable stresses for the given material, temperature, and code display automatically.
10 Enter 0.85SG (0.85 specific gravity) in the Fluid Density field. The program automatically converts this value to
density. To enter the second element of the model, press Alt-C, or click the Skip to Next Element icon, or use the Edit-
Continue button to move to the spreadsheet for a new element, element 20-30.
Note: Node numbers are automatically generated, distributed and data is carried forward from previous spreadsheets.
11 Enter the value 10-0 (10 feet) in the DY field.
12 Double-click the Restraint check box. In the first Node field, enter 30; then select ANC from the first Type drop list.
The two-element model (an ell-configuration anchored at each end) is now complete.
3-8 Quick Start and Basic Operation
The piping preprocessor also provides interactive graphics and listing functions to facilitate model editing and verification.
The CAESAR Ii Piping Preprocessor is designed to make these tasks intuitive and efficient. Model verification can be
performed using either the Graphics or List utilities, although a combination of both modes is recommended. The
Graphics and List utilities are discussed in Chapter 5 of this manual. The CAESAR II Graphics screen, displays by
default, next to the input spreadsheet. However, the spreadsheet can be collapsed to provide maximum graphic space as
shown below.
CAESAR II Input Graphics Screen
Once the model is completed, it must be checked for errors before analysis is permitted. This can be done using the File-
Error Check menu option or the Error Check icon on the toolbar.

Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-9
Error Checking the Model
The two main functions of this error checker; is first to verify the user’s input data, and second to build the execution data
files utilized by the remainder of CAESAR II.
Verification of the user’s input data consists of checking each individual piping element for consistency. Errors discovered
which would prevent CAESAR II from running (such as a corrosion allowance greater than the wall thickness) are flagged as
fatal errors to the user.
Unusual items (such as a change of direction without a bend or intersection) are flagged as warnings to the user.
Other messages, of an informational type, may show intermediate calculations or general notes. Error messages display
in red text, Notes display in blue text and Warnings display in green text.
All messages display in the Error Window next to the model graphics.
Clicking on an error or warning message highlights the associated element on the graphic display and positions the
spreadsheet to that element.
Users may review all the messages generated by using the scroll bar on the right side of the toolbar or arrow keys.
Users can sort error messages by Message Number, Element or Node Number and Message Text, by clicking the
column titles.
Users can print the entire error report or selected sections by clicking the Print button.
Users can choose to display only fatal errors or all errors by clicking the arrow beside the Error Checker icon.
If there is an error, users can return to the input module by clicking the Classic Piping Input tab.
If the error check process completes without fatal errors, a center of gravity report is presented and the analysis data files
can be generated and then the solution phase can commence.
3-10 Quick Start and Basic Operation
Center of Gravity Report
If fatal errors exist, the analysis data files are not generated and the solution phase cannot begin. Users must make
corrections and rerun the Error Checker successfully before analysis is permitted.

Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-11
Building the Load Cases
A static analysis can be started from the Main Menu, or the piping input, once the analysis data files have been generated by
the error checker. The first stage of a static analysis is to set up the load cases. For new jobs (no previous solution files
available), the static analysis module recommends load cases to the user based on the load types encountered in the input
file. These recommended load cases are usually sufficient to satisfy the piping code requirements for the Sustained and
Expansion load cases. If the recommended load cases are not satisfactory, the user has the option of directly modifying
them.
Selecting the Analysis-Statics option from the Main Menu, or selecting the EDIT-EDIT STATIC LOAD CASES option from the
piping preprocessor, launches the Load Case Builder.
Load Case Builder
Loads can be built two ways—by 1) combining the load components defined in the input (weight, displacements, thermal
cases, etc.) into load cases (basic cases), and 2) combining pre-existing load cases into new load cases (combination cases).
Users can build the basic cases by selecting (one or more load components), dragging, and dropping load components from
the Loads Defined in Input list (in the left hand column) to the Load Cases list on the right. Stress Types (indicating
which code equations should be used to calculate and check the stresses) can be selected from the Stress Type list on each
line.
3-12 Quick Start and Basic Operation
Combination cases, if present, must always follow the basic cases. Users can build combination cases by selecting (one or
more load components), dragging, and dropping basic load cases from earlier in the load case list to combine cases (or blank
load cases) later in the Load Cases list.
Note: Load cases may also be built by typing on any of the individual lines.
Executing Static Analysis
Once the load cases have been defined, the user begins the actual finite element solution through the use of the File-Analyze
command on the toolbar, or by clicking the Start Run icon on the toolbar located in the Static Load Case Builder. The
solution phase commences with the generation of the element stiffness matrices and load vectors, and solves for
displacements, forces and moments, reactions, and stresses. This solution phase also performs the design and selection of
spring hangers, and iterative stiffness matrix modifications for nonlinear restraints. The user is kept apprised of the solution
status throughout the calculation.
Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-13
Static Output Review
A review of the static analysis results is possible immediately after a static solution or at a later time by selecting the
Output-Static option of the CAESAR II Main Menu. The static output processor presents the user with an interactive
selection menu from which load cases and report options can be selected.
3-14 Quick Start and Basic Operation
Results can be reviewed by selecting one or more load cases along with one or more reports (selection is done by clicking,
Ctrl-clicking, and Shift-clicking the mouse). The results can be reviewed on the terminal, printed, or sent to a file, by using
the View Reports, MS Word, File-Save/SaveAs, or File-Print menu commands and/or toolbars.
The user can also use the View-Plot menu command or the Plot toolbar to review the analytic results in graphics mode,
which can produce displaced shapes, stress distributions, and restraint actions.
Output Graphics Screen
The actual study of the results depends on the purpose of each load case, and the reason for the analysis. Usually the review
checks that the system stresses are below their allowables, restraint loads are acceptable, and displacements are not
excessive. Additional post processing (such as equipment, nozzle, and structural steel checks) may be required depending
on the model and type of analysis.
Once the review of the output is finished, the user can return to the main CAESAR II menu by exiting the output review
module.

Chapter 4 Main Menu
In This Chapter
The CAESAR II Main Menu................................................................... 4-2
File Menu................................................................................................. 4-3
Input Menu .............................................................................................. 4-5
Analysis Menu......................................................................................... 4-6
Output Menu............................................................................................ 4-7
Tools Menu.............................................................................................. 4-8
Diagnostics Menu.................................................................................... 4-9
ESL Menu................................................................................................ 4-10
View Menu .............................................................................................. 4-11
Help Menu ............................................................................................... 4-12

C H A P T E R 4
4-2 Main Menu
The CAESAR II Main Menu
CAESAR II Main Menu
CAESAR II may be started by double clicking the CAESAR II icon, or by running C2.EXE from the CAESAR II
Installation directory.
After starting CAESAR II, the Main Menu appears. It is recommended that this screen be kept at its minimal size (as shown
above). This allows access to the toolbar while freeing most of the screen for other applications.
The Main Menu is used to direct the actions of CAESAR II. As elsewhere in CAESAR II commands may be accessed from
menus, as well as toolbars and/or keystroke combinations. The available menu options are briefly described here with
further detail available elsewhere in this document or in the CAESAR II Technical Reference Guide.
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-3
File Menu
The File menu may be used to do the following:
• Set Default Data Directory—Sets the default data (project) directory without selecting a specific job file. Some
CAESAR II options do not require that a job be selected, but must know in which directory to work.
Note The selection of the data directory is very important since any configuration, units, or other data files found in that
directory are considered to be “local” to that job.
• New—Starts a new piping or structural job.
When New is selected the user must designate whether this job is for a piping or structural model. The data directory where
the file is to be placed must be selected, either by entering it directly or by browsing.
Note: Selecting Structural Input launches the Structural Steel Wizard. For more information, see Chapter 4 of the
CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for details.
File New Dialog
4-4 Main Menu
• Open—Opens an existing piping or structural job.
When Open is chosen the user is prompted to select an existing job file. Files of type “Piping,” “Pre-version 3.24 piping,”
or “Structural” may be displayed for selection (see below).
File Open Dialog
• Clean Up (delete) Files—Enables users to delete unwanted scratch files, listing files, input, and output files to retain
more hard disk space.
File Clean Up Dialog
• Recent Piping or Recent Structural Files —Displays the four most recently used piping or structural files in the File
menu.
• Exit—Closes CAESAR II.
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-5
Input Menu
Input Menu
Once a file is selected, the Input Menu indicates the available modules for the file type chosen.
Option Description
Piping
Inputs a CAESAR II Piping Model (see Chapter 5).
Underground
Converts existing piping model to buried pipe (see Chapter 11).
Structural Steel
Inputs a CAESAR II Structural Model (see Chapter 10).
4-6 Main Menu
Analysis Menu
Analysis Menu
The Analysis Menu allows the user to select from the different calculations available.
Option Description
Statics
Performs Static analysis of pipe and/or structure. This is available after error checking the input files (see Chapter 6).
Dynamics
Performs Dynamic analysis of pipe and/or structure. This is also available after error checking the input files (see Chapter 8).
SIFs Displays scratch pads used to calculate stress intensification factors at intersections and bends.
WRC 107/297 Calculates stresses in vessels due to attached piping (see Chapter 12).
Flanges Performs flange stress and leakage calculations (see Chapter 12).
B31.G Estimates pipeline remaining life (see Chapter 12).
Expansion Joint Rating Evaluates expansion joints using EJMA equations (see Chapter 12).
AISC Performs AISC code check on structural steel elements (see Chapter 12).
NEMA SM23 Evaluates piping loads on steam turbine nozzles (see Chapter 12).
API 610 Evaluates piping loads on centrifugal pumps (see Chapter 12).
API 617 Evaluates piping loads on compressors (see Chapter 12).
API 661 Evaluates piping loads on air-cooled heat exchangers (see Chapter 12).
HEI Standard Evaluates piping loads on feedwater heaters (see Chapter 12).
API 560 Evaluates piping loads on fired heaters (see Chapter 12).
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-7
Output Menu
Output Menu
The user is presented with all available output of piping and/or structural calculations, which may be selected for review.
Option Description
Statics
Displays Static results (see Chapter 7).
Harmonic Displays Harmonic Loading results (see Chapter 9).
Spectrum Modal Displays Natural Frequency/Mode Shape calculations or Uniform/Force Spectrum Loading results (see Chapter 9).
Time History Displays Time History Load Simulation results (see Chapter 9).
Animation Displays Animated Graphic simulations of any of the above results.
4-8 Main Menu
Tools Menu
Tools Menu
The Tools Menu includes various CAESAR II supporting utilities that are used for
Option Description
Configure/Setup
Customizes the behavior of CAESAR II, on a directory by directory basis. Enables the user to consider items such as
treatment of corrosion, pressure stiffening, etc. differently for each directory, due to project or client considerations.
Calculator Launches an on-screen calculator.
Make Units files Creates custom sets of units.
Material Data Base
Edits or adds to the CAESAR II Material database.
Accounting Activates or customizes job accounting or generates accounting reports.
Multi-Job Analysis Enables the user to run a stream of jobs without operator intervention.
External Interfaces Displays the interfaces to and from third party software (both CAD and analytical).
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-9
Diagnostics Menu
Diagnostics Menu
Diagnostics are provided to help trouble shoot problem installations.
Option Description
CRC Check Verifies program files are not corrupted.
Build Version Determines the build version of CAESAR II files.
Error Review Reviews description of CAESAR II errors.
DLL Version Check Provides version information on library files used by CAESAR II.
4-10 Main Menu
ESL Menu
ESL Menu
The ESL Menu gives access to utilities, which interact with the External Software Lock.
Option Description
Show Data
Displays data stored on the ESL.
Generate Access Codes Allows runs to be added or other ESL changes, to be made either through Fax or E-mail (in conjunction with option
below).
Enter re-authorization Codes (see option above).
Check HASP Device Status Verifies the location and version of the ESL.
Install HASP Device Driver Installs the ESL Drivers.
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-11
View Menu
View Menu
The View Menu allows users to enable the status bar and all toolbars.
Option Description
Toolbar Enable users to display and/or customize a toolbar.
Status Bar Enables users to display a status bar at the bottom of the window.
4-12 Main Menu
Help Menu
Help Menu
Option Description
On Line Documentation Displays CAESAR II documentation in HTML or PDF format.
Desktop On-Line Help Launches COADE’s online technical support.
On-Line Registration Enables users with Internet access to register electronically with COADE.
Information
Provides information on the best ways to contact COADE personnel for technical support and provides Internet links for
COADE downloads and information.
Check for Upgrades Enables users to verify the most current version of CAESAR II is installed.
About CAESAR II
Displays CAESAR II version and copyright information.
Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-13
Throughout CAESAR II context-sensitive, on-screen help is available by clicking ? or [F1] while the cursor is in any input
field. A help screen displays showing a discussion and the required units if applicable.
Help Dialog

Chapter 5 Piping Input
In This Chapter
Spreadsheet Overview............................................................................. 5-2
Data Fields............................................................................................... 5-4
Auxiliary Data Area................................................................................. 5-9
Menu Commands..................................................................................... 5-24
3-D Modeler ............................................................................................ 5-39

C H A P T E R 5
5-2 Piping Input
Spreadsheet Overview
In order to input a piping model, one must either open a new or existing piping file from the Main Menu, and then choose
INPUT-PIPING. The CAESAR II Piping Input spreadsheet then appears.
Input Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is used to describe the piping on an element-by-element basis. It consists of menu commands/toolbars,
which can be used to perform a number of supporting operations and data fields used to enter information about each piping
element. A graphic representation of the model automatically plots on the right and updates as new elements are added.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-3
Customize Toolbar
CAESAR II enables the user to customize the Spreadsheet and 3D Graphic toolbars. You can determine which buttons
display and their locations, by right-clicking the mouse on the toolbar, which displays the following dialog

Customize Toolbar
Alternatively, users can customize the toolbar by pressing the <Shift> key, clicking a button and dragging it to the new
position. CAESAR II allows users to undo any changes by right clicking on the toolbar, which causes the Customize Toolbar
dialog to appear, and clicking the Reset button.

5-4 Piping Input
Data Fields
Data fields are grouped logically into blocks of related data on the left side of the screen. The right side of the screen offers
an auxiliary area; with changing data-fields that support items entered through check boxes (pressing [F12] alternatively
displays the various auxiliary screens). The data fields may be torn apart by double-clicking the [>>] button in the upper
right corner of each group. They can be arranged in any order, this aids in conserving window real estate and increasing
space for graphics. The following are the data-field blocks:

Node Numbers
Each element is identified by its end “node” number. Since each input screen represents a piping element, the element end
points - the From node and To node - must be entered. These points are used as locations at which information may be
entered or extracted. The From node and To node are both required data fields.
Note: CAESAR II can generate both values if the AUTO_NODE_INCREMENT directive is set to other than zero using
the Tools-Configure/Setup option of the Main Menu.
Element Lengths
Lengths of the elements are entered as delta dimensions according to the X, Y, and Z rectangular coordinate system
established for the piping system (note that the Y-axis represents the vertical axis). The delta dimensions DX, DY, and DZ,
are the measurements along the X, Y, and Z-axes between the From node and To node. In most cases only one of the three
cells will be used as the piping usually runs along the global axes. Where the piping element is skewed two or three entries
must be made. One or more entries must be made for all elements except “zero length” expansion joints.
Note: When using feet and inches for compound length and length units, valid entries in this (and most other length
fields) include formats such as: 3-6, 3 ft. -6 in, and 3-6-3/16.
Offsets can be used to modify the stiffness of the current element by adjusting its length and the orientation of its neutral
axis in 3-D space.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-5
Element Direction Cosines
Clicking the Ellipsis (...) button to the right of the element lengths (DX, DY, and DZ) displays the Element dialog. The
Element dialog displays the total Length and Direction Cosines. Changes made to the total element Length, or Direction
Cosines may affect one or all of the element lengths (DX, DY, and DZ). Changes made to any of the element lengths (DX,
DY, and DZ) will affect both the total element Length and Direction Cosines.

Pipe Section Properties
The elements outside diameter, wall thickness, mill tolerance (plus mill tolerance is used for IGE/TD/12 piping code only),
and seam weld (IGE/TD/12 piping code only); corrosion allowance, and insulation thickness are entered in this block. These
data fields carry forward from one screen to the next during the input session and need only be entered for those elements at
which a change occurs. Nominal pipe sizes and schedules may be specified; CAESAR II converts these values to actual
outside diameter and wall thickness. Outside diameter and wall thickness are required data inputs.
Note: Nominal diameters, thicknesses, and schedule numbers are a function of the pipe size specification. ANSI, JIS, or
DIN is set via the TOOLS-CONFIGURE/SETUP option of the Main Menu or the Setup toolbar button.
5-6 Piping Input
Operating Conditions: Temperatures and Pressures
Up to nine temperatures and ten pressures (one extra for the hydrostatic test pressure) can be specified for each piping
element. (The button with the ellipses dots is used to activate a window showing extended operating conditions input). The
temperatures are actual temperatures (not changes from ambient). CAESAR II uses these temperatures to obtain the thermal
strain and allowable stresses for the element from the Material Database. As an alternative, the thermal strains may be
specified directly (see the discussion of ALPHA TOLERANCE in the Technical Reference Manual). Thermal strains have
absolute values on the order of 0.002, and are unitless. Pressures are entered as gauge values and may not be negative. Each
temperature and each pressure entered creates a loading for use when building load cases. Both thermal and pressure data
carries forward from one element to the next until changed. Entering a value in the Hydro Pressure field causes CAESAR II
to build a Hydro case in the set of recommended load cases.
Note: CAESAR II uses an ambient temperature of 70°F, unless changed using the Special Execution Parameters Option.
Special Element Information
Special components such as bends, rigid elements, expansion joints and tees require additional information, which can be
defined by enabling the component and entering data in the auxiliary screen.
If the element described by the spreadsheet ends in a bend, elbow or mitered joint, the Bend check box should be set by
double-clicking. This entry opens up the auxiliary data field on the right hand side of the input screen to accept additional
data regarding the bend. CAESAR II usually assigns three nodes to a bend (giving ‘near’, ‘mid’, and ‘far’ node on the bend).
Double-clicking the Rigid check box (indicating an element that is much stiffer than the connecting pipe such as a flange or
valve) opens an auxiliary data field to collect the component weight. For rigid elements, CAESAR II follows these rules:
• When the rigid element weight is entered, i.e. not zero, CAESAR II computes any extra weight due to insulation and
contained fluid, and adds it to the user-entered weight value.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-7
• The weight of fluid added to a non-zero weight rigid element is equal to the same weight that would be computed for an
equivalent straight pipe. The weight of insulation added is equal to the same weight that would be computed for an
equivalent straight pipe times 1.75.
• If the weight of a rigid element is zero or blank, CAESAR II assumes the element is an artificial “construction element”
rather than an actual piping element, so no insulation or fluid weight is computed for that element.
• The stiffness of the rigid element is relative to the diameter (and wall & thickness) entered. Make sure that the diameter
entered on a rigid element spreadsheet is indicative of the rigid stiffness that should be generated.
If an element is an expansion joint, double-clicking that check box brings up an auxiliary screen, which prompts for
stiffness parameters and effective diameter. Expansion joints may be modeled as zero-length (with all stiffnesses acting at a
single point) or as finite-length (with the stiffnesses acting over a continuous element). In the former case, all stiffness must
be entered, in the latter; either the lateral or angular stiffness must be omitted.
Checking the SIF & Tees check box allows the user to specify any component having special stress intensification factors
(SIF). CAESAR II automatically calculates these factors for each component.
Note: Bends, rigids, and expansion joints are mutually exclusive. Refer to the Valve/flange and Expansion Joint
database discussions later in this chapter for quick entry of rigid element and expansion joint data.
Boundary Conditions
The checkboxes in this block open the auxiliary data field to allow the input of items, which restrain (or impose movement
on) the pipe— restraints, hangers, flexible nozzles or displacements. Though not required, it is recommended that such
information be supplied on the input screen which has that point as the From node or To node. (This will be of benefit if the
data must be located for modification). The auxiliary data fields allow specification of up to 4 restraints (devices which in
some way modify the free motion of the system), one hanger, one nozzle, or two sets of nodal displacements per element. If
needed, additional items for any node can be input on other element screens.

Loading Conditions
The checkboxes in this block allow the user to define loadings acting on the pipe. These loads may be individual forces or
moments acting at discrete points, distributed uniform loads (which may be specified on force per unit length, or
gravitational body forces), or wind loadings (wind loadings are entered by specifying a wind shape factor—the loads
themselves are specified when building the load cases.
The uniform load and the wind shape factor check boxes will be unchecked on subsequent input screens. This does not
mean that the loads were removed from these elements; instead, this implies that the loads do not change on subsequent
screens.
Note: Uniform loads may be specified in g-values by setting a parameter in the Special Execution Options.
5-8 Piping Input
Piping Material
CAESAR II requires the specification of the pipe material’s elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, density, and (in most cases)
expansion coefficient. The program provides a database containing the parameters for many common piping materials. This
information is retrieved by picking a material from the drop list, by entering the material number, or by typing the entire
material name and then picking it from the match list. (The coefficient of expansion does not appear on the input screen, but
it can be reviewed during error checking.) Note that materials 18 and 19 represent cold spring properties, cut short and cut
long respectively; material 20 activates CAESAR II’s orthotropic model for use with materials such as fiberglass reinforced
plastic pipe. Material 21 permits a totally user defined material. Using a material with a number greater than 100 permits the
use of allowable stresses from the database.

Material Elastic Properties
This block is used to enter or override the elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the material, if the value in the database is
not correct. These values must be entered for Material type 21 (user specified).
Note: Material properties in the database may be changed permanently using the CAESAR II Material Database editor.
Densities
The densities of the piping material, insulation, and fluid contents are specified in this block. The piping material density is
a required entry and is usually extracted from the Material Database. Fluid density can optionally be entered in terms of
specific gravity, if convenient, by following the input immediately with the letters: SG, e.g. 0.85SG (there can be no spaces
between the number and the SG).
Note: If an insulation thickness is specified (in the pipe section properties block) but no insulation density is entered,
CAESAR II defaults to the density of calcium silicate.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-9
Auxiliary Data Area
The Auxiliary data area is used to display or enter extended data associated with the check box fields.
The data in this area can be displayed by single clicking the appropriate box, or by toggling through the screens with the use
of the [F12] key or by clicking the appropriate tabs.
Note: When there is no auxiliary data, the model status screen appears.
Flanges
This auxiliary screen is used to enter flange information for in-line flange evaluation. The dialog changes to accommodate
input for the two different methods of flange analysis available in CAESAR II.
5-10 Piping Input
Bend Data
This auxiliary screen is used to enter information regarding bend radius, miter cuts, fitting wall thickness, stiffness factor
(K-Factor), or attached flanges.
Intermediate node points may be placed at specified angles along the bend, or at the bend mid-point (“M”).

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-11
Rigid Weight
This auxiliary screen is used to enter the weight of a rigid element. If no weight is entered CAESAR II models the element as
a weightless construction element.
Note: Rigid weights are entered automatically if the Valve and Flange database is used.
5-12 Piping Input
Restraints
This auxiliary screen is used to enter data for up to four restraints per spreadsheet. Node number and restraint Type are
required; all other information is optional (omitting the stiffness entry defaults to “rigid”). Restraint types may be selected
from the drop list or typed in.
Note: Skewed restraints may be entered by entering direction cosines with the type, such as X (1,0,1) for a restraint
running at 45º in the X-Z plane.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-13
Expansion Joint
This auxiliary screen is used to enter the expansion joint stiffness parameters and effective diameter. For a non-zero length
expansion joint, either the transverse or bending stiffness must be omitted.
Note: Setting the effective diameter to zero de-activates the pressure thrust load. This method may be used (in
conjunction with setting a large axial stiffness) to simulate the effect of axial tie-rods.
5-14 Piping Input
Displacements
This auxiliary screen is used to enter imposed displacements for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. Up to nine displacement
vectors may be entered (load components D1 through D9). If a displacement value is entered for any vector, this direction is
considered to be fixed for any other non-specified vectors.
Note: Leaving a direction blank for all nine vectors models the system as being free to move in that direction. Specifying
“0.0” implies that the system is fully restrained in that direction.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-15
Forces
This auxiliary screen is used to enter imposed forces and/or moments for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. Up to nine force
vectors may be entered (load components F1 through F9).

5-16 Piping Input
Uniform Loads
This auxiliary screen is used to enter up to three uniform load vectors (load components U1, U2 and U3). These uniform
loads are applied to the entire current element, as well as all subsequent elements in the model, until explicitly changed or
zeroed out with a later entry.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-17
Wind/Wave
This auxiliary screen is used to specify whether this portion of the pipe is exposed to wind or wave loading. (Note that the
pipe may not be exposed to both.) Selecting Wind exposes the pipe to wind loading; selecting Wave exposes the pipe to
wave, current, and buoyancy loadings; selecting Off turns off both types of loading.
This screen is also used to enter the Wind Shape Factor (when Wind is specified) and various wave coefficients (if left
blank they will be program-computed) when Wave Loading is specified.
Entries on this auxiliary screen apply to all subsequent piping, until changed on a later spreadsheet.
Note: Specific wind and wave load cases are built using the Static Load Case Editor.
5-18 Piping Input
Allowable Stresses
This auxiliary screen is used to select the piping code (from a drop list) and to enter any data required for the code check.
Allowable stresses are automatically updated for material, temperature and code if available in the Material Database.
Enter Material Fatigue Curve data by clicking the Fatigue Curve button. A dialog displays where users may enter stress
vs. cycle data with up to 8 points per curve.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-19
Note: IGE/TD/12 requires the entry of five fatigue curves representing fatigue classes D, E, F, G, and W.
The Fatigue Curve data may also be read in from a COADE-supplied or user-created file. Users can access these file by
clicking the Read from Files button on the Fatigue Curve dialog.
Stress Intensification Factors/Tees
5-20 Piping Input
This auxiliary screen is used to enter stress intensification factors, or fitting types for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. If
components are selected from the drop list, CAESAR II automatically calculates the SIF values as per the applicable code
(unless overridden by the user). Certain fittings and certain codes require additional data as shown. Fields are enabled as
appropriate for the selected fitting.

Flexible Nozzles
This auxiliary screen is used to describe flexible nozzle connections. When entered in this way, CAESAR II automatically
calculates the flexibilities and inserts them at this location. CAESAR II calculates nozzle loads according to WRC 297, API
650 or BS 5500 criteria.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-21
Hangers
This auxiliary screen is used to describe hanger installations. Hanger data may be fully completed by the user, or the hanger
may be designed by CAESAR II. In this case, two special load cases are run, the results of which are used as design
parameters which are used to select the springs from the user specified catalog.
Note: CAESAR II provides catalogs for 25 different spring hanger vendors.
5-22 Piping Input
Node Names
Activating this check box allows the user to enter text names for the From and/or To nodes (up to ten characters). These
names display instead of the node numbers on the graphic plots and in the reports (note some of the names may be truncated
when space is not available).

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-23
Offsets
This auxiliary screen is used to specify offsets to correct modeled element length and orientation to actual length and
orientation. Offsets may be specified at From and/or To nodes.

5-24 Piping Input
Menu Commands
The CAESAR II Piping Input processor provides many commands, which can be run from the menu, toolbars or
accelerator keys. The menu options are:

File Menu
The File menu is used to perform actions associated with opening, closing and running the job file.
File Menu for the Piping Input Screen

Button and Name Description
New
Creates a new CAESAR II job. CAESAR II prompts for the name of the new model.
Open
Opens an existing CAESAR II job. CAESAR II prompts for the name
Save
Saves the current CAESAR II job under its current name.
Save As Saves the current CAESAR II job under a new name.
Save As Graphic Image Saves the current CAESAR II job as an HTML page, .TIFF, .BMP, or .JPG file.
Archive
Allows the user to assign a password to prevent inadvertent alteration of the model or to enter the password to unlock the file.
Error Check
Sends the model through interactive error checking. This is the first step of analysis, followed by the building of the static or
dynamic load cases (see Chapter 6).
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-25
Button and Name Description
Batch Run
Error checks the model in a non-interactive way and halts only for fatal errors; uses the existing or default static load cases, and
performs the static analysis). The next step is the output processor.
Print
Allows the user to print out an input listing. CAESAR II prompts the user for the data items to include.
Print Preview
Provides print preview of input listing.
Print Setup Sets up the printer for the input listing.
Recent Piping Files Open a file from the list of most recently used jobs.
5-26 Piping Input
Edit Menu
Edit Menu for the Piping Input
The Edit menu provides commands for cutting and pasting, navigating through the spreadsheets, and performing a few
small utilities. These commands are:
Button and Name Description
Continue
Moves the spreadsheet to the next element in the model, adding a new element if there is no next element.
Duplicate
Copies the selected element either before or after the current element.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-27
Duplicate Element

Button and Name Description
Insert Inserts an element either before or after the current element.
Insert Element
5-28 Piping Input
Button and Name Description
Delete
Deletes the current element.
Find
Allows the user to find an element containing one or more named nodes (if two nodes are entered, the element must contain
both nodes). Enabling the Zoom To check box will display the element if found.
Find Element

Button and Name Description
Global
Prompts the user to enter global (absolute) coordinates for the first node of any disconnected segments.
close Loop
Closes a loop by filling in the delta coordinates between two nodes on the spreadsheet.
Increment
Gives the user the opportunity to change the automatic node increment.
Distance
Calculates the distance between the origin and a node, or between two nodes.
List
Presents the input data in an alternative, list format that displays a drop down menu where users can select any list. This
provides the benefit of showing all of the element data in a context setting. The list format also permits block operations
such as Duplicate, Delete, Copy, Renumber on the element data. For more information on the list input format, see the
Technical Reference Manual.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-29
List Input Format

Button and Name Description
Next Element
Skips to the Next Element.
Previous Element
Goes to the Previous Element.
First Element
Goes to the First Element.
Last Element
Goes to the Last Element.
Undo

Reverses/Cancels any modeling steps done in the CAESAR II Input module one at a time. This can also be accomplished
by using the he Ctrl-Z hot key or selecting Edit/Undo from the Main Menu. An unlimited number of steps (limited only by
amount of available memory) may be undone.
Note that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack.
5-30 Piping Input
Button and Name Description
Redo
Repeats the last step. An unlimited number of steps (limited only by amount of available memory) may be undone. Note
that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack.
Note that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack.
Edit Static Load Case
Opens the Static Load Case Editor window. This button is enabled when the job is error checked.
Edit Dynamic Load Case
Opens the Dynamic Load Case Editor window. This button is enabled when the job is error checked.
Review Current Units Located on the Edit Menu it allows users to review units used to create the report file. Changing units in the configuration
file will not affect the input. To change Input units from the Main Menu use Tools-Convert Input to New Units.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-31
Model Menu
The Model menu contains modeling aids, as well as means for entering associated, system-wide information.
Model Menu

Button and Name Description
Break
Allows the user to break the element into two unequal length elements or into many equal length elements. A single node
may be placed as a break point anywhere along the element, or multiple nodes may be placed at equal intervals (the node
step interval between the FROM and TO nodes determines the number of nodes placed).
Break
Break Element
5-32 Piping Input
Note: Restraint configurations may be automatically copied from any other node in the system to the new nodes.
Button and Name Description
Valve
Allows the user to model a valve or flange from one of the CAESAR II databases. Choosing a combination of Rigid
Type, End Type, and Class constructs a rigid element with the length and weight extracted from the database.
Valve and Flange Database
Note: Selecting FLG in the CADWORX database adds the length and weight of two flanges (and two gaskets) into the
selected valve.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-33
Button and Name Description
Expansion Joints
Activates the Expansion Joint Modeler. The modeler automatically builds a complete assembly of the selected
expansion joint style, using the bellows stiffnesses and rigid element weights extracted from one of the vendors’
expansion joint catalogs.
Expansion Joints
5-34 Piping Input
Button and Name Description
Title
Allows the user to enter a job title up to sixty lines long.
Title
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-35
Button and Name Description
Hanger Design Control Data
Prompts the user for system - wide hanger design criteria.
Hanger Design Control Data
Note: System-wide hanger design criteria is used for all hanger designs, unless overruled at specific hanger locations.
5-36 Piping Input
Environment Menu
The Environment menu provides some miscellaneous items.
Environment Menu

Button and Name Description
Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes
Allows the user to run “what if” tests on the Stress Intensification Factors of intersections.
Review SIFs at Bend Nodes
Allows the user to run “what if” tests on the Stress Intensification Factors of selected bends.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-37
Button and Name Description
Special Execution Parameters
Allows the user to set options affecting the analysis of the current job. Items covered include ambient
temperature, pressure stiffening, displacements due to pressure (Bourdon effect), Z-axis orientation, etc.
Special Execution Parameters

Button and Name Description
Include Piping Input Files Allows the user to include other piping models in the current model.
Include Piping Files
5-38 Piping Input
The same file may be included more than once by highlighting it in the list, then changing the rotation angle (ROTY) or
nodal increment (Inc) before clicking Add.
Button and Name Description
Include Structural Input Files Allows the incorporation of structural models into the piping model.
Include Structural Files

Button and Name Description
Show Informational Messages Allows the user to specify whether or not you receive information messages when CAESAR II converts nominal
diameter and thicknesses to actual diameter and thicknesses.
Reset View or Refresh Allows users to control the way graphics behave when adding new or modifying existing elements.
CAESAR II Configuration
Opens the configuration file for review and editing.
Option and View menu choices list graphic controls and manipulation commands.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-39
3-D Modeler
Start CAESAR II and launch the Piping Input Processor. Once in the input, the graphic automatically plots and displays to the
right of the Classic Piping Input window. To increase the window space available for graphics the Classic Piping Input
window may be hidden from view on the side panel by clicking the thumbtack. The initial view for a job never plotted
before is displayed according to the configuration defaults that include:
• A rendered view- restraints shown
• XYZ compass - isometric view
• Tees and nozzles highlighted- orthographic projection
The plotting begins by displaying the model in centerline/single line mode to speedup the process. Then all the elements get
changed to their intended state (they are rendered one by one). Later, the restraints and other relevant items are added.
Note: The model is fully operational while actually being drawn. Users may apply any available option to the model at
any time. The status bar at the bottom of the view window displays the drawing progress in the form of Drawing element X
of Y. When the plot operation is complete, the status bar message changes to Ready.
5-40 Piping Input
When the mouse cursor hovers over the buttons the button's name displays, and a short description of the button’s
functionality displays in the status bar at the bottom of the view window.
There are several methods of accomplishing nearly every command in the Input Plot Utility. Commands may be accessed
by clicking buttons, selecting drop-down menu items, or through the use of hot keys.
Button and Name Description
Center Line View
Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode; this often makes the view clearer, click this button. Note that
in this mode, restraints and other element information items still display. A Volume or double line plot can be
obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Also, pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the
following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View.
Shaded View
Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode; this often makes the view clearer, click the Center Line
View button. Note that in this mode, restraints and other element information items still display. A Volume or double
line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Also, pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View.
Silhouette
Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode; this often makes the view clearer, click the Center Line
View button. Note that in this mode, restraints and other element information items still display. A Volume or double
line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Also, pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View.
Hidden Line Wire Frame
Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode; this often makes the view clearer, click the Center Line
View button. Note that in this mode, restraints and other element information items still display. A Volume or double
line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Also, pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View.
Wire Frame
Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode; this often makes the view clearer, click the Center Line
View button. Note that in this mode, restraints and other element information items still display. A Volume or double
line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Also, pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View.
Translucent
Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode; this often makes the view clearer, click the Center Line
View button. Note that in this mode, restraints and other element information items still display. A Volume or double
line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Also, pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch
the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View.
Front
Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button, Front/Back/Top Bottom/ Left/Right.
Alternatively, using the X, Y, or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right, top, or front views respectively.
Additionally, holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show left, bottom, or back views
respectively. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing.
Back
Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button, Front/Back/Top/ Bottom/ Left/Right.
Alternatively, using the X, Y, or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right, top, or front views respectively.
Additionally, holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show left, bottom, or back views
respectively. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing.
Top
Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button, Front/Back/Top/Bottom Left/Right.
Alternatively, using the X, Y, or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right, top, or front views respectively.
Additionally, holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show left, bottom, or back views
respectively. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing.
Bottom
Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button, Front/Back/Top/Bottom/Left/ Right.
Alternatively, using the X, Y, or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right, top, or front views respectively.
Additionally, holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show left, bottom, or back views
respectively. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing.
Left
Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button, Front/Back/Top/Bottom/Left/ Right.
Alternatively, using the X, Y, or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right, top, or front views respectively.
Additionally, holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show left, bottom, or back views
respectively. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-41
Button and Name Description
Right
Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button, Front/Back/Top/Bottom/Left/ Right.
Alternatively, using the X, Y, or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right, top, or front views respectively.
Additionally, holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show left, bottom, or back views
respectively. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing.
ISO View
Displays an isometric view this option may be activated by pressing the F10 key on the keyboard.
Node Numbers
Displays Node numbers by clicking the Node Numbers button, by pressing the N key on or by clicking OPTIONS/NODE
NUMBERS from then menu. Users can also opt to display node numbers for a specific element i.e., only restraints or only
anchors.
Show Length
Displays element lengths by clicking the Show Lengths button or by pressing the L key on the keyboard. Alternatively,
the same functionality can be achieved from the menu by clicking OPTIONS/LENGTHS. This will display the elements
lengths to verify the input.
Select Element
Select Element and using the mouse to hover over the model produces a bubble displaying relevant information for the
desired element. For more information refer to the 3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads,
Wind/Wave Loads section later in this chapter.
Select Group
Select Group and using the mouse to hover over the model produces a bubble displaying relevant information for the
desired group of elements. For more information refer to the 3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements, Forces, Uniform
Loads, Wind/Wave Loads section later in this chapter.
Perspective
The transition from one orthogonal view to another is a smooth transition. It is possible to make a sudden change/jump
by pressing a combination of the CTRL + ALT + F5 keys before changing the view with one of the described options.
The sudden jump option is useful for relatively large models as it speeds up the viewing process.
Orthographic
The transition from one orthogonal view to another is a smooth transition. It is possible to make a sudden change/jump
by pressing a combination of the CTRL + ALT + F5 keys before changing the view with one of the described options.
The sudden jump option is useful for relatively large models as it speeds up the viewing process.
Note: For a clearer view, nodes, restraints, hangers, and anchors can be turned off. The boundary condition symbols (like
restraints, anchors, and hangers} size is relative to the pipe size OD. In addition the symbol (i.e., restraints and/or hangers)
size may be changed manually by clicking the black arrow to the right of the relevant button and selecting the Size option
from the drop down menu.
5-42 Piping Input
Users can adjust the color of the node numbers, lengths, elements, boundary conditions, etc. by clicking the Change
Display Options button, for more information refer to the 3D Graphics Configuration section later in this chapter.
The model can be panned using the mouse, by activating the Pan button. After clicking the button, the cursor changes to a
hand; and the view may be panned by moving the mouse while holding down the left mouse button. The view may also be
panned from under any other command by holding down the middle mouse button/mouse wheel while moving the mouse
(when applicable).
Button and Name Description
Reset Plot
All the highlighting and zoom/rotate effects on the model as well as other effects may be reset at once by clicking this
button. The model returns to its default state as defined by the configuration; any elements hidden by the Range
command are restored, for more information refer to the Range section for details.
Zoom
The model can be zoomed by clicking the Zoom button, and moving the mouse up or down while depressing the left
mouse button. Releasing the mouse button halts the zoom. Note that while in the zoom mode, the keyboard + and - keys
may be used to zoom the model in and out. Alternatively, the model may also be zoomed from under any other
command or mode by rotating the mouse wheel when applicable. The best way to zoom to a particular area of the model
is to use the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the desired area.
Zoom to Window
Simply click the Zoom to Window button, then left-click one corner of the desired area, and stretch a box diagonally to
the opposite corner of the area while still holding the left mouse button down. When the left button is released, the model
zooms to the selected area.
Note that while in the zoom mode, the keyboard + and - keys may be used to zoom the model in and out. Alternatively,
the model may also be zoomed from under any other command or mode by rotating the mouse wheel when applicable.
The best way to zoom to a particular area of the model is to use the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the desired
area.
Zoom to Selection
To see a specific element on the model on the screen click this button.
Zoom to Extents
To see the entire model on the screen, click the Zoom to Extents button. Note that while in the zoom mode, the
keyboard + and - keys may be used to zoom the model in and out. Alternatively, the model may also be zoomed from
under any other command or mode by rotating the mouse wheel when applicable. The best way to zoom to a particular
area of the model is to use the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the desired area.
Orbit
Interactive rotation of the model can be accomplished by clicking the Orbit button. Once this mode is activated, rotate
the model by using the mouse or the arrow keys on the keyboard. To use a mouse for rotating the model, click the left
mouse button on the model (the bounding box will be drawn to outline the model boundaries; while holding down the left
mouse button, move the mouse around to the desired position. When the mouse button is released, the view is updated
and the bounding box disappears. If the bounding box is not visible, check the corresponding box on the User Options
tab of the Plot Configuration dialog for more information refer to the 3D Graphics Configuration section for details.
Note, during rotation operation (only for speedup purposes) the model may be changed to the centerline/ single line mode
view or some of the geometry details may disappear or become distorted. The actual conversion will depend on the size
and complexity of the model. Once the rotation is complete, the model returns to its original state.
Another method of orbiting the model is the Gyro operator. Activate this feature by pressing the G key. After pressing
the G key, the model performs a full 360-degree rotation in the plane of view.
Pan
Holding the mouse wheel down and moving the mouse up, down, left, or right, provides the panning effects of riding the
elevator up/down or stepping to the side, similar to using the keyboard keys Q, Z, A, or D. The mouse cursor will change
to a hand icon.
Walk Through
Enables users to explore the scene of the model with a setup similar to a virtual reality application. It produces the effect
of walking towards the model
Load CADWorx Model
Displays the model in CADWorx.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-43
3D Graphics Configuration
The CAESAR II 3D Graphics engine remembers the state of the model between sessions. Exiting the input completely and
then returning to the input graphics results in the model being displayed in the same state in which it was last viewed.
To obtain a more uniform look of graphics users may change the color and font options under TOOLS/CONFIGURE/SETUP/3D
VIEWER SETTINGS. Check the Always Use System Fonts and Always Use System Colors boxes located under the Default
Visual Settings section. These settings will then be stored in the computer's registry and CAESAR II will always display the
graphics according to these settings.
5-44 Piping Input
If the check boxes described above are unchecked then the state of each model is maintained individually (job related), as an
XML data file (job- name.XML) in the current data directory. After launching another input session, CAESAR II reads this
XML file and restores the 3D graphics to its previous state. This includes the rotation and zoom level of the model; color
settings, data display, and the current graphics operator.
Most of the display options can be adjusted by clicking the Change button. The tabs of the Plot Configuration dialog
control include: basic graphics colors, font selection and size for textural data, user startup settings, and visibility (the
degree of transparency.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-45
Option Description
Colors Selecting any item in the list, then clicking Change, displays a Windows color selection tool. Selecting the desired color
and clicking OK changes the color of the selected item to the new color. The rotating spring hanger is used to actively
view the color selection combinations before altering the entire plot window. Use this tool to prevent selecting
unsatisfactory color combinations. Colors may be reset to CAESAR II defaults, as defined in configuration, by clicking
Reset All.
Fonts Selecting any item in the list, then clicking Change, displays the standard Windows™ font selection tool. Making the
desired changes and clicking OK updates the selected item. Similar to the Colors tab, the relative size, color, as well as
the font face of the selected text item can be previewed in the Font Sample window of the Fonts tab before changing the
entire model.
5-46 Piping Input
User Options
Specifies the initial display configuration when plotting a model in an input session. The 3D Graphics can be configured (on
an individual job basis) to restart in a specific manner. The graphics can start with a preset operator active (such as zoom
with mouse), or start with the last operator used still active. Likewise, the graphics can start in a preset view (such as
isometric), or in the last rotated zoomed position.
Option Description
Bounding Box Determines if rotations, via the mouse, includes an outline box surrounding the model.
Hide Overlapped Text Prevents text from appearing on top of other text items thereby producing a distortion.
Restore Last Operator Determines whether the graphics engine remembers your last action (operator) between sessions or always defaults to a
specified action (operator) on startup. Disabling the check box activates the Operator Selection radio buttons.
Restore Previous View Determines whether the graphics engine remembers the last displayed view of the model, or defaults to a specified view.
Disabling the check box activates the Initial View radio buttons.
Initial View
Default Projection Determines the initial projection style of the model. CAESAR II Graphics automatically default to orthographic
projection.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-47
Option Description
Visibility Alters the degree of transparency, when translucent pipe is activated. When the Translucent Objects button is enabled,
it allows viewing through the pipe. This is especially useful for viewing jacketed piping or piping inside of vessels.
Moving the slider to the right increases the degree of visibility, making it easier to see through the pipe elements.
Note: The Visibility option is only effective when viewing the model in rendered mode, and can be activated by clicking
the Translucent Objects button.
5-48 Piping Input
Option Description
Markers Displays a symbol denoting the element’s end points.
Note: Clicking OK on the Plot Configuration dialog saves all changes made to any tab and modifies the model’s view.
Clicking Cancel will disregard all changes made.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-49
HOOPS Toolbar Manipulations
HOOPS Graphics also provides the ability to adjust the graphics toolbar for the purpose of rearranging or removing buttons.
There are two methods to make these adjustments, the first method is to right click on the toolbar and click Customize. The
second method involves removing or repositioning the button using the drag and drop method.
To remove buttons from the toolbar click the down arrow located at the end of each toolbar and then click Remove. To add
button removed from the toolbar by clicking the down arrow and clicking Add. To rearrange buttons select them, one at a
time, while pressing the ALT key and then drag it to the desired location. To restore the CAESAR II default toolbar
configuration, click the Reset button.
In addition to the use of the Customize button, individual buttons can be removed or repositioned by pressing the ALT key,
and dragging the desired button. To remove a button, drag it off the graphics window, using the left mouse button. To
reposition a button, drag it to the desired location, using the left mouse button. When the mouse button is released, the
button will be placed on the toolbar at the selected location.
Multiple View Ports
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics module provides up to 4 views, which can be sized, rotated, and annotated individually by the
user. To control the splitter handle, click the Four Views button. It automatically places the horizontal and vertical dividers
(splitter bars on the screen, and changes the mouse cursor to a four-way arrow icon. The user may change the position of the
splitter bars (and correspondingly the relative size of the views by moving the mouse around. After finding the desired
location, click the left mouse button once to fix the position.
The vertical and horizontal splitter bars can also be dragged or resized individually: after hovering the mouse over a splitter
bar, the mouse cursor will change to vertical or horizontal resize correspondingly. For example, to change the position of
the vertical split bar, using the left mouse button, grab the splitter bar and drag it to the right. When the mouse button is
released, all the panes are updated. If the splitter bar is dragged to the view frame border, it disappears, and the number of
views is decreased in half. This is true for both the horizontal and vertical splitter bars. When the last splitter bar is dragged
away to the view frame border, the single view is left. It is also possible to drag from the intersection of the horizontal and
vertical dividers to any corner of the view to eliminate 3 views at once.
Another way to divide the view into two or four independent views is to drag the splitter located at the top or left scroll bars
with the mouse. Notice the two splitter bars at the graphics processor window, one is at the far left of the horizontal scroll
bar, and the other is at the very top of the vertical scroll bar. Using the left mouse button, grab the lower left splitter bar and
drag it to the right. The graphics window splits into two panes, left and right. When the mouse button is released, both panes
are updated. Again using the left mouse button, grab the upper right splitter bar and drag it down. The two existing panes
split into two additional panes, upper and lower. When the mouse button is released, all four panes are updated, with the X
axis view in the upper left pane, the Y axis view in the upper right pane, the Z axis view in the lower left pane, and a
isometric (or original) view in the lower right pane.
The screen captures above displays 4 panes in view and the state of the graphics engine when the horizontal split bar is
removed leaving 2 panes in view.
Note: The image in any of these panes can be manipulated individually. Each pane can be rotated, panned, or zoomed
independently of the other panes.
5-50 Piping Input
3D Graphic Highlights - Materials, Diameters, Wall Thickness, Insulation
Often it is necessary to review the piping model in the context of certain data, for example, by diameter, wall thickness,
temperature, or pressure. These operations are illustrated below.
Button Description
Diameters
When Diameters is clicked, the display updates to show each diameter in a different color. A color key (legend) is included
at the bottom of the plot in its own pane. This option can be used to quickly see the diameter variations throughout the
system. This is a good way to verify that diameter changes have been made where appropriate. The same functionality may
be achieved from the Options menu by selecting the Diameters menu options. Alternatively, the user may use the D- key to
view different diameters.
Insulation
Produces results similar to the ones described in the Diameters section, the model is colored according to the different data
defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left.
The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Insulation menu options. Alternatively, the
user may use the corresponding user may use the I- key to view the insulation.
Wall Thickness
Produces results similar to the ones described in the Diameters section, the model is colored according to the different data
defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left.
The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Wall Thickness, menu option. Alternatively,
the user may use the corresponding user may use the W- key to view the different wall thicknesses throughout the model.
Materials
Produces results similar to the ones described in the Diameters section, the model is colored according to the different data
defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left.
The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Materials menu option. Alternatively, the
user may use the M - key to view different materials.
Note: The legend window may be resized, docked, and/or removed from view.
Note: While in the described highlighted mode, the model can still be zoomed, panned and rotated. Any of orthographic
projections and single line/volume modes can be used without affecting the model highlighted state.
Note: Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.
Note: The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Materials, Diameters, Wall
Thickness, or Insulation menu options. Alternatively, the user may use the corresponding keyboard keys: M - to view
different materials, D - to view different diameters, W - to view different wall thickness throughout the model, and I - to
view the insulation.
Note: When the model is being printed using FILE MENU/ PRINT while in one of the highlighted modes described herein, the
color key legend will appear in the upper left corner of the page. This is always true, even if the actual legend window has
been dragged away from the view.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-51
3D Graphics Highlights: Temperature and Pressure
Button and Name Description
Temperatures
Highlight the pipe elements for a particular temperature vector in a different color. A color key (legend) is included on the
left side of the plot in a separate window. This option can be used to quickly see temperature variations throughout the
system. This is a good way to verify that temperature changes have been made where appropriate. When more than one
operating temperature has been specified, a drop list is presented so that the single desired temperature vector can be used in
coloring the model.
Pressure
Clicking the Pressure button produces results similar to the ones described in the Temperature section, the model is colored
according to the different data defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left . When more than one operating
pressure has been defined, a drop list with up to 9 pressures and a hydro pressure, HYD, as defined choices appears.
Note: Only the pressures and temperatures that were actually defined in the input will appear in the toolbar as a choice.
Note: The legend window may be resized, docked, and/or dragged away from the view.
Note: While in the described highlighted mode, the model can still be zoomed, panned and rotated. Any of orthographic
projections and single line/volume modes can still be used without affecting the model highlighted state.
Note: Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.
Note: The same functionality may be achieved from the Options Menu by selecting the Temperatures or Pressures
menu options. Alternatively, the Temperatures can be accessed by pressing keyboard number buttons 1 through 9.
Note: When the model is being printed using FILE MENU/ PRINT while in one of the highlighted modes described herein, the
color key legend displays in the upper left corner of the page. This is always true, even if the actual legend window has been
dragged away from the view.
Button and Name Description
Corrosion Allowance
Highlights the pipe elements of a particular value of corrosion allowance in one color. A legend is included for
identification of different corrosion allowances.
Pipe Density
Highlights the pipe densities through the model in a color-coded fashion and includes a legend.
Fluid Density
Highlights the different fluid densities through the model in a color-coded fashion and includes a legend.
Insulation Density
Highlights the different insulation densities through the model in a color-coded fashion and includes a legend.
5-52 Piping Input
3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads, Wind/Wave Loads
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics engine can display applied/predefined displacements, forces, uniform loads, or wind/wave loads
in a tabular format. The display windows can be scrolled vertically and or horizontally to view all node points where data
has been defined. To flip through the defined displacement or force vectors 1 through 9, use the Next and Previous buttons
at the bottom of the tabular legend window. The color key at the far left of the window assists in locating the node points on
the model (when the model geometry is complex).
Note that the displacements window shows the user specified values as well as free or fixed Degrees of Freedom (DOF). In
this case, a DOF is free if a displacement value is not specified in any of the displacement load vectors. Note also that if a
certain DOF has a specified displacement in at least one of the load vectors, then it is fixed in all other load vectors.
Button and Name Description
Forces
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics can display applied/predefined displacements and /or forces in a tabular format.
The display windows can be scrolled vertically and or horizontally to view all node points where data has been defined.
To flip through the defined displacement or force vectors 1 through 9, use the Next and Previous buttons at the bottom
of the tabular legend window. The color key at the far left of the window assists in locating the node points on the model
(when the model geometry is complex).
Forces behave similar to the Displacements option, the model elements are highlighted for a particular force vector, and
the color key legend grid window displays on the left. The node number in combination with a color key specifies the
location where the force and moment values are defined. Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring
effect.
Uniform Loads
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics can display uniform loads in a tabular format.
Uniform Loads has three vectors defined. The Node column represents the start node number where the uniform loads
vector was first defined. Since the data propagates throughout the model until changed or disabled, the model is colored
accordingly. Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.
Wind/Wave
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics can display wind/wave loads in a tabular format. Wind/Wave also displays the loading
coefficients.
The color key is defined as follows: all the elements with wind defined are colored in red color; all the elements with
wave data defined are colored in green color. The legend grid shows the relevant data items defined by the user. Clicking
the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.
Note: The legend window may be resized, docked and/or removed from the view.
Note: While in the described highlighted mode, the model can still be zoomed, panned and rotated. Any of orthographic
projections and single line/volume modes can still be used without affecting the model highlighted state.
Note: The same functionality may be achieved from the Options Menu by selecting the relevant options. Alternatively,
users can access Predefined Displacements by pressing F3 on the keyboard. Forces/moment vectors can be accessed by
pressing F5 on the keyboard.
Note: When the model is being printed using FILE MENU/PRINT while in one of the highlighted modes described herein, the
color key legend appears on the second page following the model bitmap image. The printed legend is presented in the
tabular form similar to the legend window.
Select Element allows users to obtain element data. When enabled, hovering over a pipe element with the mouse
shows a bubble with the element's nodes, delta dimensions, and pipe size data. Clicking on an element highlights the
element and updates the information on the spreadsheet. Clicking a different element highlights the relevant element and
changes the data in the spreadsheet accordingly.
Note: Clicking the empty space of the graphics view de-highlights the element. The spreadsheet will still contain the
information from the last element selected.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-53
Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info; Find Node, Range & Cutting Plane
Sometimes it is necessary to limit the amount of displayed information on the screen. This may be useful when the model is
large, or if it has many similar looking branches. There are several ways to achieve this result by clicking the Find Node ,
Range, or Cutting Plane button. The description of these operations, their advantages and disadvantages are illustrated
below.
Button and Name Description
FInd Node
Allows redlining based on the user moving the mouse. Find Node is useful when a specific node or an element
needs to be located. Clicking Find Node displays a dialog prompting for the FROM and TO nodes to search
for. The node numbers can be entered in either of the two fields, or in both. Entering only the FROM node
number causes the feature to search for the first available element that starts with the specified node number.
Entering only the TO node number causes the feature to search for an element ending with the specified node
number. When the element is located, it is highlighted, and the view zooms to the element. Users may zoom out
to better identify the location of the highlighted element within the model.
Create Cutting Plane
Allows redlining using a rectangular shape. This option is also useful when trying to emphasize a specific
element. In many cases, the elements/node numbers are not defined consecutively. Thus, it may be easier to cut
a portion of the model at a certain location to see more details.
For this operation, use the Create Cutting Plane button. When the cutting plane appears, use the handles to
move and or rotate the plane as desired. If cutting the plane's handles are not visible, or the display goes blank,
the view may be focused too close for the plane to operate correctly. Use the Zoom button to zoom out; then
click the Cutting Plane button again for the handles to appear. To disable the cutting plane and return to view
click on the display with the right mouse button.
Note the Create Cutting Plane option can be used along any of the three axes.
Create Cutting Plane Horizontally
Allows redlining using a circular shape. This option is useful when trying to emphasize a specific element. To
disable the cutting plane and return to view click on the display with the right mouse button.
Note the Create Cutting Plane option can be used along any of the three axes.
Create Cutting Plane Vertically
Allows the user to enter text and place it anywhere in the plot area. To disable the cutting plane and return to
view click on the display with the right mouse button.
Note the Create Cutting Plane options can be used along any of the three axes.
Range plots only those elements that contain nodes within the range specified by the user. This is particularly helpful when
attempting to locate specific nodes or a group of related elements in a rather large, often symmetrical model. Click the
Range button or press the U key to display the Range dialog.
5-54 Piping Input
A sorted list of all defined node numbers with corresponding check marks appears. Clicking a check box next to a particular
node number will enable or disable it.
Note: Only elements with check marks on will display when OK is clicked. If the Range option was previously used,
consecutive clicks will display the dialog with the current state of the shown/hidden elements and the corresponding check
marks.
Range enables the selection and dragging of consecutive node numbers (click the left mouse button on the first node of the
desired selection, then move the mouse while holding the mouse button down, and release the button at the last node of the
desired selection). Alternatively, users may click the first node, press the SHIFT key and click the last node of the selection
using the mouse button. Clicking the check mark with the rectangle once toggles the status that is applied to the entire
highlighted selection.
Use the FROM and TO fields together with the Add button to specify and/or add to the range of elements that are already
selected. If only the FROM node is specified and Add is clicked, all elements (from this node and up will be selected).
Clicking the Reverse Selection button toggles the check marks for the elements to show: it displays the previously hidden
elements, and hides the previously displayed elements. When Clear All is enabled, none of the elements are selected (and
the graphics view appears blank). Use this button to clear the selection.
Note, if none of the elements are selected, and OK is clicked, the view becomes blank. To show the entire model, click the
Select All button.
Note: Using the Range option affects the display and operation of other 3D Graphics Highlighting options. For example,
if part of the model is not visible because of the use of the Range option, then clicking the Show Diameters option will
only highlight the elements that are actually visible. Also if using the Range option hides any nodes containing the
predefined displacements, the Displacements legend grid still appears, but the model may not be properly highlighted.
Note: Find Node may not work properly for the part of the model that is hidden by the Range. The corresponding
message will also appear in the status bar.
Save an Image for Later Presentation: TIF, HTML, BMP, JPEG and PDF
Occasionally, it is necessary to add a graphical representation of a model to the CAESAR II Stress reports. The
3D/HOOPS Graphics view can be saved as a bitmap by clicking FILE/ SAVE AS GRAPHICS IMAGE. The model geometry, colors,
highlighting, as well as restraints and most of the other options will be transferred to the bitmap. After clicking Save As
Graphics Image the Save Image dialog appears asking the user to specify the desired file name and a directory for the file
to be saved. The default bitmap file name is the job name with an extension .TIF. (This is a standard, Windows supported
image file extension that can be opened for viewing.) The image resolution can also be changed in the Save Image dialog.
Note: This is a static bitmap file.
Due to certain limitations of the 3D/HOOPS modeler, the legend window and text cannot be saved to the bitmap. However,
all coloring, as well as the annotations and markups are successfully saved.
Users now have the option to save the graphics as .HTML file. After saving as .HTML CAESAR II creates two files in the
current data directory using the current job name: *.HTML and *.HSF. Opening the .HTML file should display the
corresponding .HSF file.
Note this is an interactive file.
The first time a CAESAR II created .HTML file is opened with an Internet browser, the user receives a message asking to
download a control from Tech Soft 3D. Answer Yes to allow the download, and the image will be displayed. Once the
model appears, selecting and right-clicking the model shows the available viewing options, such as orbit, pan, zoom,
different render modes, etc. The image can be printed or copied to the clipboard as necessary.
Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-55
Note: Internet Explorer (IE) version 5.0 and earlier may not display the image properly, COADE recommends IE6 or later.
Button and Name Description
Annotations
Used to highlight a problem area, or write a brief description of the model. The annotation may be especially
useful in the output processor for more information refer to the discussion at the end of this section.
The CAESAR II 3D/HOOPS Graphics processor provides several types of annotation as discussed below.
When the Annotate Model button is clicked, the annotation text box with a leader line to an element is added to the
graphics view. To add the annotation, click with the left mouse button on a particular element to start the leader line, while
holding the mouse button down drag the leader line to the annotation point, then type in the annotation text, and then press
the Enter key.
Note: The annotation text box is only a single line.
Note: Annotation with leader stays with the model on zoom, pan, rotate, and use of any highlight options. Annotation also
gets printed to the printer and saved to the bitmap. Annotations are not saved to the HTML file.
Note: The color and font face/size of the annotation text can be changed by clicking Change Display Options, for more
information refer to the 3D Graphics Configuration section in this chapter.
Other annotation options are listed below:
Button and Name Description
Freehand Markup Operator
Allows redlining based on the user moving the mouse.
Rectangle Markup
Allows redlining using a rectangular shape. This option is useful when trying to emphasize a specific element
Circle Markup
Allows redlining using a circular shape. This option is useful when trying to emphasize a specific element
Annotate Operator
Allows the user to enter text and place it anywhere in the plot area.
It may be used to add a short description of the model to the graphics image for printing or saving as a bitmap.
Note: This markup annotation text box is only a single line. The color and the font face/size cannot be changed the default
color is red.
Note: Markup annotations are saved to the .TIF file and spooled to the printer.
Note: The geometry and the text of the markup annotations are temporary; they are not saved with the model, and
disappear from view with any change like zoom, rotate, pan or reset all.
5-56 Piping Input
3D Graphics Interactive Feature: Walk Through
CAESAR II enables users to explore the scene of the model with a setup similar to a virtual reality application. It produces the
effect of walking towards the model; and once close to or inside the model users can look left, right, up, and down, step to a
side, or ride an elevator up and down. Click Walk Through , to enables this feature. After clicking Walk Through
the mouse’s cursor displays as a pair of feet.
In order for Walk Through to operate properly, the model must be in one of the orthogonal views (such as front, back, left,
or right), and in the perspective projection. This is a limitation of the graphics engine's camera, with regard to lighting
relative positions, derived from the assumption that it is not possible (in real life to walk vertically (for example, from the
top of the model down.
Left Mouse Button Down
• Look Around: Clicking the left mouse button and moving the mouse up, down, left, or right, provides the effect of looking
around. This option is useful when model is close to the viewer, or the viewer is inside the model
Wheel Scroll
• Scrolling the mouse wheel provides the effect of looking up and/or down at a model.
Wheel Down
• Pan: Holding the mouse wheel down and moving the mouse up, down, left, or right, provides the panning effects of riding
the elevator up/down or stepping to the side, similar to using the keyboard keys Q, Z, A, or D. The mouse cursor will
change to a hand icon.
Walk is useful in providing a real-time interactive view of the model. To exit from this option, click any other operator.
• Troubleshooting: While walking it is not possible to look back at the model you need to use the back orthogonal view of
the model as a starting point for walking or walk from the top. If any of these limitations are accidentally met, the camera
versus lighting position will become undefined, and the view may get corrupted. To correct the problem, close the Graphics
Processor window. Locate the *.XML file (the current state of the model is maintained there) by opening Windows
Explorer, navigating to the open the data directory (where the CAESAR II Input file in question is located. Next, find the
XML data file (job-name.XML) and delete it. Then return to the piping input. After starting the 3D Graphics engine, the
model will display in the CAESAR II default state for more information refer to the discussion at the beginning of the
document.

Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases
In This Chapter
Error Checking ........................................................................................ 6-2
Building Static Load Cases...................................................................... 6-8
Providing Wind Data ............................................................................... 6-9
Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters .................................................... 6-11
Execution of Static Analysis.................................................................... 6-12
Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases ........................................................... 6-15

C H A P T E R 6
6-2 Error Checking Static Load Cases
Error Checking
Static analysis cannot be performed until the error checking portion of the piping preprocessor has been successfully
completed. Only after error checking is completed are the required analysis data files created. Similarly, any subsequent
changes made to the model input are not reflected in the analysis unless error checking is rerun after those changes have
been made. CAESAR II does not allow an analysis to take place if the input has been changed and not successfully error
checked.
Button Description
Error Check
Error Checking can only be done from the input spreadsheet, and is initiated by executing the Error Check or Batch
Run commands from the toolbar or menu. Error Check saves the input and starts the error checking procedure.
Batch Run
Batch Run causes the program to check the input data, analyze the system, and present the results without any user interaction.
The assumptions are that the loading cases to be analyzed do not need to change and that the default account number (if
accounting active) is correct. These criteria are usually met after the first pass through the analysis. Batch processing focuses
the user’s attention on the creation of input and the review of output by expediting the steps in between.
Once launched, the Error Checker reviews the CAESAR II model and alerts users to any possible errors, inconsistencies,
or noteworthy items. These items display to users as Errors, Warnings, or Notes in a grid. The total number of errors,
warnings, or notes displays in corresponding text fields above the Message Grid. Users may sort messages in the Message
Grid by type, message number or element/node number by double-clicking the corresponding column header. Users can
also print messages displayed in the Message Grid by clicking FILE/PRINT.
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-3
Fatal Error Message
Errors are flagged when there is a problem with the model due to which analysis cannot continue. An example of this would
be if no length were defined for a piping element. These errors are also called fatal errors, since they are fatal to the analysis,
and must be corrected before continuing.
Clicking on the error message will move the spreadsheet display to the offending element. Users can change the view
between the spreadsheet and error warning views using the tabs located at the bottom of the window.
.
6-4 Error Checking Static Load Cases
Warning Message
Warnings are flagged whenever there is a problem with a model, which can be overcome using some assumptions. An
example of this would be if an element’s wall thickness were insufficient to meet the minimum wall thickness for the given
pressure (hoop stress). Warnings need not be corrected in order to get a successful analysis, but users should review all
warnings carefully as they are displayed.
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-5
Note Message
The third category of alert is the informational note. These messages simply inform the user of some noteworthy fact related
to the model. An example of a note may be a message informing the user of the number of hangers to be designed by
CAESAR II. For notes, there is nothing for the user to “correct.”
The first step in the analysis of an error-checked piping model is the specification of the static load cases.
6-6 Error Checking Static Load Cases
Button Description
Analysis Statics
Selection of the Analysis-Static option from the CAESAR II Main Menu or from within the piping input.
Note: The piping input file must have successfully gone through error checking before this option can be chosen.
A discussion of CAESAR II Load Cases is included at the end of this chapter. Please refer to the section for or
information.
After entering the static load case editor, a screen appears which lists all of the available loads that are defined in the input,
the available stress types, and the current load cases offered for analysis. If the job is entering static analysis for the first
time, CAESAR II presents a list of recommended load cases. If the job has been run previously, the loads shown are those
saved during the last session. A typical Load Case Editor screen is shown below:
Load Case Editor
The user can define up to ninety-nine load cases. Load cases may be edited by clicking on a line in the Load List area.
Only the load components listed in the upper left-hand portion of the screen may be specified in the load cases. The entries
must be identical to what is shown on the screen. Available stress types can be selected from the Stress Type drop box.
Stress type determines the stress calculation method and the allowable stress to use (if any).
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-7
Load Cases may be built through drag and drop actions. Dragging a load component from the Loads Defined in Input list
to a line on the load list automatically adds the load component to the load case, if it is not already included. Highlighted
basic load cases may be dragged down to be added to algebraic combination cases (CAESAR II may prompt for combination
type). Use the Load Case Options tab to select combination methods and other specifics pertaining to the load cases.
Note: Defining a fatigue (FAT) stress type for a load case automatically displays a field in which the number of
anticipated load cycles for that load case can be entered.
All basic (non-combination) load sets must all be specified before any algebraic combinations may be declared. This rule
holds true for user defined and edited load cases.
The following commands are available on this screen:
Button Description
Edit-Insert
Inserts a blank load case following the currently selected line in the load list. If no line is selected, the load case is
added at the end of the list. Load cases are selected by clicking on the number to the left of the load case.
Edit-Delete
Deletes the currently selected load case.
File Analysis
Accepts the load cases and runs the job.
Recommend
Allows the user to replace the current load cases with the CAESAR II recommended load cases.
Load Cycles
Hides or displays the Load Cycles field in the Load Case list. Entries in these fields are only valid for load cases
defined with the fatigue stress type.
Import Load Cases
Copies the load cases from another file. The units and load types of the copied file must match those of the current file.
6-8 Error Checking Static Load Cases
Building Static Load Cases
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-9
Providing Wind Data
Up to four different wind load cases may be specified for any one job.
The only wind load information that is specified in the Piping Input is the shape factor. It is this shape factor input that
causes load cases WIN1, WIN2, WIN3, and WIN4 to be listed as an available load to be analyzed. More wind data is
required, however, before an analysis can be made. When wind loads are used in the model, CAESAR II makes available the
screen to define the extra wind load data. Once defined, this input is stored and may be changed on subsequent entries into
the static analysis processor.
To specify the wind data needed for the analysis click the Wind Loads tab for the appropriate wind load case. The Wind
Load tab appears:
Wind Load Specifications
There are three different methods that can be used to generate wind loads on piping systems:
• ASCE #7 Standard Edition, 1995
• User entry of a pressure vs. elevation table
• User entry of a velocity vs. elevation table
6-10 Error Checking Static Load Cases
The appropriate method is selected by placing a value of 1.0 in one of the first three boxes.
When defining a pressure or velocity vs. elevation table the user needs to specify only the method and the wind direction on
the preceding screen. Upon pressing the User Wind Profile button, the user is prompted for the corresponding pressure or
velocity table. If a uniform pressure or velocity is to act over the entire piping system, then only a single entry needs to be
made in the table, otherwise the user should enter the pressure or velocity profile for the applicable wind loading.
Note: To use the ASCE #7 wind loads, all of the fields should be filled in.
For example, as per ASCE #7, the following are typical basic wind-speed values:
California and West Coast Areas-124.6 ft./sec. ( 85 m.p.h.)
Rocky Mountains- 132.0 ft./sec ( 90 m.p.h.)
Great Plains- 132.0 ft./sec ( 90 m.p.h.)
Non-Coastal Eastern United States-132.0 ft./sec ( 90 m.p.h.)
Gulf Coast- 190.6 ft./sec (130 m.p.h.)
Florida-Carolinas- 190.6 ft./sec (130 m.p.h.)
Miami- 212.6 ft./sec (145 m.p.h.)
New England Coastal Areas- 176.0 ft./sec (120 m.p.h.)
Copy Wind Vector - Users may copy the Wind data from any defined Wind Case to any remaining Wind Cases by clicking
the Copy Wind Vector button. This is especially useful for large Wind Pressure or Velocity vs. Elevation tables.
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-11
Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters
Up to four different hydrodynamic load cases may be specified for any one job.
Several hydrodynamic coefficients are defined on the element spreadsheet. The inclusion of hydrodynamic coefficients
causes the loads WAV1, WAV2, WAV3, and WAV4 to be available in the Load Case Editor.
A CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading dialog is shown in the following figure.
In the Load Case Editor, four different wave load profiles can be specified. Current data and wave data may be specified
and included together or either of them may be omitted so as to exclude the data from the analysis. CAESAR II supports three
current models and six wave models. See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion of
hydrodynamic analysis.
Note: Wave data may be copied between any of the four defined vectors to any of the unused vectors by clicking the Copy
Wave Vector button.
6-12 Error Checking Static Load Cases
Execution of Static Analysis
The static analysis performed by CAESAR II follows the regular finite element solution routine. Element stiffnesses are
combined to form a global system stiffness matrix. Each basic load case defines a set of loads for the ends of all the
elements. These elemental load sets are combined into system load vectors. Using the relationship of force equals stiffness
times displacement (F=KX), the unknown system deflections and rotations can be calculated. The known deflections
however, may change during the analysis as hanger sizing, nonlinear supports, and friction all affect both the stiffness
matrix and load vectors. The root solution from this equation, the system-wide deflections and rotations, is used with the
element stiffnesses to determine the global (X,Y,Z) forces and moments at the end of each element. These forces and
moments are translated into a local coordinate system for the element from which the code-defined stresses are calculated.
Forces and moments on anchors, restraints, and fixed displacement points are summed to balance all global forces and
moments entering the node. Algebraic combinations of the basic load cases pick up this process where appropriate - at the
displacement, force & moment, or stress level.
Once the setup for the solution is complete the calculation of the displacements and rotations is repeated for each of the
basic load cases. During this step, the Incore Solution status dialog appears.
Incore Solution Module
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-13
This dialog serves as a monitor of the static analysis. The dialog is broken down into several areas. The area on the upper
left reflects the size of the job by listing the number of equations to be solved and the bandwidth of the matrix, which holds
these equations. Multiplying the number of equations by the bandwidth gives a relative indication of the job size. This area
also lists the current load case being analyzed and the total number of basic load cases to be solved. The iteration count, as
well as the current case number, shows how much “work” has been completed. Load cases with nonlinear restraints may
require several solutions (iterations) before the changing assumptions about the restraint configuration (e.g. resting or lifting
off, active or inactive) are confirmed.
In the lower left screen of the big box are two bar graphs, which indicate where the program is in an individual solution.
These bar graphs illustrate the speed of the solution. By checking the data in this first box, users will have an idea of how
much longer to wait for the results.
The right side of the solution screen also provides information to users regarding the status of nonlinear restraints and
hangers in the job. For example, messages noting the number of restraints that have yet to converge or any hangers that
appear to be taking no load, are displayed here. Nonlinear restraint status may be stepped through on an individual basis by
using the [F2]/[F4] function keys.
Following the analysis of the system deflections and rotations, these results are post-processed in order to calculate the local
forces, moments, and stresses for the basic load cases and all results for the algebraic combinations (e.g. L1-L2). These total
system results are stored in a file with the suffix “_P” (e.g. TUTOR._P).
Note: The “_A” or input file, the “_P” or output file, and the "OTL" (Output Time Link File) are all that is required to
archive the static analysis. The remaining scratch files may be eliminated from the system without any impact on the work
completed.
6-14 Error Checking Static Load Cases
During this post processing, the Status frame lists the current element for which the forces and stresses are being calculated.
Once the last element’s stresses are computed, the output processor screen is presented. Use this menu to interactively
review the graphic and tabular results of the analysis. Interactive processing of output results is discussed in detail in
Chapter 7 of this document.
Static Output Screen
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-15
Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases
Definition of a Load Case
In CAESAR II terms, a load case is a group of piping system loads that are analyzed together, i.e., that are assumed to be
occurring at the same time. An example of a load case is an operating analysis composed of the thermal, deadweight, and
pressure loads together. Another is an as-installed analysis of deadweight loads alone. A load case may also be composed of
the combinations of the results of other load cases; for example, the difference in displacements between the operating and
installed cases. No matter what the contents of the load case, it always produces a set of reports in the output, which list
restraint loads, displacements and rotations, internal forces, moments, and stresses. Because of piping code definitions of
calculation methods and/or allowable stresses, the load cases are also tagged with a stress category. For example, the
combination mentioned above might be tagged as an EXPansion stress case.
The piping system loads which compose the basic (non-combination) load sets relate to various input items found on the
Piping Input screen. The table below lists the individual load set designations, their names and the input items, which make
them available for analysis.
Designation Name Input items which activate this load case
W Deadweight Pipe Weight, Insulation Weight, Fluid Weight, Rigid Weight
WNC Weight No fluid Contents Pipe Weight, Insulation Weight, Rigid Weight
WW Water Weight Pipe Weight, Insulation Weight, Water-filled Weight, Rigid
Weight (usually used for Hydro Test)
T1 Thermal Set 1 Temperature #1
T2 Thermal Set 2 Temperature #2
T3 Thermal Set 3 Temperature #3
.
.
.
T9 Thermal Set 9 Temperature #9
P1 Pressure Set 1 Pressure #1
P2 Pressure Set 2 Pressure #2
P3 Pressure Set 3 Pressure #3
.
.
.
T9 Thermal Set 9 Temperature #9
P1 Pressure Set 1 Pressure #1
P2 Pressure Set 2 Pressure #2
P3 Pressure Set 3 Pressure #3
.
.
6-16 Error Checking Static Load Cases
.
Designation Name Input items which activate this load case
P9 Pressure Set 9 Pressure #9
HP Hydrostatic Test Pressure Hydro Pressure
D1 Displacements Set 1 Displacements (1st Vector)
D2 Displacements Set 2 Displacements (2nd Vector)
D3 Displacements Set 3 Displacements (3rd Vector)
.
.
.
Displacements (9th Vector) Displacements (9th Vector) Displacements (9th Vector)
D9 Displacement Set 9 Displacements (9th Vector)
F1 Force Set 1 Forces/Moments (1st Vector)
F2 Force Set 2 Forces/Moments (2nd Vector)
F3 Force Set 3 Forces/Moments (3rd Vector)
.
.
.
F9 Force Set 9 Forces/Moments (9th Vector)
WIN1 Wind Load 1 Wind Shape Factor
WIN2 Wind Load 2 Wind Shape Factor
WIN3 Wind Load 3 Wind Shape Factor
WIN4 Wind Load 4 Wind Shape Factor
WAV1 Wave Load 1 Wave Load On
WAV2 Wave Load 2 Wave Load On
WAV3 Wave Load 3 Wave Load On
WAV4 Wave Load 4 Wave Load On
U1 Uniform Loads Uniform Loads (1st Vector)
U2 Uniform Loads Uniform Loads (2nd Vector)
U3 Uniform Loads Uniform Loads (3rd Vector)
CS Cold Spring Material # 18 or 19
H Hanger Initial Loads Hanger Design or Pre-specified Hangers
.
.
.
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-17
Note: Available piping system loads display on the left side of the Static Load Case screen.
Basic load cases may consist of a single load such as WNC for an as-installed weight analysis, or they may include several
loads added together such as W+T1+P1+D1+F1 for an operating analysis. The stress categories: SUStained, expansion,
occasional, operating, and FATigue are specified at the end of the load case definition. The complete definition of the two
examples are: WNC (SUS) and W+T1+P1+D1+H (OPE). Each basic load case is entered in this manner in a list for
analysis.
When building basic load cases, load components (such as W, T1, D1, WIND1, etc.) may now be preceded by scale factors
such as 2.0, -0.5, etc. Likewise, when building combination cases, references to previous load cases may also be preceded
by scale factors as well. This provides the user with a number of benefits:
In the event that one loading is a multiple of the other (i.e., safe Shutdown Earthquake being two times Operating Basis
Earthquake, only one loading need be entered in the piping input module; it may be used in a scaled or unscaled form in
the Load Case Editor.
In the event that a loading may be directionally reversible (i.e., wind or earthquake) only one loading need be entered in
the piping input module; it may be used preceded by a + or a - to switch direction.
Load Rating Design Factor (LRDF) methods may be implemented by scaling individual load components by their risk-
dependent factors, for example:
1.05W + 1.1T1+1.1D1+1.25 WIND1
Note: Available stress types may be selected from the pull-down list on each line.
Results of the basic load cases may be combined using algebraic combination cases. These algebraic combinations are
always entered following the last of the basic load cases. Combinations of basic load cases are designated using the prefix
L1, L2, etc.
Note: All load cases with stress type FATigue must have their expected number of Load Cycles specified.
6-18 Error Checking Static Load Cases
An example set of loads displays below.
The following family of load cases provides a valid example of algebraic combinations.
Load Case Designation Comments
1 W+T1+P1+H+0.67CS (OPE) Hot operating; note the 0.67 scale factor which takes credit
only for 2/3 of the cold spring
2 W1+P1+H+0.67CS(OPE) Cold operating: with cold spring included
3 W1+P1+H(SUS) Traditional sustained case
4 WIN1(OCC) Wind case; note this will be manipulated later to represent
average wind 1X, maximum wind 2X, also positive and
negative directions.
5 L1-L2(EXP) Traditional expansion case, cold to hot (note reference to
"L" for "Load", rather than "DS".
6 L1-L2(FAT) Same case but now evaluated for fatigue at 10,000 cycles.
7 L1+L4(OPE) Hot operating with average wind (in positive direction).
8 L1-L4(OPE) Hot operating with average wind (in negative direction).
9 L1+2L4(OPE) Hot operating with maximum wind (in positive direction).
10 L1-2L4(OPE) Hot operating with maximum wind (in negative direction).
11 L2+L4(OPE) Cold operating with average wind (in positive direction).
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-19
Load Case Designation Comments
12 L2-L4(OPE) Cold operating with average wind (in negative direction).
13 L2+2L4(OPE) Cold operating with maximum wind (in positive direction).
14 L2-2L4(OPE) Cold operating with maximum wind (in negative direction).
15 L3+L4(OCC) Occasional stress case, sustained plus average wind.
16 L3+2L4(OCC) Occasional stress case, sustained plus maximum wind.
17 L9+L10+L11+L12(OPE) Maximum restraint load case (the combination option
should be MAX).
Note: CAESAR II permits the specification of up to ninety-nine load cases for analysis. In the rare situation where more
cases are required, the model should be copied to a new file in order to specify the additional load cases.
Load Case Options Tab
CAESAR II offers a second tab on the Static Load Case screen - Load Case Options. Among other features, this screen
allows the user to define alternative and more meaningful Load Case names, as shown in the figure below.
User Defined Names
The user-defined names appear in the Static Output Processor in the Load Case report (for more information, see below),
and may also be used in place of the built load case names anywhere in the Static Output Processor, by activating the
appropriate option.
Note: Load case names cannot exceed 132 characters in length.
6-20 Error Checking Static Load Cases
User Control of Produced Results Data
CAESAR II allows the user to specify whether any or all of the load case results are retained for review in the Static Output
Processor. This is done through the use of two controls found on the Load Case Options tab. These are:
Output Status
This item controls the disposition of the entire results of the load case -- the available options are Keep or Discard. The
former would be used when the load case is producing results that the user may wish to review; the latter option would be
used for artificial cases such as the preliminary hanger cases, or intermediate construction cases. For example, in the load
list shown in the figure, the Wind only load case could have been optionally designated as Discard, since it was built only to
be used in subsequent combinations, and has no great value as a standalone load case. Note that load cases used for hanger
design (i.e., the weight load case and hanger travel cases designated with the stress type HGR) must be designated as
Discard. Note that for all load cases created under previous versions of CAESAR II, all load cases except the HGR cases are
converted as Keep; likewise the default for all new cases (except for HGR load cases) is also Keep.
Output Type
This item designates the type of results that are available for the load cases, which have received a Keep status. This could
be used to help minimize clutter on the output end, and ensure that only meaningful results are retained. The available
options are:
Disp/Force/Stress - Provides displacements, restraint loads, global and local forces, and stresses. This would be a good
choice for Operating cases, when designing to those codes which do a code check on operating stresses, because the load
case would be of interest for interference checking (displacements) and restraint loads at one operating extreme (forces).
Disp/Force - Provides displacements restraint loads, global and local forces. This would be a good choice for OPE cases
when designing for those codes which do not do a code check on OPE stresses.
Disp/Stress - Provides displacements and stresses only.
Force/Stress - Provides restraint loads, global and local forces, and stresses. This might be a good choice for the Sustained
(cold) case, because the load case would be of interest for restraint loads at one operating extreme (forces), and code
compliance (stresses). Note that FR combination loads cases developed under previous versions of CAESAR II are converted
with this Force/Stress type.
Disp - Provides displacements only.
Force - Provides restraint loads, global and local forces only.
Stress - Provides stresses only. This would be a good choice for a sustained plus Occasional load case (with Abs
combination method), since this is basically an artificial construct used for code stress checking purposes only. Note that ST
combination load cases developed under previous versions of CAESAR II are converted with this Stress type.
Snubbers Active?
Activating this option causes the snubbers to be considered to be rigid restraints for this particular load case. By default,
OCC load cases activate this option, while other types of load cases default to an inactive state.
Hanger Stiffness
The three options available here are As Designed, Rigid, and Ignore, and cause CAESAR II to (1) consider the actual spring
hanger stiffnesses, (2) model the spring hangers as rigid restraints, or (3) remove the spring hanger stiffnesses from the
model, respectively. As Designed should be used for most "real" (non-hanger design) load cases. Rigid should be used for
the Restrained Weight Case and any Hydrotest Case (if the spring hangers are pinned during it).
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-21
(Note that during the Restrained Weight Case user-defined hangers will not be made rigid.) Ignore is normally used for the
Operating for Hanger Travel Cases -- except in those cases where the user wishes to include the stiffness of the selected
spring in the Operating for Hanger Travel Case (and iterate to a solution). In that case, the user should select As Designed
for those cases as well. In that case, it is very important that the hanger load in the Cold Case (in the physical system) be
adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load.
Friction Multiplier
This multiplier may be used to alter (or deactivate) the friction factors used in this particular load case. The friction factor
(Mu) used at each restraint will be this multiplier times the Mu factor at each restraint. Setting this value to zero deactivates
friction for this load case.
Elastic Modulus
Designates use of Cold (EC) or any of the nine (EH1-EH9) hot elastic moduli in determining results on a load case per
condition basis.

User-Controlled Combination Methods
For combination cases, CAESAR II provides the user with the ability to explicitly designate the combination method to be
used. Load cases to be combined are designated as L1, L2, etc., for Load Case 1, Load Case 2, etc., with the combination
method selected from a drop list on the Load Case Options tab. The available methods are:
Algebraic
This method combines the displacements, forces, moments, restraint loads, and pressures of the designated load cases in an
algebraic (vectorial) manner. The resultant forces, moments, and pressures are then used (along with the SIFs and element
cross-sectional parameters) to calculate the piping stresses. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors (1.8, -, etc.)
prior to doing the combination.
The obsolete CAESAR II combination methods DS and FR used an Algebraic combination method. Therefore, load cases
built in previous versions of CAESAR II using the DS and FR methods are converted to the Algebraic method. Also, new
combination cases automatically default to this method, unless designated by the user). In the load case list shown in the
figure, most of the combination cases are typically built with the Algebraic method.
Note that in the load case list shown in the figure, most of the combination cases typically are built with the Algebraic
method. Note that Algebraic combinations may be built only from basic (i.e., non-combination) load cases or other load
cases built using the Algebraic combination method.
Scalar
This method combines the displacements, forces, moments, restraint loads, and stresses of the designated load cases in a
Scalar manner (i.e., not as vectors, but retaining consideration of sign). Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors
prior to doing the combination (for example, for a negative multiplier, stresses would be subtractive). This method might
typically be used when adding plus or minus seismic loads to an operating case, or when doing an Occasional Stress Code
check (i.e. scalar addition of the Sustained and Occasional stresses).
The obsolete CAESAR II combination methods ST used a Scalar combination method. Therefore, load cases built in previous
versions of CAESAR II using the ST method are converted to the Scalar method.
6-22 Error Checking Static Load Cases
SRSS
This method combines the displacements, forces, moments, restraint loads, and stresses of the designated load cases in a
Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) manner. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing
the combination however, due to the squaring used by the combination method, negative values vs. positive values will
yield no difference in the result. This method is typically used when combining seismic loads acting in orthogonal
directions.
ABS
This method combines the displacements, forces, moments, restraint loads, and stresses of the designated load cases in an
Absolute Value manner. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the combination however, due
to the absolute values used by the combination method, negative values vs. positive values will yield no difference in the
result. This method may be used when doing an Occasional Stress code check (i.e., absolute summation of the Sustained
and Occasional stresses).
Note: The Occasional Stress cases in the figure are built using this method.
Max
For each result value, this combination method selects the displacement, force, moment, restraint load, and stress having the
largest absolute value from the designated load cases; so no actual combination per se, takes place. Load case results are
multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the selection of the maxima. This method is typically used when determining
the design case (worst loads, stress, etc.) from a number of loads.
Note: The maximum Restraint Load case shown in the figure uses a Max combination method.
Min
For each result value, this combination method selects the displacement, force, moment, restraint load, and stress having the
smallest absolute value from the designated load cases; so no actual combination per se, takes place. Load case results are
multiplied by any scale factors prior to the selection of the minima.
SignMax
For each result value, this combination method selects the displacements, force, moments, restraint load, and stress having
the largest actual value, considering the sign, from the designated load cases; so no actual combination per se, takes place.
Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the selection of the maxima. This combination method
would typically be used in conjunction with the SignMin method to find the design range for each value (i.e., the maximum
positive and maximum negative restraint loads).
SignMin
For each result value, this combination method selects the displacements, force, moments, restraint load, and stress having
the smallest actual value, considering the sign, from the designated load cases; so no actual combination per se, takes place.
Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the selection of the minima. This combination method
would typically be used in conjunction with the SignMax method to find the design range for each value (i.e., the maximum
positive and maximum negative restraint loads).

Recommended Load Cases
When the user first enters the Static Load Case Editor CAESAR II recommends, based on the loads defined in the model,
three types of load cases: Operating, Sustained, and Expansion (but not occasional).
Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-23
Operating load cases represent the loads acting on the pipe during hot operation, including both primary (weight pressure,
and force) loadings and secondary (displacement and thermal) loadings. Operating cases are used to find hot displacements
for interference checking, and hot restraint and equipment loads. Generally when recommending operating load cases,
CAESAR II combines weight, pressure case #1, and hanger loads with each of the thermal load cases (displacement set #1
with thermal set #1, displacement set #2 with thermal set #2, etc....), and then with any cold spring loads.
Sustained load cases represent the primary force-driven loadings acting on the pipe, i.e., weight and pressure alone. This
usually coincides with the cold (as-installed) load case. Sustained load cases are used to satisfy the code sustained stress
requirements, as well as to calculate as-installed restraint and equipment loads. Sustained load cases are generally built by
combining weight with each of the pressure and force sets, and then with any hanger loads.
Expansion load cases represent the range between the displacement extremes (usually between the operating and sustained
cases). Expansion load cases are used to meet expansion stress requirements.
Most users will specify only one temperature and one pressure. Such input would simplify the recommended cases to
something like:
Case # 1 W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) ....OPERATING
Case # 2 W+P1+H (SUS)....SUSTAINED LOAD CASE
Case # 3 L1-L2 (EXP)....EXPANSION LOAD CASE
The user should review any load recommendations made by CAESAR II.
Note: CAESAR II does not recommend any occasional load cases. Definition of these is the responsibility of the user.
If these recommended load cases do not satisfy the analysis requirements, they may always be deleted or modified.
Conversely, the load cases may always be reset to the program recommended set at any time.
If the user has an operating temperature below ambient in addition to one above ambient the user should add another
expansion load case as follows:
Case # 1 W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) ....
Case # 2 W+D2+T2 +P1+H (OPE) ....
Case # 3 W+P1+H (SUS)....SUSTAINED LOAD CASE
Case # 4L1-L3 (EXP)....EXPANSION LOAD CASE
Case # 5L2-L3 (EXP)....EXPANSION LOAD CASE
Case # 6L2-L1 (EXP)....the user should add this since it is not recommended by CAESAR II.

Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection
If spring hangers are to be designed by the program, two additional load cases must first be analyzed in order to obtain the
data required to select a variable support. The two basic requirements for sizing hangers are the deadweight carried by the
hanger (hot load) and the range of vertical travel to be accommodated. The first load case (traditionally called “Restrained
Weight”) consists of only deadweight (W). For this analysis CAESAR II includes a rigid restraint in the vertical direction at
every location where a hanger is to be sized. The load on the restraint from this analysis is the deadweight that must be
carried by the support in the hot condition. For the second load case, the hanger is replaced with an upward force equal to
the calculated hot load, and an operating load case is run. This load case (traditionally called “Free Thermal”) includes the
deadweight and thermal effects, the first pressure set (if defined), and any displacements, (W+D1+T1+P1). The vertical
displacements of the hanger locations, along with the previously calculated deadweights are then passed on to the hanger
selection routine.
6-24 Error Checking Static Load Cases
Once the hangers are sized, the added forces are removed and replaced with the selected supports along with their pre-loads
(cold loads), designated by load component H. (Note that load component H may appear in the load cases for hanger design
if the user has predefined any springs- in this case it would represent the pre-defined operating loads.) CAESAR II then
continues with the load case recommendations as defined above. A typical set of recommended load cases for a single
operating load case spring hanger design appears as follows:
Case # 1W ....WEIGHT FOR HANGER LOADS
Case # 2W+D1+T1+P1 ....OPERATING FOR HANGER TRAVEL
Case # 3W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) ...OPERATING (HGRS. INCLUDED
Case # 4W+P1+H (SUS) ....SUSTAINED LOAD CASE
Case # 5L3-L4 (EXP) ....EXPANSION LOAD CASE
These hanger sizing load cases (#1 & #2) generally supply no information to the output reports other than the data found in
the hanger tables. Note how cases 3, 4, & 5 match the recommended load cases for a standard analysis with one thermal and
one pressure defined. Also notice how the displacement combination numbers in case 5 have changed to reflect the new
order. If multiple temperatures and pressures existed in the input, they too would appear in this set after the second spring
hanger design load case.
Two other hanger design criteria also affect the recommended load cases. If the “actual cold loads” for selected springs are
to be calculated, one additional load case (WNC+H) would appear before case #3 above. If the piping system’s hanger
design criteria is set so that the proposed springs must accommodate more than one operating condition, other load cases
must additionally appear before the case #3 above. An extra hanger design operating load case must be performed for each
additional operating load case used to design springs. Refer to the discussion of the hanger design algorithm for more
information on these options.

Chapter 7 Static Output Processor
In This Chapter
Entering the Static Output Processor ....................................................... 7-2
Custom Reports Toolbar.......................................................................... 7-6
Custom Reports ....................................................................................... 7-7
Report Options......................................................................................... 7-10
General Computed Results ...................................................................... 7-17
Output Viewer Wizard............................................................................. 7-20
Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes .............................................. 7-21
3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor .............................. 7-23
Animation of Static Results Notes........................................................... 7-26

C H A P T E R 7
7-2 Static Output Processor
Entering the Static Output Processor
With the completion of a static analysis the CAESAR II Output screen automatically appears, allowing interactive review
of the analytical results. Users may also be access the static results anytime after the analysis has been completed through
the CAESAR II Main Menu option - Output-Static.
Static Output
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-3
Once the output processor is launched, by either of the mentioned paths, the output screen appears. The left-hand column
shows the load cases that were analyzed. The center column shows the available reports associated with those load cases.
The right-hand column shows reports, such as input listings or hanger selection reports that are not associated with load
cases.
Note The proper job must be made current through the File-Open option before selecting the Static-Output processor
through the Main Menu.
Static Output Processor
7-4 Static Output Processor
The Processor screen enables users to manipulate all output review activity. The CAESAR II Output Processor was
designed so that piping results could be quickly reviewed in tabular form, graphically, or using any combination of the two
forms. Users may
• Interactively review reports for any selected combination of load cases and/or report types.
• Print or save to file copies for any combination of load cases and/or report types.
• Add Title lines to output reports.
Note CAESAR II enables users to select either extended and/or summarized versions of most standard reports.
A number of commands are available:
Button and Name Description
File-Open
Opens a different job for output review. The user is prompted for the file to be opened.
File-Save
Saves the selected reports to a disk file. The user is initially prompted for the file name. After closing, or exit, a
Table of Contents is added to the file.
File-Print
Prints the selected reports. After closing, or exiting, a Table of Contents is printed. This is described later in the
chapter.
View-Reports
Displays the selected reports on the terminal. This permits the analysis data to be reviewed interactively in text
format. After selecting the desired combination of one or more active load cases with any combination of report
options and executing the View-Reports button, each report is presented one at a time for inspection. Users may
scroll through the reports vertically and horizontally where necessary.
Find
Specific node numbers or results can be located and highlighted with the button. To move to the next report the
user should close the current report. When all reports have been reviewed, additional report selections may be
made.
Microsoft
®
Word
For those users with access to Microsoft Word, CAESAR II provides the ability to send output reports directly to
Word. This permits the use of all of Word’s formatting features (font selection, margin control, etc.) and printer
support from CAESAR II. This feature is activated through use of the Microsoft Word button when producing a
report. Word is available as an output device to the Static and Dynamic Output Processors. Users can append
multiple reports to form a final report, by selecting the desired reports, clicking the Microsoft Word button, closing
Word, selecting the next report to be added, clicking the button again, etc. A table of contents, reflecting the
cumulatively produced reports, always appears on the first page of the Word document.
Select Case Names
Allows users to select either the CAESAR II Default Load Case names or the user-defined load case names for
output reports. Also available on the Options menu as Load Case Name. The user-defined load case names are
entered in the load case editor under the Load Options tab.
Select Node Name
Allows users to select formatting of node numbers and names to output to reports. Also available on the Options
menu.
Animation
Allows users to view graphic animation of the displacement solution.
Input
Returns to the piping input processor.
Enter Titles
Allows the user to enter report titles for this group of reports. CAESAR II allows the user to customize the report
with a two line title or description. This title may be assigned once for all load case reports sent to the printer or a
disk drive; or the title may be changed for each individual report before it is moved to the output device. When
CAESAR II receives this command a dialog prompts for the titles
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-5
Report Titles
Note 28 characters of each entered title line are displayed for 80 column output reports and 50 characters of each entered
title line are displayed for 132 column output reports.
Button and Name Description
Plot
This command allows the user to superimpose analytical results onto a plot of the system model. This is described
in more detail later in the chapter.
More
Opens the Output Viewer Wizard to the right of the Static Output Processor. It aids the user in selecting specific
reports and reviewing their order before sending the output to the selected device.
7-6 Static Output Processor
Custom Reports Toolbar
The Custom Reports toolbar enables users to access a variety of functions that can be used to manipulate the generated
reports.
Button and Name Description
Add New Custom Report Template
Enables users to create new custom reports. At least one load case must be selected from the
Load Cases Analyzed list box to enable preview. After executing this command the Report
Template Editor dialog displays.
Edit Existing Custom Report Template
Enables users to modify and save existing custom reports, one at a time. At least one load case
must be selected from the Load Cases Analyzed list box in addition to the custom report name to
preview the report. After executing this command the Report Template Editor dialog displays.
Delete One or More Custom Report Templates
Enables users to permanently remove a custom report templates. This action can not be undone.
Reset Default Custom Report Templates
Enables users to replace the current custom report templates (whether CAESAR II or user defined)
with the CAESAR II Default Custom Report templates.
After executing this command, all the user defined or modified custom report templates will be
replaced by the CAESAR II default ones.
Note: This action affects ALL jobs system-wide and can not be undone.
View Custom Report On Screen
Enables users to view existing custom reports on screen. Any number of load cases analyzed and
any number of custom reports can be selected to view. Custom Reports are presented one at a
time for inspection. Users may scroll through the reports vertically and horizontally where
appropriate. Double clicking the column headers allows sorting of the results.
View Previous Report
Enables users to navigate through the reports. When all reports have been viewed, the Reports
Viewer dialog closes and returns control to the Static Output Processor.
View Next Report
Enables users to navigate through the reports. When all reports have been viewed, the Reports
Viewer dialog closes and returns control to the Static Output Processor.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-7
Custom Reports
Report Template Editor
After selecting the appropriate load case and custom report name and clicking Edit Existing or Add New Custom Report
Template the Report Template Editor dialog appears.
Report Template Editor Dialog
The Report Template Editor Dialog consists of two sections: the template editor to the left and the preview grid to the
right.
The template editor has a tree-like structure and resembles Window Explorer’s folder view. There are 8 major categories
available: Template Name and Template Settings for general report editing, and several output fields; Displacements,
Restraints, Global and Local Forces, Stresses, and Hanger Table Data.
The Template Name category allows users to specify the report name, enter a brief description of the report, and select the
report type. The report name followed by the template description display on the preview grid if the Include Report Name
option is checked under the Template Settings category.
7-8 Static Output Processor
There are 3 report types available:
• Individual - generates output reports, one per selected load case, in the format similar to the standard Displacements or
Restraints reports.
• Summary - generates a single output report for all the specified load cases as a summary, in the format similar to the
standard Restraint Summary report.
• Code Compliance - generates an output stress check report for multiple load cases as a single report, similar to the
standard Code Compliance report.
Note Actual columns and their order on the reports are controlled solely by the user. Data from various categories can be
customized on a single report to suit user's needs.
Template Settings provides options for the report header and the report body text, formatting and alignment. The user may
wish to include or remove specific header data by toggling the check box next to a particular piece of information. The font
face, size, and color for both headers and the report body may be set here.
Note Any changes in the editor are immediately reflected in the preview window to the right.
Each of the following categories consists of related output data. For example, Displacements category contains three
translational (DX, DY, and DZ) and three rotational (RX, RY, and RZ) fields; Stresses contains Axial, Bending, and Code
stresses among other stress related fields. A number next to the field name indicates the Column Number this field will be
placed in. When nothing or zero value is specified, this column will not be included in the current report.
Each field contains following information that can be easily controlled by the user:
Field Name Description
Column Number Indicates the order of the fields in the output report.
Precision Indicates the number of decimal places to be displayed.
Sort Order Specifies whether the data in the column is in ascending, descending, or in no order. This gives the user flexibility of reviewing
reports for maximum (or minimum) values without extra effort.
Display Node Number Allows the user to control appearance of the node number; currently has only "general" formatting as an option.
Display Element Index Allows the user to control whether or not and where the Element Index appears; currently has only "general" formatting as an
option.
Display Units Allows the user to control whether or not and where the Units label is displayed; currently has only "general" formatting as an
option.
Font Allows the user to specify text font face, size and color for this field whenever special formatting is required. Note: The
generic font settings for the entire report should be set at the Template Settings -> Body category.
Align Values Allows the user to control left, right, or center alignment of the values in the column.
Field Caption Allows the user to customize the name of the field as it appears on the report by typing the new caption.
Column Width Allows the user to control the size of the column,
Note When a category or any particular field is highlighted in the editor, the help text for this field is displayed in the
Help box at the bottom of the editor section.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-9
The Preview Grid on the right of the Custom Report Template Editor dialog is interactive. Users may drag the columns
by their heading to arrange the order of the fields in the reports. Double clicking the column header will sort that column’s
values in ascending or descending order. The dragged column number or sorted order value will automatically be saved in
the Column Number or Sort Order entry of that field in the editor tree. Clicking the column header once will highlight that
field in the editor tree, extend its contents and scroll it to view.
Note The Preview Grid is limited to the first 50 lines for performance speedup. The entire report will be available after
selecting the appropriate load case(s) and the custom report name on the Static Output Processor screen and clicking View
Report.
Any current changes to the custom report template can be saved by clicking Save. The custom report template can also be
saved under a different name by clicking Save As... The Save As... dialog appears prompting the user to enter the new
template name a brief description, and the report type. Clicking Preview Report enables users to remove the grid lines
from the Preview Grid. Clicking the same button again will add the grid lines for editing.

7-10 Static Output Processor
Report Options
For most load cases (except hanger design and fatigue) there are a variety of different report options that can be selected for
review.

Displacements
Translations and rotations for each degree of freedom are reported at each node in the model.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-11
Restraints
Forces and moments on each restraint in the model are reported. There is a separate report generated for each load case
selected.
Restraint Summary
Similar to the restraint report, this option provides force and moment data for all valid selected load cases together on one
report.
7-12 Static Output Processor
Global Element Forces
Forces and moments on the piping are reported for each node in the model.
Local Element Forces
These forces and moments have been transferring into the CAESAR II Local Coordinate system. Refer to the Technical
Reference Manual for information on this local coordinate system.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-13
Stresses
SIFs and Code Stresses are reported for each node in the model. The code stresses are compared to the Allowable stress at
each node as a percentage. Note that stresses are not computed at nodes on rigid elements for more information see the
figure on the following page.
7-14 Static Output Processor
Stress Summary
The highest stresses at each node are presented for all load cases selected in summary format for quick review,
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-15
Code Compliance Report
Stress checks for multiple load cases may be included in a single report using the Code Compliance report, available from
the Static Output processor. For this report, the user selects all load cases of interest, and then highlights Code
Compliance under the Report Options. The resultant report shows the stress calculation for all load cases together, on an
element-by-element basis.
7-16 Static Output Processor
Cumulative Usage Report
The Cumulative Usage report is available only when there are one or more fatigue-type load cases present. Once the
Cumulative Usage report is generated, regardless of the number of load cases selected, showing the combined impact of
simulating selected fatigue loadings.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-17
General Computed Results
Load Case Report
The Load Case Report documents the Basic Names (as built in the Load Case Builder), User-Defined Names,
Combination Methods, Load Cycles, and Load Case Options (Output Status, Output Type, Snubber Status, Hanger Stiffness
Status, and Friction Multiplier) of the static load cases. This report is available from the General Computed Results
column of the Static Output Processor.
7-18 Static Output Processor
Hanger Table with Text
This report provides basic information regarding spring hangers either selected by CAESAR II or the user. Information
provided includes the node number, the number of springs required, the hanger table figure number and size, the hot load,
the theoretical installed load, which is what the hangers are set to in the field prior to pulling the pins, the actual installed
load, which is the load on the hanger when the pipe is empty, the spring rate from the catalog, and the horizontal movement
determined from the CAESAR II output. If constant effort supports are selected then the hanger constant effort force is
reported.
Input Echo
The input echo allows the user to select which portions of the input are to be reported in this output format. All basic
element data (geometry), operating conditions, material properties, and boundary conditions are available in this report
option.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-19
Miscellaneous Data
This report displays the Allowable Stress Summary, Bend Data, Nozzle Flexibility Data, Pipe Report, Thermal Expansion
Coefficients used during analysis, Bill of Materials, the Center of Gravity Report, and Wind and Wave input data.
Warnings
All warnings reported during the error checking process are summarized here.
7-20 Static Output Processor
Output Viewer Wizard
After clicking More >> in the lower right corner of the Static Output Processor, an Output Viewer Wizard dialog
displays to the right. The Output Viewer Wizard can be hidden again by clicking Less <<.
Output Viewer Wizard
The Output Viewer Wizard consists of the Report Order window and auxiliary operational buttons. It enables users to
add any report to the view by clicking Add or delete any report not needed by clicking Remove. Users can arrange the order
of the reports by moving them up or down by clicking Move Up or Move Down on the selected report.
Users may send a report to screen or to printer by checking the appropriate radio button in the upper section of the Output
Viewer Wizard dialog. After clicking Finish, the reports are automatically sent to the specified device in the order
displayed in the Report Order window.
If the user places a corresponding check mark in the Generate Table of Contents (TOC) box a (TOC) is appended to the
printed reports .
Note The TOC will display if Send to Screen was selected, regardless if the TOC check box was enabled or disabled.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-21
Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes
The tabular results brought to the screen may be sent directly to a printer. Different combinations of load cases and report
types may be chosen, each followed by the File-Print command, to create a single report.
Button and Name Description
Prints hard copies of the reports. To print hard copies of multiple reports as a single report, use the Output
Viewer Wizard to populate the report order tree, click Send To Printer and then Finish.
File Save
Sends reports to a file (in ASCII format) rather than the printer. After initial selection, users are a file dialog
appears where users must select the file.name. To change the file name for a new report, select FILE-SAVE AS.
Typically, the set of output reports that a user might wish to print out for documentation purposes might be:
Load Case Report Purpose
SUSTAINED STRESS Code compliance
EXPANSION STRESS Code compliance
OPERATING DISPLACEMENTS Interference checks
OPERATING RESTRAINTS Hot restraint, equipment loads
SUSTAINED RESTRAINTS As-installed restraint, equipment loads
Note Load cases used for hanger sizing produce no reports. Also, the hanger table and hanger table with text reports are
printed only once even though more than one active load case may be highlighted.
To save multiple reports as a single report to a file, use the Output Viewer Wizard.
Save As Dialog
7-22 Static Output Processor
Note: The signs in all CAESAR II Reports show the forces and moments that act “ON” something. The Element
Force/Moment report shows the forces and moments that act “ON” each element to keep that element in static equilibrium.
The Restraint Force/Moment report shows the forces and moments that act “ON” each restraint.
Note: When sending reports to MSWord, if a file named "header.doc" exists in the \caesar\system directory, its contents
will be read and used as the page header when CAESAR II exports the report to MSWord. The intent is that "header.doc"
contains the company logo, address details and formatting for tables. The interface uses a style names "report table" which
users can setup in "header.doc".
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-23
3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor
The Static Output Processor Graphics Engine is used to review analytic results in graphic mode. The Static Output 3D
Graphics Engine shares the same general capabilities as the Piping Input Processor's Graphics. It uses the same HOOPS
Standard Toolbar that enables users to zoom, orbit, pan, and several other options among them the ability to switch views
and modes.
Additional capabilities of the Static Output Graphics Engine can be found on the Output Toolbar and include the display
of displaced shapes, highlighting and zooming to maximum displacements, restraint loads, and stresses of the model. One of
the major advantages of the 3D Graphics over the original CAESAR II graphics is the graphical representation of stresses
by value and by percent using color.
Output Toolbar
A variety of CAESAR II Output Plot functions are accessed from the Show menu that is broken into sub-menus
Displacements, Restraints, Forces/Moments, and Stresses. Alternatively, these functions can be activated by clicking the
appropriate buttons
The CAESAR II Output Graphics Engine is extensive. Users are encouraged to experiment with all the output options,
noting which ones could be most appropriate for a given application. Some of the output options are discussed below.
Button and Name Description
Deflected Shape Overlays the scaled geometry with a different color into the current plot for the selected load case. Clicking the
arrow to the right of this button displays an additional menu with the selected feature checked and the Adjust
Deflection Scale option.
Adjust Deflection Scale Specifies the deflected shape plot scale factor.
Note: Entering a value that is too small may prevent visual detection of the deflected shape. Entering a scale
value that is too large may graphically "break" or discontinue the model. This option can also be accessed from
the Show menu, by clicking DISPLACEMENT/DEFLECTED SHAPE.
Maximum Displacements Places the actual magnitude of the X, Y, or Z displacements on the currently displayed model.
Note: The element containing the displaced node is highlighted, and the camera viewpoint is repositioned
(preserving the optical distance to the model) to bring the displaced node to the center of the view. It starts with
highest value for the given direction, after pressing Enter, the remaining values are placed in a similar manner
until all values are exhausted or become zero. Clicking the Maximum Displacements button again clears the
view of the displayed values and highlighting. This option can also be accessed from the Show menu, by clicking
DISPLACEMENT/MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT/(X, Y, OR Z). If none of the highlighted operations was previously used, the
default report shown will be the Stresses Report for currently selected load case.
7-24 Static Output Processor
Button and Name Description
Show Event Viewer Grid
Shows/hides the Event Viewer on the plot. One of the advantages of the Event Viewer Grid dialog is its ability
to navigate among the elements, navigate to various reports within a load case, and even viewing the reports for
other load cases. This is done in the Report Selection window on the left in the dialog. This window has a tree
structure similar in operation to Windows Explorer™. Clicking the + sign for a particular load case will expand
the tree of its reports. Selecting the report displays the data in the grid view to the right. Selecting a node or an
element in the grid view (when Select Elements is enabled) highlights the corresponding element on the graphics
view, and zooms to the selected element if the corresponding Zoom to Selection is enabled. Similarly, clicking an
element on the graphics view highlights the corresponding data row in the report view of the Event Viewer
dialog. Thus, this is a bidirectional connection.
Changing the load case within the Event Viewer Grid dialog will update the graphics view (if applicable) and the
Load Case Selection pull-down box on the toolbar.
Select Elements
Allows the user to select one element at a time in the graphics. The Event Viewer dialog is also used in
conjunction with the Select Elements button. When Select Elements is active, or when users double click on an
element, CAESAR II highlights it and displays it in the Event Viewer dialog with the corresponding element
highlighted in the report grid.
Output Restraints Symbols
Adds restraints symbols to the plot. Restraints are plotted as arrowheads with the direction of the arrow indicating
the direction of the force exerted by the restraint on the piping geometry
Maximum Restraint Loads
Places the actual magnitude of the calculated restraint loads (corresponding to the particular button) for a selected
load case on the currently displayed geometry. The Maximum Restraints Loads button displays the load
magnitude value next to the node, the element containing the node is highlighted and is brought to the center of
the graphics view. The Zoom to Selection and Show Event Viewer Grid options are still available at the
discretion of the user. After pressing Enter any remaining values will be placed in a similar manner.
Maximum Code Stress
Displays the stress magnitudes in descending order one at a time.
Note: The Maximum Code Stress buttons’ operation is similar to the Maximum Displacements button, the
stress value is displayed next to the node and the element containing the node is highlighted and is moved to the
center of the view.
The Zoom to Selection and Show Event Viewer Grid options are still available at the discretion of the user.
After pressing Enter the 2nd, the 3rd, etc. highest value is placed in the similar manner with corresponding
element highlighting.
In addition to the "dry" numbers that could be found in a corresponding report, this option gives the user graphical
representation and distribution of large calculated code stresses throughout the system.
Overstress
Displays the overstressed point distribution for a particular load case. Nodes with a calculated "code stress to
allowable stress ratio" of 100% or more display in red; the remaining nodes/elements display in the color selected
for the lowest percent ratio. This feature is useful to quickly observe the overstressed areas in the model.
Note: Overstressed conditions are only detected for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i.e., where
there are allowable stresses available).
Note: Overstressed nodes will display in red in the Event Viewer Grid (if it is enabled).
Note: The model is still fully functional, it can be zoomed, panned, or rotated at the discretion of the user.
Button and Name Description
Code Stress Colors by
Value
Displays the piping system in a range of colors, where the color corresponds to a certain boundary value of the code
stress. This feature is used to quickly see the distribution of the code stresses in the model for a particular load case.
In addition to the model color highlight in the graphics view, the corresponding color key legend window is displayed in the
top left corner of the graphics view. The legend window can be resized and moved.
The colors and corresponding stress levels can be set in the CONFIGURATION/SETUP module, on the Plot Colors tab.
Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-25
Button and Name Description
Code Stress Colors by Percent
Displays the piping system in a range of colors, where the color corresponds to a certain percent ratio of code
stress to allowable stress. This option is only valid for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i.e.,
where there are allowable stresses available).
Code Stress Colors by Percent is similar to the Stress Colors by Value option and is generally used to quickly see the
distribution of the code stress to allowable ratios in the model for a particular load case. The legend window with the
corresponding color key also displays in the left upper corner of the graphics view. The legend window can be resized and
moved.
Clicking the arrow to the right of this button displays an additional menu with two options: Display and Adjust Settings .
Selecting the Display option displays the color distribution. Selecting the Adjust Settings option displays the Stress
Settings dialog where desired values and corresponding colors could be set or adjusted. These settings are related to the
particular job they are set for and are saved in the corresponding job_name.XML file in the current job data directory (see
3D/HOOPS Graphics in Piping Input Processor, 3D Graphics Configuration chapter for more information on the *.XML
file).
Code Stress Colors by Percent
7-26 Static Output Processor
Animation of Static Results Notes
CAESAR II allows the user to view the piping system as it moves to the displaced position of the basic load cases. To animate
the static results, execute the View-Animate command. The following screen appears:
Animated Graphic Screen
The Animated Plot menu has several plot selections. Motion and Volume Motion are the commands to activate the
animation. Motion uses centerline representation while Volume Motion produces 3D graphics. The desired load case may
be selected from the drop down list. Animations may be sped up or slowed down or stopped using the toolbars.
CAESAR II also enables users to save animated plots as HTML files by clicking FILE/SAVE AS ANIMATION. After saving these
files users can view them on any machine outside of CAESAR II.
Note The corresponding animation graphics file <job_name>.HSF must be transferred along with the HTML file for
proper display.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis
In This Chapter
Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II ...................................................... 8-2
Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview......................................... 8-5
Input Overview Based on Analysis Category.......................................... 8-7
Harmonic ................................................................................................. 8-9
Earthquake (Spectrum) ............................................................................ 8-12
Relief Loads (Spectrum).......................................................................... 8-17
DLF/Spectrum Generator - The Spectrum Wizard.................................. 8-18
Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) .................................................... 8-32
Time History............................................................................................ 8-33
Error Handling and Analyzing the Job .................................................... 8-36

C H A P T E R 8
8-2 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II
The dynamic analysis capabilities found in CAESAR II include natural frequency calculations, harmonic analysis, response
spectrum analysis, and time history analysis. Included with the CAESAR II Dynamic modules are processors, which can
generate several types of dynamic loads. An example is the processor, which converts loading with respect to time into a
force response spectrum. This ability to define different types of dynamic effects improves the accuracy of dynamic
modeling and makes these methods suitable for a wider range of dynamic problems.
Natural frequency information can indicate the tendency of a piping system to respond to dynamic loads. A system’s modal
natural frequencies typically should not be too close to equipment operating frequencies and, as a general rule, higher
natural frequencies usually cause less trouble than low natural frequencies. CAESAR II provides both calculation of a
system’s modal natural frequencies, as well as animated plots of the associated mode shapes.
CAESAR II also provides for the analysis of dynamic loads that are cyclic in nature. Applications of harmonic analyses
include fluid pulsation in reciprocating pump lines or vibration due to rotating equipment. These loads are modeled as
concentrated forces or displacements at one or more points in the system. To provide the proper phase relationship between
multiple loads a phase angle can also be associated with these forces or displacements. Any number of forcing frequencies
may be analyzed allowing easy analysis of equipment start-up, and any operating modes. Harmonic responses represent the
maximum dynamic amplitude the piping system undergoes and have the same form as a static analysis - node deflections
and rotations, local forces and moments, restraint loads, and stresses. For example, if the results show an X displacement at
node 45 of 5.8 cm. then the dynamic motion due to the cyclic excitation would be from +5.8 cm. to -5.8 cm. at this point in
the system. The stresses shown are one half of, or one amplitude of, the full cyclic stress range.
The third type of dynamic analysis available in CAESAR II is the response spectrum method. The response spectrum method
allows an impulse type transient event to be characterized by a response vs. frequency spectra. Each mode of vibration of
the piping system is related to one response on the spectrum. These modal responses are summed together to produce the
total system response. The stresses for these analyses, summed with the sustained stresses, should be compared to the
occasional stress allowables defined by the piping code. Spectral analysis can be used in a wide variety of applications.
Ground motion associated with a seismic event is supplied as displacement, velocity, or acceleration response spectra. The
assumption is that all the supports move with the defined ground motion and the piping system “catches up” to the supports;
it is this inertial effect, which loads the system. The shock spectra, which define the ground motion, may vary between the
three global directions and may even change for different groups of supports (independent as opposed to uniform support
motion). Another response spectrum application is based on single point loading rather than a uniform inertial loading.
CAESAR II makes effective use of this technique to analyze a wide variety of impulse type transient loads. Relief valve
loads, water hammer loads, slug flow loads, and rapid valve closure type loads all cause single impulse dynamic loads at
various points in the piping system. The response to these dynamic forces can be confidently and conservatively predicted
using the force spectrum method.
The fourth type of dynamic analysis is time history analysis. This is one of the most accurate methods, in that it uses
numeric integration of the dynamic equation of motion to simulate the system response throughout the load duration.
CAESAR II’s Time History Analysis method can solve any type of dynamic loading, but due to its exact solution, requires
more resources (memory, calculation speed and time) than other methods. Therefore, it may not pay to use this method
when, for example the spectrum method offers sufficient accuracy.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-3
Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis
The dynamic techniques employed by CAESAR II require strict linearity in the piping and structural systems. Dynamic
responses associated with nonlinear effects are not addressed. An example of a nonlinear effect is slapping, such as when a
pipe lifts off the rack at one moment and impacts the rack the next. For the dynamic model the pipe must be either held
down or allowed to move freely. The nonlinear restraints used in the static analysis must be set to be active or inactive for
the dynamic analysis. CAESAR II allows the user to set the nonlinear restraints to any configuration found in the static
results (this is done by specifying the number of the Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status). Most often the
user selects the operating case to set the nonlinear restraint configuration. For example, if a +Y support is active in the
static operating case (normally case 1 or 3), and the operating case is used to set the status of the nonlinear supports for
dynamics, CAESAR II installs a double-acting Y support at that location for the dynamic analysis. The pipe will not move up
or down at that point regardless of the dynamic load or tend to move.
A second nonlinear effect is friction. Friction effects must also be linearized for use in dynamic analysis. By default
CAESAR II excludes the effects of friction from the dynamic analysis. If requested CAESAR II can approximate the friction
resistance to movement in the dynamic model by including spring stiffness normal to the restraint line of action. For a Y
restraint with friction, the friction stiffness would be added in the X and Z directions. The stiffness of these springs is a user-
defined function of the friction has calculated in the static analysis. For a Y restraint with friction, the friction stiffness
would be added in the X and Z directions. The stiffness of these springs is a user-defined function of the friction load
calculated in the static analysis. CAESAR II computes the friction stiffness by multiplying the normal force on the restraint
from the selected static case results, by the friction coefficient, and by the user-defined Stiffness Factor for Friction. For
example, if the normal force on the on the restraint from the static analysis is 350lb., the friction coefficient (mu) is 0.3, and
the user-defined Stiffness Factor for Friction is 50.0, then springs having a stiffness of 350*0.3*50.0=5250 lb./in are
inserted into the dynamic model in the two directions perpendicular to the friction restraint's line of action. Converting
friction damping into a stiffness is usually not mathematically legitimate, but can serve as a good engineering
approximation for dynamic friction in a wide variety of situations.

8-4 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Major Steps in Dynamic Input
Developing dynamic input for CAESAR II comprises four basic steps:
1. Specifying the load(s)
2. Modifying the mass and stiffness model
3. Setting the parameters that control the analysis
4. Starting and error checking the analysis
Except for starting the analysis, these steps may occur in any order. Due to the amount of data, which may be specified, it is
best to establish some sort of pattern in defining the input.
There is no reason to specify dynamic loads if only natural frequencies are to be counted or calculated. Harmonic analysis
requires the input of driving frequencies and forces or displacements to define and locate the sinusoidally varying point
loads. Creating the dynamic loads for spectra or time history analysis requires the most attention by the user. The response
spectra or time history profile must be defined, built, or selected. Force sets must be built for force response spectra and
time history analysis. Response spectra /time history (and force sets) are combined with other data to build the load cases to
be analyzed. Finally, additional load cases may be constructed by combining shock results with static results to check code
compliance on occasional stresses. CAESAR II provides several processors to simplify many of these tasks.
For dynamic analysis, CAESAR II converts each piping element from a continuous beam element between two nodes to a
stiffness between two masses. Additional stiffness is added at the mass (node) points to model anchors, restraints, hangers,
and other supports in the static analysis model. The masses assigned to each node are one half the sum of all element masses
framing into the node. These masses are used as translational inertias only. Rotational moments of inertia are ignored in the
dynamic mass model. (Their inclusion in the analysis would cause a large increase in solution time without a corresponding
improvement in the general accuracy of the analysis.)
In many instances the mass and stiffness established in the static model will be used without modification in the dynamic
analysis. Some situations, however, can be improved by the deletion of mass points or degrees of freedom. Usually this
occurs in analyses where the “unnecessary” masses are far from the area of interest in the model or where the “unnecessary”
degrees of freedom do not act in the direction of interest. Some piping systems have supports that are installed to suppress
vibration and do not effect the static analysis. These shock absorbers or snubbers can be entered (if not entered in statics)
during the dynamic input as additional stiffness.
The major function of the control parameter list is to set the type of analysis to be performed: calculation of natural
frequencies and mode shapes, harmonic analysis, spectral analysis, or time history. General settings for the analysis are also
defined in the control parameter list such as maximum frequency cutoff and mode summation methods. It is here, too, that
the static configuration for nonlinear restraints (if any) is defined, and the friction factor for including friction in the
dynamic run is entered (the default friction factor is 0.0, which implies that no friction stiffness will be used). The advanced
option allows the user to change the parameters governing the eigensolution (which does the modal extraction). These
parameters should only be altered under special circumstances.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-5
Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview
Entering the Dynamic Analysis Input Menu
The dynamic input module allows the user to specify the dynamic loads imposed on the piping system.
To perform a dynamic analysis, the static model must first be created and error checked through the CAESAR II Input
processor. Usually the model is also run through static analysis before the dynamic analysis begins but this is not a
requirement unless nonlinear supports or hanger selections are included in the model. If nonlinear supports are present the
static analysis must be run and the results made available before the dynamic analysis can be performed.
To enter the dynamics input, the proper job name must be current prior to selecting the Analysis-Dynamics file options of
the Main Menu.
Analysis-Dynamics Option
8-6 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Upon entering the dynamic input processor, the following screen appears.
Dynamic Input Processor
The type of analysis is indicated in the drop down list in the upper left portion of the screen (new jobs default to Other).
Input data is organized in pages according to type. Users can access these pages by selecting their title tabs. After data is
entered, the job can be saved, error checked only, or analyzed, using the menu commands or toolbars.
A variety of dynamic analysis options are available and require different types of input. To simplify the input process, the
user should select the analysis from the drop list. Once selected, the input screen changes to reflect the required inputs.
Dynamic Analysis Type Specification
Available commands during dynamic input processing are:
Button Description
File-Save Input Saves the current input data.
File-Check Input
Checks the input data for errors or inconsistencies.
File-Run Analysis
Starts the dynamic analysis.
Edit-Add Entry
Adds a new data line on the current input page (tab page).
Edit-Delete Entry
Deletes the selected data lines on the current input page.
DLF Spectrum Generator
Allows the user to generate a file containing a Dynamic Load Factor vs. Frequency Spectrum from a
Force vs. Time profile.
Tools-Relief Load Synthesis
Provides a utility for estimating loads, flows, and other results for gas or liquid relief valves.
Tools-Spectrum Data Points
Used to enter data points for user-defined spectra.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-7
Input Overview Based on Analysis Category
The multitude of dynamic analysis types available in CAESAR II can be somewhat intimidating at first. Selection of Analysis
Type from the pull down list displays only those tabs for which input is appropriate. Those items are discussed by analysis
type.

Modal
Specifying the Loads
Modal analysis simply extracts natural frequencies and shapes for the system’s modes of vibration. Therefore no loadings
need to be or may be specified.
Lumped Masses
On this page, the user may add or delete mass from the mass model. Extra mass which may have been ignored as
insignificant in the static model (e.g. a flange pair) can be directly entered here. Also weights modeled as downward acting
concentrated forces, must be added here (CAESAR II does not assume that concentrated forces are system weights, i.e.,
forces due to gravity acting on a mass). Masses may also be deleted from the static mass model; this is the same as deleting
degrees-of-freedom. For the most part, mass deletion is a tool used to economize the analysis. If the system response to
some dynamic load is isolated to specific sections of the piping system, other sections of the system may be removed from
the dynamic model by removing their mass. Mass can also be deleted selectively for any of the three global coordinate
directions when deletion of directional degrees-of-freedom is desired.
For example, if a piping system includes a structural frame which supports the weight (the piping rests on the structure and
is connected to the structure only in the Y direction), these two systems (piping and structure) are independent of each other
in the X and Z directions, so the X and Z mass of the structure can be removed without affecting the piping model’s results.
With the X and Z masses removed, the calculations for the piping structural model proceed much faster.

Snubbers
Snubbers
8-8 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Certain supports, called snubbers, only resist dynamic loading, while allowing static displacement, such as that due to
thermal growth. It is on this page that snubbers can be included in the model. Snubbers must have their stiffness explicitly
entered (they do not default to rigid, since snubbers are typically not as stiff as other types of restraints).
Note: Snubbers may also be entered in the input processor rather than in the dynamic processor.
Control Parameters
Control Parameters
These parameters describe how the analysis will be conducted. In general, this page would be used to set the number of
modes of vibration to extract by specifying a maximum number, a cutoff frequency, or both. Details on these entries are
discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.

Advanced Parameters Show Screen
These parameters rarely need to be changed by the user. For more information, see the Technical Reference Manual.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-9
Harmonic
Specifying the Loads
Harmonic Loads - Excitation Frequency
Harmonic load definition is broken down into two parts: 1) definition of the excitation fraudulency or frequencies and 2)
location and magnitude of the force and/or displacement load(s). Three input tabs are available for specifying the loads.
Any number of individual frequencies, or frequency ranges (indicated by a starting, ending, and incremental frequency) may
be specified, one to a line. CAESAR II performs a separate analysis for each frequency requested.
Note The number of anticipated load cycles may be entered for each frequency range. If the number is entered, the load
cases are calculated with a fatigue stress type. Otherwise, the load cases are calculated with an occasional stress type.
Harmonic loads may be specified on the Harmonic Forces or Harmonic Displacements input tabs. These pages allow the
user to enter loads (either force or displacement), direction, phase angle and node(s).
Harmonic Forces
Harmonic Displacements
8-10 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Phasing can be important if more than one force or displacement is included. The phase angle (entered in degrees) relates
the timing of one load to another. For example, if two harmonic loads are acting along the same line but at different nodes,
the loads can be directed towards each other (i.e. in opposite directions), which would produce no net dynamic imbalance
on the system, or the loads could be directed in the same direction (i.e. to the right or to the left together), which would
produce a net dynamic imbalance in the system equal to the sum of the two forces. It is the phase angle, which primarily
determines this relationship. The harmonic load data
1500 X 0 10
1500 X 0 105
produces an “in phase,” or same direction dynamic load in the system (1500 lbf. in the X direction and zero phase at nodes
10 and 105), while
1500 X 0 10
1500 X 180 105
produces an “out of phase,” or opposite direction dynamic load on the system, which will tend to pull the system apart. The
two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and reciprocating pumps.
Rotating equipment may have an eccentricity, a speed, and a mass. These items must be converted into a harmonic load that
acts on the rotor at the theoretical mass centerline. The magnitude of the harmonic load is computed from:
Fn = (mass)(speed)2(eccentricity),
where (speed) is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second. This load is applied along both axes perpendicular to
the shaft axis and at a 90º phase shift.
In the case of a reciprocating pump, the pump introduces a pressure wave into the line at some regular interval that is related
to the valving inside the pump and the pump speed. This pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in
the fluid. These pressure waves will cause loads at each bend in the piping system. The load on each subsequent elbow in
the system starting from the first elbow will be phase shifted by an amount that is a function of the distance between the
elbows, from the first elbow to the current elbow. It is the amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs that produces
the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. The phase shift, in degrees from the first elbow, is calculated from
phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360º
where frequency is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump, and length is the distance from the first elbow to the
current elbow under study. The magnitude of the pressure load at each elbow is
Harmonic Force = 0.5 (Pressure variation) (Area)
Note All specified loads are considered to act together (with phasing considerations) at each applied frequency.
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model
Lumped masses and snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-11
Control Parameters
Harmonic Control Parameters
These parameters describe how the analysis will be conducted. Undamped harmonic analysis may be done by setting
damping to 0.0. Details of these fields are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.

8-12 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Earthquake (Spectrum)
Specifying the Loads
Earthquake loads are defined by defining one or more response spectra and applying them in a specified direction over part
or all of the piping system.
Spectrum Definitions
Response spectrum table values can be entered directly or built and stored as a file for use by CAESAR II. Data stored in a
file can be referenced by any job run on the machine. In either case, for a response table to be used by CAESAR II it must
first be defined in the Spectrum Definitions page.
There are two parts to the shock definition - 1) the statement of the name and type of data and 2) the table of actual
spectrum data points. The Spectrum Wizard also serves this purpose -providing the spectrum definitions and data points.
If the spectrum data is to be read from a file, the second part of the shock definition is not necessary. Spectrum Definition
describes the type of data in the spectrum (period or frequency vs. Force Multiplier/DLF, Acceleration, Velocity, or
Displacement) as well as the interpolation method for each axis. In order to define a spectrum, the user should add a blank
line.
Note To indicate that the spectrum is to be read from a file the symbol “#” should immediately precede the spectrum
name. (The name of the file is the name of the spectrum, without the “#” symbol, and no extension is allowed.) Subsequent
references to that spectrum do not use the “#” symbol.
Note The Spectrum Wizard automates common shock definitions, for more information refer to the DLF/Spectrum
Generator - The Spectrum Wizard section later in this chapter.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-13
If not read in from a file, the data points for a user-entered spectrum may be entered by using the Tools - Spectrum Data
Points command, selecting the spectrum name, and entering the data.
Likewise, clicking the Read From File button will read in data from any text file set up with two entries per range.
Data Points
CAESAR II also has several shock spectra built in. These spectra may be used as part of a shock load case without further
input.
ELCENTRO - Based on the May 18, 1940 El Centro California earthquake N-S component, and applies to elastic systems
with 5-10% damping. Values are taken from Biggs - Introduction to Structural Dynamics.
1.60H.5 - U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Regulatory Guide 1.60 Rev. 1, Dec. 1973 Horizontal Design Response Spectra
for 0.5% critically damped systems.
1.60H2 - Other AEC horizontal spectra for 2, 5, 7 and 10% critically damped systems.
1.60H5
1.60H7
1.60H10
1.60V.5 - Other AEC vertical spectra for 0.5, 2, 5, 7 and 10% critically damped systems.
1.60V2
1.60V5
1.60V7
1.60V10
UBCSOIL1 - Spectra from Uniform Building Code, 1991, soil type 1
UBCSOIL2 - Spectra from Uniform Building Code, 1991 soil type 2
8-14 Dynamic Input and Analysis
UBCSOIL3 - Spectra from Uniform Building Code, 1991 soil type 3
Note: Use of the Reg. Guide 1.60 or UBC spectra requires the input of the ZPA (zero period acceleration) in the Control
Parameters. This is the maximum ground acceleration at the site and is used to scale the spectrum curves. The default ZPA
is 0.5g.
Spectrum Load Cases
Spectrum Load Cases
Load cases consist of simultaneously applied spectra. Each spectrum in the shock case is assigned a direction and factor. For
earthquakes, the “direction” input defines the orientation of the uniform inertial loading (commonly earthquakes have 3
direction components: X, Y, and Z). The “factor” is used to modify the magnitude of the shock. For example, the seismic
evaluation of a piping system might include two Spectrum/Time History Load Cases: 1) 1.0 (100%) times of the El Centro
spectrum in the X direction and 0.67 (67%) times of the El Centro spectrum in the Y direction and 2) 1.0 in Z and 0.67 in Y.
CAESAR II also supports options for independent support motion earthquakes. Here, parts of the system are exposed to
different shocks. An example is a piping system supported both from ground and building supports. Because the building
will filter the earthquake, supports attached to the building will not be exposed to the same shock as the supports attached to
the ground. In this case two different shock inputs are required, one for the ground supports, and one for the building
supports. To specify an independent support motion shock the node range that defines a particular group of supports must
be given. Additionally, the maximum displacement (seismic anchor movements) of the support attachment point must be
specified.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-15
The example below shows first a typical uniform support earthquake specification, and second a typical independent
support motion earthquake:
* UNIFORM SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT
ELCENTRO 1 X
ELCENTRO 1 Z
ELCENTRO .667 Y
* INDEPENDENT SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT
HGROUND 1 X 1 100 1 0.25
HGROUND 1 Z 1 100 1 0.25
VGROUND 1 Y 1 100 1 0.167
HBUILDING 1 X 101 300 1 0.36
HBUILDING 1 Z 101 300 1 0.36
VBUILDING 1 Y 101 300 1 0.24
The uniform support motion earthquake above contains only components of the El Centro earthquake acting uniformly
through all of the supports. There is a 33% reduction in the earthquake’s magnitude in the Y direction.
The independent support motion earthquake above has two different support groups: the 1-100 group, and the 101-300
group. The 1-100 group is exposed to a ground spectrum. The 101-300 group is exposed to a building spectrum. Different
horizontal and vertical components were given for both the ground and the building spectra. The last values specified are
the seismic support movements.
Stress types may be assigned to the spectrum load cases by selecting from the drop list. If the Fatigue stress type is selected,
the user should also enter the number of anticipated load cycles.

Static/Dynamic Combinations
Static/Dynamic Combinations
Each shock case produces an output report listing displacements, forces, moments, and stresses. For stresses, however, most
piping codes combine the occasional dynamic stresses with the sustained static stresses. It is the sustained plus occasional
stress sum that is compared to the occasional allowable stress. This occasional stress combination is provided through the
Static/Dynamic Combinations page. Each combination references the static load case number and the dynamic load case
number to be combined. The static load case number identifies one of the static load cases (usually the sustained case) in
the static output.
8-16 Dynamic Input and Analysis
In most cases this is static load case 4 if hanger sizing is included, or load case 2 if it is not. The numbers used to reference
the dynamic cases are set by the order of the dynamic load case input. Factors are specified with the static and dynamic case
numbers to increase or decrease the summed values. Any static/dynamic combination specified will produce an additional
dynamic output report. There can be any number of static or dynamic loads summed together in a single load case. Each
case to be added should be placed on a separate line. Both static only and dynamic only cases can be manipulated. There is
also independent control of the combination method. SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) methods or ABS
methods can be used. The default is the ABS method. The input to sum 100% (1.0 times) of static case 2 with 100% (1.0
times) dynamic case 1 appears as follows:
S2 1.0
D1 1.0

Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model
Lumped Masses and Snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis.

Control Parameters
These parameters describe how the analysis is to be conducted. Particular attention should be paid to the modal summation
methodology Details are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.

Advanced Parameters
These rarely need to be changed by the user. For more information see the Technical Reference Manual.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-17
Relief Loads (Spectrum)
Specifying the Loads
This method is set up to solve a relief valve loading through Force Spectrum Methodology. In order to analyze a piping
system for a relief valve loading, it is first necessary to estimate the force-time profile for the loading. This must then be
converted to a Force Multiplier (Dynamic Load Factor) spectrum. The applied force then must be applied in conjunction
with this spectrum.

Relief Load Synthesis
Relief Load Synthesis
If the user does not know the characteristics of the relief valve load, the Tools-Relief Load Synthesis Command provides a
calculation scratch pad based upon a model of a relief valve venting steam or liquid to atmosphere. This utility can be used
to estimate relief valve thrust loads, exit velocities, and pressures which can in turn be used to estimate the force vs. time
profile of the applied load. Once all data is entered, clicking the Calculate Results button performs the calculations. For
more information, see the Technical Reference Manual.
Means of estimating the Force-Time profile for a relief load are shown in the Applications Guide.

8-18 Dynamic Input and Analysis
DLF/Spectrum Generator - The Spectrum Wizard
Several common shock definitions are based on just a few parameters. Supplying these parameters to the DLF/Spectrum
Generator or Spectrum Wizard will produce these shock definitions. Three sources for seismic spectra are used - the
Uniform Building Code, ASCE 7 and the International Building Code - to build period versus g load spectra. Two types of
force response spectra (dynamic load factor versus frequency) are also built here - the safety relief valve response spectrum
found in B31.1 and a general force response spectrum derived from the user's own time history.
Clicking the icon in the dynamic analysis input processor opens the Spectrum Wizard. This icon is identified in the
following illustration:
The following window appears:
Each of the five spectra may be selected using the radio buttons on the left side of the window. A default spectrum name is
provided but any valid file name, without blanks, may be entered in its place. Once the input parameters are entered, the
spectrum is built for the analysis by clicking the Generate Spectrum button. To exit this processor, click Done.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-19
After clicking Generate Spectrum, the processor will display the spectrum data and await a user response - Save to File,
OK or Cancel. A completed shock spectrum is shown below:
Save to File
Saves the spectrum as a file with the same spectrum name in the current folder. Two files will be saved for the seismic
spectra, one horizontal and one vertical (distinguished by the suffix H or V at the end of the name). Be sure to specify a
unique spectrum name, as this processor will overwrite any existing files of the same name. It is not necessary to save the
spectrum data to a file to use the data in the current job. The OK button will do that. Use the Save to File button only if
you wish to reuse the data in other CAESAR II Dynamic analyses.
OK
By clicking OK, the processor will load the appropriate data in the Spectrum Definitions tab in the Dynamic Input and
move the data to the dynamic input. Once this processor is closed, the dynamic input will be updated; the spectrum
definitions will be listed and generated spectra can be reviewed by clicking the Enter/Edit Spectra Data button at the top
of the dynamic analysis input window.
Cancel
Clicking Cancel on this display will quit the display without loading the data into the dynamic input.
The specifics for each spectrum generator are discussed on the following page.

8-20 Dynamic Input and Analysis
UBC
Selecting this option creates earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the 1997 Uniform Building Code.
Spectrum Name
This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that will be generated here. A suffix of H and V will be added
to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum, respectively. Once properly entered, these names will be listed in the
Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases. These names would also be used as data file
names if so requested. Do not include a space in the spectrum name.
The horizontal design response spectrum will be based on the curve shown in UBC Figure 16-3 (below). Ts=Cv/2.5Ca &
T0=Ts/5
The vertical spectrum will be set to 50% of I·Ca across the entire period range.
Importance Factor
This is the Seismic Importance Factor, I, as defined in Table 16-K. The calculated spectrum accelerations will be multiplied
by this value to generate the shock spectra. Values range from 1.0 to 1.25 based on the function of the structure.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-21
Seismic Coefficient Ca
Based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor, this is the "Zero Period Acceleration" for the site as defined in Table 16-
Q. Table values range from 0.06 to 0.66.
Seismic Coefficient Cv
Based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor, this parameter sets the ground acceleration at higher periods (lower
frequencies) for the site as defined in Table 16-R. Table values range from 0.06 to 1.92.

ASCE7
Selecting this option creates earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the ASCE 7-02 Standard.
8-22 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Spectrum Name
This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that will be generated here. A suffix of H and V will be added
to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum, respectively. Once properly entered, these names will be listed in the
Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases. These names would also be used as data file
names if so requested. Do not include a space in the spectrum name.
The horizontal design response spectrum will be based on the curve shown in ASCE 7-02 Figure 9.4.1.2.6 (below).
Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5. Above a period of 4 seconds, the horizontal spectrum acceleration changes.

The vertical spectrum will be set to 20% of SDS across the entire period range. Neither I nor R affects the vertical
spectrum.
Importance Factor
This is the Occupancy Importance Factor, I, as defined in Table 9.1.4. The calculated horizontal spectrum accelerations will
be multiplied by this value to generate the shock spectra. Values range from 1.0 to 1.5 based on the function of the structure
Site Coefficient Fa
Listed in Table 9.4.1.2.4a, Fa is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped short period maximum considered
earthquake acceleration (SS). Table values range from 0.8 to 2.5. This value is used with the mapped short period
acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions.
Site Coefficient Fv
Listed in Table 9.4.1.2.4b, Fv is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped 1-second period maximum considered
earthquake acceleration (S1). Table values range from 0.8 to 3.5. This value is used with the mapped 1-second period
acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions.
Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS)
This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system
location for a structure having a period of 0.2 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over
50 years is 2%. Short period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 9.4.1.2.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-23
Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)
This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system
location for a structure having a period of 1 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over 50
years is 2%. One-second period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 9.4.1.2.
Response Modification R
This is the Response Modification Coefficient, R, as defined in Table 9.5.2.2. The calculated horizontal spectrum
accelerations will be divided by this value to generate the shock spectra in accordance with Equation 9.5.6.5-3. This term
reflects system ductility. Values range from 3.0 to 8.0 for most plant structures and 3.5 for piping is not atypical.

IBC
Selecting this option creates earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the International Building Code 2000
8-24 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Spectrum Name
This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that will be generated here. A suffix of H and V will be added
to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum, respectively. Once properly entered, these names will be listed in the
Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases. These names would also be used as data file
names if so requested. Do not include a space in the spectrum name.
The horizontal design response spectrum will be based on the curve shown in IBC 2000 Fig. 1615.1.4 (below).
Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5
The vertical spectrum will be set to 20% of SDS (implied in 1617.1.2) across the entire period range.
Importance Factor
This is the Occupancy Importance Factor, IE, as defined in Section 1616.2 and shown in Table 1604.5. The calculated
spectrum accelerations will be multiplied by this value to generate the shock spectra. Values range from 1.0 to 1.5 based on
the function of the structure.
Site Coefficient Fa
Listed in Table 16.15.1.2(1), Fa is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped short period maximum considered
earthquake acceleration (SS). Table values range from 0.8 to 2.5. This value is used with the mapped short period
acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions.
Site Coefficient Fv
Listed in Table 1615.1.2(2), Fv is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped 1-second period maximum considered
earthquake acceleration (S1). Table values range from 0.8 to 3.5. This value is used with the mapped 1-second period
acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions.
Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS)
This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system
location for a structure having a period of 0.2 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over
50 years is 2%. Short period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 1615.1.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-25
Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)
This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system
location for a structure having a period of 1 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over 50
years is 2%. One-second period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 1615.1.
Response Modification R
This is the Response Modification Coefficient, R, as defined in Table 9.5.2.2. The calculated horizontal spectrum
accelerations will be divided by this value to generate the shock spectra in accordance with Equation 9.5.6.5-3. This term
reflects system ductility. Values range from 3.0 to 8.0 for most plant structures and 3.5 for piping is not atypical.

B31.1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response Spectrum
Selecting this option creates a normalized force response (Dynamic Load Factor) spectrum for loads from a safety valve
discharge into an open system in accordance with the non-mandatory rules of B31.1 Appendix II - Rules for the Design of
Safety Valve Installations.
8-26 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Spectrum Name
This is the name for the force response spectrum that will be generated here. Once properly entered, this name will be listed
in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases. This name would also be used as the data
file name if so requested. Do not include a space in the spectrum name.
The spectrum is based on the curve shown in B31.1 Appendix II, refer to Fig. II-3-2 (below).
Opening Time (milliseconds)
Enter the opening time of the relief valve.

User Defined Time History Waveform
Selecting this option creates a normalized force response (Dynamic Load Factor) spectrum based on a user-entered load vs.
time history.
Spectrum Name
This is the name given to the Force Response Spectrum created from the time history load defined here. Once properly
entered, this name will be listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used with Force Sets to build Spectrum Load
Cases. This name would also be used as the data file name if so requested. Do not include a space in the spectrum name.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-27
Max. Table Frequency
Enter the maximum frequency desired for the force response spectrum about to be generated. This upper limit should be
beyond the peak of the dynamic load factors calculated here. Ideally, the maximum table frequency will show a constant
dynamic load factor of 1.0
Number of Points
Enter the number of frequency/dynamic load factor pairs to be generated for your data. A value of twenty is typical.
Enter Pulse Data
Clicking this button displays a table in which the time history of the event is defined. In the following example a
"trapezoid" event is defined - at time 0 there is no load, this load ramps up to full load of 1.0 (the load is normalized here) in
80 milliseconds; the load remains constant for the next 920 msec (at the time 1000 msec) and then ramps down to zero over
250 msec.
8-28 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Generate Spectrum
Clicking this button will convert the time history into its equivalent force response spectrum in terms of Dynamic Load
Factor versus frequency (below). The buttons on this window perform the same tasks as those defined at the start of this
section.
Spectrum Definitions
Spectrum Definitions
Response spectrum table values can be entered directly or built and stored as a file for use by CAESAR II such as those
generated through the DLF Spectrum Generator. Data stored in a file can be referenced by any job run on the machine.
The Spectrum Wizard also serves this purpose -providing the spectrum definitions and data points. There are two parts to
the shock definition - 1) the statement of the name and type of data and 2) the table of actual spectrum data points. If the
spectrum data is to be read from a file, the second part of the shock definition is not necessary, instead, the symbol # should
precede the spectrum name to indicate that the data comes from a file on the hard disk. The name of the hard disk file is the
name of the shock spectrum without the symbol and without an extension; it must be located in the same directory as the
piping job.
Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-29
Note The Spectrum Wizard automates common shock definitions, for more information refer to the DLF/Spectrum
Generator - The Spectrum Wizard later in this chapter.
When using a file created by the DLF Spectrum Generator, the user must tell CAESAR II the type of data which resides in the
file. (The actual file only contains a table of data points.) This will always be Frequency vs. Force-Multiplier data, with
linear interpolation) so a typical definition might look like
#TESTFILE FREQ FORCE LIN LIN
This line tells CAESAR II that there is a file containing spectrum table points on the hard disk by the name of TESTFILE,
the table is comprised of frequency versus force multiplier data, and is to be interpolated linearly.
Note The data in this file may alternatively be read in directly from the Spectrum Data Points dialog box. In this case
the "#" should be omitted from the spectrum declaration.
Force Sets
Force Sets
Force spectrum analyses, such as a relief valve loading, differ from earthquake analyses in that there is no implicit definition
of the load distribution. For example, for earthquakes, the loading is uniform over the entire structure and proportional to
the pipe’s mass. With relief valves (and other point loadings) the load is not uniformly distributed and is not proportional to
the mass. A water hammer load, for example, is proportional to the speed of sound and the initial velocity of the fluid. Its
point of application is at subsequent elbow-elbow pairs. Force spectrum analyses require more information than the more
common earthquake simulations. This information is the load magnitude, direction, and location. Forces are grouped into
like-numbered force sets when these forces occur together, or need to be manipulated in the analysis together. Typical force
set input might appear as
-3400 Y 35 1
-1250 Y 35 2
where the -3400 and the -1250 are clearly the loads, Y is the direction, 35 is the node number, and the 1 and 2 are the
respective load cases. This might indicate two different loading levels of one particular load.
For a skewed load, the force spectrum input might appear as shown below:
-2134 Y 104 1
-2134 X 104 1
This demonstrates multiple components in a single pulse spectrum set. (In the case above the pulse spectrum set number is
1). These forces obviously belong in the same force set, since different components of a skewed load always occur together.
8-30 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Spectrum/Load Cases
Spectrum Load Cases
Spectrum Load Cases for force spectrum analyses are set up somewhat differently than Spectrum Load Cases for earthquake
analyses. The Spectrum Load Cases for force spectrum runs must link a Force Multiplier spectrum to a force set.
The load case definition consists of one or more lines on which a spectrum, scale factor (usually 1.0), direction, and force
set number is given.
TESTFILE 1.0 Y 1
Note The direction specified on this line does not need to be the direction of the load (which is specified in the force set).
This direction is used for labeling and designation of “independent” vs. “dependent” loadings.
More complex nuances of force spectrum load cases are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. The complexity
increases as the number of components in the load case goes beyond 1, and as the time history phenomena being modeled
deviates from true impulse type loading.

Static/Dynamic Combinations
This is discussed under Earthquake.

Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model
Lumped masses and snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-31
Control Parameters
Control Parameters
These parameters describe how the analysis is to be conducted. Particular attention should be paid to the modal summation
methodology. Details are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.

Advanced
These rarely need to be changed by the user. For more information, see the Technical Reference Manual.

8-32 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum)
Specifying the Load
This method of solving water hammer or slug problems is the force spectrum method as used for relief valve loadings,
except the relief load synthesizer is not necessary. The user estimates a Force-Time profile, then turns it into a Force
Multiplier spectrum, which is then linked to Force sets in the load cases. Means of estimating the Force-Time profile are
shown in the Applications Guide; subsequent steps proceed as described for Relief Loads.

Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generation
This is discussed under Relief Loads.

Spectrum Definitions
This is done in the same way as described under Relief Loads.

Force Sets
These are set up in the same way as described under Relief Loads.

Spectrum Load Cases
Development of the load cases is identical to that discussed under Relief Loads.

Static/Dynamic Combinations
Static/Dynamic combinations are set up as discussed under Earthquake.

Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model
Lumped masses and snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-33
Time History
Time history analysis is used to solve the dynamic equation of motion for the extracted nodes of vibration, the results of
which are then summed to find the system results.

Specifying The Load
Loadings are specified in terms of Force-Time profiles and force sets. The Force-Time profile is used to define the load
timing; the force set is used to define the load direction and location. Either the profile or the force set can be used to define
the magnitude.

Time History Profile Definitions

Profile Definitions
Time history profiles are defined in a way similar to the definition of response spectra -- the profile must be given a name,
data definitions (which must be Time vs. Force), and interpolation methods. As for response spectra, the data must also be
defined-either directly or by reading in from a file (in which case the file name must be preceded by the “#” symbol). The
profile data may either be either be entered with actual forces, or normalized to 1.0 (depending on how the force sets are
defined).
One force-time profile should be defined for each load which hits the piping system (i.e., each independent point load). The
loading case consists of one or more force profiles which may create a staggered loading on the system.

8-34 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Force Sets
Force Sets
Force sets are defined as described for Relief Loads. There should be one (or more) force set for each load profile defined.
Note If the force-time profiles were normalized to 1.0, the maximum magnitude of the loads should be entered here. If
the profiles were entered using their actual values, the force set values should be entered as 1.0.
Time History Load Cases
Time history load cases consist of the multiple linkages of force-time profiles to force sets, as described to Relief Loads.
Only a single load case may be defined for Time History analyses.
Note For Time History analysis, the direction entry is used only for labeling, rather than as an analytic input value.
Static/Dynamic Combinations
This is discussed under Earthquake.

Modifying Mass and Stiffness Models
Lumped masses and snubbers are modified as described for Modal Analysis.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-35
Control Parameters
Control Parameters
These parameters define how the analyses are to be conducted. Details are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.

Advanced
These rarely need to be changed by the user. For more information see the Technical Reference Manual.

8-36 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Error Handling and Analyzing the Job
Button Description
Check Input
Reviews the entries on each page and notifies the user of any errors which must be fixed.
Run Analysis
Performs the error check, and then if no errors are found, performs the analysis. In this case, the next stop is normally the
output review.
Performing the Analysis
Each of the four dynamic analysis methods - modes, harmonic, spectrum, and Time History - has their own procedure for
producing results. All of these analyses, however, start in the same manner. Once the dynamic input is saved and checked,
CAESAR II follows an execution path similar to that found in Statics. The account number is requested if accounting is
activated, the ESL is accessed (limited run ESLs are decremented), the element and system stiffness matrices are assembled,
and load vectors are created where appropriate. For Dynamics, the system mass matrix is also generated. From this point the
processing progresses according to the type of analysis selected. Each of the four types of dynamic analyses are discussed
below.

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-37
Modes
Once dynamic initialization and the basic equation assembly is completed, CAESAR II enters the eigensolver. The
eigensolver calculates the natural frequencies and modes of vibration. Each natural frequency appears on the screen as it is
calculated. The elapsed time of the analysis is also listed with the frequency. The processor essentially searches for the
natural frequencies, starting with the lowest, and continues until the frequency cutoff is exceeded or the mode count reaches
its limit. Both the frequency cutoff and mode cutoff are dynamic analysis control parameters. The frequencies appear to pop
out in a random fashion, perhaps three in rapid succession and then one more several seconds later. The amount of time to
calculate (or find) these frequencies is a function of the system size, the grouping of the frequencies and the cutoff settings.
Eigensolution may be cancelled at any time, with the analysis continuing using the mode shapes selected up to that point.
After the last frequency is calculated, CAESAR II uses the Sturm Sequence Check to confirm that no modes were skipped.
If the check fails, the user may either return to the dynamic input or continue with the spectral analysis. (Sturm Sequence
Check failures are usually satisfied if the frequency cutoff is set to a value greater than the last frequency calculated.)
Eigensolver
After calculation, control is passed to the Dynamic Output Processor. Natural frequencies and mode shapes can be reviewed
in text format, or the node shapes can be displayed in and animated fashion.

Harmonic
For each forcing frequency listed in the dynamic input, CAESAR II performs a separate analysis. These analyses are similar
to static analyses and take the same amount of time to complete. At the completion of each solution the forcing frequency,
its largest calculated deflection, and the phase angle associated with it are listed on the screen. The root results for each
frequency, and the system deflections, are saved for further processing. Only twenty frequencies may be carried beyond this
point and into the output processor. When all frequencies are analyzed, CAESAR II presents the frequencies on the screen
and allows the user to select those needed (in terms of frequency and phase angle) for further analysis. This choice can be
made after checking deflections at pertinent nodes for those frequencies.

8-38 Dynamic Input and Analysis
Selection of Phase Angles
Phased solutions are generated when damping is considered or when the user enters phase angles in the dynamic input.
For all “phased” harmonic analyses, the user is given a choice of selecting from 18 separate phase angle solutions,
(including the cycle maxima and minima) for each excitation frequency. Each separate phase angle solution represents a
point in time during one complete cycle of the system’s response. The primary difference between a solution with and
without phase angles is when phase angles are entered, there is no way of knowing beforehand just when the maximum
stresses, forces, and displacements are going to occur during the cycle. For this reason, the displacements and stresses are
often checked for a number of points during the cycle for each excitation frequency. The user must select these points
interactively when the harmonic solution ends. There will be a complete displacement, force, moment, and stress solution
for each frequency/phase selected for output. Since there are only 99 cases possible for any one harmonic output processing
session, the user with many excitation frequencies must use the interactive selection process judiciously. In most cases the
largest displacement solution will represent the largest stress solution, but this is not always guaranteed. The user is also
presented with the option of letting CAESAR II select the frequency/phase pairs offering the largest displacements on a
system basis. The displaced shapes for the remaining frequencies are then processed just like static cases with local force,
moment, and stress calculations. Control then shifts to an output processor identical to the static output processor. The out-
put processor also provides the user an animated display of the harmonic results. Users should remember that all harmonic
results are amplitudes. For example, if a harmonic stress is reported as 15200 psi, then the stress due to the dynamic load,
which will be superimposed onto any steady state component of the stress, can be expected to vary between +15200 psi and
-15200 psi. The total stress range due to this particular dynamic loading would be 30400 psi.

Spectrum
The spectrum analysis procedure can be broken down into three tasks - 1) calculate the system’s natural frequencies, mode
shapes, and mass participation factors; 2) using the system frequencies, pull the corresponding response amplitudes from the
spectrum table and calculate the system response for each mode of vibration; 3) combine the modal responses and
directional components of the shock.
The first part of the analysis proceeds exactly as with the modal analysis.
After the natural frequencies are calculated, system displacements, forces, moments, and stresses are calculated on the
modal level and combined. Once all the results are collected, the dynamic analysis output screen appears. The spectral
results may be examined here, and the user may also review the natural frequencies and animated mode shapes.

Time History
The modal time history analysis follows steps similar to a spectrum analysis. The modes of vibration of the system are
computed, the dynamic equation of motion is solved through numeric integration techniques for each mode at a number of
successive time steps, with the modal results being summed, yielding system responses at each time step.
The output processor displays one load case (and optionally, one load combination) with the maximum loads developed
throughout the load application. There also are as many “snap-shot” cases as requested by the user.

Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing
In This Chapter
Entry into the Processor........................................................................... 9-2
Report Types............................................................................................ 9-5
Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File ......................................... 9-17
3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor ................................... 9-18

C H A P T E R 9
9-2 Dynamic Output Processing
Entry into the Processor
The dynamic output processor is accessed directly following completion of the dynamic analysis, or it may be accessed
anytime subsequently from the Main Menu Output options.
Dynamic Analysis Output
There are four types of dynamic output results to process:
• Harmonic results
• Frequency/Modal results from a Mode-Only solution (this solution also exists if a spectrum solution was run).
• Spectrum results, from earthquake, waterhammer, and relief valve solutions
• Time History results
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-3
Harmonic results are reviewed using the static output processor, which is discussed in Chapter 7 (special notes on reviewing
harmonic results are presented later in this chapter). The other three solution types share the same dynamic output
processor. After entering this processor, a screen similar to that of the static output processor appears:
Dynamic Processor
The left-hand column shows the load cases that were analyzed. The top center column shows the reports available for those
load cases. The right-hand column shows General Results, or reports that are not associated with load cases.
For Spectrum analyses, the load cases listed constitute all of the Spectrum load cases as well as all of the static/dynamic
combinations. For Time History analysis, the listed loads are the “results maxima” case and each of the “snap-shot” cases
for the single Time History load case and each of the static/dynamic combinations.
9-4 Dynamic Output Processing
The user can select the reports and the load cases to be viewed by highlighting one or more load cases (if necessary) and
simultaneously one or more reports (reports that display in the right-hand column do not require that the report is
highlighted to print). (Selection is done by clicking, CTRL clicking, and SHIFT clicking with the mouse.) These reports
can then be sent to a printer, printed to file, saved to file or displayed.
A number of commands are available from this screen:
Option Description
File-Open
Opens a different job for output review. The user is prompted for the desired file; Modal/Spectrum results are stored in
*._s files, while Time History results are stored in *._t files.
Print
Prints the selected reports.
Save
Writes the selected reports to file, in ASCII format.
Animate
Allows the user to view animated motion. Modem and spectrum results allow animation of the mode shapes, while time
history analysis provides an animated simulation of the system response to the force-time profile.
Input
Returns to the piping input processor.
Title
Allows the user to enter report titles for this group of reports
View Load Cases
Provides a summary of each dynamic load case including the spectrum name, scale factor, direction cosines, and node
range.
View Reports
Displays the selected reports on the terminal. Each report selected is presented, one at a time, for inspection. Users may
scroll through the reports where necessary. Specific node numbers or results can be located and highlighted with the
FIND (Ctrl-F) command. To move to the next report click the right-arrow button.
Microsoft t Word
Provides the ability to send output reports directly to Microsoft® Word . This feature is activated when producing a report
and enables the use of all of Word’s formatting (font selection, margin control, etc.) and printing features. Users can
append multiple reports to form a final report, by selecting the desired reports, clicking the button, closing Word,
selecting the next report to be added, clicking the button again, etc. A table of contents, is displayed reflecting the
cumulatively produced reports.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-5
Report Types
There are two types of reports available from the dynamic output processor. There are those associated with specific load
cases (the Report Options shown in the center column) and those not associated with specific load cases (the General
Results in the right column).
Note For Modal analysis, there are no load cases, so the center column is blank
Reports associated with load cases are those associated with the spectral or time history displacement solution. The Report
Options are displacements, reactions, forces, moments and stresses.
Displacements
This report gives the magnitude of the displacement for each load case. For spectral results, due to summing methodology,
all displacement values in this report are positive. For time history analysis, the values are correctly signed.
The displacement report gives the maximum displacement that is anticipated due to the application of the dynamic shock.
For spectral analysis, note that all of the displacement values are positive. The direction of the displacement is
indeterminate, i.e. there will be a tendency for the system to oscillate due to the potential energy stored after undergoing
some maximum dynamic movement. The displacements printed are relative to the movement of the earth.
Restraints
This report gives the magnitude of the reactions for each load case. A typical entry is shown as follows:
NODE FX
5 716
649
2X(1)
The first line for each node contains the maximum load that occurred at some time during the dynamic event. The second
line for each node contains the maximum modal contribution to the load, and the third line for each node tells which mode
and loading was responsible for the maximum. This form of the report permits easy identification of the culprit modes.
The mode identification line is broken down as follows:
2 X (1)
mode load direction (load component)

For example, at node 5 the resultant dynamic load due to the shock was 716. The largest modal component (of the 716) was
649, due to mode 2, and produced by the first X direction component (either the first support motion set for displacement
response spectrum analysis or the first force set for force response spectrum analysis). This form of dynamic output report
allows us to know if there is a problem, and if there is, then which mode of vibration and load component is the major
contributor to the problem.
9-6 Dynamic Output Processing
If the component shows up as a (P), then it was the pseudostatic (seismic anchor movement) contribution of the loading that
resulted in the major component of the response. If the component shows up as an (M), this indicates that it was the missing
mass contribution. A typical restraint report follows:
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-7
Local Forces
This report gives elemental forces and moments in the element local a-b-c coordinate system. The a-b-c coordinate system
is defined as follows:
This report gives elemental forces and moments in the element local a-b-c coordinate system. The a-b-c coordinate system
is defined as follows:
For straight pipe not connected to an intersection:
“a” is along the element axis (i.e. perpendicular to the pipe cross-section)
“b” is axY, unless a is vertical and then b is along X
“c” is axb.
For bends and elbows, and for each segment end:
“a” is along the element axis (i.e. perpendicular to the pipe cross-section)
“b” is to the plane of the bend
“c” is axb
For intersections, and for each segment framing into the intersection:
“a” is along the element axis (i.e. perpendicular to the pipe cross-section)
“b” is to the plane of the intersection
“c” is axb
Note: X indicates the vector cross product.
Force, moment, and stress reports are similar to restraint reports in that each has the maximum response, followed by the
modal maximum, followed by the modal maximum load identifier. All force/moment reports are setup to represent the
forces and moments that act on the end of the element to keep the element in equilibrium.
9-8 Dynamic Output Processing
Global Forces
This report contains information identical to that given above for local forces except that it is oriented along the global X, Y,
and Z axes. A typical report follows:
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-9
Stresses
The stress report contains axial, bending, maximum octahedral, and code stresses as well as in-plane and out-of-plane stress
intensification factors. These reports contain mode, and modal maximum data as well. A typical report follows:
9-10 Dynamic Output Processing
Forces/Stresses
This report is intended to be a brief summary of the forces and code stresses for a particular load case. This report contains
maximum responses only, the calculated stress, and it's allowable.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-11
Cumulative Usage
This report is available only when there are one or more Fatigue Stress types present. Only one report is generated,
regardless of the number of Fatigue load cases selected. The report shows, on an element-by-element basis, the impact of
each load case on the total Fatigue allowable, as well as the cumulative impact of all simultaneously selected load cases. If
the total Usage Factor exceeds 1.0; this implies Fatigue failure under that loading condition.
9-12 Dynamic Output Processing
The General Results reports comprise the following and are independent of the load cases selected. They are as follows:
Mass Participation Factors
This report gives one number for each mode and load direction for each dynamic load case. This value provides the user
with a “feel” for the effect the dynamic loading and the mass had on the particular mode. Neither the absolute magnitude
nor its sign has any significance, only the relationship between values for a single load case is important.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-13
Natural Frequencies
Calculated modal natural frequencies are reported in Hertz and radians per second; period is reported in seconds.
9-14 Dynamic Output Processing
Modes Mass Normalized
A mass normalization procedure is used to compute valued magnitudes for mode shapes. A number of programs use this -
\normalization procedure, and this report was generated to make it easier for CAESAR II users to compare their results to
other programs’ results.
Modes Unity Normalized
This report scales the largest displacement in the mode shape to 1.0, with all other displacements and rotations scaled
accordingly. This mode report is the easiest way to get a “feel” for the shape of the mode.
The example shows two mode shapes from a small job. Users should note that in the first mode the largest single
component is in the Y direction (which we would expect from the earlier participation factor report), and in the second
mode the largest single component is in the Z direction.
Note Unity normalized means that the largest displacement component in the mode is set to 1.0 and all other
displacement values are scaled accordingly.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-15
Included Mass Data
The Included Mass Data report displays the percent of the total system mass/force included in the extracted modes, and the
percent of system mass/force included in the missing mass correction (if any) for each of the individual shocks of each of
the dynamic load cases. This value gives an indication of the accuracy of the total system response captured by the dynamic
model, with 100% being the difficult to achieve ideal.
The first 3 items displayed by the report are the Load Case, the Shock Description, and the direction cosines. The next item,
the % Mass Included, shows the percentage of mass active in each of the X, Y, and Z directions. Following the % Mass
Included is the % Force Active. This value is computed by taking the algebraic sum in each of the global directions, and
then applying the SRSS method to each of the three directions. (The sums of the three directions are added vectorally.) The
final column displays the % Force Added. This value is obtained by taking the % Force Active and subtracting from 100.
Input Listing
This report, which may be displayed or printed, lists the input for the piping model or for the dynamic input.
Mass Model
The Mass Model Report shows how CAESAR II lumped masses for the dynamic runs. The mass lumping report should
show a fairly uniform distribution of masses. Large or irregular variations in the values shown should be investigated.
Usually these large values can be reduced by breaking down exceedingly long, straight runs of pipe.
The mass lumping report shown below is very uniform in distribution and should produce a good dynamic solution. Note
that CAESAR II ignores rotational terms.
9-16 Dynamic Output Processing
Boundary Conditions
The Active Boundary Condition Report shows the user how CAESAR II dealt with the nonlinear restraints in the job. It
shows which directional supports were included, which gaps were assumed closed, and just how friction resistance was
modeled.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-17
Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File
The tabular results brought to the screen may be sent directly to a printer. To print a hard copy of the reports click
FILE-PRINT. To send reports to a file rather than the printer, the user should click the File-Save button. After initial
selection, the user is presented with a file dialog to select the name of the file. To change the file name for a new
report, the user should select FILE-SAVE AS.
Sends reports to Microsoft Word™. The reports display in Microsoft Word ™ where you can access Microsoft
Word’s feature set. All reports that are to be saved in the output file need not be declared at one time. Subsequent
reports sent to the file during the session are appended to the file started in the session. (These output files are only
closed when a new output device, file or printer is defined.) After closing the report, a table of contents is added.

9-18 Dynamic Output Processing
3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor
The Animation module allows users to view animated motion of the system for static displacements or various dynamic
movements. The mode and spectrum results, for example, allow animation of the mode shapes, while time history analysis
provides an animated simulation of the system response to the force-time profile.
The animation options can be accessed from the CAESAR II Main Menu, by going to the OUTPUT/ANIMATION and
selecting the appropriate animation type from the sub-menu choices. In addition, the animation processor can also be
activated from each of the individual STATIC/DYNAMIC OUTPUT PROCESSORS by clicking the View Animation button.
Animation of any type has identical set of buttons and menu choices (similar to ones described in the Piping Input Graphics
Processor) that will be described herein. Any relevant differences will be described below for each corresponding animation
type. Launching the Animation Processor causes the following dialog to display.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-19
The piping model is shown in its default state (volume mode, isometric view, orthographic projection). For the convenience
of the user, it can be displayed in any of the defined orthographic views Front/Back, Top/Bottom, Left/Right, or Isometric
by clicking the corresponding buttons. Similar to the Input Processor Graphics, the model can be interactively rotated,
zoomed, or panned. Zoom to Window and Zoom to Selection options are also available.
Perspective or orthographic projections can also be set. Node numbers can be displayed by clicking the Nodes button. The
desired load case or mode shape can be selected from the corresponding drop down list. The frequency of the load case
associated with the animation is shown at the top of the view plot whenever the Titles option (available from the Action
menu) is activated.
The animated plot menu displays several plot selections. Motion and Volume Motion are the commands to activate the
animation. Motion uses the centerline representation while Volume Motion produces the volume graphics image. Each of
the motion options causes the graphics processor to animate the current plot. If the Node Numbers button is clicked, the
node number text is moved together with the corresponding node. Once the plot is “moving” on the screen, it may be sped
up, slowed down, or stopped using appropriate toolbar button. After selecting a different load case or mode shape from the
drop down list, the motion automatically stops. One of the motion buttons should be clicked again to activate the model
“movement”.
Print Motion option (available from the File menu) prints all of the vibration positions of the current mode. It is not
available for the Time History animation. For clarity purposes, it is recommended to use the single line (Motion) option to
generate the printouts. The Volume Motion option generates a printout which is often too cluttered to be useful.

Save Animation to File
The animated graphics can be saved to a file by clicking the Create an Animation File button. Alternatively, this option can
be accessed from the dynamic plot menu File/Save Animation. After activating this option, the standard Windows Save As
Dialog will display prompting the user to enter the file name and directory to save the files. By default the current file name
and current data directory will be used. There will be two files cremated an *.HTML file and a *.HSF file. To view the
saved animation, find the corresponding *.HTML file and double click on it within Windows Explorer. The corresponding
*.HSF file containing the animation routines will be displayed. The *.HTML file contains useful buttons to play or pause
the animation. The model can also be viewed at different orthogonal planes, or returned to the isometric view.
Note The *.HTML is an interactive file.
The first time a CAESAR II created .HTML file is opened with Internet Explorer or other Internet browser, the user will
receive a message requesting permission to download a control from Tech Soft 3D. The user should answer “Yes” to allow
the download, after which the image will display. Once the model appears, right-clicking the model will show the available
viewing options, such as orbit, pan, zoom, and/or different render modes. The image can be printed or copied to the
clipboard as necessary.
Note Internet Explorer 5.0 and earlier may not display the image properly. Since Internet Explorer 5.0 is no longer
supported by Microsoft, COADE recommends Internet Explorer 6.0 or later.
Animation of Static Results - Displacements
CAESAR II allows the user to view the piping system as it moves to the displaced position for the basic load cases. To
animate the static results, execute the Options/View Animation menu choice from the Static Output Menu. Alternatively,
clicking View Animation allows the user to view graphic animation of the displacement solution.
Static animation graphics has all the model projection and motion toolbar options described earlier. The load case can be
selected from the drop down list. The title consists of the load case name followed by the file name and can be toggled on
and off from the Action menu.
9-20 Dynamic Output Processing
The Static Animation processor allows viewing of the single line and volume motion, controls the speed of the movement,
and the animation can be saved to a file as described above.
Note The static animation does not have much physical meaning behind it. This is just a “one-time” move produced from
the CAESAR II calculated displacements (from temperature growth, initial SUS system sag and/or any other related loads). It
is better to use the Deflected Shape button on the 3D/HOOPS Graphics view of the Static Output Processor toolbar. For
more information refer to 3D/HOOPS Graphics Tutorial for Static Output Processor, Deflected Shape.
Animation of Dynamic Results – Modal/Spectrum
This option allows the user to view the calculated modes of vibration that correspond to particular natural frequencies of the
system. It is available from the Dynamic Output Processor after running the Modal analysis.
After invoking the Modal animation type, the system is displayed in its default state. The animation screen display the same
toolbar options described earlier. Natural frequencies can be selected from the drop down list to animate the corresponding
mode shape. The title shows the natural frequency in Hz followed by the current file name and the date.
Animated graphics for a particular mode shape (frequency) can be viewed in a single line or volume mode motion with
speed control, and/or saved to an HTML file for later presentation as described above.
Animation of Dynamic Results – Harmonic
During the harmonic analysis, CAESAR II calculates the system response to the excitation frequency. This response can be
animated.
The Harmonics Animation module can be launched from the Harmonic Output Processor by clicking View Animation. The
system displays in its default isometric state. The animation screen displays the same toolbar options described earlier that
allow single line and volume motion as well as speed up and slow down options. Occasional cases corresponding to the
excitation frequencies may be selected from the drop down list. The title shows the currently selected frequency, file name,
and the date. The title may be disabled from the Action menu.
Animated graphics for each load case analyzed can be saved to an HTML file for later presentation.
Animation of Dynamic Results – Time History
The Time History animation module can be launched from the CAESAR II Dynamic Output processor by clicking View
Animation. The system displays in the centerline isometric mode. The model can be rotated, zoomed, or panned and can be
set to different orthographic projections. The current time history time step and the job name are shown in the title on the
top of the graphics view.
Note, due to complexity of the time history calculations and to decrease the animation time, the animation is only available
in centerline mode.
Note The SAVE ANIMATION TO FILE option is not available in the time history animation for the same reason.
An additional feature of the Time History animation engine is the Element Viewer. The Element Viewer dialog displays
specific element information for a given time step. After clicking the Element Viewer button, the Element Info dialog
appears displaying the nodal displacements, forces, moments, code stress, and SIF information provided for the current
element at a current time step. Clicking the Next >> or << Previous buttons will change the information to correspond to the
next or previous element in the system for the same time step.
There are several ways to animate the model using the Motion button; clicking the Next Step / Previous Step buttons,
jumping to the beginning or the end of the time history animation; or using the Time Slider.
Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-21
Clicking the Motion button will start the animation, the current time step will be displayed in the title line, and the task bar
at the bottom of the animation graphics view will show the progress. The animation speed can be increased, decreased, or
stopped by clicking the appropriate toolbar buttons.
Clicking the Next Time Step or Previous Time Step button while the Element Info dialog is active will update the dialog
information for the current element for the next or previous time step. If the animation is stopped, this will advance or back
space the animation one step.
Clicking View Animation again after stopping the animation will continue the time history motion from the location (the
time step) where the animation was stopped.
Clicking the Plot the First Time Step or Plot the Last Time Step button will bring the animation to the beginning or the end
correspondingly.
Dragging the Time Slider to the appropriate time step. The bar’s position adjusts automatically as the animation progresses
or users can click on the slider with the left mouse button and drag it along the time-line to find the desired time step or to
see the model’s displaced shape. If the Element Info dialog is active, the highlighted element information is updated to
correspond to the current time step.
9-22 Dynamic Output Processing
Time History Animation View with Element Viewer Dialog
Clicking the corresponding button can enable the node numbers however, it is recommended to have node numbering
disabled during operation of the animation processor. As the animated elements move, the node numbers are redrawn for
every position in the system thereby creating a blinking effect making it hard to follow the animation.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler
In This Chapter
Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II................................... 10-2
3D/HOOPS Graphics............................................................................... 10-8
Sample Input............................................................................................ 10-10
Structural Steel Example #1 .................................................................... 10-11
Structural Steel Example #2 .................................................................... 10-18
Structural Steel Example #3 .................................................................... 10-31

C H A P T E R 1 0
10-2 Structural Steel Modeler
Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II
Structural Steel Frame
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-3
Start the CAESAR II Structural Element Preprocessor from the Main Menu by first opening an existing (or new)
structural file, and then using the Input-Structural command. The following screen appears:
Input - Structural Steel
Note Structural file names should be limited to eight characters (with no embedded spaces) since CAESAR II currently
is unable to include long file names in piping models. The structural file must also be located in the same directory as the
piping model.
10-4 Structural Steel Modeler
Input is interactive/batch keyword. This is a method of input most familiar to the finite element/structural analyst and
probably not so familiar to the piping engineer. Those users not already familiar with “keyword type” input should pay
particular attention to the examples, and make liberal use of the help functions ([F1]).
The general input format is:
<keyword>, <parameter #1>, <parameter #2>, ..., <parameter #n>
or
<keyword>, <key1=n1>, <key2 = n2>, ..., <key3 = n3>
For example......
FIX 5 ALL Fixes node 5, all degrees of freedom
SECID = 1,W10X49Defines properties for section #1.
EDIM 5 10 DY=12-0Define vertical member from 5 to 10.
Example Input
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-5
Since many structures have a considerable degree of “repeatability”, there are various forms, options, and deviations of the
above commands to help the user generate large structural models quickly and easily. For the most part however, and albeit
with a little more time and effort, the above method of single element generation is well suited to most pipers’ needs.
The most commonly used keywords display below:
EDIM Define structural element
FIX Define structural anchor (ALL) or restraint
LOAD Define concentrated forces
UNIF Define uniform loads
SECID Define cross section properties
A full explanation of all keywords is included in the Technical Reference Manual.
To delete a command highlight it and click Edit-Delete Card.
New lines may be created by selecting a keyword command from the menu or from the toolbars.
Certain commands set parameters that remain set for all further element generations. DEFAULT sets the default section and
material ID, ANGLE sets the default element orientation, and BEAMS, BRACES, and COLUMNS set the default end
connection type.
The full AISC database with over 900 cross-sectional shapes is available on a “per-member-name” basis, additionally the
user may define any arbitrary cross sectional shapes. The proper database (either AISC77.BIN, AISC89.BIN, UK. BIN,
AUST90.BIN, SAFRICA.BIN, KOREAN.BIN, or GERM91.BIN) must be selected using the Configuration/Setup
Module before starting the construction of a structural model. Sections may be selected from a tree structure, grouping
sections by type.
10-6 Structural Steel Modeler
Configuration/Setup
AISC names should be keyed in exactly as shown in the AISC handbook with the exception that fractions should be
represented as decimals to four decimal places, i.e. the angle L6X3-1/2X1/2 would be entered: L6X3.5000X0.5000.
Member end connection freedom is a concept used quite frequently in structural analysis that has no real parallel in piping
work. Several of the example problems contain free end connection specifications and should be studied for details.
Structural models may be run alone, or may be included in piping jobs.
To run a structural model alone:
1 After selecting a job name, enter the Structural Input processor using INPUT-STRUCTURAL from the Main Menu.
2 Enter the structural steel model and its loading use File-Save to exit model building, do error checking, and build
CAESAR II Execution files if there are no errors. After completing these steps return to the Main Menu.
3 Start CAESAR II up at the analysis level. Select the load cases to be analyzed. Do not use CAESAR II’s recommendations
unless a weight-concentrated load case is all that is needed.
4 When the analysis level finishes, enter the standard CAESAR II Output Processor. Displacements, forces, and
moments will be available for each structural element.
5 Run the Analysis Program to ensure that the most heavily loaded members still satisfy the code.
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-7
To include a structural model (or models) in a piping job:
1 Enter the structural steel input processor as described above.
2 Enter the structural steel model and its loading.
3 Use FILE-SAVE to exit model building, do error checking, and build the CAESAR II Execution files if there are no
errors.
4 Open the Piping Input file. After the piping model has been entered to the user’s satisfaction click Environment-
Include Structural Files.
5 From the Include Structural Files dialog use the Browse button to select the structural files to include in the piping
job.
6 Exit the preprocessor after all structural models have been properly included in the piping job.
7 Perform and error check of the model. Once error checking finishes without a fatal message, run the entire model. After
analysis, the structural elements are included in the piping output processor as though they were pipe, except that
stresses are not computed.
Note: A stand alone AISC Code Check Program is available to verify that forces and moments on standard structural
shapes do not exceed the various allowables as defined by the American Institute of Steel Construction.
10-8 Structural Steel Modeler
3D/HOOPS Graphics
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics Engine in the Structural Steel Modeler is mainly used to verify the model geometry for
completeness and accuracy. An Interactive Command Generator allows user-friendly entering and updating of the element
data, along with a graphics view that instantly reflects any changes.
The Structural Steel Modeler 3D Graphics Engine shares the same general capabilities as the Piping Input Processor's
Graphics. It uses the same HOOPS Standard Toolbar that enables users to zoom, orbit, pan, and several other options
among them the ability to switch orthographic views and volume to single line mode.
The Structural Steel Graphics Engine can also show or hide the supports and restraints, anchors, the compass, node
numbers, and element lengths. The restraints may also be changed in size relative to the structural elements.
The geometry displays on the screen to the right when the user defines enough information. For example, using Method 2 -
Node/Element Specification Generator, if only NODEs (absolute coordinates of a point in space) are generated, nothing can
be shown. However, when ELEM is defined (to specify a single element between two points in space), the corresponding
graphical element displays. When using Method 1 - Element Definition EDIM (similar to defining elements in the
CAESAR II Piping Input Processor), the corresponding graphical element displays after the EDIM command is
completed. For more information and a comparison of the two methods, refer to the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual,
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler.
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-9
The Structural Steel Command Generator may be resized and/or disabled to allow the graphics to fill the entire viewing
area. It may also be docked on or off the main frame. Once docked off, it can be removed from the view or closed. To
show/hide (open/close) the Structural Steel Commands Generator, click VIEW-INPUT.
Just as the Piping Input Graphics does, the Structural Steel Modeler has a Change Display Option that enables users to
change the default colors for all steel elements and restraints. For more information refer to the discussion in the Piping
Input 3D Graphics Processor.
Note Loads, such as Uniform or Wind, are not available in plot/graphics mode in the Structural Steel Modeler.
An additional feature of the Structural Steel Modeler is its ability to flip the coordinate system, on the fly. All relevant
user-entered data is also modified to comply with the newly selected coordinate system, either Y-up or Z-up.

10-10 Structural Steel Modeler
Sample Input
This section contains three Structural Steel Examples. These examples are presented so that the user can enter them into the
computer from the listed input. This is without question the best way to become familiar with the structural capability in
CAESAR II.
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-11
Structural Steel Example #1
Determine the stiffness of the structural steel support shown below. Use the estimated “rigid support” piping loads from the
piping analysis to back calculate each stiffness.
Structural Steel Example #1
A U-bolt pins the pipe to the top of the channel at node 20. The piping loads output from the pipe stress program are:
F x= -39.0 lbs.
F y= -1975.0 lbs.
F z= 1350.0 lbs.
10-12 Structural Steel Modeler
Select FILE-NEW from the CAESAR II Main Menu, click the Structural Input radio button and enter a job name (for
example SUPP). Then enter the CAESAR II Structural Steel Processor by selecting option Input-Structural from the
CAESAR II Main Menu. This brings up the blank data entry screen, ready to define the units.
Input - Structural Steel
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-13
At this time the user enters the keywords and parameters that define the model input. Input for the example is as follows:
10-14 Structural Steel Modeler
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-15
10-16 Structural Steel Modeler
The UNIT, MATID, SECID, EDIM, FIX, and LOAD structural element keywords display in the example below, for a full
explanation of keywords refer to the Technical Reference Manual.
UNIT ENGLISH.FIL
MATID 1 30E6 .3 11.6E6 36000. 0.283 ;SPECIFY MATERIAL
SECID 1 W16X26 ;DEFINE CROSS SECTIONS
SECID 2 MC8X22.800
SECID 3 L6X4X0.5000
EDIM 5 10 DY=144. SECID=1 ;DEFINE ELEMENTS
EDIM 10 15 DY=72. SECID=1
EDIM 15 20 DZ=70 SECID=2
EDIM 20 25 DZ=20 SECID=2
EDIM 25 10 DZ=-90 DY=-72 SECID=3
FIX 5 ALL ;SPECIFY SUPPORTS
;TRY A PLOT HERE
LOAD 20 FX=-39 FY=-1975 FZ=1350 ;SPECIFY LOADS
Input Structural Steel - Sample
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-17
The model can be checked and saved with the File-Save command. At this time the input is checked, and if no fatal errors
are found, the CAESAR II Execution files are written, and the model may be used in a piping analysis or analyzed by
itself. (For the purposes of this example the model will be analyzed by itself.)
When error checking has completed successfully, the user is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu. When this is done,
the Analysis-Static menu option should be chosen. From this point, structural steel analysis is performed just like a piping
analysis.
Note: Don't forget to include F1 in the SUS load case.
Output from a structural analysis is comprised of displacements, forces, and moments. The desired results from the analysis
of SUPP are the displacements at node 20 of:
x = -9.63 in.
y = -0.44 in.
z = 0.88 in.
These displacements are excessive for a support which is to be assumed rigid in another analysis. The translational stiffness
for the support can be computed as follows:
Kx = 39.0 lb. / 9.63 in. = 4.05 lb./in ; Ky = 1975.0 lb. / 0.44 in. = 4488.64 lb./in.;
Kz = 1350.0 lb. / 0.88 in. = 1534.09 lb./in.

10-18 Structural Steel Modeler
Structural Steel Example #2
A support must be designed to limit the loads on the waste heat boiler’s flue gas nozzle connection. The maximum
allowable loads on the nozzle are:
Fshear = 500 lb. Faxial = 1500 lb.
Mbending = 5000 ft. lb. Mtorsion = 10000 ft. lb.
Check the piping and structure shown in the following four figures:

Structural Steel Example #2
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-19
Piping Dimensions
10-20 Structural Steel Modeler
Structure Nodes
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-21
Structure Dimensions
10-22 Structural Steel Modeler
Select a job name (for example SUPP2) and enter the structural input processor as described earlier. The structural input
screen appears:
Input - Structural Steel
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-23
At this time the user enters the keywords and parameters (using menu options and/or toolbars) that defines the model input,
and adds them to the file using the Edit-Add command.
The UNIT, MATID, SECID, EDIM, FIX, and LOAD structural element keywords display in the example below, for a full
explanation of keywords refer to the Technical Reference Manual.
Input for the example is as follows:
UNIT ENGLISH.FIL
SECID 1 W24X104 ;DEFINE SECTIONS
SECID 2 W18X50
MATID 1 YM=29E6 POIS=0.3 G=11.6E6 DENS=0.283 ;DEFINE MATERIALS
ANGLE=90 ;COLUMN ORIENTATION
EDIM 230 235 DY=10- ;VERTICAL COLUMNS
EDIM 235 220 DY=13-10
EDIM 200 205 DY=10-
EDIM 205 210 DY=13-10
EDIM 245 250 DX=8.392- DY=10- ;SLOPED COLUMNS
EDIM 260 255 DX=8.392- DY=10-
EDIM 250 220 DX=11.608- DY=13-10
EDIM 255 210 DX=11.608- DY=13-10
DEFAULT SECID=2;MAKE BEAMS DEFAULT SECTION
EDIM 235 240 DZ=-2.5-
EDIM 240 205 DZ=-2.5-
EDIM 220 215 DZ=-2.5-
EDIM 215 210 DZ= -2.5-
EDIM 250 255 DZ=-5-
;THE FINAL SET OF HORIZONTAL BEAMS ALONG THE X AXIS HAVE A STANDARD
;STRONG AXIS ORIENTATION
ANGLE=0.0
EDIM 250 235 DX=11.608-
EDIM 255 205 DX=11.608-
;ANCHOR THE BASE NODES
FIX 245 ALL
FIX 260 ALL
FIX 230 ALL
FIX 200 ALL
At any time during input the user can generate plots of the model by executing OPERATIONS-PLOT. Once the user is satisfied
that the model is correct, exiting with File-Save command checks and saves the model. If no fatal errors are found, then the
CAESAR II Execution files are written. The model may now be used in a piping analyses or analyzed by itself. (For the
purposes of this example the model will be analyzed with a piping model.)
10-24 Structural Steel Modeler
When error checking has completed successfully, the user is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu. The user should
change the jobname to the name of the piping input filename (PIPE2 for this example) and enter the input for the piping
system to be analyzed.
The input for this job is shown below:
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-25
10-26 Structural Steel Modeler
To connect the pipe to the structure, follow these procedures:
1 The user must tell CAESAR II the name of the structural steel file to include. From the Input Spreadsheet select the
Kaux-Include Structural Files Menu option. The Include Structural Files Dialog appears.
2 Enter the name of the structural steel model to be included (SUPP2), by typing or browsing for it.
3 Define the connectivity between pipe and structural nodes using restraints with connecting nodes. For the example
problem, the node 115 in the pipe model should be tied to node 215 in the structural model in the X and Z directions
similarly; node 120 in the pipe model should be tied to node 240 in the structural model. These connecting nodes may
be defined from the piping spreadsheet on any convenient element. Auxiliary field input for these two connections is
shown as follows:
Restraint Auxiliary Data
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-27
If the pipe and structure do not plot properly relative to one-another then either:
a) The connecting nodes were not defined correctly.
b) The CONNECT_GEOMETRY_THRU_CNODES directive was not set to YES in the Configuration/Setup
module.
The properly plotted pipe and structure is shown below:
Structural Steel Example #2 Plot
10-28 Structural Steel Modeler
Once the pipe and structure are properly plotted relative to one-another, the piping input processor can be exited and error
checking performed. The error checker includes the pipe and structure together during checking. The execution files that are
written also include the structural data. In the output the pipe and structure are also plotted together and can only be
separated via the plot RANGE command.
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-29
The loads on the anchor at 5 are grossly excessive. The structural steel frame and pipe support structure as shown are not
satisfactory. Some displaced shape plots from the analysis are shown in the next figure:

Plot Showing Displacement
10-30 Structural Steel Modeler
In this example, displacement of the structure is small relative to the displacement of the pipe. The pipe is thermally
expanding out away from the boiler nozzle and down, away from the boiler nozzle.

Plot Showing Displacement
Using the RANGE command the structure is plotted without the pipe. The displaced shape of the structure shows that the
pipe is pulling the structure in the positive X direction at the top support and pushing the structure in the negative X
direction at the bottom support. These displacements will only result in higher loads on the boiler nozzle. The vertical
location of the structural supports should be studied more closely.
Perhaps vertical springs at 30 and 35 would help, along with a repositioning of the structural supports vertically, i.e. the
support at 120 should be moved down so that its line of action in the X direction more closely coincides with the center line
of the pipe between 25 and 40.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-31
Structural Steel Example #3
Estimate the X, Y, and Z stiffness of the structure at the point 1000. (Note that, in general, the stiffness of a three-
dimensional structure, condensed down to the stiffness of a single point, must be represented by a 6 6 stiffness matrix. As a
first estimate, only the on-diagonal, translational stiffnesses are often estimated, as is being done here.)

Structural Steel Example #3
10-32 Structural Steel Modeler
Select a job name (for example SUPP3) and enter the structural input processor as described earlier. The structural input
screen appears.
At this time the user enters the keywords and parameters (using menu commands and/or toolbars) that define the model
input. Input for the example is shown below:
Example Input
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-33
At any time during input the user can generate plots of the model executing Operations-Plot. Once the user is satisfied that
the model has been entered properly, the model can be checked and saved with the File-Save command. If no fatal errors are
found, then the CAESAR II execution files are written. The model may now be used in a piping analysis or analyzed by
itself. (For the purposes of this example the model will be analyzed by itself.)
The structural input processor generates a number of lists to be used for documentation and checking. Click the List
Options tab for various list types.
Of particular interest in this model is the element orientation data that shows that the columns strong axis was indeed rotated
90 degrees. Also the free-end-connection lists show that the specification entered for the beams produced the desired results.
Elements and Properties
10-34 Structural Steel Modeler
Nodal Fixities
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-35
Nodal Loads
10-36 Structural Steel Modeler
Element Material Data
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-37
Element Geometry Data
10-38 Structural Steel Modeler
Element of Orientation Data
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-39
10-40 Structural Steel Modeler
When error checking has completed successfully, the user is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu. The user should
change the current jobname to that of the structural filename. When this is done the Analysis-Static menu option should be
selected. From this point structural steel analysis is performed just like a piping analysis. Output from a structural analysis is
comprised of displacements, forces, and moments.
The displacement and force report for the (Force Only) load case follows. Note that the structure is stiffer in the X direction,
even though the Z dimension is greater due to the orientation of the columns. The Force/Moment report is particularly
interesting given that all of the beams have pinned ends. Note that most of the beams carry no load. This is because the
transfer of the load to the beams in this model is due to rotations at the column ends, and not translations. (Cross-braces
would eliminate this problem and cause the beams to pick up more of the load.) The 1000 end of the elements from 20-1000
and from 40-1000 carries a moment because it is not a pinned end connection. 1000 is just a point at midspan for the
application of the load.
Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-41
10-42 Structural Steel Modeler
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling
In This Chapter
CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler ................................................. 11-2
Using the Underground Pipe Modeler ..................................................... 11-3
Notes on the Soil Model .......................................................................... 11-9
Recommended Procedures....................................................................... 11-11
Original Unburied Model ........................................................................ 11-12

C H A P T E R 1 1
11-2 Buried Pipe Modeling
CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler
The CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler is designed to simplify user input of buried pipe data. To achieve this
objective the Modeler performs the following functions for users:
Allows the direct input of soil properties. The Modeler contains the equations for buried pipe stiffnesses that are
outlined later in this chapter. These equations are used to calculate first the stiffnesses on a per length of pipe basis, and
then generate the restraints that simulate the discrete buried pipe restraint.
Breaks down straight and curved lengths of pipe to locate soil restraints. CAESAR II uses a zone concept to break down
straight and curved sections. Where transverse bearing is a concern (near bends, tees, and entry/exit points), soil
restraints are located in close proximity and where axial load dominates, soil restraints are spaced far apart.
Allows the direct input of user-defined soil stiffnesses on a per length of pipe basis. Input parameters include axial,
transverse, upward, and downward stiffnesses, as well as ultimate loads. Users can specify user-defined stiffnesses
separately, or in conjunction with CAESAR II’s automatically generated soil stiffnesses.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-3
Using the Underground Pipe Modeler
Users can start the Buried Pipe Modeler by selecting an existing job, and then choosing Input-Underground from the
CAESAR II Main Menu. The Modeler is designed to read a standard CAESAR II Input Data File that describes the
basic layout of the piping system as if it was not buried. From this basic input CAESAR II creates a second input data file that
contains the buried pipe model. This second input file typically contains a much larger number of elements and restraints
than the first job. The first job that serves as the “pattern” is termed the original job. The second file that contains the
element mesh refinement and the buried pipe restraints is termed the buried job. CAESAR II names the buried job by
appending a “B” to the name of the original job.
Note The original job must already exist and serves as the pattern for the buried pipe model building. The modeler
removes any restraints in the buried section during the process of creating the buried model. Any additional restraints can be
entered in the resulting buried model. The buried job, if it exists, is overwritten by the successful generation of a buried
pipe model. It is the buried job that is eventually run to compute displacements and stresses.
When the Buried Pipe Modeler is initially started, the following screen appears:
11-4 Buried Pipe Modeling
This spreadsheet is used to enter the buried element descriptions for the job. The buried element description spreadsheet
serves several functions:
• allows users to define which part of the piping system is buried.
• allows users to define mesh spacing at specific element ends.
• allows the input of user-defined soil stiffnesses
Typical buried pipe displacements are considerably different than similar above ground displacements. Buried pipe deforms
laterally in areas immediately adjacent to changes in directions (i.e. bends and tees). In areas far removed from bends and
tees the deformation is primarily axial. The optimal size of an element (i.e. the distance between a single FROM and a TO
node) is very dependent on which of these deformation patterns is to be modeled Not having a continuous support model,
CAESAR II or the user, must locate additional point supports along a line to simulate this continuous support. So for a given
stiffness per unit length, either many, closely spaced, low stiffness supports are added or a few, distant and high stiffness
supports are added. Where the deformation is “lateral”, smaller elements are needed to properly distribute the forces from
the pipe to the soil. The length over which the pipe deflects laterally is termed the “lateral bearing length” and can be
calculated by the equation:
Lb = 0.75(H) [4EI/Ktr] 0.25
Where:
E = Pipe modulus of elasticity
I = Pipe moment of inertia
Ktr = Transverse soil stiffness on a per length basis, (defined later)
CAESAR II places three elements in the vicinity of this bearing span to properly model the local load distribution. The
bearing span lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 1 lengths. The axial displacement lengths in a piping system are
called the Zone 3 lengths, and the intermediate lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 2 lengths. Zone 3 element
lengths (to properly transmit axial loads) are computed by 100*Do, where Do is the outside diameter of the piping. The
Zone 2 mesh is comprised of up to 4 elements of increasing length; starting at 1.5 times the length of a Zone 1 element at its
Zone 1 end, and progressing in equal increments to the last which is 50*Do long at the Zone 3 end. A typical piping system,
and how CAESAR II views this “element breakdown” or “mesh distribution” is illustrated on the following page.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-5
Zone Definitions
A critical part of the modeling of an underground piping system is the proper definition of Zone 1 (or lateral) bearing
regions. These regions primarily occur:
• On either side of a change in direction
• For all pipes framing into an intersection
• At points where the pipe enters or leaves the soil
CAESAR II automatically puts a Zone 1 mesh gradient at each side of the pipe framing into an elbow.
Note It is the user’s responsibility to tell CAESAR II where the other Zone 1 areas are located in the piping system.
11-6 Buried Pipe Modeling
The left side of the Buried Element Description Spreadsheet displays below:
Buried Element Description Spreadsheet
There are 13 columns in this spreadsheet The eight not shown above carry the user-defined soil stiffnesses and ultimate
loads. The first two columns contain element node numbers for each piping element included in the original system. The
second three columns are discussed in detail below:
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-7
Soil Model No.—This column is used to define which of the elements in the model are buried. A nonzero entry in this
column implies that the associated element is buried. A 1 in this column implies that the user wishes to enter user defined
stiffnesses, on a per length of pipe basis, at this point in the model. These stiffnesses must follow in column numbers 6
through 13. Any number greater than 1 in the SOIL MODEL NO. column points to a CAESAR II soil restraint model
generated using the equations outlined later under Soil Models from user entered soil data.
From/ To End Mesh Type—A check in either of these columns implies that a lateral loading mesh should be placed at the
corresponding element end. For example:
FROM TO SOIL FROM TO
NODE NODE MODEL MESH MESH
5 10 2 \
The element 5 to 10 is buried. CAESAR II will generate the soil stiffnesses from user-defined soil dataset #2, and the node 5
end will have a fine mesh so that lateral bearing will be properly modeled. Since CAESAR II automatically places lateral
bearing meshes adjacent to all buried elbows, the user must only be concerned with the identification of buried tees and
points of soil entry or exit. The figure below is illustrative:
Lateral Bearing Mesh Definitions
11-8 Buried Pipe Modeling
Please note the following:
The user has separated the node numbers in the original piping system by 10’s or 20’s instead of the usual 5. This is so
that CAESAR II can maintain the sequence of node numbers for the added moves.
From/To Lateral Bearing mesh specifications are not needed for nodes 30, 110 and 130, since CAESAR II places lateral
bearing meshes on each side of a bend by default.
A lateral bearing mesh is not needed at 90 because there is no tendency for the model to deflect in any direction NOT
axial to the pipe.
The tendency for lateral deflection must be defined for each element framing into an intersection (node 50).
Commands available in this module are:
Button Description
File Open
Opens a new piping file as the original job.
File-Change Buried Pipe
Job Name
Renames the buried job (in the event that the user does not wish to use the CAESAR II default of “B” appended to the
original job name).
File- Print
Prints the element description data spreadsheet.
Soil Models
Allows the user to specify soil data for CAESAR II to use in generating one or more soil restraint systems. This is
described in detail below.
Convert
Converts the original job into the buried job by meshing the existing elements and adding soil restraints. The
conversion process creates all of the necessary elements to satisfy the Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3 requirements, and
places restraints on the elements in these zones accordingly. All elbows are broken down into at least two curved
sections, and very long radius elbows are broken down into segments whose lengths are not longer than the elements
in the immediately adjacent Zone 1 pipe section. Node numbers are generated by adding “1” to the element’s FROM
node number. CAESAR II checks before using a node number to make sure that it will be unique in the model. All
densities on buried pipe elements are zeroed, to simulate the continuous support of the pipe weight. A conversion log
is also generated, which details the process in full.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-9
Notes on the Soil Model
The following procedures for estimating soil distributed stiffnesses and ultimate loads should be used only when the analyst
does not have better data or methods suited to the particular site and problem. COADE’s soil restraint modeling algorithm is
generally based on the ideas presented by L.C. Peng in his paper entitled “Stress Analysis Methods for Underground
Pipelines,” published in 1978 in Pipeline Industry.
Soil supports are modeled as bi-linear springs having an initial stiffness, an ultimate load, and a yield stiffness. The yield
stiffness is typically set close to zero, i.e. once the ultimate load on the soil is reached there is no further increase in load
even though the displacement may continue. The two basic ultimate loads that must be calculated to analyze buried pipe are
the axial and transverse ultimate loads. (Many researchers differentiate between horizontal, upward, and downward
transverse loads, but when the variance in predicted soil properties and methods are considered, this differentiation is often
not warranted. Note that CAESAR II allows the explicit entry of these data if so desired.)
Once the axial and lateral ultimate loads are known, the stiffness in these directions can be determined by dividing the
ultimate load by the yield displacement. Researchers have found that the yield displacement is related to both the buried
depth and the pipe diameter. The ultimate loads and stiffnesses computed are on a force per unit length of pipe basis.
Button Description
The user enters soil data by executing the Soil Models Command. This option allows the user to specify the
soil properties for the CAESAR II Buried Pipe Equations.
Note Valid soil model numbers start with 2. Soil model number 1 is reserved for user-defined soil stiffnesses. Up to 15
different soil models may be entered for a single job.
Upon entry, the soil modeler dialog appears. Either the friction coefficient or the undrained shear strength may be left blank.
Typically for clays the friction coefficient would be left blank and would be automatically estimated by CAESAR II as
Su/600 psf. Both sandy soils and clay-like soils may be defined here.
The soil restraint equations use these soil properties to generate restraint ultimate loads and stiffnesses. (The
TEMPERATURE CHANGE is optional. If entered the thermal strain is used to compute and print the theoretical “virtual
anchor length.”) These equations are:
Axial Ultimate Load (Fax)
Fax = µD[ (2psH) + (tppt) + (tpf)(D/4) ]
11-10 Buried Pipe Modeling
Where:
µB = Friction coefficient, typical values are:
.4 for silt
.5 for sand
.6 for gravel
.6 for clay or Su/600
Su = Undrained shear strength
D = Pipe diameter
ps = Soil density
H = Buried depth to the top of pipe
pp = Pipe density
t = Pipe nominal wall thickness
rf = Fluid density
Transverse Ultimate Load (Ftr)
Where:
oB= Angle of internal friction, typical values are:
27-45 for sand
26-35 for silt
0 for clay
OCM = Overburden Compaction Multiplier
If Su is given (i.e. have a clay-like soil), then Ftr as calculated above is multiplied by Su/250 psf.
Note that since in many cases the stiffer the soil, the more conservative the results, Ftr is multiplied by the OCM as well.
Many experienced pipeline engineers do not wish to add this "extra conservatism," and prefer to use values that are more in
line with those that have been used in the past. To do this, the OCM is the parameter that is usually adjusted.
Common practice has been to reduce it (from its default of 8) to values from 5 to 7, depending on the degree of compaction
of the backfill. Backfill efficiency can be approximated by the Proctor Number, defined in most soils textbooks. (The
Proctor Number is a ratio of unit weights.) The standard practice when the Proctor Number is known is to multiply the
default value 8 by the Proctor Number. This result should then be used as the compaction multiplier.
Yield Displacement (yd):
yd = Yield Displacement Factor x (H+D)
Note The Yield Displacement Factor defaults to 0.015.
Axial Stiffness (Kax) on a per length of pipe basis:
Kax=Fax / yd
Transverse Stiffness (Ktr) on a per length of pipe basis:
Ktr=Ftr / yd
Once the user clicks OK, the soil data is saved in a file entitled .SOI.

Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-11
Recommended Procedures
The recommended procedure for using the buried pipe modeler is outlined below:
1 Select the original job and enter the buried pipe modeler. The original job must already exist, and will serve as the basis
for the new buried pipe model. The original model should only contain the basic geometry of the piping system to be
buried. The modeler will remove any existing restraints (in the buried portion). Add any underground restraints to the
buried model. Rename the buried job if CAESAR II default name is not appropriate.
2 Enter the soil data using Soil Models.
3 Describe the sections of the piping system that are buried, and define any required fine mesh areas using the buried
element data spreadsheet.
4 Convert the original model into the buried model by clicking Convert Input. This step produces a detailed description
of the conversion.
5 Exit the Buried Pipe Modeler and return to the CAESAR II Main Menu. From here the user may perform the
analysis of the buried pipe job.
A fairly simple buried-pipe example problem is shown in the following section. This example illustrates the features of the
modeler and should in no-way be taken as a guide for recommended underground piping design.

11-12 Buried Pipe Modeling
Original Unburied Model
The following input listing represents the unburied model shown above.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-13
Terminal nodes 100 and 1900 are above ground. Nodes 1250 and 1650 (on the sloped runs) mark the soil entry and exit
points.
Soil Model Number 2, a sandy soil, is entered.
11-14 Buried Pipe Modeling
Elements 1250-1300 through 1600-1650 are buried using soil model number 2. Zone 1 meshing is indicated at the entry and
exit points.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-15
Clicking Convert starts the conversion to a buried model.
11-16 Buried Pipe Modeling
The screen listing can also be printed.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-17
The original unburied model is shown along with the "buried" model below. Note the added restraints around the elbows
and along the straight runs.
11-18 Buried Pipe Modeling
Note the bi-linear restraints added to the buried model. The stiffness used is based upon the distance to the next node.
Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-19
Note that the first buried element, 1250-1251, has no density.
The buried job can now be analyzed.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance
In This Chapter
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors ............................................... 12-3
Bend Stress Intensification Factors.......................................................... 12-6
WRC 107 Vessel Stresses........................................................................ 12-10
WRC Bulletin 297 ................................................................................... 12-17
Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations ........................................................ 12-20
Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G.................................. 12-28
Expansion Joint Rating............................................................................ 12-32
Structural Steel Checks - AISC ............................................................... 12-39
NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) .............................................................. 12-47
API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) .................................................................. 12-54
API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) ........................................................ 12-60
API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) .................................................. 12-62
Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters........... 12-67
API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) .......................... 12-68

The CAESAR II Equipment and Component Compliance Analytical Modules are executed from the CAESAR II Main
Menu using the Analysis Menu. Vessels, flanges, turbines, compressors, pumps and heat exchangers can be checked for
excessive piping loads in accordance with appropriate standards. Input is via tabbed spreadsheets, and help screens are
available for each data cell (launched with [F1] or the ? key). Output reports can be sent to the printer, terminal or files.
Often suction (inlet), discharge (exhaust), and extraction lines are analyzed for forces and moments in separate runs of a
pipe stress program. Once all of the loadings for a particular piece of equipment are computed, the equipment program is
executed to determine if these loads are acceptable in accordance with the governing code. The user enters the equipment’s
basic geometry and the loads on its nozzles computed from the piping program. The equipment analysis determines if these
loads are excessive.
One convenient feature of the CAESAR II Equipment programs is that nozzles on equipment can be analyzed separately.
Often times a user will only have suction side loads, and often the particular dimensions of the pump are unknown, or are
difficult to obtain. In these cases, CAESAR II accepts zeros or “no-entries” for the unknown data and will still generate a
“single-nozzle” equipment check report. Therefore, while overall compliance may not be evaluated, the user can still check
the individual nozzle limits. This is a valuable tool to have, as in this case the user is looking more for load guidance, rather
than for some fixed or precise limit on allowables.
C H A P T E R 1 2
12-2 Equipment Component and Compliance
Analysis Menu
All of these program modules share the same interface for easy transition. The individual modules are described following
section.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-3
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors
With this module, intersection stress intensification factors (SIFs) can be computed for any of the three-pipe type
intersections available in CAESAR II:
Intersection Types
12-4 Equipment Component and Compliance
A sample input spreadsheet is shown below.
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-5
Stress intensification factors are reported for a range of different configuration values.
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors - Report
12-6 Equipment Component and Compliance
Bend Stress Intensification Factors
This module provides a scratch pad for determining stress intensification factors (SIFs) for various bend configurations
under different codes.
Bend stress intensification factors can be computed for
Pipe bends without any additional attachments. These calculations are done exactly according to the piping code being
used.
Mitered pipe bends. These calculations are done exactly according to the piping code being used.
Pipe bends with a trunnion attachment. These calculations are taken from the paper “Stress Indices for Piping Elbows
with Trunnion Attachments for Moment and Axial Loads,” by Hankinson, Budlong and Albano, in the PVP Vol. 129,
1987.
The bend stress intensification factor input spreadsheet is shown below:
Bend Stress Intensification Spreadsheet
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-7
Input here is fairly straight forward; if there is a question about a particular data entry, the help screens should be queried. In
most cases data that does not apply is left blank. For example, to review the SIFs for a bend that does not have a trunnion,
the three trunnion related input fields should be left blank.
Bend Stress Intensification Factors - Trunnion
12-8 Equipment Component and Compliance
Pressure Stiffening
The pressure stiffening option in the input is provided so the user can see the effect that pressure stiffening has on the
bend’s flexibility factor and stress intensification factor. This option is controlled by the user in CAESAR II via the setup file,
but is most commonly left to the default condition. The default is different for each piping code because some of the codes
mention pressure stiffening explicitly and some do not.
Pressure stiffening has its most significant effect in larger diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment (compressors).
Including pressure stiffening where it is not included by default will draw more of the system moment to the nozzle adjacent
to the bend.

Flanges Attached to Bend Ends
This is essentially the number of rigid fittings that are attached to the end of the bend preventing the ovalization of the bend.
It is the ovalization that provides for a large amount of the bend’s flexibility.
BS-806 (The British Power Piping Code) recommends that flanges or valves (or any rigid cross-sectional fitting) that are
within two diameters of the ending weldpoint of the bend be considered as being attached to the end of the bend for this
calculation.

Bends with Trunnions
There are certain limits that must be satisfied before SIFs can be calculated on trunnions. These limits come directly from
the paper by Hankinson, Budlong and Albano, and they are:
t/T > 0.2 and t/T s 2.0
D/T > 20 and D/T s 60
d/D > 0.3 and d/D s 0.8
Where:
t = Wall Thickness of the Trunnion
T = Wall Thickness of the Bend
d = Outside Diameter of the Trunnion
D = Outside Diameter of the Bend

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-9
Stress Concentrations and Intensification
The stress intensification calculation for bends with trunnions is based on the relationship between the ASME NB stress
indices C2, K2, and the B31 code “i” factor (or stress intensification factor). That relationship has long been taken to be
(m)(i) = (C2)(K2)
Where:
m = multiplier, usually either 1.7 or 2.
i = B31 stress intensification factor
C2 = ASME NB secondary stress index
K2 = ASME NB peak stress index
The peak stress index (K2) is commonly known as the “stress concentration factor,” and is so-called in CAESAR II. Simply
put, this factor is the ratio of the highest point stress at an intensification (i.e. at an intersection or an elbow) and the nominal
local computed stress at the same point. Peak stresses typically only exist in a very small volume of material, on the order of
fractions of the wall thickness of the part.
Because most piping components are formed without crude notches, gross imperfections or other anomalies, the peak stress
index is kept well in control. Where a smooth transition radius is provided which is at least t/2, where (t) is the characteristic
thickness of the part, the peak stress index is typically taken as 1.0. At unfinished welds, sockets, and where no transition
radius is provided the peak stress index approaches values of 2.0.
Note If the user enters a trunnion (where there will be a weld between the trunnion and the elbow), and does not enter a
stress concentration factor (the third input for the trunnion), CAESAR II assumes a stress concentration factor of 2.0.
12-10 Equipment Component and Compliance
WRC 107 Vessel Stresses
The Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 (WRC 107) has been used extensively since 1965 by design engineers to
estimate local stresses in vessel/attachment junctions.
Notc There are three editions of WRC 107 available from the program; the default is set by the user in the Configure-
Setup option.
WRC 107 Bulletin provides an analytical tool to evaluate the vessel stresses in the immediate vicinity of a nozzle. This
method can be used to compute the stresses at both the inner and outer surfaces of the vessel wall, and report the stresses in
the longitudinal and circumferential axes of the vessel/nozzle intersection. The convention adopted by WRC 107 to define
the applicable orientations of the applied loads and stresses for both spherical and cylindrical vessels are shown in the figure
below.

Spherical Shells
Cylindrical Shells
To Acoivc OPX Acco:
1. P-axis: Along Nozzle centerline and positive entering vessel.
2. M1-axis: Perpendicular to nozzle centerline along convenient global axis.
3. M2-axis: Cross P-axis into M1 axis and the result is M2-axis.
To Acoivc OPX Acco:
1. P-axis: Along Nozzle centerline and positive entering vessel.
2. MC-axis: Along vessel centerline and positive to correspond with any parallel
global axis.
3. M2-axis: Cross the P-axis with MC axis and result is ML-axis.
To Acoivc OPX Etpcoo Hoivto:
u—upper, means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction.
l—lower, means stress on inside of vessel at junction.
A—Position on vessel at junction, along negative M1 axis.
B—Position on vessel at junction, along positive M2 axis.
C—Position on vessel at junction, along positive M2 axis.
D—Position on vessel at junction, along negative M2 axis.
To Acoivc OPX Etpcoo Hoivto:
u—upper, means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction.
l—lower, means stress on inside of vessel at junction.
A—Position on vessel at junction, along negative MC axis.
B—Position on vessel at junction, along positive MC axis.
C—Position on vessel at junction, along positive ML axis.
D—Position on vessel at junction, along negative ML axis.
Note: Shear axis "VC" is parallel, and in the same direction as the bending axis
"ML." Shear axis "VL" is parallel, and in the opposite direction as the bending axis
"MC."
WRC Axes Orientation
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-11
It has also been a common practice to use WRC 107 to conservatively estimate vessel shell stress state at the edge of a
reinforcing pad, if any. The stress state in the vessel wall when the nozzle has a reinforcing pad can be estimated by
considering a solid plug, with an outside diameter equal to the O.D. of the reinforcing pad, subjected to the same nozzle
loading.
Notc Before attempting to use WRC 107 to evaluate the stress state of any nozzle/vessel junction, the user should always
make sure that the geometric restrictions limiting the application of WRC 107 are not exceeded. These vary according to the
attachment and vessel types. The user is referred to the WRC 107 bulletin directory for this information.
WRC 107 should probably not be used when the nozzle is very light or when the parameters in the WRC 107 data curves
are unreasonably exceeded. Output from the WRC 107 program includes the figure numbers for the curves accessed, the
curve abscissa, and the values retrieved. The user is urged to check these outputs against the actual curve in WRC 107 to get
a “feel” for the accuracy of the stresses calculated. For example, if parameters for a particular problem are always near or
past the end of the figures curve data, then the calculated stresses may not be reliable.
WRC 107 can be activated by selecting ANALYSIS - WRC 107/297 from the Main Menu. The user may be prompted to enter a
job name, and then the following data entry screen appears:
Analysis - WRC 107
12-12 Equipment Component and Compliance
The input data is accumulated by the processor in four spreadsheets. The first sheet displays the title block, the second and
third sheets collect the vessel and the nozzle (attachment) geometry data, respectively. From the Vessel Data tab click the
WRC 107 radio button. The WRC 107 Version/Year and Use Interactive Control checkboxes can also be enabled from
this spreadsheet.
The Hot and Cold Allowable Stress Intensities of the vessel as defined per ASME VII, Division 2 can be entered manually
or updated from the Material Database by providing the Material Name and Operating Temperature in the corresponding
fields. Any allowable values entered manually or modified by the user, display in red.

Vessel Data
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-13
Nozzle Data
12-14 Equipment Component and Compliance
The nozzle loading is specified on the last spreadsheet, according to specific load cases, which include sustained, expansion
and occasional cases. These loads are found in the CAESAR II Output Restraint Load Summary under the corresponding
load cases or may be extracted from the static output files automatically by clicking the Get From Output... button. The
WRC 107 specific local input coordinate system has been incorporated into the program; so the loads may be input in either
the Global CAESAR II convention, or in the Local WRC 107 coordinate system. To enter loads in WRC 107 convention,
click the WRC 107 radio button. If the Global CAESAR II convention is used, the vessel and nozzle centerline direction
cosines must be present. Note, the positive direction is the Nozzle centerline vector pointing from the nozzle connection
towards the vessel centerline. The loads convention may be freely converted from global to local and back provided the
direction cosines are present.
Nozzle Loads (SUS)
Nozzle curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping; however, should any
of the interpolation parameters, i.e. Beta, etc. fall outside the limits of the available curves, some extrapolation of the WRC
method must be used. The current default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table. If one wishes to control the
extrapolation methodology interactively, you may do so by changing the WRC 107 default from “USE LAST CURVE
VALUE” to “INTERACTIVE CONTROL” on the Computation Control tab located inside the Configure-Setup module
of the Main Menu or directly in the WRC 107 input file, on the Vessel Data tab.
After entering all data, the WRC 107 analysis may be initiated through the Analyze-WRC 107/297 menu option or by
clicking the Local Stress Analysis button on the toolbar. CAESAR II will automatically performs the ASME Section VIII,
Div. 2 summation.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-15
Output reports may be viewed at the terminal or printed. Clicking the button, performs the initial WRC 107 calculation
and summation and sends the result to MicroSoft™ Word.

WRC 107 Stress Summations
Because the stresses computed by WRC 107 are highly localized, they do not fall immediately under the B31 code rules as
defined by B31.1 or B31.3. The Appendix 4-1 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 (“Mandatory Design Based on Stress
Analysis”) does however provide a detailed approach for dealing with these local stresses. The analysis procedure outlined
in the aforementioned code is used in CAESAR II to perform the stress evaluation. In order to evaluate the stresses through an
elastic analysis, three stress combinations (summations) must be made:
Pm
Pm + Pl + Pb
Pm + Pl + Pb + Q
Where Pm is defined as the general membrane stress due to internal pressure removed from discontinuities, and can be
estimated for the vessel wall from the expression (PD) / (4t) for the longitudinal component and (PD) / (2t) for the hoop
component, where P is the design pressure of the system. The allowable for Pm is kSmh where Smh is the allowable stress
intensity (See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for definition). The value of k can be taken from Table AD-150.1
of the code (which ranges from 1.0 for sustained loads to 1.2 for sustained plus wind loads or sustained plus earthquake
loads). Pl is the local membrane stress at the junction due to the sustained piping loads, Pb is the local bending stress
(defined as zero at the nozzle to vessel connections per Section VIII, Division 2 of ASME Code), while Q is defined as the
secondary stress, due to thermal expansion piping loads, or the bending stress due to internal pressure thrust and sustained
piping loads. The allowable stress intensity for the second stress combination is 1.5kSmh, as defined by the Figure 4-130.1 of
the Code, while Smh is the hot stress intensity allowable at the given design temperature. Both Pl and Q will be calculated by
the WRC 107 program. The third combination actually defines the “range” of the stress intensity, and its allowable is
limited to 1.5(Smc+Smh). See the Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion.
This summation is done automatically following the WRC 107 analysis. This calculation provides a comparison of the
stress intensities to the entered allowables, along with a corresponding PASS-FAIL ruling. Failed items display in red.
12-16 Equipment Component and Compliance
The WRC 107 Analysis module can provide a graphical representation of the nozzle and its imposed loads. This can be
accessed via the button on the toolbar.

WRC 107 Analysis Module
The displayed load case (SUS, EXP, and OCC) can be varied by selecting from the choices listed on the drop-down menu.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-17
WRC Bulletin 297
Published in August of 1984, Welding Research Council (WRC) 297 attempts to extend the existing analysis tools for the
evaluation of stresses in cylinder-to-cylinder intersections. WRC 297 differs from the widely used WRC 107 primarily in
that WRC 297 is designed for larger d/D ratios (up to 0.5), and that WRC 297 also computes stresses in the nozzle and the
vessel. (WRC 107 only computes stresses in the vessel.)
The CAESAR II WRC 297 module shares the same interface with WRC 107. To enable the WRC 297 analysis, from the
Vessel tab, click the WRC 297 radio button. The module provides spreadsheets for vessel data, nozzle data, and imposed
loads. Vessel and Nozzle data fields function the same way as those in WRC 107. Currently WRC 297 supports one set of
loads. The loads may be entered in either Global CAESAR II convention, or in the Local WRC 107 coordinate system. If
Global CAESAR II convention is selected vessel and nozzle direction cosines must be present in order to convert the loads
into the Local WRC 297 convention as discussed in the WRC 297 bulletin.
Analysis - WRC 297
12-18 Equipment Component and Compliance
Nozzle Screen
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-19
.
WRC 297 - Loads
The CAESAR II version of WRC 297 also adds the pressure component of the stress using Lame’s equations, multiplied by
the stress intensification factors found in ASME Section VIII, Div. 2, Table AD-560.7. The pressure stress calculation is not
a part of the WRC 297 bulletin, but is added here as a convenience for the user.
Note CAESAR II also utilizes, through the piping input processor, the nozzle flexibility calculations described in WRC
297 refer to Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference Manual.
When provided with the necessary input, CAESAR II calculates the stress components at the four locations on the vessel
around the nozzle and also the corresponding locations on the nozzle. Stresses are calculated on both the outer and inner
surfaces (upper and lower). These stress components are resolved into stress intensities at these 16 points around the
connection. Refer to the WRC 107 discussion for more information on the allowable limits for these stresses and output
processing.

12-20 Equipment Component and Compliance
Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations
The Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations are started by selecting the Main Menu option ANALYSIS-FLANGES.
There have been primarily two different ways to calculate stress and one way to estimate leakage for flanges that have
received general application over the past 20 years. The stress calculation methods are from the following sources:
ASME Section VIII
ANSI B16.5 Rating Tables
The leakage calculations were also based on the B16.5 rating table approach. Leakage is a function of the relative
stiffnesses of the flange, gasket and bolting. Using the B16.5 estimated stress calculations to predict leakage does not
consider the gasket type, stiffness of the flange, or the stiffness of the bolting. Using B16.5 to estimate leakage makes the
tendency to leak proportional to the allowable stress in the flange, i.e. a flange with a higher allowable will be able to resist
higher moments without leakage. Leakage is very weakly tied to allowable stress, if at all.
The CAESAR II Flange Leakage Calculation is COADE’s first attempt to improve upon the solution of this difficult
analysis problem. Equations were written to model the flexibility of the annular plate that is the flange, and its ability to
rotate under moment, axial force, and pressure. The results compare favorably with three dimensional finite element
analysis of the flange junction. These correlations assume that the distance between the inside diameter of the flange and the
center of the effective gasket loading diameter is smaller than the distance between the effective gasket loading diameter
and the bolt circle diameter, i.e. that (G-ID) < (BC-G), where, G is the effective gasket loading diameter, ID is the inside
diameter of the flange, and BC is the diameter of the bolt circle.
Several trends have been noticed as flange calculations have been made:
The thinner the flange, the greater the tendency to leak.
Larger diameter flanges have a greater tendency to leak.
Stiffer gaskets have a greater tendency to leak.
Leakage is a function of bolt tightening stress.
Input for the Flange Module is broken into four sections. The first section describes flange geometry.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-21
Flange Analysis
12-22 Equipment Component and Compliance
The second section contains data on the bolts and gasket.
Bolts and Gasket
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-23
The third section is used to enter material and stress-related data.
Material and Stress Data
12-24 Equipment Component and Compliance
The fourth section contains the imposed loads.
Imposed Loads
Note on Bolt Tightening Stress
This is a critical item for leakage determination and for computing stresses in the flange. The ASME Code bases it's stress
calculations on a prespecified, fixed equation for the bolt stress. The resulting value is however often not related to the
actual tightening stress that appears in the flange when the bolts are tightened. For this reason, the initial bolt stress input
field that appears in the first section of data input, Bolt Initial Tightening Stress, is used only for the flexibility/leakage
determination. The value for the bolt tightening stress used in the ASME Flange Stress Calculations is as defined by the
ASME Code:
Bolt Load = Hydrostatic End Force + Force for Leaktight Joint
If the Bolt Initial Tightening Stress field is left blank, CAESAR II uses the value
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-25
where 45,000 psi is a constant and d is the nominal diameter of the bolt (correction is made for metric units).
This is a rule of thumb tightening stress that will typically be applied by field personnel tightening the bolts. This computed
value is printed in the output from the flange program. It is interesting to compare this value to the bolt stress printed in the
ASME stress report (also in the output). It is not unusual for the “rule-of-thumb” tightening stress to be larger than the
ASME required stress. When the ASME required stress is entered into the Bolt Initial Tightening Stress data field, a
comparison of the leakage safety factors can be made and the sensitivity of the joint to the tightening torque can be
ascertained. Users are strongly encouraged to “play” with these numbers to get a feel for the relationship between all of the
factors involved.

Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler
Only the following input parameters are required to get a leakage report. These parameters include
Flange Inside Diameter
Flange Thickness
Bolt Circle Diameter
Number Of Bolts
Bolt Diameter
Effective Gasket Diameter
Uncompressed Gasket Thickness
Effective Gasket Width
Leak Pressure Ratio
Effective Gasket Modulus
Externally Applied Moment
Externally Applied Force
Pressure
The help screens (press [F1] or ? at the data cell) are very useful for all of the input items and should be used liberally here
when there are questions. Unique input cells are discussed as follows:
Leak Pressure Ratio
This value is taken directly from Table 2-5.1 in the ASME Section VIII code. This table is reproduced in the help screens.
This value is more commonly recognized as “m”, and is termed the “Gasket Factor” in the ASME code. This is a very
important number for leakage determination, as it represents the ratio of the pressure required to prevent leakage over the
line pressure.
Effective Gasket Modulus
Typical values are between 300,000 and 400,000 psi for spiral wound gaskets. The higher the modulus the greater the
tendency for the program to predict leakage. Errors on the high side when estimating this value will lead to a more
conservative design.
12-26 Equipment Component and Compliance
Flange Rating
This is an optional input, but results in some very interesting output. As mentioned above, it has been a widely used practice
in the industry to use the ANSI B16.5 and API 605 temperature/pressure rating tables as a gauge for leakage. Because these
rating tables are based on allowable stresses, and were not intended for leakage prediction, the leakage predictions that
resulted were a function of the allowable stress for the flange material, and not the flexibility, i.e. modulus of elasticity of
the flange. To give the user a “feel” for this old practice, the minimum and maximum rating table values from ANSI and
API were stored and are used to print minimum and maximum leakage safety factors that would be predicted from this
method. Example output that the user will get upon entering the flange rating is shown as follows:
EQUIVALENT PRESSURE MODEL ————————-
Equivalent Pressure (lb./sq.in.) 1639.85
ANSI/API Min Equivalent Pressure Allowed 1080.00
ANSI/API Max Equivalent Pressure Allowed 1815.00
This output shows that leakage, according to this older method, occurred if a carbon steel flange was used, and leakage did
not occur if an alloy flange was used. (Of course both flanges would have essentially the same “flexibility” tendency to
leak.)
The following input parameters are used only for the ASME Section VIII Division 1 stress calculations:
Flange Type
Flange Outside Diameter
Design Temperature
Small End Hub Thickness
Large End Hub Thickness
Hub Length
Flange Allowables
Bolt Allowables
Gasket Seating Stress
Optional Allowable Multipliers
Flange Face & Gasket Dimensions
The flange type can be selected from the icons on the first spreadsheet.
Material allowables may be acquired from the Section VIII, Division 1 material library that is accessed from the pull-down
list.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-27
An input listing for a typical flange analysis is shown below:
CA E S A R I I MISCELLANEOUS REPORT ECHO
Flange Inside Diameter [B](in.) 30.560
Flange Thickness [t](in.) 4.060
Flange Rating (Optional) 300.000

Bolt Circle Diameter (in.) 38.500
Number of Bolts 32.000
Bolt Diameter (in.) 1.500
Bolt Initial Tightening Stress(lb./sq.in.)
Effective Gasket Diameter [G] (in.) 33.888
Uncompressed Gasket Thickness (in.) 0.063
Basic Gasket Width [b0] (in.) 0.375
Leak Pressure Ratio [m] 2.750
Effective Gasket Modulus(b./sq.in.) 300,000.000

Externally Applied Moment (optional)(in.lb.) 24,000.000
Externally Applied Force (optional)(lb.) 1,000.000
Pressure [P](lb./sq.in.) 400.000

The following inputs are required only if the user wishes to perform stress calcs as per Sect VIII Div. 1
Flange Type (1-8, see ?-Help or Alt-P to plot) 1.000
Flange Outside Diameter [A](in.) 41.500
Design Temperature°F 650.000

Small End Hub Thickness [g0](in.) 1.690
Large End Hub Thickness [g1](in.) 3.440
Hub Length [h](in.) 6.620

Flange Allowable @Design Temperature(lb./sq.in.) 17,500.000
Flange Allowable @Ambient Temperature(lb./sq.in.) 17,500.000
Flange Modulus of Elasticity @Design(lb./sq.in.) 0.279E+08
Flange Modulus of Elasticity @Ambient(lb./sq.in.) 0.279E+08
Bolt Allowable @Design Temperature(lb./sq.in.) 25,000.000
Bolt Allowable @Ambient Temperature(lb./sq.in.) 25,000.000
Gasket Seating Stress [y](lb./sq.in.) 3,700.000
Flange Allowable Stress Multiplier 1.000
Bolt Allowable Stress Multiplier (VIII Div 2 4-1411.000
Disable Leakage Calculations (Y/N) N

Flange Face OD or Lapjt Cnt OD(in.) 34.500
Flange Face ID or Lapjt Cnt ID(in.) 33.000
Gasket Outer Diameter (in.) 36.000
Gasket Inner Diameter (in.) 33.000
Nubbin Width (in.)
Facing Sketch 1.000
Facing Column 2.000 Disable Leakage Calculations (Y/N) N
12-28 Equipment Component and Compliance
Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G
The B31G criterion provides a methodology whereby corroded pipelines can be evaluated to determine when specific pipe
segments must be replaced. The original B31G document incorporates a healthy dose of conservatism and as a result,
additional work has been performed to modify the original criteria. This additional work can be found in project report PR-
3805, by Battelle, Inc. The details of the original B31G criteria as well as the modified methods are discussed in detail in
this report.
CAESAR II implements these B31G computations from the Main Menu select Analysis-B31G. The user is then presented
with two spreadsheets on which the problem specific data can be entered.
CAESAR II determines the following values according to the original B31G criteria and four modified methods.
These values are
the hoop stress to cause failure
the maximum allowed operating pressure
the maximum allowed flaw length
The four modified methods vary in the manner in which the corroded area is estimated. These methods are
.85dL—The corroded area is approximated as 0.85 times the maximum pit depth times the flaw length.
Exact—The corroded area is determined numerically using the trapezoid method.
Equivalent—The corroded area is determined by multiplying the average pit depth by the flaw length. Additionally, an
equivalent flaw length (flaw length * average pit depth / maximum pit depth) is used in the computation of the Folias
factor.
Effective—This method also uses a numerical trapezoid summation, however, various sub lengths of the total flaw
length are used to arrive at a worst case condition. Note that if the sub length which produces the worst case coincides
with the total length, the Exact and Effective methods yield the same result.
The input screens from the B31G processor are shown below. All input cells have associated help text for user convenience.
Note that most of the data required by this processor is acquired through actual field measurements.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-29
Data Spreadsheet
12-30 Equipment Component and Compliance
A maximum of twenty pit measurements may be entered on the Measurements spreadsheet.
Measurements Spreadsheet
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-31
Once the data has been entered, the Analyze menu option initiates the computations. A typical output report is shown as follows.
The data in the input and the resulting output are consistent with the example from the PR-3-805 report on page B-19. For
additional information or backup on these computations, an intermediate computation file is generated.
For additional information on this processor, please refer to either the B31G document or the Battelle project report PR-3-
805.

12-32 Equipment Component and Compliance
Expansion Joint Rating
CAESAR II provides a computation module which computes a limit for the total displacement per corrugation of an
expansion joint. According to EJMA (Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association), the maximum permitted amount of axial
movement per corrugation is defined as erated where
ex + ey + eq < erated
The terms in the above equation are defined as:
ex = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed axial movements.
ey = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed lateral deflections.
eq = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed angular rotation, i.e. bending.
erated= The maximum permitted amount of axial movement per corrugation. This value should be obtained from the
Expansion Joint Manufacturer’s catalog.
In addition, EJMA states,
“Also, [as an expansion joint is rotated or deflected laterally] it should be noted that one side of the bellows attains a larger
projected area than the opposite side. Under the action of the applied pressure, unbalanced forces are set up which tend to
distort the expansion joint further. In order to control the effects of these two factors a second limit is established by the
manufacturer upon the amount of angular rotation and/or lateral deflection which may be imposed upon the expansion joint.
This limit may be less than the rated movement. Therefore, in the selection of an expansion joint, care must be exercised to
avoid exceeding either of these manufacturer’s limits.”
This CAESAR II computation module is provided to assist the expansion joint user in satisfying these limitations. This
module computes the terms defined in the above equation and the movement of the joint ends relative to each other. These
relative movements are reported in both the local joint coordinate system and the global coordinate system.
The expansion joint rating module can be entered by selecting MAIN MENU ANALYSIS -EXPANSION JOINT RATING option.
The user is then presented with two input spreadsheets on which the joint geometry and end displacements are specified.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-33
Geometry Spreadsheet
12-34 Equipment Component and Compliance
Displacements and Rotation
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-35
12-36 Equipment Component and Compliance
A report displaying both the input echo and the output calculations are shown as follows. The units used for the coordinate
and displacement values are the length units defined in the active units file. Rotations are in units of degrees.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-37
C A E S A R II MISCELLANEOUS REPORT ECHO

EJMA EXPANSION JOINT RATING

Node Number for “FROM” end 120.000
Node Number for “TO” end 125.000
Number of Convolutions 4.000
Flexible Joint Length (in.)4.447
Effective Diameter(in.)4.996

X Coordinate of “from” end (in.).000
Y Coordinate of “from” end (in.).000
Z Coordinate of “from” end (in.).000

X Coordinate of “to” end (in.)4.447

X Displacement of “from” end (in.).300
Y Displacement of “from” end (in.).250
Z Displacement of “from” end (in.).000
X Rotation of “from” end (deg).000
Y Rotation of “from” end (deg)1.222
Z Rotation of “from” end (deg).030
X Displacement of “to” end (in.)-.100
Y Displacement of “to” end (in.).120
Z Displacement of “to” end (in.).000
X Rotation of “to” end (deg).000
Y Rotation of “to” end (deg)-.020
Z Rotation of “to” end (deg).890

OUTPUT:
AXIAL DISPLACEMENTS PER CONVOLUTION

Axial Displacement.100
Axial Displacement due to Lateral .133
Axial Displacement due to Rotation.016
Axial Displacement TOTAL.250

RELATIVE MOVEMENTS OF END “i” WITH RESPECT TO END “j”
(Local Joint Coordinate System)

Relative Axial Displacement, “x”.401
Relative Lateral Displacement, “y”.158
Relative Bending, “theta” (deg)1.511
Relative Torsion (deg) .019

RELATIVE MOVEMENTS OF END “i” WITH RESPECT TO END “j”
(Global Piping Coordinate System)

Relative X Displacement-.399
Relative Y Displacement-.132
Relative Z Displacement.095
Relative Rotation about X (deg).000
Relative Rotation about Y (deg)-1.242
Relative Rotation about Z (deg).860
12-38 Equipment Component and Compliance
In the previous output, the axial displacement total in the report is the total axial displacement per corrugation due to axial,
lateral, and rotational displacement of the expansion joint ends. This is the value that would be compared to the rated axial
displacement per corrugation. If e(total) is greater than the rated axial displacement per corrugation, then there is the possibility
of premature bellows failure. Be sure that the displacement rating from the manufacturer is on a per corrugation basis. If not
then multiply the axial displacement total by the number of corrugations and compare this value to the manufacturer’s
allowable axial displacement. Note that most manufacturers allowed rating is for some set number of cycles (often 10,000).
If the actual number of cycles is less, then the allowed movement can often be greater. Similarly, if the actual number of
cycles is greater than 10,000, then the allowed movement can be smaller. In special situations manufacturers should almost
always be consulted because many factors can affect allowed bellows movement.
The “y” in the report is the total relative lateral displacement of one end of the bellows with respect to the other, and “theta”
is the total relative angular rotation of one end of the bellows with respect to the other. (Note that CAESAR II does not
include “x” into the denominator for the lateral displacement calculations as outlined in EJMA.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-39
Structural Steel Checks - AISC
Code compliance for structural steel shapes is performed according to the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction)
code. This code check uses the forces and moments at the ends of the structural members, computes stresses, and
allowables, and determines a “unity check” value. If the “unity check” value is less than 1.0, the member is acceptable for
the given loading conditions.
CAESAR II performs the AISC unity check according to either the 1977 or the 1989 edition of the AISC code.
Note Member properties are obtained from the AISC database and used to compute the actual and allowable stress values
for the axial and bending terms comprising the “unity check” equations. The specific database is set using the Configure-
Setup module. The database must be either AISC77.BIN or AISC89.BIN.
To perform “unity check” calculations from the Main Menu click Analyze - AISC.
Global Parameters
After launching this module, the user is presented with the Global Input spreadsheet.
Global Input Spreadsheet
12-40 Equipment Component and Compliance
This screen is used to enter data that applies to all members being evaluated. Particular fields are:
Structural Code
The entry in this field should be either AISC 1977 or AISC 1989 respectively. Users should set this entry to match the
database in use.
Allowable Stress Increase Factor
The Allowable Stress Increase Factor is a multiplication factor applied to the computed values of the axial and bending
allowable stresses. Typically this value is 1.0. However, in extreme events the AISC code permits the allowable stresses to
be increased by a factor. Normally a 1/3 increase is applied to the computed allowables, making the Allowable Stress
Increase Factor = 1.33. Examples of extreme events are earthquakes and 100 year storms. For more details see the AISC
code, section 1.5.6.
Stress Reduction Factors Cmy and Cmz
Cmy and Cmz are interaction formula coefficients for the strong and weak axis of the elements (in-plane and out-of-plane).
0.85 for compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sidesway).
For restrained compression members in frames braced against sidesway and not subject to transverse loading between
supports in the plane of bending: 0.6 - 0.4(M1/M2); but not less than 0.4
Where (M1/M2) is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments at the ends, of that portion of the member unbraced in the
plane of bending under consideration.
For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to transverse
loading between supports, the value of Cmy may be determined by rational analysis. However, in lieu of such analysis,
the following values are suggested per the AISC code:
0.85 for members whose ends are restrained against rotation in the plane of bending
1.0 for members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation in the plane of bending
Young’s Modulus
The slope of the linear portion of the stress-strain diagram. For structural steel this value is usually 29,000,000 psi.
Material Yield Strength
The specified minimum yield stress of the steel being used.
Bending Coefficient
The bending coefficient Cb shall be taken as 1.0 in computing the value of Fby and Fbz for use in Formula 1.6-1a. Cb shall
also be unity when the bending moment at any point in an unbraced length is larger than the moment at either end of the
same length. Otherwise, Cb shall be
Cb = 1.75 + 1.05(M1/M2) + 0.3(M1/M2)
2
but not more than 2.3 where (M1/M2) is the ratio of the smaller to larger
moments at the ends.
Form Factor Qa
The form factor is an allowable axial stress reduction factor equal to the effective area divided by the actual area. (Consult
the latest edition of the AISC code for the current computation methods for the effective area.)
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-41
Allow Sidesway
The ability of a frame or structure to experience sidesway (joint translation) affects the computation of several of the
coefficients used in the unity check equations. Additionally, for frames braced against sidesway, moments at each end of the
member are required. Normally sidesway is allowed (i.e., the box is checked).
Resize Members Whose Unity Check Value Is . . .
This check box determines whether or not the AISC program attempts to resize specific members as a result of the unity
check computations. Activating this option requires the user to specify a desired minimum unity check and a desired
maximum unity check. If the computed unity check falls outside this range, the program resizes the member appropriately.
The final member size is shown in the output report.
Minimum Desired Unity Check
This is a required entry if the redesign option has been activated. This entry defines the minimum acceptable unity check
allowed. If a unity check falls below this point, the element is resized to a smaller shape.
Maximum Desired Unity Check
This is a required entry if the redesign option has been activated. This entry defines the maximum acceptable unity check
allowed. If a unity check falls above this point, the element is resized to a larger shape.

12-42 Equipment Component and Compliance
Local Member Data
Local Member Data must be entered for each member being evaluated.
Local Member Data Spreadsheet
Particular fields are the following:
Member Start Node
The member start node is the “i” end of a structural element. The node number entered should be an integer value between 1
and 32,000. This is a required entry.
Member End Node
The member end node is the “j” end of a structural element. The node number entered should be an integer value between 1
and 32,000. This is a required entry.
Member Type
The member type is the AISC shape label found in the AISC manual. The shape label is used to acquire the member
geometric properties from the database. The label entered in this field must match exactly the label in the database for
properties to be obtained. Use the on line help to list typical member designations.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-43
Since many of the angle labels can be found in the single angles, the double angles (long legs back to back), and the double
angles (short legs back to back), require an “angle type” to tell them apart. This cell should contain a D for double angles
with equal legs, and double angles with long legs back to back. This cell should contain a B for double angles with short
legs back to back.
In- And Out-Of-Plane Fixity Coefficients Ky And Kz
The coefficients used to compute the strong and weak axis slenderness ratios, respectively are
End Conditions Theoretical K Recommended Design K
fixed-fixed 0.5 0.65
fixed-pinned 0.7 0.8
fixed-sliding 1.0 1.2
pinned-pinned 1.0 1.0
fixed-free 2.0 2.1
pinned-sliding 2.0 2.0
Unsupported Axial Length
This length is the length used to determine the buckling strength of the member. Typically, this is the total length of the
member.
Unsupported Length (In-Plane Bending)
This length is the length of the member between braces or supports which prevent bending about the strong axis of the
member.
Unsupported Length (Out-Of-Plane Bending)
This length is the length of the member between braces or supports which prevent bending about the weak axis of the
member.
Double Angle Spacing
Double angles normally have a gap or space separating the adjacent legs. The spacing as defined in the AISC manual must
be 0.0, .375, or .75 inches.
Young’s Modulus
The slope of the linear portion of the stress-strain diagram. For structural steel this value is usually 29,000,000 psi. This
value of Young’s modulus overrides the value specified on the “global” input spreadsheet.
Material Yield Strength
The specified minimum yield stress of the steel being used. This value of the material yield strength overrides the value
specified on the “global” input spreadsheet.
12-44 Equipment Component and Compliance
Axial Member Force
This is the force (tension or compression) which acts along the axis of the member. The sign of the number is not
significant, since a worst case load condition will be assumed, i.e. all positive loads.
In-Plane Bending Moment
The maximum bending moment in the member (when sidesway is permitted) which will cause bending about the strong
axis Y-Y of the member. The sign of the number is not significant, since a worst case load condition will be assumed, i.e. all
positive loads.
Out-of-Plane Bending Moment
The maximum bending moment in the member (when sidesway is permitted) which will cause bending about the weak axis
Z-Z of the member. The sign of the number is not significant, since a worst case load condition will be assumed, i.e. all
positive loads.
In-Plane “Small” Bending Moment
For structures braced against sidesway, the end moments must be specified. This value is the smaller of the two in-plane
bending moments which cause bending about the strong axis Y-Y of the member.
In-Plane “Large” Bending Moment
For structures braced against sidesway, the end moments must be specified. This value is the larger of the two in-plane
bending moments which cause bending about the strong axis Y-Y of the member.
Out-of-Plane “Small” Bending Moment
For structures braced against sidesway, the end moments must be specified. This value is the smaller of the two out-of-plane
bending moments which cause bending about the weak axis Z-Z of the member.
Out-of-Plane “Large” Bending Moment
For structures braced against sidesway, the end moments must be specified. This value is the larger of the two out-of-plane
bending moments which cause bending about the weak axis Z-Z of the member.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-45
AISC Output Reports
The output reports can be directed to either the terminal or a printer. The output report begins with a one page summary
describing the current global data and units. This summary is shown on the following page:
AISC Output Summary
12-46 Equipment Component and Compliance
The remaining pages in the output report show the data for the individual members. The last column of the report contains
the most important data (namely the unity check value) and the governing AISC equation. Two sample member output
reports are shown in the following figures. The first report is applicable to jobs where sidesway is allowed, the second
report is applicable to jobs where sidesway is prevented.
Member Output Report, Sidesway Permitted
Differences Between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Codes
There are a few differences between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Code Revisions that affect unity check computation. The
most noticeable difference between these two revisions is that the 1989 code provides a method for computing the unity
check on single angles. This procedure (which was not addressed in the 1977 code) can be found in a special code section
following the commentary. The steps necessary to compute the unity check for single angles can be followed by reviewing
the message file (generated upon user request).
The other differences between these two code revisions deal with members in compression. Several constants for Qs have
been altered, and a new factor “kc” has been added. “kc” is a compression element restraint coefficient defined in the 1989
edition of the code.
Because of these code differences, CAESAR II stores the name of the active database in the input file for the AISC Program
when the data file is first created. Attempting to switch databases or compute unity checks on angles using the 1977 code
will generate error messages and the program will abort. Users are urged to consult the applicable AISC Manuals when
using this program.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-47
NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines)
There are two types of force/moment allowables computed during a NEMA run:
• Individual nozzle allowables.
• Cumulative equipment allowables.
Each individual suction, discharge, and extraction nozzle must satisfy the equation:
3F + M < 500De
Where:
F = resultant force on the particular nozzle.
M = resultant moment on the particular nozzle.
De = effective nominal pipe size of the connection.
A typical discharge nozzle calculation is shown as follows:
12-48 Equipment Component and Compliance
For cumulative equipment allowables NEMA SM23 states "the combined resultants of the forces and moments of the inlet,
extraction, and exhaust connections resolved at the centerline of the exhaust connection", be within a certain multiple of
Dc; where Dc is the diameter of an opening whose area is equal to the sum of the areas of all of the individual equipment
connections. A typical turbine cumulative (summation) equipment calculation is shown as follows:
SFX, SFY, and SFZ are the respective components of the forces from all connections resolved at the discharge nozzle.
FC(RSLT) is the result of these forces. SMX, SMY and SMZ are the respective components of the moments from all
connections resolved at the discharge nozzle. Dc is the diameter of the equivalent opening as discussed above.

NEMA Turbine Example
Consider a turbine where node 35 represents the inlet nozzle and node 50 represents the outlet nozzle.
The output from a CAESAR II analysis of this piping system includes the forces and moments acting on the pipe elements
that attach to the turbine:
NODE FX FY FZ MX MY MZ
30 -108 -49 -93 73 188 603
35 108 67 93 162 -47 -481
50 -192 7 -11 369 -522 39
55 192 -63 11 78 117 -56
To find the forces acting on the turbine at points 35 and 50 simply reverse the sign of the forces that act on the piping:
LOADS ON TURBINE @ 35 -108 -67 -93 -162 47 481
LOADS ON TURBINE @ 50 192 -7 11 -369 522 -39
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-49
Aside from the description, there is only one input spreadsheet for the NEMA turbine. Applied loads should be entered in
global coordinates or extracted directly from the CAESAR II output file (using the on-screen button). This interface enables
iterative addiction of an arbitrary number of nozzles to the model. To add a nozzle, click Add Nozzle.
NEMA Input Inlet
12-50 Equipment Component and Compliance
NEMA Input Exhaust
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-51
The first page of the output is the input echo, the second and some of the remaining pages display the individual nozzle
calculations while, the last page displays the summation calculations.
Note The actual number of output pages will vary and depends on the number of nozzles defined in the input.
NEMA Input Echo Report
12-52 Equipment Component and Compliance
The NEMA output report for the above turbine example shows that the turbine passed. The highest summation load is only
56% of the allowable. If the turbine had failed, the symbol **FAILED** would have displayed, in red, under the
“STATUS” column opposite to the load combination that was excessive.
NEMA Output Nozzle Calculations
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-53
NEMA Output Summation Calcs
12-54 Equipment Component and Compliance
API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps)
In August of 1995, API released the 8th edition of API 610 for centrifugal pumps for general refinery service.
The API 610 load satisfaction criteria is outlined below:
If clause F.1.1 is satisfied, then the pump is O.K. Clause F.1.1 states that the individual component nozzle loads must fall
below the allowables listed in the Nozzle Loadings table (Table 2) shown below:
If clause F.1.1 is NOT satisfied, but clauses F.1.2.1, F.1.2.2, and F.1.2.3 ARE satisfied then the pump is still O.K.
Clause F.1.2.1 states that the individual component forces and moments acting on each pump nozzle flange shall not exceed
the range specified in Table 2 by a factor of more than 2. Referring to the API 610 report, the user can see if F.1.2.1 is
satisfied by comparing the Force/Moment Ratio to 2. If the ratio exceeds 2, the nozzle status is reported as “FAILING”.
The F.1.2.2 and the F.1.2.3 requirements give equations relating the resultant forces and moments on each nozzle, as well as
on the pump base point respectively. The requirements of these equations, and whether or not they have satisfied API 610,
are shown on the bottom of the report.
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-55
The following example is taken from the API 610 code and shows the review of an overhung end-suction process pump in
English units. The three CAESAR II input screens are shown, followed by the program output.
API 610 Input Data
12-56 Equipment Component and Compliance
API 610 Suction Nozzle
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-57
API 610 Discharge Nozzle
12-58 Equipment Component and Compliance
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-59
Vertical In-Line Pumps
Note that on the first screen there is a check box for a vertical in-line pump. This is to be used when the pump is the vertical
in-line type supported only by the attached piping. API states that if this is the case then 2.0 times the loads from Table 2
can be used. However, even if the pump fails the 2.0 Table 2 criteria, it may still pass. If the principal stress on the nozzle is
less than 6,000 psi, then that nozzle passes. If the principal stress on either nozzle is greater than 6,000 psi, the overall status
will be reported as “Failed.”
In API 610 there is an example problem which illustrates the way that the stresses are computed on these in-line pump
nozzles. The two basic equations for determining stress are
stresses (s) = Force / Area + Moment / Section Modulus
Shear Stresses (t) = Force / Area + Torque * distance / J
Where J is the polar moment of inertia.
In equation number 2, both terms of the equation will always add together. On the other hand, the Force/Area term in
equation 1 will depend on the sign of the force (tension or compression) that the user enters in the force and moment
spreadsheet. The sign of the force is determined from the user-entered Centerline Direction Cosine, which for vertical in-
line pumps should be entered in the direction extending from the discharge to the suction nozzle. The distances that are
usually entered for pedestal mounted pumps can be left blank since they are not used.

12-60 Equipment Component and Compliance
API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors)
The requirements of this standard are identical to those of NEMA SM-23 (1991), except that all of the NEMA allowables
are increased by 85%.
API 617 Allowables = 1.85 * NEMA SM-23 Allowables
The input screens for this evaluation display below:
API 617 Input
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-61
API 617 Suction/Discharge Input
12-62 Equipment Component and Compliance
API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers)
This calculation covers the allowed loads on the vertical, co-linear nozzles (item 9 in the figure) found on most single, or
multi-bundled air cooled heat exchangers.
The several figures from API 661 illustrate the type of open exchanger body analyzed by this standard.
API 661 Heat Exchangers
The input for API 661 is self-explanatory.
The “Heat Exchangers” figure and the Resultant Force/Multiplier inputs for Spreadsheet #1 are optional (default equals 1).
The two requirements for API 661 to be satisfied are as follows:
5.1.11.1 - “Each nozzle in the corroded condition shall be capable of withstanding the moments and forces defined in Heat
Exchangers figure.”

5.1.11.2 - The sum of the forces and moments on each fixed header (i.e. each individual bundle) will be less than 1,500 lb.
transverse to the bundle, 2,500 lb. axial to the bundle, and 3,000 pound axial on the nozzle centerline. The allowed moments
are 3,000, 2,000, and 4,000 ft.lb. respectively. “This recognizes that the application of these moments and forces will cause
movement and that this movement will tend to reduce the actual loads.”
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-63
API 661 Input Data
12-64 Equipment Component and Compliance
API 661 Inlet Nozzle Data
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-65
API 661 Outlet Nozzle Data
12-66 Equipment Component and Compliance
A typical API 661 report is shown as follows:
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-67
Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters
This module of the CAESAR II Rotating Equipment program provides a method for evaluating the allowable loads on
shell type heat exchanger nozzles. Section 3.14 of the HEI bulletin discusses the computational methods utilized to compute
these allowable loads.
The method employed by HEI is a simplification of the WRC 107 method, in which the allowable loads have been
linearized to show the relationship between the maximum permitted radial force and the maximum permitted moment
vector. If this relationship is plotted (using the moments as the abscissa and the forces as the ordinate), a straight line can be
drawn between the maximum permitted force and the maximum permitted moment vector, forming a triangle with the axes.
Then for any set of applied forces and moments, the nozzle passes if the location of these loads falls inside the triangle.
Conversely, the nozzle fails if the location of the loads falls outside the triangle.
The CAESAR II HEI output has been modified to include both the plot of the allowables and the location of the current
load set on this plot.
The HEI bulletin states that the effect of internal pressure has been included in the combined stresses; however, the effect of
the pressure on the nozzle thrust has not. This requires combination with the other radial loads. CAESAR II automatically
computes the pressure thrust and adds it to the radial force if the Add Pressure Thrust check box is enabled.
A sample input for the HEI module is shown below. Note that since the pressure is greater than zero, a pressure thrust force
will be computed and combined with the radial force.
HEI Nozzle/Vessel Input
12-68 Equipment Component and Compliance
API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services)
This module of the CAESAR II Rotating Equipment Program provides a method for evaluating the allowable loads on
Fired Heaters.
Input consists of the tube nominal diameter and the forces and moments acting on the tube, as shown in the figure below:
API 560 Input Data
Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-69
Upon execution of the analysis, CAESAR II compares the input forces and moments to the allowables as published in API
560 Example output is shown below.
API 560 Equipment Report

Index
3
3D Graphic Highlights • 5-50
3D Graphic Highlights - Materials, Diameters,
Wall Thickness, Insulation • 5-50
3D Graphics Configuration • 5-43
3D Graphics Highlights
Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads,
Wind/Wave Loads • 5-52
Temp.and Press. • 5-51
Temperature and Pressure • 5-51
3D Graphics Interactive Feature
Walk Through • 5-56
3D HOOPs Graphics • 10-8
3-D Modeler • 5-39
3D/HOOPS Graphics • 10-8
3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor •
9-18
3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Animation Processor
• 9-18
3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Output Processor • 7-
23
3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output
Processor • 7-23
3D/HOOPS in the Animation Processor • 9-18
A
About the CAESAR II documentation • 1-5
About the CAESAR II Documentation • 1-5
ABS • 6-21
ABS Method • 8-15
ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT
BY THE USER • 2
Actual cold loads • 6-23
Adjust Deflection Scale • 7-23
Advanced • 8-31, 8-35
Advanced parameters • 8-16
Advanced Parameters • 8-16
Advanced parameters show screen • 8-8
Advanced Parameters Show Screen • 8-8
AISC code comparisons • 12-46
AISC database • 10-2
AISC output reports • 12-45
AISC Output Reports • 12-45
AISC unity checks
Allow sidesway • 12-39
Allowable stress increase factor • 12-39
Bending coefficient • 12-39
Double angle spacing • 12-42
Fixity coefficients • 12-42
Form factor qa • 12-39
Member type • 12-42
Stress reduction factors • 12-39
Structural code • 12-39
Algebraic • 6-21
Allowable stress increase factor • 12-39
Allowable stresses • 5-18
Allowable Stresses • 5-18
Alpha tolerance • 5-6
Ambient temperature • 5-6
Analysis menu • 4-6
Analysis Menu • 4-6
Analyzing the dynamics job
Eigensolver • 8-37
Mode shapes • 8-37
Performing a harmonic analysis
For • 8-37
Pha • 8-37
Performing a modal analysis
Eigens • 8-37
Freque • 8-37
Modes • 8-37
Natura • 8-37
Sturm • 8-37
Performing a spectral analysis
Mas • 8-38
Selection of phase angles
Harmonic • 8-38
Angle spacing, double • 12-42
Animation
Motion • 7-26
Animation of Dynamic Results odal/Spectrum • 9-
19
Animation of Dynamic Results-Harmonic • 9-19
Animation of Dynamic Resultsime History • 9-19
Animation of Dynamic Results-Modal/Spectrum •
9-19
Animation of Dynamic Results-Time History • 9-
19
Animation of static results • 7-26
Animation of Static Results - Displacements • 9-
19
Animation of Static Results Notes • 7-26
Announcing Builds • 1-7
2 Index
ANSI B16.5 • 12-25
API 560 (fired heaters for general refinery
services) • 12-68
API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery
Services) • 12-68
API 605 rating tables • 12-25
API 610
Centrifugal pumps
Load Satisfaction Criteria, API 610 • 12-54
API 610 (centrifugal pumps) • 12-54
API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) • 12-54
API 617 (centrifugal compressors) • 12-60
API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) • 12-60
API 661 (air cooled heat exchangers) • 12-62
API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) • 12-62
Application guide • 1-5
Applications of CAESAR II • 1-3
Archive • 6-12
Archiving and reinstalling • 1-8
Archiving and Reinstalling an Old, Patched
Version • 1-8
ASCE #7 wind loads • 6-9
ASCE7 • 8-21
Auxiliary data area • 5-9
Auxiliary Data Area • 5-9
Auxiliary data fields
Auxiliary screens • 5-9
Expansion joint
Effective diameter of b • 5-13
Pressure thrust in expa • 5-13
Axial length, Unsupported • 12-42
Axial member force • 12-42
B
B31.1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response
Spectrum • 8-25
Backfill • 11-9
Backfill efficiency • 11-9
Bandwidth • 6-12
Basic load cases • 6-15
Basic operation • 3-5
Basic Operation • 3-5
Batch run • 6-2
Bend data • 5-10
Bend Data • 5-10
Bend stress intensification factors • 12-6
Bend Stress Intensification Factors • 12-6
Bending coefficient • 12-39
Bending moment, In-plane • 12-42
Bending moment, Out-of-plane • 12-42
Bending stress • 12-15
Bends with trunnions • 12-8
Bends with Trunnions • 12-8
Bilinear springs • 11-9
Bilinear supports • 11-9
Bolt tightening stress • 12-24
Bolts and gasket • 12-20
Boundary conditions • 5-7, 9-5
Boundary Conditions • 5-7
BS-806 • 12-8
Building static load cases • 6-5
Building Static Load Cases • 6-8
Building the load cases • 3-11
Building the Load Cases • 3-11
Builds, Version • 1-7
Buried pipe displacements • 11-3
Buried pipe example • 11-12
Buried Pipe Modeling • 11-1
Buried pipe restraints • 11-3
C
CADWorx/PIPE • 1-4
CAESAR II Installation • 2-5
CAESAR II LICENSE AGREEMENT • 2
CAESAR II Quick Start • 3-2
CAESAR II Technical Changes • 1-12
CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler • 11-2
CAESAR II, About • 1-2
Can Builds Be Applied To Any Version? • 1-7
Center of gravity report • 3-9
Tutorial • 3-9
Checking the installation • 2-5
Code compliance • 8-3
Code Compliance Report • 7-15
Code Stress Colors by Percent • 7-23
Code Stress Colors by Value • 7-23
Code stresses for dynamics • 9-5
Cold loads • 6-23
Column reports • 7-2
Combination load cases • 6-15
Combination Method • 8-15
Combination Methods • 6-21
Concentrated forces • 8-2
Configuration • 2-5
Connecting nodes • 10-18
Construction element • 5-6
Control parameters • 8-3, 8-8, 8-11, 8-16, 8-31, 8-
35
Control Parameters • 8-8, 8-11, 8-16, 8-31, 8-35
Corroded pipelines, B31G
Calculating corroded area • 12-28
Flaw Lengt • 12-28
Cumulative usage • 9-5
Index 3
Cumulative Usage Report • 7-16
Custom Reports • 7-7
Custom Reports Toolbar • 7-6, 7-10
Customizable Toolbar • 5-3, 5-4
Customize Toolbar • 5-3
Cutoff frequency • 8-8
Cyclic stress range • 8-2
D
Damping • 8-11
Data fields • 5-4
Data Fields • 5-4
Definition of a load case • 6-15
Definition of a Load Case • 6-15
Deflected Shape • 7-23
Densities • 5-8
Design
CADWorx/PIPE • 1-4
Detecting/Checking Builds • 1-8
Diagnostics menu • 4-9
Diagnostics Menu • 4-9
Differences Between the 1977 and 1989 AISC
Codes • 12-46
DISCLAIMER - CAESAR II • 4
Disp • 6-20
Disp/Force • 6-20
Disp/Force/Stress • 6-20
Disp/Stress • 6-20
Displacement load case • 6-22
Displacements • 5-14, 7-10, 9-5
DLF spectrum generator • 8-28
DLF/Spectrum Generator • 8-18
DLF/Spectrum Generator - The Spectrum Wizard
• 8-18
Double angle spacing • 12-42
Driving frequencies • 8-3
Dynamic amplitude • 8-2
Dynamic analysis input processor • 8-5
Dynamic analysis types • 8-5
Dynamic input commands • 8-5
Initiating dynamic input • 8-5
Prerequisites for dynamic inp • 8-5
Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview • 8-5
Dynamic capabilities
Harmonic analysis • 8-2
Concentrated forces • 8-2
Cyclic stress range • 8-2
Dynamic amplitude • 8-2
Equipment start-up • 8-2
Fluid pulsation • 8-2
Forcing frequencies • 8-2
Phase angle • 8-2
Rotating equipment • 8-2
Vibration • 8-2
Modal analysis • 8-2
Mode shapes • 8-2
Natural frequency • 8-2
Spectrum analysis • 8-2
Impulse analysis • 8-2
Relief valve • 8-2
Response spectrum meth • 8-2
Response vs. frequency • 8-2
Sustained stresses in • 8-2
Time history analysis • 8-2
Dynamic capabilities in CAESAR II • 8-2
Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II • 8-2
Dynamic imbalance • 8-9
Dynamic Input and Analysis • 8-1
Dynamic load case number • 8-15
Dynamic load factor • 8-17
Dynamic load specification • 8-3
Dynamic Output Processing • 9-1
Dynamic output processor • 9-2
4 Index
Boundary conditions • 9-5
Friction resista • 9-5
Nonlinear restra • 9-5
Forces/stresses, dynamics • 9-5
Global forces, dynamics • 9-5
Harmonic results • 9-2
General results • 9-2
Included mass data • 9-5
% Force active • 9-5
% Force added • 9-5
% Mass included • 9-5
Extracted modes • 9-5
Missing mass corr • 9-5
System response • 9-5
Local forces, dynamics • 9-5
Mass model • 9-5
Lumped masses • 9-5
Mass participation factors • 9-5
Modes mass normalized • 9-5
Modes unity normalized • 9-5
Natural frequencies • 9-5
Report types, dynamics
Displacements • 9-5
Report option • 9-5
Restraints, dynamics • 9-5
Maximum load on • 9-5
Maximum modal c • 9-5
Mode identifica • 9-5
Spectrum results • 9-2
Static/dynamic comb • 9-2
Stresses, dynamics • 9-5
Code stresses for • 9-5
Stress intensific • 9-5
Stress report • 9-5
Time history results • 9-2
E
Earthquake (spectrum) • 8-12
Earthquake (Spectrum) • 8-12
Earthquake input spectrum
Spectrum definitions • 8-12
Response spect • 8-12
Shock definiti • 8-12
Spectrum data • 8-12
Spectrum name • 8-12
Spectrum load cases
Earthquake • 8-14
El Centro earth • 8-14
Independent sup • 8-14
Spectrum load cases example • 8-14
Static/dynamic combinations
ABS • 8-15
Combina • 8-15
Hanger • 8-15
Occasio • 8-15
Piping • 8-15
SRSS • 8-15
Sustain • 8-15
Earthquakes • 8-29
Edit Dynamic Load Case • 5-26
Edit menu • 5-26
Edit Menu • 5-26
Edit Static Load Case • 5-26
Effective diameter • 5-13
Effective gasket modulus • 12-25
Eigensolution • 8-3
Eigensolver • 8-37
EJMA (expansion joint manufacturers association)
• 12-32
El centro • 8-12
Element Direction Cosines • 5-5
Element length • 11-3
Element lengths • 5-4
Element Lengths • 5-4
End connections • 10-2
Entering the dynamic analysis input menu • 8-5
Entering the Dynamic Analysis Input Menu • 8-5
Entering the static output processor • 7-2
Entering the Static Output Processor • 7-2
ENTIRE AGREEMENT • 3
Entry into the processor • 9-2
Entry into the Processor • 9-2
Environment menu • 5-36
Environment Menu • 5-36
Equipment and component evaluation • 12-1
Index 5
Bend SIFs
Trunnion • 12-6
Bends with trunnions
Trunn • 12-8
Equipment checks • 12-1
Flanges attached to bend en • 12-8
Intersection SIFs • 12-3
Pressure stiffening
Flexib • 12-8
Stress • 12-8
Stress concentrations and i • 12-9
Equipment Component and Compliance • 12-1
Equipment start-up • 8-2
Error Check • 6-2
Error checking • 6-2
Errors, warnings, and notes • 6-2
Error Checking • 6-2
Error Checking Static Load Cases • 6-1
Error checking the model • 3-9
Error Checking the Model • 3-9
Error handling and analyzing the job • 8-36
Error Handling and Analyzing the Job • 8-36
Errors
Errors and warnings • 3-9
ESL • 8-36
ESL installation on a network • 2-15
ESL Installation on a Network • 2-15
ESL menu • 4-10
ESL Menu • 4-10
Excitation frequency • 8-9
Executing static analysis • 3-12
Executing Static Analysis • 3-12
Execution of static analysis • 6-12
Execution of Static Analysis • 6-12
Expansion joint • 5-6, 5-13, 5-31
Expansion Joint • 5-13
Expansion joint rating • 12-32
Ejma • 12-32
Maximum axial movement • 12-32
Maximum lateral deflection • 12-32
Maximum rotation • 12-32
Output • 12-32
Expansion Joint Rating • 12-32
Expansion load cases • 3-11, 6-22
EXPORT RESTRICTIONS • 4
External software lock
ESL updating • 4-10
Local ESL • 2-15
Network ESL • 2-15
Extracted modes • 9-5
F
Fatal error dialog • 6-3
Fatal Error Message • 6-3
Fatigue (FAT) • 6-5, 6-15
Fatigue curve • 5-18
Fatigue curve data • 5-18
Fatigue curve dialog • 5-18
Fatigue failure • 9-5
Fatigue load cases • 9-5
Fatigue loadings • 7-16
Fatigue stress types • 6-5, 8-9, 8-14, 9-5
Fatigue-type load cases • 7-16
File menu • 4-3, 5-24
File Menu • 4-3, 5-24
Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info • 5-53
Fixity coefficients ky and kz • 12-42
Fixity coefficients, AISC • 12-42
Flange leakage/stress calculations • 12-20
Flange leakage • 12-20
Methodology • 12-20
Flange rating
ANSI B16.5 • 12-25
API 605 • 12-25
Rating Table • 12-25
Leak pressure ratio
Gasket • 12-25
Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations • 12-20
Flange modeler • 12-25
Flange rating • 12-25
Flanges • 5-9
Flanges attached to bend ends • 12-8
Flanges Attached to Bend Ends • 12-8
Flaw length • 12-28
Flexible nozzles • 5-20
Flexible Nozzles • 5-20
Fluid pulsation • 8-2
Force • 6-20
Force sets • 8-3, 8-29, 8-32, 8-34
Force Sets • 8-29, 8-32, 8-34
Force spectrum methodology • 8-17
Force Stress • 6-20
Forces • 5-15
Forces/stresses • 9-5
Force-time profiles • 8-32, 8-33
Forcing frequency • 8-2, 8-37
Form factor QA • 12-39
Frequency • 8-9
Frequency cutoff • 8-37
6 Index
Friction Multiplier • 6-20
Friction resistance • 9-5
Full run • 1-9
Full Run • 1-9
G
Gasket factor • 12-25
GENERAL • 3
General Computed Results • 7-17
Global element forces • 7-12
Global Element Forces • 7-12
Global forces • 9-5
Global parameters • 12-39
Global Parameters • 12-39
H
Hanger • 5-21, 6-23
Hanger Design • 6-20
Hanger design control data • 5-31
Hanger selection
Actual cold loads • 6-23
Additional hanger • 6-23
Design load cases • 6-23
Hanger sizing load cases • 6-23
Hot load • 6-23
Operating load cases • 6-23
Recommended load cases • 6-23
Restrained weight • 6-23
Spring hanger design • 6-23
Hanger sizing • 6-23, 8-15
Hanger Stiffness • 6-20
Hanger Table with Text • 7-18
Hangers • 5-21
Hardware requirements • 2-3
Harmonic • 8-9, 8-37
Harmonic analysis • 8-2, 8-3
Harmonic analysis input
Harmonic displacements • 8-9
Harmonic forces • 8-9
Harmonic load definition • 8-9
Excitation f • 8-9
Phasing of harmonic loads
Damping • 8-11
Frequency • 8-9
Harmonic co • 8-11
Harmonic fo • 8-9
Pressure wa • 8-9
Reciprocati • 8-9
Rotating eq • 8-9
Harmonic control parameters • 8-11
Harmonic displacements • 8-9
Harmonic force • 8-9
Harmonic loads • 8-9
Harmonic results • 8-38, 9-2
Harmonic stress • 8-38
Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed
Feedwater Heaters • 12-67
Heat exchangers • 12-62
HEI standard for closed feedwater heaters • 12-67
Help menu • 4-12
Help Menu • 4-12
HOOPS Toolbar Manipulations • 5-49
HOOPS‘ License Grant • 4
Hot load • 6-23
I
IBC • 8-23
Identifying Builds • 1-7
IGE/TD/12 • 5-5
Impulse • 8-30
Impulse analysis • 8-2
Included mass data • 9-5
Incore solution • 6-12
Independent support motion • 8-14
Index numbers, structural steel input • 10-2
In-plane bending moment • 12-42
In-plane large bending moment • 12-42
In-plane small bending moment • 12-42
Input Echo • 7-18
Input listing • 9-5
Input menu • 4-5
Input Menu • 4-5
Input overview based on analysis category • 8-7
Input Overview Based on Analysis Category • 8-7
Installation • 2-1, 2-5
Installation menu options • 2-5
Index 7
Installing Builds • 1-7
Installing CAESAR II • 2-4
Installing CAESAR II in Silent Mode • 2-13
Installing CAESAR II Overview • 2-4
Insulation density • 5-8
Intersection stress intensification factors • 12-3
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors • 12-3
Introduction • 1-1
K
Kaux menu items
Include Piping Input Files • 5-36
Include structural input files • 5-36
Review sifs • 5-36
Review SIFs at Bend Node • 5-36
Special execution parameters • 5-36
Kaux-include structural files • 10-2
L
Lateral bearing length • 11-3
Leak pressure ratio • 12-25
Lease • 1-9
LICENSE GRANT • 2
License types
Full run • 1-9
Lease • 1-9
Limited run • 1-9
LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES • 3
Limited run • 1-9
Limited Run • 1-9
LIMITED WARRANTY • 2
Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info. Find
Node, Range, Cuttin • 5-53
Load case list • 6-5
Load Case Options Tab • 6-19
Load Case Report • 7-17
Load cases • 3-2, 3-13, 5-6, 5-7, 5-21, 5-24, 6-5,
6-12, 6-15, 6-23, 7-2, 7-16, 7-21, 7-26, 8-
9, 8-12, 8-30, 8-38, 9-2, 9-5, 10-2, 10-31,
12-10
Basic load cases • 3-11
Combination load cases • 3-11, 6-15
Example of load cases • 6-15
Expansion load case • 6-22
Occasional load cases • 6-22
Operating load cases • 6-22
Recommended load cases • 3-11
Stress category • 6-15
Stress types • 6-15
Sustained load case • 6-22
Types of load cases • 3-11
Types of loads • 6-15
Load cycles • 6-15
Load, Ultimate • 11-9
Loading conditions • 5-7
Loading Conditions • 5-7
Local element forces • 7-12
Local Element Forces • 7-12
Local forces • 9-5
Local member data • 12-42
Local Member Data • 12-42
Lumped masses • 8-7
M
Main menu • 4-2
Analysis
Menu items • 4-6
File • 3-2
Default data directory • 4-3
Input file types • 4-3
New command • 4-3
Open command • 4-3
Select an existing job file • 4-3
Input
Data entry • 3-5
Input menu items • 4-5
Main Menu • 4-1
Major Steps in Dynamic Input • 8-4
Mass and stiffness model • 8-3
Mass and stiffness model, Modifying • 8-10, 8-16,
8-30, 8-32, 8-34
Mass correction, Missing • 9-5
Mass model • 8-7, 9-5
Mass participation factors • 8-38, 9-5
Material elastic properties • 5-8
Material Elastic Properties • 5-8
Material fatigue curve • 5-18
Material name • 5-8
8 Index
Material number • 5-8
Material yield strength • 12-39, 12-42
Max • 6-21
Maximum Code Stress • 7-23
Maximum desired unity check • 12-39
Maximum Displacements • 7-23
Maximum Restraints Loads • 7-23
Member data, Local • 12-42
Member end node • 12-42
Member start node • 12-42
Member type • 12-42
Membrane stress • 12-15
Menu commands • 5-24
Menu Commands • 5-24
Min • 6-21
Minimum desired unity check • 12-39
Miscellaneous Data • 7-19
Missing mass correction • 9-5
Modal • 8-7
Modal analysis • 8-2
Modal analysis input
Control parameters
Cutoff frequency • 8-8
Modes of vibration • 8-8
Lumped masses • 8-7
Modes of vibration • 8-7
Natural frequencies • 8-7
System response • 8-7
Mass model • 8-7
Modes of vibration • 8-7
Natural frequencies • 8-7
System response • 8-7
Mode identification line • 9-5
Mode shapes • 8-2, 8-37
Model menu • 5-31
Model Menu • 5-31
Model menu items
Expansion joints • 5-31
Hanger design control data • 5-31
Title • 5-31
Valve • 5-31
Model modifications for dynamic analysis
Control parameter • 8-3
Dynamics • 8-3
Conversion • 8-3
Mass and st • 8-3
Specifying loads • 8-3
Cod • 8-3
Dri • 8-3
Dyn • 8-3
For • 8-3
Har • 8-3
Loa • 8-3
Nat • 8-3
Occ • 8-3
Poi • 8-3
Sho • 8-3
Sta • 8-3
Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis • 8-3
Modes • 8-37
Modes mass normalized • 9-5
Modes of vibration • 8-7, 8-8, 8-37
Modes unity normalized • 9-5
Modifying mass and stiffness model • 8-10, 8-16,
8-30, 8-32, 8-34
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model • 8-10, 8-16,
8-30, 8-32
Modifying Mass and Stiffness Models • 8-34
More • 7-2
Motion • 7-26
N
Natural frequencies • 8-3, 8-7, 8-37, 9-5
NEMA SM23
Steam turbines
Cumulative equipment calculations, N • 12-47
NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) • 12-47
NEMA turbine example • 12-48
NEMA Turbine Example • 12-48
Network ESLs • 2-16
Node Names • 5-22
Node numbers • 5-4
Node Numbers • 5-4
Nominal pipe size • 5-5
Nonlinear restraints • 6-12, 9-5
Note dialog • 6-8
Note Message • 6-5, 6-8
Note on Bolt Tightening Stress • 12-24
Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases • 6-15
Index 9
Notes on Network ESLs • 2-16
Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File • 7-
21, 9-17
Notes on the Soil Model • 11-9
Novell file server ESL installation • 2-15
Novell File Server ESL Installation • 2-15
Novell workstation ESL installation • 2-15
Novell Workstation ESL Installation • 2-15
Nozzle data • 12-10
Nozzle flexibility • 12-17
Nozzle loads • 12-10
Nozzle screen • 12-17
O
Obtaining Builds • 1-7
Occasional dynamic stresses • 8-15
Occasional load cases • 6-22
Occasional stress • 8-2, 8-3, 8-15
Offsets • 5-23
Operating conditions
Temperatures and pressures • 5-6
Operating Conditions
Temperatures and Pressures • 5-6
Operating load cases • 6-22
Original Unburied Model • 11-12
Out-of-plane bending moment • 12-42
Out-of-plane large bending moment • 12-42
Out-of-plane small bending moment • 12-42
Output menu • 4-7
Output Menu • 4-7
Output Type • 6-20
Output Viewer Wizard • 7-20
Ovalization, bends • 12-8
Overstress • 7-23
Overview • 2-2
Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II •
10-2
P
Peak stress index • 12-9
Performing the analysis • 8-36
Performing the Analysis • 8-36
Phase angle • 8-2, 8-9, 8-37
Phasing • 8-9
Pipe modeler • 11-3
Pipe section properties • 5-5
Pipe Section Properties • 5-5
Piping codes for earthquakes • 8-15
Piping dimensions • 10-18
Piping input • 3-5
Alpha tolerance • 5-6
Ambient temperature • 5-6
Construction element • 5-6
Densities • 5-8
Expansion joints • 5-6
Input spreadsheet • 5-2
Insulation density • 5-8
Material name • 5-8
Material number • 5-8
Nominal pipe size • 5-5
Rigid elements • 5-6
Sif & tees • 5-6
Specific gravity • 5-8
Stress intensification factors • 5-6
Thermal strains • 5-6
Piping Input • 5-1
Piping input generation • 3-5
Piping Input Generation • 3-5
Piping job • 10-2
Piping material • 5-8
Piping Material • 5-8
Plot • 5-39
Plotting
Static output review • 3-13
Tutorial • 3-5
Point loads • 8-3
Preface • 2
Pressure stiffening • 12-8
Pressure Stiffening • 12-8
Pressure thrust • 5-13
Pressure vs. elevation table • 6-9
Pressure wave • 8-9
Printing or saving reports to a file • 9-17
Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes • 7-21
Proctor number • 11-9
Produced Results Data • 6-20
Program Changes • 1-10
Program support • 1-6
Technical support phone numbers • 1-6
Training • 1-6
Program support/user assistance • 1-6
Program Support/User Assistance • 1-6
Providing wind data • 6-9
Providing Wind Data • 6-9
Pulse table/DLF spectrum generation • 8-18, 8-32
Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generation • 8-32
Q
Quick start • 3-2
Quick Start and Basic Operation • 3-1
10 Index
R
Reciprocating pumps • 8-9
Recommended load cases • 6-22
Recommended Load Cases • 6-22
Recommended load cases for hanger selection • 6-
23
Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection •
6-23
Recommended procedures • 11-11
Recommended Procedures • 11-11
Relief load synthesis • 8-17
Relief Load Synthesis • 8-17
Relief load synthesizer • 8-32
Relief loads (spectrum) • 8-17
Relief Loads (Spectrum) • 8-17
Relief loads spectrum
Force sets for relief loads
Earthquakes • 8-29
Relief valv • 8-29
Skewed load • 8-29
Water hamme • 8-29
Relief load synthesis
Dynamic load fact • 8-17
Force spectrum me • 8-17
Relief valve • 8-17
Thrust loads • 8-17
Spectrum definitions
DLF spectrum gener • 8-28
Spectrum data • 8-28
Spectrum load cases
Impulse • 8-30
Time history • 8-30
Relief valve • 8-2, 8-17, 8-29, 8-32
Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G
• 12-28
Remaining strength of corroded pipelines,B31g •
12-28
Report options • 7-10
Report Options • 7-10
Report Template Editor • 7-7
Report types • 9-5
Report Types • 9-5
Resize members • 12-39
Response spectrum method • 8-2
Response spectrum table • 8-12
Response vs. frequency spectra • 8-2
Restrained weight • 6-23
Restraint auxiliary data • 10-18
Restraint summary • 7-11
Restraint Summary • 7-11
Restraints • 5-12, 7-11, 9-5
Review Current Units • 5-26
Review Units • 5-26
Rigid elements • 5-6
Rigid weight • 5-11
Rigid Weight • 5-11
Rotating equipment • 8-2, 8-9
S
Sample input • 10-10
Sample Input • 10-10
Save Animation to File • 9-19
Save As Graphics Image • 5-53
Scalar • 6-21
Screens • 5-9
Seismic analysis • 8-2
Select by Single Click • 7-23
Select Case Names • 7-2
Selection of phase angles • 8-38
Selection of Phase Angles • 8-38
Shape factor, wind • 6-9
Shock definition • 8-12
Shock results • 8-3
Shock spectra • 8-2
Show Event Viewer Gr • 7-23
Sidesway • 12-39
Sidesway, AISC • 12-39
SIFs & tees • 5-6
SignMax • 6-21
SignMin • 6-21
Skewed load • 8-29
Slug flow
Specifying the load
Force sets, slug flow • 8-32
Force-time profile • 8-32
Load cases, slug flow • 8-32
Relief load synthesizer • 8-32
Relief valve • 8-32
Water hammer • 8-32
Slug flow analysis • 8-2
Snubbers • 8-7
Snubbers Active • 6-20
Software revision procedures • 1-7
Software Revision Procedures • 1-7
Soil model • 11-9
Soil model numbers • 11-9
Soil Models • 11-3
Index 11
Soil properties • 11-2
Soil stiffnesses • 11-2
Soil supports • 11-9
Special element information • 5-6
Special Element Information • 5-6
Special execution parameters • 5-36
Specific gravity • 5-8
Specifying hydrodynamic parameters • 6-11
Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters • 6-11
Specifying loads, dynamics • 8-3
Specifying the Load • 8-32
Specifying The Load • 8-33
Specifying the loads • 8-7, 8-9, 8-12, 8-17, 8-32,
8-33
Specifying the Loads • 8-9, 8-12, 8-17
Spectrum • 8-38
Spectrum analysis • 8-2
Spectrum data • 8-12, 8-28
Spectrum definitions • 8-28, 8-32
Spectrum Definitions • 8-28, 8-32
Spectrum load cases • 8-14, 8-30, 8-32, 9-2
Spectrum Load Cases • 8-14, 8-32
Spectrum name • 8-12
Spectrum results • 9-2
Spectrum/Load Cases • 8-30
Spreadsheet overview • 5-2
Spreadsheet Overview • 5-2
Spring hanger design • 6-23
SRSS • 6-21, 8-15
Start, CAESAR II • 3-2
Starting CAESAR II • 3-2
Static load case number • 8-15
Static load cases
Building static load cases • 6-5
Limitations of the load case editor • 6-5
Recommended load cases • 6-5
Static output plot • 10-18
Static output processor
132 column reports • 7-2
Animation of static solution • 7-2
Commands in static output • 7-2
Initiating the static output processor • 7-2
Plotting statics • 7-2
Report options • 7-2
Report titles • 7-2
View-reports • 7-2
Static Output Processor • 7-1
Static output review • 3-13
Plotting static output • 3-13
Static Output Review • 3-13
Static results • 8-3
Static solution methodology • 6-12
Archive • 6-12
Incore solution
Bandwidth • 6-12
Nonlinear restrai • 6-12
Static analysis
Stiffness matrix • 6-12
Static/dynamic combinations • 8-15, 8-30, 8-32, 8-
34, 9-2
Static/Dynamic Combinations • 8-15, 8-30, 8-32,
8-34
Stiffness matrix • 6-12
Stiffness model, Modifying • 8-10, 8-16, 8-30, 8-
32, 8-34
Stress • 6-20
Stress category • 6-15
Stress concentration factor • 12-9
Stress Concentrations and Intensification • 12-9
Stress concentrations and intensifications • 12-9
Stress increase factor
AISC • 12-39
Stress increase factor, Allowable • 12-39
Stress intensification factors • 5-6, 9-5
Stress intensification factors/tees • 5-19
Stress Intensification Factors/Tees • 5-19
Stress reduction factors cmy and cmz • 12-39
Stress reduction factors, aisc • 12-39
Stress report • 9-5
Stress Summary • 7-14
Stress types • 3-11, 6-5, 6-15, 8-14
Stresses • 7-13, 9-5
Stresses, Allowable • 5-18
Structural capability in CAESAR II • 10-2
Structural code • 12-39
Structural code, AISC • 12-39
Structural files, Include • 5-36
Structural steel checks - AISC • 12-39
Structural Steel Checks - AISC • 12-39
Structural steel example • 10-11, 10-18, 10-31
Structural Steel Example #1 • 10-11
Structural Steel Example #2 • 10-18
Structural Steel Example #3 • 10-31
Structural steel input • 10-2
12 Index
AISC database, structural steel input • 10-2
Connecting pipe to structure • 10-18
Connectin • 10-18
Displaced • 10-18
Editing structural steel input • 10-2
End connections,structural steel input • 10-2
Format of structural steel input • 10-2
Include in piping job • 10-2
Include a struct • 10-2
Kaux-include str • 10-2
Index numbers, structural steel input • 10-2
Initiate structural steel input
Struct • 10-2
Initiating structural steel input • 10-2
Help • 10-2
Keywords in structural steel input • 10-2
Running structural steel input • 10-2
Static output plot • 10-18
Range command • 10-18
Structural Steel Modeler • 10-1
Structure dimensions • 10-18
Structure nodes • 10-18
Sturm sequence check • 8-37
Sustained load cases • 6-22
Sustained stresses • 8-2, 8-15
Sustained sustained load cases • 3-11
System and hardware requirements • 2-3
System and Hardware Requirements • 2-3
System requirements • 2-3
System response • 8-7, 9-5
T
Technical Changes • 1-12
Technical reference manual • 1-5
Technical support phone numbers • 1-6
TERM • 2
The CAESAR II Main Menu • 4-2
The Spectrum Wizard • 8-18
Thermal load case • 6-22
Thermal strains • 5-6
Thrust loads • 8-17
Time history • 8-30, 8-33, 8-38
Force-time profiles • 8-33
Vibration • 8-33
Time History • 8-33, 8-38
Time history analysis • 8-2
Time history load case • 9-2
Time history load cases • 8-14, 8-34
Time History Load Cases • 8-34
Time history profile definitions • 8-33
Time History Profile Definitions • 8-33
Time history results • 9-2
Time vs. force • 8-33
Title • 5-31
Tools menu • 4-8
Tools Menu • 4-8
Training • 1-6
Trunnion • 12-6, 12-8
Tutorial
Center of gravity report, tutorial • 3-9
Plotting, tutorial • 3-5
Sample model input, tutorial • 3-5
U
UBC • 8-20
Underground pipe modeler • 11-2, 11-3
Underground pipe/buried pipe
Bilinear supports • 11-9
Bilinear sprin • 11-9
Soil supports • 11-9
Ultimate load • 11-9
Yield displace • 11-9
Yield stiffnes • 11-9
Convert input command • 11-3
Element length • 11-3
Buried pipe displ • 11-3
Lateral bearing l • 11-3
Meshing
Lateral bearing meshes • 11-3
Overburden Compaction Multiplier • 11-9
Soil model numbers • 11-9
Spreadsheet
Buried element descr • 11-3
Underground pipe modeler • 11-2
Buried • 11-3
Soil pr • 11-2
Soil st • 11-2
Zones • 11-3
Lateral bearing regions • 11-3
Uniform loads • 5-16
Uniform Loads • 5-16
Unsupported axial length • 12-42
Unsupported length (in-plane bending) • 12-42
Unsupported length (out-of-plane bending) • 12-
42
Updates and license types • 1-9
Index 13
Updates and License Types • 1-9
Usage factor • 9-5
User assistance
Technical support phone numbers • 1-6
Training • 1-6
User Control of Produced Results Data • 6-20
User Defined Time History Waveform • 8-26
User-Controlled Combination Methods • 6-21
Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler • 12-25
Using the Underground Pipe Modeler • 11-3
V
Valve • 5-31
Velocity vs. elevation table • 6-9
Vertical in-line pumps • 12-59
Vertical In-Line Pumps • 12-59
Vessel attachment stresses/WRC 107
Input data, WRC 107 • 12-10
Nozzle data, WRC 107 • 12-10
Nozzle loads, WRC 107 • 12-10
Curv • 12-10
Inte • 12-10
Reinforcing pad • 12-10
Stress summations, WRC 107 • 12-15
Vessel data • 12-10
Vibration • 8-2, 8-33
View Menu • 4-11
View Output • 5-26
W
Warning Message • 6-4
Warnings • 7-19
Water hammer • 8-29
Specifying the load
Force sets, slug flow • 8-32
Force-time profile • 8-32
Load cases, slug flow • 8-32
Relief load synthesizer • 8-32
Relief valve • 8-32
Slug problems • 8-32
Water hammer analysis • 8-2
Water hammer/slug flow (spectrum) • 8-32
Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) • 8-32
Welding Research Council Bulletin 297 • 12-17
What are the Applications of CAESAR II? • 1-3
What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe
Stress Packages? • 1-4
What is CAESAR II? • 1-2
What is Contained In A Specific Build? • 1-7
Wind data
ASCE #7 wind loads • 6-9
Methods of wind loading • 6-9
Pressure vs. elevation table • 6-9
Shape factor • 6-9
Velocity vs. elevation table • 6-9
Wind/wave • 5-17
Wind/Wave • 5-17
Windows server installation • 2-15
Windows Server Installation • 2-15
WRC 107 (vessel stresses) • 12-10
WRC 107 stress summations • 12-15
WRC 107 Stress Summations • 12-15
WRC 107 Vessel Stresses • 12-10
WRC 297
Nozzle flexibility • 12-17
Nozzle screen • 12-17
WRC axes orientation • 12-10
WRC Bulletin 297 • 12-17
Y
Yield displacement • 11-9
Yield stiffness • 11-9
Young's modulus • 12-39, 12-42
Z
Zone definitions • 11-3

COADE Inc.
12777 Jones Road Suite 480
Houston, Texas 77070
Phone: (281)890-4566
Fax: (281)890-3301
Email: sales@coade.com
Web: www.coade.com
CAESAR II
Technical Reference
Version 5.10
Last Revised 111/2007

CAESAR II Version 5.10 Changes
This list details the new or changed capabilities and features of CAESAR II Version 5.10. • • Added flange rating evaluation per B16.5 and NC-3658. Graphics Improvements: o o o Improved graphics rendering speed proved by 20% to 50% depending on the job. Added additional controls to view corrosion and densities. Added the ability to import an Autocad (CADWorx) model directly into the piping input, to provide visualization of supporting steel, vessels and other equipment.

Static Output Processor Improvements: o o o o o Reduced report generation times by 70% or better Added Presentation in “tabbed” window to allow viewing multiple reports, and immediate switching between reports. Added ability to select Individual items from “Miscellaneous Report” Added ability to zoom Reports and individually direct to an output device via a “context menu” Added Custom report templates can be imported and exported.

Static Load Case Editor enhancements o o o o Added In-Line Flange Evaluation at the load case level. Added the ability to alter the “occasional load multiplier” on a “per load case basis”. Added the ability to “import” static load data from different jobs Added the ability to copy wind and wave vectors.

Added user control over whether or not insulation should be considered in hydro test cases.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Added the following new piping codes: PD-8010 Part 1 and Part 2. Revised the following piping codes due to “code” changes: B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, Z662, EN-13480 Added support for B31.3 Section 319.2.3(c), allowing axial stress to be included in the Expansion Code Stress. Revised API-661 to 6 Edition. Revised Wind and Seismic load calculations to ASCE #7 2005. Added a number of European materials to the material database. Updated stainless steel pipe specification data per B36.19M. Updated DIN pipe size specification to comply with EN-10220 (seamless) instead of DIN-2458 (welded). Added Chinese structural steel and expansion joint databases. Added spring hanger data from Gradior Power, (Czech Republic). Updated the flange material database per ASME Sect VIII Div 1, 2007 Edition. Updated the Inoflex Spring Hanger data.
th

CAESAR II Version 5.10 - Technical Changes
The following list details changes to CAESAR II for Version 5.10, which may affect the numeric results. • • • • • Corrected the system weight distribution in the “restrained weight” case when hanger operating loads are defined by the user), (060301 build). Modified the SIF calculations for ASME NC/ND (July 2005 addendum), (060301 build). Corrected the determination of the governing "code stress" for combination load cases for Offshore, Z662, and BS-7159 codes. Corrected the auto-computation of the “B31.3 Wc” value for bends, (070122 build). For EN-13480: o o o o • Corrected the use of sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded tees so that they use the same SIF computations as Unreinforced tees. Changed the “default occasional load factor” from 1.33 to 1.00. Corrected the computation of the allowable stress for the EN-13480 (060426 build) and CODETI (060707 build) codes Expansion case. Corrected the usage of the “effective section modulus” for reducing tees for both CODETI and EN-13480.

For CODETI: o The code now enforces corrosion allowance, if specified.

• •

Modified the usage of the hanger stiffness values when using the “as designed“ option for hanger design, (060426 build). Updated ASCE #7 wind load generation to 2005 Edition: o o o o o Updated Table 6-1 for Importance Factor Updated Table 6-2 for Exposure Constants zg and alpha Updated the equation for Kz. Updated limiting conditions for the determination of Kzt. Updated the computation of the “gust factor”.

B31.1 A2005 introduced a number of changes that will affect existing jobs. These changes are: o o o o o If the program is allowed to update the allowable stresses, higher values will be acquired. The Sc and Sh values used to determine the Expansion allowable are now limited to 20 ksi. In Table 102.1.2.a, “note a” changes the “y” value from 0.4 to 0.0. This will only affect the “minimum wall thickness” calculation. Corrections have been made to the butt weld and branch connection restrictions The addendum exchanged the equations (between the figure and the notes) used to compute the "flexibility characteristic" for welding tees and welded-in contour inserts (sweepolets). This change will cause the SIFs for these fittings to change accordingly. CAESAR II defaults to the updated equation in the figure, which is more conservative. Users can control this choice with a new configuration option. B31.1 and B31.3 now match in this regard.

Version 5.10 CAESAR II User Guide

Copyright © 1985-2008 COADE, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Printed on 18 September, 2007

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............... 2-5 Installing CAESAR II in Silent Mode ..................................... 1-5 Program Support/User Assistance ............................................ Patched Version ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2-15 .........................................................................4 Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1 What is CAESAR II?.................. 1-7 Identifying Builds ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 GENERAL ...........2 LICENSE GRANT ........................... 1-6 Software Revision Procedures ................ 2-4 Installation .......... 1-7 Obtaining Builds........................................................................................................................................... 1-2 What are the Applications of CAESAR II? ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2-2 System and Hardware Requirements .................... 1-9 Limited Run............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-7 Installing Builds.................... 1-12 Chapter 2 Installation 2-1 Overview .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-3 Installing CAESAR II Overview ......................................... 1-10 Technical Changes................................................................................................................................ 2-15 Novell Workstation ESL Installation............................................................................................ 1-9 Lease........................................................... 2-15 Novell File Server ESL Installation................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-7 What is Contained In A Specific Build?...................2 TERM..............................................................Contents Preface ..........2 ENTIRE AGREEMENT ....................... 1-3 What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress Packages? ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-13 ESL Installation on a Network............. 1-8 Archiving and Reinstalling an Old................... 1-7 Announcing Builds ................................................................................................................ 1-9 Full Run ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-7 Detecting/Checking Builds......3 EXPORT RESTRICTIONS .......................................2 CAESAR II LICENSE AGREEMENT.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 DISCLAIMER .......................4 HOOPS‘ License Grant ..................3 LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 LIMITED WARRANTY......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-8 Updates and License Types .........................2 ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT BY THE USER............................................................... 2-15 Windows Server Installation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1-7 Can Builds Be Applied To Any Version? ................CAESAR II ................................................................................................................................................................... 1-4 About the CAESAR II Documentation............................................................................... 1-9 Program Changes..........................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-8 Densities ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-17 Allowable Stresses................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-4 Element Lengths ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2 Basic Operation ...... 5-5 Pipe Section Properties... 4-10 View Menu ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-2 Customize Toolbar ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-11 Executing Static Analysis ..................................................... 5-10 Rigid Weight ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-7 Tools Menu.............................................................................................. 3-5 Piping Input Generation............. 3-5 Error Checking the Model .....................2 Contents Notes on Network ESLs ........................ 5-15 Uniform Loads.......................................................................................... 2-16 Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-1 CAESAR II Quick Start.................................................................................... 5-13 Displacements.................... 3-12 Static Output Review.................................................................. 5-6 Boundary Conditions............... 4-2 File Menu.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-13 Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-1 The CAESAR II Main Menu ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5-4 Element Direction Cosines ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-18 Stress Intensification Factors/Tees ......................................................... 5-16 Wind/Wave................................................................................................................................................................. 3-2 Starting CAESAR II ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-9 Flanges.......................................................................................................................................................... 5-9 Bend Data ....... 4-8 Diagnostics Menu .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-4 Node Numbers............................................................................................................................ 3-9 Building the Load Cases.............................................................. 4-5 Analysis Menu ................................................................. 5-14 Forces ................................................................................. 4-12 Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-1 Spreadsheet Overview . 5-12 Expansion Joint ..................................................................................................................................................... 5-8 Material Elastic Properties................................................................... 5-7 Piping Material .................................................................................................... 5-8 Auxiliary Data Area............................ 4-11 Help Menu ............. 5-3 Data Fields ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-19 Flexible Nozzles ...................................................................... 4-3 Input Menu................................................ 4-9 ESL Menu............... 5-11 Restraints ................................................................................................................................ 5-20 ........... 4-6 Output Menu.............................................................................................................................. 5-7 Loading Conditions .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-5 Operating Conditions: Temperatures and Pressures ................................................................................................. 5-6 Special Element Information .........................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................... 6-8 Providing Wind Data ................................. 5-54 3D Graphics Interactive Feature: Walk Through..... 6-22 Max................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-22 SignMin .................................. 6-21 SRSS..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-20 Output Type...................................................................... BMP........................ 6-20 Friction Multiplier ................................................................................................................................................................. 6-15 Definition of a Load Case.................................... 5-52 Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info...................................................................................... 6-20 Snubbers Active?.............................................................. 5-24 File Menu ............ Wall Thickness............................................................................................................................................................................... 5-23 Menu Commands........................................................................... 6-22 Min ..... 5-24 Edit Menu .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-21 User-Controlled Combination Methods..................................................................................... 5-31 Environment Menu ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Uniform Loads................ Insulation ..................................................................................................... Find Node............................................................... 5-56 Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-1 Error Checking............................................................................... 5-49 3D Graphic Highlights ........ 6-9 Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters.... 5-46 HOOPS Toolbar Manipulations ................................. 5-39 3D Graphics Configuration .......................................................................... Range & Cutting Plane ..................... 6-21 Algebraic .............................. JPEG and PDF ................................... Diameters.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... HTML............................................................ 6-21 Elastic Modulus ...................................................................................................................... 6-12 Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases .............................................................. 6-22 Recommended Load Cases.......................................................................................................................... 5-51 3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements........ 5-31 Break .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-23 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-22 Offsets .......................... 6-21 Scalar .................................................................................................................. 5-21 Node Names .... 6-20 Hanger Stiffness ................................................... 6-22 SignMax ...................................................................................................................................... 6-22 ABS .... 5-43 User Options........................................... 6-19 User Control of Produced Results Data........................................................................................... 5-36 3-D Modeler. 6-3 Warning Message ...................................................................................... Wind/Wave Loads..............................................................Materials...................................................................................... Forces............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5-26 Model Menu ............................................................... 6-15 Load Case Options Tab ...............................................Contents 3 Hangers............................................................. 6-22 Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection................................................................. 6-20 Output Status . 5-50 3D Graphics Highlights: Temperature and Pressure ........................................................ 6-5 Building Static Load Cases.............................................................. 6-2 Fatal Error Message..................... 6-11 Execution of Static Analysis......................................................... 6-4 Note Message ............. 5-53 Save an Image for Later Presentation: TIF...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-7 Control Parameters ............................ 7-6 Custom Reports .................. 7-18 Miscellaneous Data ........... 7-10 Restraints ............ 7-12 Local Element Forces ............................... 8-9 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model................................................ 8-5 Entering the Dynamic Analysis Input Menu ............................................................................................................ 7-15 Cumulative Usage Report........................................... 8-8 Harmonic ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-2 Custom Reports Toolbar....................................... 8-12 Specifying the Loads .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-17 Relief Load Synthesis..................... 7-23 Animation of Static Results Notes................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-18 Input Echo .......................................... 7-7 Report Options....................................................................................... 7-7 Report Template Editor ........................................................................................................................................ 8-9 Specifying the Loads ........ 8-3 Major Steps in Dynamic Input............. 7-21 3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-4 Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview ...................... 7-14 Code Compliance Report...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-19 Output Viewer Wizard...................................... 7-20 Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes ...................... 8-14 Static/Dynamic Combinations ........................................................... 8-12 Spectrum Load Cases ........................................................................................ 8-16 Advanced Parameters ............................. 8-7 Specifying the Loads ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-17 Load Case Report .................................................................................................................................. 7-16 General Computed Results ....4 Contents Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-1 Entering the Static Output Processor ................... 8-16 Relief Loads (Spectrum) .............................................................. 7-13 Stress Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-11 Global Element Forces ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-10 Displacements.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-19 Warnings ..................................................... 7-17 Hanger Table with Text............... 8-17 ............. 8-8 Advanced Parameters Show Screen ....... 7-26 Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-1 Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II ............................ 8-10 Control Parameters ................................................................... 8-16 Control Parameters .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-2 Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis .......................................................................... 8-7 Snubbers ........................................................................................................................ 8-7 Modal............... 7-12 Stresses .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-11 Restraint Summary .......................................................................................... 8-17 Specifying the Loads ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-11 Earthquake (Spectrum) .................................................................................................................. 8-5 Input Overview Based on Analysis Category ............................................................................................................ 8-15 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model...............

................................................................................................................................... 8-33 Force Sets . Table Frequency..................... 8-25 Response Modification R .............................................................................. 8-26 Opening Time (milliseconds) ................................................................ 8-19 Cancel ........................... 8-32 Static/Dynamic Combinations .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response Spectrum ............................................................................. 8-34 ................................................................. 8-19 UBC.................................................................................................... 8-22 Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS)............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-24 Importance Factor.............................................................................................................................................................................. 8-28 Spectrum Definitions................................ 8-24 Site Coefficient Fv..................................................................................................................... 8-29 Spectrum/Load Cases .................................................................................................................................................Contents 5 DLF/Spectrum Generator ...................... 8-30 Control Parameters ...... 8-21 ASCE7.................................................................................................... 8-30 Static/Dynamic Combinations .................... 8-31 Advanced............................................................. 8-31 Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) . 8-21 Spectrum Name ...................................................................................................................................... 8-27 Enter Pulse Data ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................The Spectrum Wizard .................... 8-19 OK .................................................................... 8-22 Site Coefficient Fa ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-28 Force Sets ................................................................. 8-23 Spectrum Name ................................... 8-32 Specifying the Load.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-18 Save to File ............................................................... 8-25 Spectrum Name ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-32 Force Sets ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-33 Time History Profile Definitions ................................ 8-26 Spectrum Name ............................. 8-22 Importance Factor.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-24 Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS)... 8-34 Time History Load Cases ..................................................................... 8-20 Seismic Coefficient Ca .............. 8-32 Spectrum Definitions....... 8-21 Seismic Coefficient Cv............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-26 Max.................... 8-23 IBC .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-27 Generate Spectrum .................................................... 8-22 Site Coefficient Fv.............................................. 8-32 Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generation........................................................ 8-23 Response Modification R .......................................................................................... 8-24 Site Coefficient Fa .................................. 8-34 Static/Dynamic Combinations .............................................................................................. 8-34 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Models .............................. 8-25 B31.... 8-20 Spectrum Name ........................................................................................................................................................ 8-24 Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)........................................... 8-32 Spectrum Load Cases .............................................................. 8-20 Importance Factor........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-33 Specifying The Load ..................................................................... 8-22 Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)........................ 8-32 Time History............................ 8-27 Number of Points............................................................................................................................................................... 8-32 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model..................................................................................... 8-26 User Defined Time History Waveform ................................................................... 8-30 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model........................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................. 9-11 Mass Participation Factors................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-16 Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File ..... 9-20 Animation of Dynamic Results – Harmonic........................................................ 8-38 Spectrum............... 9-20 Animation of Dynamic Results – Time History ................................................................... 9-17 3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor ....................................................................................... 11-2 Using the Underground Pipe Modeler .. 9-8 Stresses .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-18 Save Animation to File ................................................................................ 9-14 Modes Unity Normalized .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-36 Performing the Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 9-19 Animation of Dynamic Results – Modal/Spectrum.................................................................................................................... 11-12 ................................................... 9-2 Report Types......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-5 Displacements............................................................................................... 8-38 Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-1 Entry into the Processor ....................................................................................... 10-8 Sample Input............. 9-5 Local Forces .............................................6 Contents Control Parameters ............................. 8-35 Error Handling and Analyzing the Job ........................... 9-20 Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-1 Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II.......... 10-10 Structural Steel Example #1..... 9-7 Global Forces............................................................................................................ 9-12 Natural Frequencies........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11-11 Original Unburied Model......................... 9-9 Forces/Stresses ........... 8-36 Modes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10-31 Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-1 CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler ...................... 10-11 Structural Steel Example #2.................................. 9-5 Restraints ..................................................................................... 9-13 Modes Mass Normalized ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-15 Mass Model .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Displacements ..................................................................................................... 9-10 Cumulative Usage ........................................................................................................... 9-15 Boundary Conditions...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-2 3D/HOOPS Graphics................................................. 8-37 Selection of Phase Angles ................................................................................................................................................ 11-9 Recommended Procedures................................................................................................................................. 9-15 Input Listing .................................. 10-18 Structural Steel Example #3................... 8-35 Advanced............... 9-14 Included Mass Data ............................................................................................................................................. 11-3 Notes on the Soil Model .................................................................................................................................. 8-37 Harmonic ........................ 9-19 Animation of Static Results ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-38 Time History.................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-41 Maximum Desired Unity Check................. 12-25 Effective Gasket Modulus ................................................................................................................................................. 12-44 In-Plane “Small” Bending Moment....................................................................................... 12-44 Out-of-Plane Bending Moment ................... 12-43 Unsupported Length (Out-Of-Plane Bending)...................................................................................................... 12-8 Stress Concentrations and Intensification................................ 12-28 Expansion Joint Rating .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-8 Flanges Attached to Bend Ends............................................................................... 12-3 Bend Stress Intensification Factors................................. 12-40 Young’s Modulus ........................................................ 12-6 Pressure Stiffening........ 12-40 Material Yield Strength ...................... 12-32 Structural Steel Checks ................................................................................ 12-43 Young’s Modulus ..............................................................And Out-Of-Plane Fixity Coefficients Ky And Kz.............................................................................................................................. 12-45 Differences Between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Codes ..................................................... 12-8 Bends with Trunnions.......... 12-42 Member Start Node ............................................................................................................................................ 12-24 Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler ................................................................................................................................ 12-40 Allow Sidesway...................................................................................................................................... 12-46 NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) ........ 12-40 Form Factor Qa.............................................................. 12-26 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines......................... 12-9 WRC 107 Vessel Stresses......... .....................................................................AISC............................................................................................................................................................................................ 12-40 Stress Reduction Factors Cmy and Cmz.................................................................................................................................................... 12-43 Double Angle Spacing......... 12-25 Flange Rating....... 12-43 Axial Member Force....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-41 Minimum Desired Unity Check..... 12-48 ...... 12-10 WRC 107 Stress Summations............................................................................................................................. 12-42 Member End Node ........................................................................................ 12-44 In-Plane “Large” Bending Moment............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-43 Unsupported Axial Length ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents 7 Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-1 Intersection Stress Intensification Factors .................................. 12-15 WRC Bulletin 297 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-39 Structural Code................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12-20 Note on Bolt Tightening Stress........................................................... 12-43 Material Yield Strength .................................. 12-44 Out-of-Plane “Small” Bending Moment............................................... 12-44 In-Plane Bending Moment......................................... B31G ........................................................................................................................... 12-39 Global Parameters ................................ 12-41 Local Member Data ............. 12-40 Allowable Stress Increase Factor............................... 12-17 Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-47 NEMA Turbine Example............................................................................... 12-25 Leak Pressure Ratio ............................................... 12-42 In.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-41 Resize Members Whose Unity Check Value Is ........ 12-40 Bending Coefficient................................................................................................... 12-42 Member Type .............................................................................................. 12-44 AISC Output Reports.................................................................................................................................................. .......................................... 12-44 Out-of-Plane “Large” Bending Moment.......................... 12-43 Unsupported Length (In-Plane Bending)....................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................8 Contents API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) ...................................................................................................................................... 12-60 API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) ... 12-59 API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) ................................................... 12-67 API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) ................. 12-62 Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters.............................................. 12-68 ................................................................... 12-54 Vertical In-Line Pumps ..........................................................................

.................. 1-7 Updates and License Types ..................................... 1-9 Program Changes............................ 1-5 Program Support/User Assistance ....................................................... 1-10 Technical Changes.................................................................................................... 1-2 What are the Applications of CAESAR II? . 1-3 What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress Packages? ......................................................................................CH AP TER 1 Chapter 1 Introduction In This Chapter What is CAESAR II?........................................................................................ 1-4 About the CAESAR II Documentation.............................. 1-6 Software Revision Procedures ........................................................ 1-12 .............................................

CAESAR II produces results in the form of displacements. loads. CAESAR II compares these results to limits specified by recognized codes and standards. Additionally.1-2 Introduction What is CAESAR II? CAESAR II is a PC-based pipe stress analysis software program developed. The popularity of CAESAR II is a reflection of COADE’s expertise in programming and engineering. With this input. as well as COADE’s dedication to service and quality. . The CAESAR II user creates a model of the piping system using simple beam elements and defines the loading conditions imposed on the system. and stresses throughout the system. marketed and sold by COADE Engineering Software. This software package is an engineering tool used in the mechanical design and analysis of piping systems.

These “structures” must be stiff enough to support their own weight and also flexible enough to accept thermal growth. CAESAR II is not only a tool for new design but it is also valuable in troubleshooting or redesigning existing systems.Chapter 1 Introduction 1-3 What are the Applications of CAESAR II? CAESAR II is most often used for the mechanical design of new piping systems. These loads. Hot piping systems present a unique problem to the mechanical engineer—these irregular structures experience great thermal strain that must be absorbed by the piping. NEMA. CAESAR II also has the capability of modeling and analyzing the full range of static and dynamic loads. and attached equipment. ASME Section VIII. To aid in this design by analysis. Here. and stresses can be estimated through analysis of the piping model in CAESAR II. one can determine the cause of failure or evaluate the severity of unanticipated operating conditions such as fluid/piping interaction or mechanical vibration caused by rotating equipment. CAESAR II incorporates many of the limitations placed on these systems and their attached equipment. which may be imposed on the system. . Therefore. displacements. and the Welding Research Council) or by manufacturers of piping-related equipment (API. CAESAR II is not limited to thermal analysis of piping systems. These limits are typically specified by engineering bodies (such as the ASME B31 committees. or EJMA). supports.

The program’s interactive output processor presents results on the monitor for quick review or sends complete reports to a file or printer. and training. Our staff of experienced pipe stress engineers are involved in day-to-day software development. or creates spectacular stress isometrics in minutes from CAESAR II models. Comprehensive input graphics confirms the model construction before the analysis is made. program support. CAESAR II also offers seamless interaction with COADE’s CADWorx/PIPE. . It is a widely recognized product with a large customer base and an excellent support and development record. which most closely fits today’s requirements of the pipe stress industry.1-4 Introduction What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress Packages? COADE treats CAESAR II more as a service than a product. CAESAR II is a field-proven engineering analysis program. The 2-way-link automatically generates stress analysis models of piping layouts. isometric and 3D piping drawings. This approach has produced a program. Users may tailor their CAESAR II installation through default setting and customized databases. COADE is a strong and stable company where service is a major commitment. CAESAR III is an up-to-date package that not only utilizes standard analysis guidelines but also provides the latest recognized opinions for these analyses. Data entry is simple and straight forward through annotated input screens and/or spreadsheets. an AutoCAD based design and drafting system for creating orthographic. CAESAR II provides the widest range of modeling and analysis capabilities without becoming too complicated for simple system analysis.

These examples illustrate methods of modeling individual piping components as well as complete piping systems. . input for. in detail. The Application Guide provides examples of how to use CAESAR II. The Quick Reference Guide provides the user with commonly referenced information in a lightweight. This manual also explains much of the theory behind CAESAR II calculations. The Technical Reference Manual should be referred to whenever the user needs more information than is provided by the User Guide. and output review. 3. 2. The Application Guide is a reference providing quick “how to” information on specific subjects. analysis. In addition to these three manuals. a Quick Reference Guide is included with the software package. The Technical Reference Manual explains. and introduces model creation.Chapter 1 Introduction 1-5 About the CAESAR II Documentation To address the sheer volume of information available on CAESAR II and present it in a concise and useful manner to the analyst the program documentation is presented in three separate manuals: 1. the function of. It is intended as a general road map for the program. This general document is the first source of information. easy-to-carry notebook. The User Guide describes the basic operation and flow of the many routines found in CAESAR II. Here one can find tutorials on system modeling and analysis. gives an overview of the program capabilities. and output from each module of the program. This document provides necessary installation information.

COADE understands the engineer’s need to produce efficient. economical. It is expected. at times. fax. however. an elaborate process—one that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to address the questions raised regarding piping analysis. To that end. not all the answers can be quickly found in these volumes. and by mail.coade. Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. and expeditious designs.com Web: www. system modeling.1-6 Introduction Program Support/User Assistance COADE’s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also. and design. These courses focus on the expertise available at COADE—modeling. literally hundreds of support calls are answered every week. the Internet. COADE provides this service at no additional charge to the user. COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II issues raised by all users. that questions focus on the current version of the program. COADE Technical Support: Phone: 281-890-4566 Fax: 281-890-3301 E-mail: techsupport@coade. analysis. CAESAR II support is available by telephone. COADE conducts regular training classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance courses around the world. and results interpretation.com .

com and are arranged in subdirectories by program. Installing Builds Builds distributed for Windows applications use a Windows installation procedure. The EXE is a self-extracting archive. All entries in this news file are dated for ease of reference. What is Contained In A Specific Build? Each patch file contains a file named BUILD. A Build is intended for one specific version of the software. This is a plain ASCII text file that can be viewed with any text editor or sent to the system printer. In order to alleviate this problem for our users. but only one build is required at any given time. This procedure ensures that necessary files are registered with the system and that the “Uninstall” utility can perform its task. before the next version can be released. Users should check one of these news files at least once a month to ensure they stay current with the software. New versions are planned and targeted for a specific release date.TXT. In addition. builds are identified with the program identifier and the date the Build was generated for example C2YYY-YYMMDD. they are changed continually to reflect engineering code addenda. file formats change. Some COADE users have expressed concern over tracking. Obtaining Builds Builds are posted to COADE’s Internet Web site http://www. a correction to the “currently shipping” version is made. When necessary. This correction is referred to as a “Build. additional usage instructions may be found in this file. Announcing Builds When a Build becomes available. Identifying Builds When posted on the Web. and corrections. When this occurs.EXE. and so on. the NEWS file maintained on the Web site is updated. . additional input items become necessary and must be stored in the program data files.coade. Using a Build on a different version (without specific advice from COADE personnel) is a sure way to cripple the software. and posted to the Web site. there may be corrections necessary to the “currently shipping” version. This increases the download size and time required to obtain the Build. and the date it was created. each containing sufficient files to fit on a CD The CD contains a standard SETUP. operational enhancements. which extracts to a number of sub-directories. and distributing the various builds generated between major releases. If users register with an E-mail address. When this occurs. databases grow. Build Y contains Build X. the build is finalized.Chapter 1 Introduction 1-7 Software Revision Procedures COADE software products are not static. they will be notified via E-mail of all new Builds. In other words. This text file contains a description of all corrections and enhancements made. announced. Each file contained in the directory includes a description defining what it contains. which are contained in the current patch. Decide which Build file you need and download it. archiving. all maintenance Builds for new releases contain all previous builds. its size. Can Builds Be Applied To Any Version? No! As new versions are released.EXE program to actually install the Build. operating system modifications. Corrections and Builds are also published in the COADE newsletter. user requests.” Changes and corrections are accumulated until an error producing incorrect results is found. However. Mechanical Engineering News.

users can determine which modules have been patched and to what level. This allows the user to see. To reinstall an older version of the software. This will allow full usage of this version at some later time. Patched Version When a new version of the software is released. memory requirements. existing version? The distribution disks sent from COADE should obviously be saved. the distribution CDs from COADE should be installed first. and Build Level.1-8 Introduction Detecting/Checking Builds When a Build is ready to be released. which Build is in use. From the Diagnostics menu. select the Build Version option. what should be done with the old. on the Main Program Menu. By reviewing the following table. the Main Menu module is revised to reflect the Build level. Then. if it becomes necessary. Each Build includes the modifications made in all prior Builds. the last Build should be installed. Additionally. This option scans each of the EXE modules in the program directory and lists its size. To see which program modules have been modified. Archiving and Reinstalling an Old. you can run a COADE utility program from within the program directory. A sample display from this utility is shown in the table below. any Builds obtained should also be archived. .

and support are available on an annual basis after the first year.Chapter 1 Introduction 1-9 Updates and License Types Users can identify CAESAR II update sets by their version number. There are three types of CAESAR II licenses: Full Run A full run provides unlimited access to CAESAR II and one year of updates. maintenance. COADE only ships the current version of CAESAR II. The user is upgraded (if necessary) whenever a new set of 50 “runs” is purchased. and support provided as long as the lease is in effect. Limited Run A limited run provides 50 static or dynamic analyses of piping system models over an unlimited period of time.10. and support. Lease A lease provides unlimited access to CAESAR II with updates. Updates are automatically delivered to all full run users who purchase updates. The type of CAESAR II license determines whether or not a user receives these updates. The current release of CAESAR II is Version 5. and all lease users. maintenance. COADE schedules and distributes these updates approximately every nine months. and support. no matter which type of license. maintenance. but does not include program updates. Updates. maintenance. . depending on their scope and necessity.

1-10 Introduction Program Changes This list details the new or changed capabilities and features of CAESAR II Version 5. . to provide visualization of supporting steel. Added the ability to “import” static load data from different jobs Added the ability to copy wind and wave vectors.3. EN-13480 Updated stainless steel pipe specification data per B36. Added Chinese structural steel and expansion joint databases h Enhanced Static Load Case Editor Added In-Line Flange Evaluation at the load case level. Revised Wind and Seismic load calculations to ASCE #7 2005. Revised due to “code” changes: B31.19M.10. Graphics Improvements: Graphics rendering speed improved by 20% to 50% depending on the job. Revised API-661 to 6th Edition. Added a number of European materials to the material database. Added the ability to import an Autocad (CADWorx) model directly into the piping input. Added the ability to alter the “occasional load multiplier” on a “per load case basis”. Added PD-8010 Part 1 and Part 2. Z662. B31. vessels and other equipment.1.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-11 Static Output Processor Improvements Reduced report generation times by 70% or better Changed presentation in tabbed window to allow viewing multiple reports. Added user control over whether or not insulation should be considered in hydro test cases.3 Section 319. . and immediate switching between reports. Added spring hanger data from Gradior Power.3(c). Added flange rating evaluation per B16.2. allowing axial stress to be included in the Expansion Code Stress. (Czech Republic). Added ability to select Individual items from the Miscellaneous Report Added ability to zoom reports and individually direct reports to an output device via a “context menu” Added import and export of custom report templates.5. Updated DIN pipe size specification to comply with EN-10220 (seamless) instead of DIN-2458 (welded). Added support for B31.

0. CAESAR II defaults to the updated equation in the figure.33 to 1. Updated the gust factor computation. Corrected the computation of the allowable stress for the EN-13480 (060426 build) and CODETI (060707 build) codes Expansion case. This change will cause the SIFs for these fittings to change accordingly. . which may affect the numeric results. Modified the usage of the hanger stiffness values when using the as designed option for hanger design. Corrections have been made to the butt weld and branch connection restrictions The addendum exchanged the equations (between the figure and the notes) used to compute the flexibility characteristic for welding tees and welded-in contour inserts (sweepolets). “note a” changes the “y” value from 0. This will only affect the minimum wall thickness calculation. higher values will be acquired. which is more conservative.00. Modified the SIF calculations for ASME NC/ND (July 2005 addendum).a. and extruded tees so that they use the same SIF computations as Unreinforced tees. Users can control this choice with a new configuration option. (060426 build). (060301 build). EN-13480: Corrected the use of sweepolets. and BS-7159 codes. These changes are: If the program is allowed to update the allowable stresses. Changed the “default occasional load factor” from 1. Corrected the usage of the effective section modulus for reducing tees for both CODETI and EN-13480.4 to 0. The Sc and Sh values used to determine the Expansion allowable are now limited to 20 ksi. (070122 build).1 A2005 introduced a number of changes that will affect existing jobs. In Table 102. Corrected the auto-computation of the “B31.1.1-12 Introduction Technical Changes The following list details changes to CAESAR II for Version 5. Corrected the determination of the governing code stress for combination load cases for Offshore.3 now match in this regard. (060301 build).10. Z662. weldolets. Updated limiting conditions for the determination of Kzt.2. B31. Corrected the system weight distribution in the restrained weight case when hanger operating loads are defined by the user). B31.3 Wc” value for bends. Updated ASCE #7 wind load generation to 2005 Edition: Updated Table 6-1 for Importance Factor Updated Table 6-2 for Exposure Constants zg and alpha Updated the equation for Kz.1 and B31.

............................................................................................... 2-4 ESL Installation on a Network.......................CH AP TER 2 Chapter 2 Installation In This Chapter Overview .............................. 2-15 Notes on Network ESLs .................................................. 2-3 Installing CAESAR II Overview ............................ 2-16 ............................................. 2-2 System and Hardware Requirements ..................................................................................

.2-2 Installation Overview This chapter explains the CAESAR II installation process.

Chapter 2 Installation 2-3 System and Hardware Requirements CAESAR II requires either Windows 2000 or Windows XP to operate efficiently. Any computer configured to run either one of these operating systems will be sufficient to run CAESAR II provided the graphics card is capable of at least 1024x768 resolution. .

This dialog contains four main controls and enables users to: • Install – Initiates the actual installation procedure. • Products – Lists all of the COADE products. insert the CD in to the drive. • Contact Info – Displays COADE contact information.2-4 Installation Installing CAESAR II Overview To begin installation. • Exit – Closes this dialog. The installation routine will start and the following screen displays. .

Chapter 2 Installation 2-5 Installation Begin installation by clicking Install.10 link. the dialog changes to show all of the installation options. From the dialog click Install under the CAESAR II 5. Selecting Install CAESAR II 5. necessary to access the CAESAR II documentation files. necessary to access the hardware key. As installation begins. Selecting Install Acrobat Reader launches Adobe’s stand-alone installation for Acrobat Reader. The first operation is the extraction of the MSI file. as shown in the figure below.10 launches the installation of CAESAR II software. a dialog opens displaying a progress indicator and the name of the file extracted. . Selecting Install ESL Driver launches Aladdin’s stand-alone installation for the HASP driver.

2-6 Installation Note: It is best if nothing else is running while the installation program runs. . Most unsuccessful installation attempts can be attributed to other software running at the same time as the installation. The CAESAR II License Agreement displays. After the program completes extracting all the necessary files the Welcome message displays click Next to continue the installation.

where “<product name>” reflects the program name and version. Tip: The default destination directory is “c:\program files\coade\<product name>”. Click Next to continue. as shown in the figure below. .Chapter 2 Installation 2-7 To continue the installation users must click the I accept the terms in the license agreement option. The dialog to set the installation folder displays next.

which dictate the language resource files that are installed. After defining the proper destination folder click OK. After selecting the language click Next The Select ESL Color dialog displays. In the Folder Name box. This will return control to the Destination Folder dialog (shown above). from which Next should be clicked to continue the installation process Once this dialog is complete. this dialog allows the user to select from various languages. click the Change button to the right of the dialog and the following dialog displays. type the new destination folder. or use the buttons to the right to browse for the desired location. the Language dialog displays. .2-8 Installation To install the software in another location.

Tip: An additional dialog is presented to allow one last chance to abort the installation. which determines which driver gets loaded. Select the appropriate ESL color.Chapter 2 Installation 2-9 This selection defines whether a Local or Network key will be used. Click Install to transfer the software from the CD to the target destination directory. and then click Next. .

. as depicted in the figure below. the status displays in a series of progress bars.2-10 Installation As the installation progresses.

A full discussion of them can be found in the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual. Click Exit w/ Save to continue. . This module enables users to set the default configuration for this particular workstation.Chapter 2 Installation 2-11 Once the files have been transferred. the CAESAR II Configuration Module screen follows. Note: It is highly recommended that users familiarize themselves with the configuration directives.

doc file click the Show the readme file check box before clicking Finish. To view the Readme. After installing the Aladdin Device Drivers the installation routine cleans up and presents the next dialog.2-12 Installation After the Configuration directives are set the Aladdin device driver installation routine is launched to install the driver for the hardware lock. . as shown in the figure below.

2. Installing CAESAR II in Silent Mode In some instances it may be desired to install CAESAR II without dealing with the dialogs. or to terminate the installation. Issue the installation command as detailed below. Typically the ESL_ON_MACHINE and INSTALL_SILENT options are not necessary.exe /v"/qb PROPERTY_NAME="value" PROPERTY_NAME2="Value"" The /v switch is to pass msi commands The /qb is a silent switch Example: Setup. perform these steps: 1. it is a good idea to restart Windows®.exe /v"/qb INSTALL_SILENT="Yes" LANG="Eng" ESL_COLOR="Green"" This example installs silent with language English and ESL color green. with no interaction from the user. The final dialog provides options to immediately restart Windows. such as a network installation or a corporate repackaging. Select the appropriate button. Properties •INSTALLDIR (The path to load the installation files) ·<target_dir> •LANG (The language to install) ·Eng (English) ·Span (Spanish) ·Ger (Germen) ·Fren (French) .Chapter 2 Installation 2-13 Since a device driver was loaded. Navigate to the CAESAR II subdirectory on the CD.exe /v"/qb INSTALL_SILENT="Yes" LANG="Eng" ESL_COLOR="Red" ESL_ON_MACHINE="Yes"" This example installs silent with ESL color red and ESL install locally. Setup. Command Cmd= setup. To launch the installation in “silent mode”.

2-14 Installation •ESL_COLOR (The ESL color) ·Red ·Green •ESL_ON_MACHINE (This is only set if ESL color is red which is if the ESL will be on local machine or server) ·Yes ·No •INSTALL_SILENT (Is to tell the install it's silent) ·Yes ·No .

The workstation does not need to be logged in. This driver should be copied onto the file server. The local ESLs provide the maximum flexibility in using the software.TXT found in the Assidrv subdirectory for network specific instructions. . the system startup file (AUTOEXEC. The actual location (directory) on the workstation is not important. The network ESL must be attached to the USB port of any machine on the network (this can be a workstation or the file server). the remainder of this section can be skipped. after the commands which load the network drivers. The file server is a better location for this ESL. Then. Windows Server Installation For a Windows server installation..TXT and ESL_RED.Chapter 2 Installation 2-15 ESL Installation on a Network COADE software programs support two different ESLs.NCF) should be modified to include the command LOAD HASPSERV. as long as the program can be located for startup. since it will usually be up and running. the driver HASPSERV. however. The documentation files in this sub-directory contain instructions for a variety of networks and operating systems.BAT file of the workstation.EXE is needed. a utility program must be loaded on the machine controlling the ESL. Novell File Server ESL Installation If the network ESL is to be located on a Novell file server. Place the command.e. This modification can be accomplished with SYSCON (or equivalent) assuming Supervisor rights. HASPSERV. The drivers for network ESL usage can be found in the sub-directory ASSIDRV beneath the CAESAR II program directory. in the AUTOEXEC. This driver should be copied onto the workstation. “local” ESLs and “network” ESLs. If the network ESL is attached to a workstation. Note. into the top level SYSTEM directory. the workstation must be running and/or logged onto the network before anyone can use the software. The actual utility used depends on whether the ESL is on the file server or a workstation and the type of network. since these devices can be moved between computers (i. between desktops and laptops). Novell Workstation ESL Installation If the network ESL is to be located on a workstation. Both types of ESLs are intended to be attached to the USB ports of the applicable computers. If your computer uses a local ESL. the workstation must always be up and running for users to access the software. the driver HASPSERV. In order for the network to recognize the ESL. refer to the documentation files NETHASP.NLM is needed.

it is suggested that only 70 to 80 percent of the desired licenses be assigned to a network ESL. if all of the licenses are on the network ESL. Alternatively. The remaining 20 to 30 percent of the licenses should be assigned to local ESLs. The prime advantage is that many users (up to the number of licenses) have access (from a variety of computers) to the software on a single server. A few local ESLs provide much greater operating flexibility. to run the software at remote locations. a user must then be logged into the network to access the software. The prime disadvantage is that users cannot transfer the ESL between machines in order to take the software to a remote location. Since both a network and several local ESLs may be initialized on the same system (there is no network-specific version of the software). . This enables the local ESLs to be moved between computers.2-16 Installation Notes on Network ESLs There are advantages and disadvantages in utilizing a network ESL.

............................................................... 3-2 Basic Operation ......................................CH AP TER 3 Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation In This Chapter CAESAR II Quick Start................................. 3-5 .............................

All necessary user operations are discussed. Main Menu options are described in detail in Chapter 4 of this document—for the purposes of this “Quick Start” chapter. These steps are explained briefly in this chapter. analysis types.3-2 Quick Start and Basic Operation CAESAR II Quick Start This chapter explains the basics of CAESAR II operation. and initiate output reviews. Input. Starting CAESAR II Launch CAESAR II by double-clicking the CAESAR II icon. details have been kept to a minimum. to enable users to quickly perform a static piping analysis.EXE in the CAESAR II Installation directory. Analysis. There are several steps required to perform a static analysis. which should point to the program C2. and Output menus are used. Each topic includes references to other sections of the CAESAR II User Guide for additional detailed information. however. • START CAESAR II (Chapter 4) • GENERATE INPUT (Chapter 5) • PERFORM ERROR CHECKING (Chapter 6) • BUILD LOAD CASES (Chapter 6) • EXECUTE STATIC ANALYSIS (Chapter 6) • REVIEW OUTPUT (Chapter 7) Note: A complete tutorial is provided in the CAESAR II Applications Guide. only the File. the major steps (and the chapters in which they are described) display below. Main Menu . invoke executions. The use of CAESAR II assumes that the software has been installed as per the instructions detailed in Chapter 2. Note that launching any of the other executable programs in the CAESAR II Installation directory can result in unpredictable behavior. at this point the Main Menu displays. It is from the Main Menu that users select jobs.

. Note: Selecting FILE-OPEN (or clicking the Open icon on the toolbar) presents users with a dialog to select an existing file. if desired. Note: Enabling Structural Input opens the Structural Steel Wizard. or output review references the job name specified. The job name is selected using the File menu. analysis. See Chapter 4 of the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for more information. using one of three methods. New Job Name Dialog Whenever users wish to begin a new job. Select recently used files from the RECENT PIPING/STRUCTURAL FILE option on the File Menu. and select an alternate directory for the file. users should enter a name. select Piping Input.Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-3 All CAESAR II analyses require a job name for identification purposes—subsequent input. selecting File-New (or clicking the New icon from the toolbar) requires the user to enter a job name and data directory. For the purposes of this example.

as noted. Open Dialog CAESAR II gives users the option to archive input files. it indicates the job on which input modeling.3-4 Quick Start and Basic Operation Selecting a job name does not open the file. output review. or other operations will be done. Archived input files cannot be altered and/or saved without this password however. Archive Password Dialog . analysis. Enter a password between 6 and 24 characters in length. Users must still select one of these operations from the menu. You are prompted to repeat this information to eliminate the possibility of incorrectly entering the password. they can be opened and reviewed.

Input generation of the model consists of describing the piping elements. and requires the specification of geometric. you will choose the required operation. cross sectional. Piping Input Generation After specifying the job name users can launch the interactive model builder by selecting INPUT-PIPING from the Main Menu. Each pipe element is identified by two node numbers. The preferred method of data entry is the Piping Spreadsheet.Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-5 Basic Operation Once you have started the program and opened the file. Piping Input Spreadsheet . as well as any external influences (boundary conditions or loads) acting on those elements. and material data.

The menus. which is likely to be constant. The commands and general input instructions of the piping spreadsheet are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. nominal) in the Diameter field. The program automatically converts this value to the actual diameter. Entering the First Element (Element 10-20) of a Simple Model: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Enter the value 10-0 (10 ft) in the DX field. Enter 600 (degrees Fahrenheit) in the Temp 1 field. Double-click the Bend check box. the user must only confirm the numbers and enter the delta-dimensions. point specific data can easily be entered on the appropriate element’s spreadsheet. The Bends tab displays.3-6 Quick Start and Basic Operation Each pipe element is described on its own spreadsheet. toolbars. When necessary. Enter the value 8 (8-in. Data. Enter “S” (standard schedule pipe wall) in the Wt/Sch field. and accelerators offer a number of additional commands that users can invoke to enter auxiliary processors or use special modelers or databases. This is automatically converted to wall thickness. This means that for many elements. Enter 150 (psig) in the Pressure 1 field. is automatically duplicated by CAESAR II to subsequent spreadsheets. and adds intermediate nodes 18 and 19 at the near weld and mid points of the bend respectively (node 20 physically represents the far weld point of the bend). This adds a long radius bend at the end of the element. .

then select ANC from the first Type drop list. 12 Double-click the Restraint check box. distributed and data is carried forward from previous spreadsheets.3 code from the Code drop list. 11 Enter the value 10-0 (10 feet) in the DY field. enter 30. In the first Node field enter 10. or click the Skip to Next Element icon. To enter the second element of the model. The program automatically converts this value to density. The two-element model (an ell-configuration anchored at each end) is now complete. This selection fills in the material parameters such as density and modulus elasticity.Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-7 7 Double-click the Restraint check box. element 20-30. and code display automatically. or use the EditContinue button to move to the spreadsheet for a new element. In the first Node field. 8 Select A106 B from the Material drop list. Allowable stresses for the given material. .85 specific gravity) in the Fluid Density field. The Restraint tab displays. press Alt-C. temperature. Note: Node numbers are automatically generated.85SG (0. 9 Double-click the Allowable Stress check box and select the B31. Note: 10 Enter 0. then select ANC from the first Type drop list.

The Graphics and List utilities are discussed in Chapter 5 of this manual. the spreadsheet can be collapsed to provide maximum graphic space as shown below. . although a combination of both modes is recommended. This can be done using the FileError Check menu option or the Error Check icon on the toolbar. The CAESAR Ii Piping Preprocessor is designed to make these tasks intuitive and efficient. next to the input spreadsheet. The CAESAR II Graphics screen. displays by default. However. CAESAR II Input Graphics Screen Once the model is completed. Model verification can be performed using either the Graphics or List utilities. it must be checked for errors before analysis is permitted.3-8 Quick Start and Basic Operation The piping preprocessor also provides interactive graphics and listing functions to facilitate model editing and verification.

Users can choose to display only fatal errors or all errors by clicking the arrow beside the Error Checker icon. Users can print the entire error report or selected sections by clicking the Print button. may show intermediate calculations or general notes. If there is an error. Unusual items (such as a change of direction without a bend or intersection) are flagged as warnings to the user. users can return to the input module by clicking the Classic Piping Input tab. by clicking the column titles.Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-9 Error Checking the Model The two main functions of this error checker. Users may review all the messages generated by using the scroll bar on the right side of the toolbar or arrow keys. If the error check process completes without fatal errors. Other messages. Element or Node Number and Message Text. Clicking on an error or warning message highlights the associated element on the graphic display and positions the spreadsheet to that element. Notes display in blue text and Warnings display in green text. Verification of the user’s input data consists of checking each individual piping element for consistency. a center of gravity report is presented and the analysis data files can be generated and then the solution phase can commence. Error messages display in red text. is first to verify the user’s input data. . Errors discovered which would prevent CAESAR II from running (such as a corrosion allowance greater than the wall thickness) are flagged as fatal errors to the user. Users can sort error messages by Message Number. of an informational type. and second to build the execution data files utilized by the remainder of CAESAR II. All messages display in the Error Window next to the model graphics.

3-10 Quick Start and Basic Operation Center of Gravity Report If fatal errors exist. the analysis data files are not generated and the solution phase cannot begin. . Users must make corrections and rerun the Error Checker successfully before analysis is permitted.

Load Case Builder Loads can be built two ways—by 1) combining the load components defined in the input (weight. For new jobs (no previous solution files available). and dropping load components from the Loads Defined in Input list (in the left hand column) to the Load Cases list on the right.) into load cases (basic cases). launches the Load Case Builder. or selecting the EDIT-EDIT STATIC LOAD CASES option from the piping preprocessor. Selecting the Analysis-Statics option from the Main Menu. the user has the option of directly modifying them. The first stage of a static analysis is to set up the load cases. once the analysis data files have been generated by the error checker. These recommended load cases are usually sufficient to satisfy the piping code requirements for the Sustained and Expansion load cases. etc. displacements. the static analysis module recommends load cases to the user based on the load types encountered in the input file. . If the recommended load cases are not satisfactory. or the piping input. Users can build the basic cases by selecting (one or more load components). and 2) combining pre-existing load cases into new load cases (combination cases). Stress Types (indicating which code equations should be used to calculate and check the stresses) can be selected from the Stress Type list on each line. thermal cases. dragging.Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-11 Building the Load Cases A static analysis can be started from the Main Menu.

if present. and dropping basic load cases from earlier in the load case list to combine cases (or blank load cases) later in the Load Cases list. This solution phase also performs the design and selection of spring hangers. the user begins the actual finite element solution through the use of the File-Analyze command on the toolbar. The solution phase commences with the generation of the element stiffness matrices and load vectors. Executing Static Analysis Once the load cases have been defined. dragging. Users can build combination cases by selecting (one or more load components). and iterative stiffness matrix modifications for nonlinear restraints. must always follow the basic cases.3-12 Quick Start and Basic Operation Combination cases. and solves for displacements. . or by clicking the Start Run icon on the toolbar located in the Static Load Case Builder. Note: Load cases may also be built by typing on any of the individual lines. and stresses. The user is kept apprised of the solution status throughout the calculation. reactions. forces and moments.

.Chapter 3 Quick Start and Basic Operation 3-13 Static Output Review A review of the static analysis results is possible immediately after a static solution or at a later time by selecting the Output-Static option of the CAESAR II Main Menu. The static output processor presents the user with an interactive selection menu from which load cases and report options can be selected.

The user can also use the View-Plot menu command or the Plot toolbar to review the analytic results in graphics mode. the user can return to the main CAESAR II menu by exiting the output review module. and restraint actions. nozzle. The results can be reviewed on the terminal. restraint loads are acceptable. File-Save/SaveAs. MS Word. Output Graphics Screen The actual study of the results depends on the purpose of each load case. printed. or File-Print menu commands and/or toolbars. Additional post processing (such as equipment. Ctrl-clicking. Usually the review checks that the system stresses are below their allowables. by using the View Reports. Once the review of the output is finished. stress distributions. and Shift-clicking the mouse). and the reason for the analysis. or sent to a file. and structural steel checks) may be required depending on the model and type of analysis. .3-14 Quick Start and Basic Operation Results can be reviewed by selecting one or more load cases along with one or more reports (selection is done by clicking. which can produce displaced shapes. and displacements are not excessive.

....................................................................................................................................................................... 4-12 ...................................................................................... 4-11 Help Menu ............................................................................................. 4-5 Analysis Menu ................................................................. 4-3 Input Menu ............................................................. 4-7 Tools Menu............................................CH AP TER 4 Chapter 4 Main Menu In This Chapter The CAESAR II Main Menu ................................................................................................ 4-9 ESL Menu........................ 4-10 View Menu .......................................... 4-6 Output Menu............................................................................................................................................. 4-2 File Menu.................................................................................. 4-8 Diagnostics Menu ..

EXE from the CAESAR II Installation directory. the Main Menu appears. or by running C2. It is recommended that this screen be kept at its minimal size (as shown above). As elsewhere in CAESAR II commands may be accessed from menus.4-2 Main Menu The CAESAR II Main Menu CAESAR II Main Menu CAESAR II may be started by double clicking the CAESAR II icon. as well as toolbars and/or keystroke combinations. . The Main Menu is used to direct the actions of CAESAR II. After starting CAESAR II. This allows access to the toolbar while freeing most of the screen for other applications. The available menu options are briefly described here with further detail available elsewhere in this document or in the CAESAR II Technical Reference Guide.

File New Dialog .Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-3 File Menu The File menu may be used to do the following: • Set Default Data Directory—Sets the default data (project) directory without selecting a specific job file. Some CAESAR II options do not require that a job be selected. For more information. see Chapter 4 of the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for details. When New is selected the user must designate whether this job is for a piping or structural model. The data directory where the file is to be placed must be selected. either by entering it directly or by browsing. units. Note: Selecting Structural Input launches the Structural Steel Wizard. or other data files found in that directory are considered to be “local” to that job. Note The selection of the data directory is very important since any configuration. but must know in which directory to work. • New—Starts a new piping or structural job.

listing files. File Open Dialog • Clean Up (delete) Files— Enables users to delete unwanted scratch files.” or “Structural” may be displayed for selection (see below).4-4 Main Menu • Open—Opens an existing piping or structural job. • Exit—Closes CAESAR II. File Clean Up Dialog • Recent Piping or Recent Structural Files —Displays the four most recently used piping or structural files in the File menu. .” “Pre-version 3. input. Files of type “Piping.24 piping. When Open is chosen the user is prompted to select an existing job file. and output files to retain more hard disk space.

Structural Steel Description . Option Inputs a CAESAR II Piping Model (see Chapter 5). the Input Menu indicates the available modules for the file type chosen. Underground Inputs a CAESAR II Structural Model (see Chapter 10).Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-5 Input Menu Input Menu Once a file is selected. Piping Converts existing piping model to buried pipe (see Chapter 11).

Estimates pipeline remaining life (see Chapter 12). This is also available after error checking the input files (see Chapter 8). Evaluates piping loads on compressors (see Chapter 12). Evaluates piping loads on feedwater heaters (see Chapter 12). Evaluates piping loads on fired heaters (see Chapter 12). Option Statics Description Performs Static analysis of pipe and/or structure. Evaluates piping loads on air-cooled heat exchangers (see Chapter 12).4-6 Main Menu Analysis Menu Analysis Menu The Analysis Menu allows the user to select from the different calculations available.G Expansion Joint Rating AISC NEMA SM23 API 610 API 617 API 661 HEI Standard API 560 Displays scratch pads used to calculate stress intensification factors at intersections and bends. Dynamics SIFs WRC 107/297 Flanges B31. Performs Dynamic analysis of pipe and/or structure. Performs AISC code check on structural steel elements (see Chapter 12). Performs flange stress and leakage calculations (see Chapter 12). Calculates stresses in vessels due to attached piping (see Chapter 12). This is available after error checking the input files (see Chapter 6). Evaluates expansion joints using EJMA equations (see Chapter 12). . Evaluates piping loads on steam turbine nozzles (see Chapter 12). Evaluates piping loads on centrifugal pumps (see Chapter 12).

which may be selected for review. Statics Harmonic Spectrum Modal Time History Animation Displays Harmonic Loading results (see Chapter 9). Displays Animated Graphic simulations of any of the above results. Option Displays Static results (see Chapter 7). Displays Natural Frequency/Mode Shape calculations or Uniform/Force Spectrum Loading results (see Chapter 9). Description .Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-7 Output Menu Output Menu The user is presented with all available output of piping and/or structural calculations. Displays Time History Load Simulation results (see Chapter 9).

pressure stiffening. Material Data Base Accounting Multi-Job Analysis External Interfaces Activates or customizes job accounting or generates accounting reports. Displays the interfaces to and from third party software (both CAD and analytical). Enables the user to run a stream of jobs without operator intervention. . due to project or client considerations. etc. Launches an on-screen calculator. Enables the user to consider items such as treatment of corrosion. Creates custom sets of units. on a directory by directory basis.4-8 Main Menu Tools Menu Tools Menu The Tools Menu includes various CAESAR II supporting utilities that are used for Option Configure/Setup Calculator Make Units files Description Customizes the behavior of CAESAR II. Edits or adds to the CAESAR II Material database. differently for each directory.

Determines the build version of CAESAR II files. Description . Provides version information on library files used by CAESAR II. Option CRC Check Build Version Error Review DLL Version Check Verifies program files are not corrupted. Reviews description of CAESAR II errors.Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-9 Diagnostics Menu Diagnostics Menu Diagnostics are provided to help trouble shoot problem installations.

(see option above). Verifies the location and version of the ESL.4-10 Main Menu ESL Menu ESL Menu The ESL Menu gives access to utilities. Installs the ESL Drivers. Description . Show Data Generate Access Codes Enter re-authorization Codes Check HASP Device Status Install HASP Device Driver Allows runs to be added or other ESL changes. which interact with the External Software Lock. to be made either through Fax or E-mail (in conjunction with option below). Option Displays data stored on the ESL.

Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-11 View Menu View Menu The View Menu allows users to enable the status bar and all toolbars. Option Toolbar Status Bar Enable users to display and/or customize a toolbar. Description . Enables users to display a status bar at the bottom of the window.

Enables users with Internet access to register electronically with COADE.4-12 Main Menu Help Menu Help Menu Option On Line Documentation Desktop On-Line Help On-Line Registration Description Displays CAESAR II documentation in HTML or PDF format. Provides information on the best ways to contact COADE personnel for technical support and provides Internet links for COADE downloads and information. Displays CAESAR II version and copyright information. Enables users to verify the most current version of CAESAR II is installed. Information Check for Upgrades About CAESAR II . Launches COADE’s online technical support.

Chapter 4 Main Menu 4-13 Throughout CAESAR II context-sensitive. on-screen help is available by clicking ? or [F1] while the cursor is in any input field. A help screen displays showing a discussion and the required units if applicable. Help Dialog .

.

............................................................................................................................................................................................CH AP TER 5 Chapter 5 Piping Input In This Chapter Spreadsheet Overview ........................................... 5-2 Data Fields....................... 5-4 Auxiliary Data Area... 5-9 Menu Commands............................................................... 5-24 3-D Modeler ........................................................ 5-39 .......................................................

5-2 Piping Input Spreadsheet Overview In order to input a piping model. It consists of menu commands/toolbars. which can be used to perform a number of supporting operations and data fields used to enter information about each piping element. Input Spreadsheet This spreadsheet is used to describe the piping on an element-by-element basis. A graphic representation of the model automatically plots on the right and updates as new elements are added. . and then choose INPUT-PIPING. one must either open a new or existing piping file from the Main Menu. The CAESAR II Piping Input spreadsheet then appears.

by right-clicking the mouse on the toolbar. clicking a button and dragging it to the new position. which causes the Customize Toolbar dialog to appear.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-3 Customize Toolbar CAESAR II enables the user to customize the Spreadsheet and 3D Graphic toolbars. You can determine which buttons display and their locations. users can customize the toolbar by pressing the <Shift> key. which displays the following dialog Customize Toolbar Alternatively. CAESAR II allows users to undo any changes by right clicking on the toolbar. . and clicking the Reset button.

are the measurements along the X. The delta dimensions DX. Element Lengths Lengths of the elements are entered as delta dimensions according to the X. with changing data-fields that support items entered through check boxes (pressing [F12] alternatively displays the various auxiliary screens). the element end points . Offsets can be used to modify the stiffness of the current element by adjusting its length and the orientation of its neutral axis in 3-D space. and Z-axes between the From node and To node. In most cases only one of the three cells will be used as the piping usually runs along the global axes. and 3-6-3/16.must be entered. The right side of the screen offers an auxiliary area.5-4 Piping Input Data Fields Data fields are grouped logically into blocks of related data on the left side of the screen. Where the piping element is skewed two or three entries must be made. The data fields may be torn apart by double-clicking the [>>] button in the upper right corner of each group. The From node and To node are both required data fields. Y. DY. They can be arranged in any order. Note: When using feet and inches for compound length and length units. These points are used as locations at which information may be entered or extracted. Since each input screen represents a piping element. valid entries in this (and most other length fields) include formats such as: 3-6. The following are the data-field blocks: Node Numbers Each element is identified by its end “node” number. -6 in. and DZ.the From node and To node . Y. . this aids in conserving window real estate and increasing space for graphics. Note: CAESAR II can generate both values if the AUTO_NODE_INCREMENT directive is set to other than zero using the Tools-Configure/Setup option of the Main Menu. 3 ft. One or more entries must be made for all elements except “zero length” expansion joints. and Z rectangular coordinate system established for the piping system (note that the Y-axis represents the vertical axis).

. and schedule numbers are a function of the pipe size specification. Pipe Section Properties The elements outside diameter. and seam weld (IGE/TD/12 piping code only). The Element dialog displays the total Length and Direction Cosines. or Direction Cosines may affect one or all of the element lengths (DX. ANSI.. thicknesses. DY. Changes made to any of the element lengths (DX. and DZ).Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-5 Element Direction Cosines Clicking the Ellipsis (. Note: Nominal diameters. or DIN is set via the TOOLS-CONFIGURE/SETUP option of the Main Menu or the Setup toolbar button. These data fields carry forward from one screen to the next during the input session and need only be entered for those elements at which a change occurs. JIS. CAESAR II converts these values to actual outside diameter and wall thickness. mill tolerance (plus mill tolerance is used for IGE/TD/12 piping code only).. and DZ) displays the Element dialog. wall thickness.) button to the right of the element lengths (DX. Changes made to the total element Length. Nominal pipe sizes and schedules may be specified. DY. Outside diameter and wall thickness are required data inputs. and insulation thickness are entered in this block. DY. corrosion allowance. and DZ) will affect both the total element Length and Direction Cosines.

Entering a value in the Hydro Pressure field causes CAESAR II to build a Hydro case in the set of recommended load cases. the Bend check box should be set by double-clicking. . ‘mid’. The temperatures are actual temperatures (not changes from ambient). As an alternative. (The button with the ellipses dots is used to activate a window showing extended operating conditions input). i. which can be defined by enabling the component and entering data in the auxiliary screen.5-6 Piping Input Operating Conditions: Temperatures and Pressures Up to nine temperatures and ten pressures (one extra for the hydrostatic test pressure) can be specified for each piping element. not zero.002. unless changed using the Special Execution Parameters Option. Special Element Information Special components such as bends. Both thermal and pressure data carries forward from one element to the next until changed. CAESAR II uses these temperatures to obtain the thermal strain and allowable stresses for the element from the Material Database. Note: CAESAR II uses an ambient temperature of 70°F. Double-clicking the Rigid check box (indicating an element that is much stiffer than the connecting pipe such as a flange or valve) opens an auxiliary data field to collect the component weight. CAESAR II follows these rules: • When the rigid element weight is entered. and ‘far’ node on the bend). CAESAR II computes any extra weight due to insulation and contained fluid. rigid elements. Pressures are entered as gauge values and may not be negative. the thermal strains may be specified directly (see the discussion of ALPHA TOLERANCE in the Technical Reference Manual). and adds it to the user-entered weight value. Each temperature and each pressure entered creates a loading for use when building load cases. For rigid elements. Thermal strains have absolute values on the order of 0. expansion joints and tees require additional information. CAESAR II usually assigns three nodes to a bend (giving ‘near’. This entry opens up the auxiliary data field on the right hand side of the input screen to accept additional data regarding the bend. and are unitless. If the element described by the spreadsheet ends in a bend.e. elbow or mitered joint.

The auxiliary data fields allow specification of up to 4 restraints (devices which in some way modify the free motion of the system). Make sure that the diameter entered on a rigid element spreadsheet is indicative of the rigid stiffness that should be generated. or wind loadings (wind loadings are entered by specifying a wind shape factor—the loads themselves are specified when building the load cases. flexible nozzles or displacements. one nozzle. which restrain (or impose movement on) the pipe— restraints. double-clicking that check box brings up an auxiliary screen. (This will be of benefit if the data must be located for modification). Refer to the Valve/flange and Expansion Joint database discussions later in this chapter for quick entry of rigid element and expansion joint data. If needed. In the former case. CAESAR II assumes the element is an artificial “construction element” rather than an actual piping element. rigids. in the latter.75. If an element is an expansion joint. or gravitational body forces). • If the weight of a rigid element is zero or blank. These loads may be individual forces or moments acting at discrete points. The uniform load and the wind shape factor check boxes will be unchecked on subsequent input screens. Note: Uniform loads may be specified in g-values by setting a parameter in the Special Execution Options. all stiffness must be entered. and expansion joints are mutually exclusive.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-7 • The weight of fluid added to a non-zero weight rigid element is equal to the same weight that would be computed for an equivalent straight pipe. one hanger. instead. Checking the SIF & Tees check box allows the user to specify any component having special stress intensification factors (SIF). distributed uniform loads (which may be specified on force per unit length. hangers. which prompts for stiffness parameters and effective diameter. This does not mean that the loads were removed from these elements. this implies that the loads do not change on subsequent screens. . additional items for any node can be input on other element screens. Note: Bends. • The stiffness of the rigid element is relative to the diameter (and wall & thickness) entered. so no insulation or fluid weight is computed for that element. The weight of insulation added is equal to the same weight that would be computed for an equivalent straight pipe times 1. Though not required. Expansion joints may be modeled as zero-length (with all stiffnesses acting at a single point) or as finite-length (with the stiffnesses acting over a continuous element). Loading Conditions The checkboxes in this block allow the user to define loadings acting on the pipe. or two sets of nodal displacements per element. CAESAR II automatically calculates these factors for each component. either the lateral or angular stiffness must be omitted. Boundary Conditions The checkboxes in this block open the auxiliary data field to allow the input of items. it is recommended that such information be supplied on the input screen which has that point as the From node or To node.

and fluid contents are specified in this block. by entering the material number. if the value in the database is not correct. 0. and (in most cases) expansion coefficient. if convenient. The piping material density is a required entry and is usually extracted from the Material Database. CAESAR II defaults to the density of calcium silicate. cut short and cut long respectively. These values must be entered for Material type 21 (user specified). Material Elastic Properties This block is used to enter or override the elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the material. Poisson’s ratio. Densities The densities of the piping material. or by typing the entire material name and then picking it from the match list. Note: Material properties in the database may be changed permanently using the CAESAR II Material Database editor. but it can be reviewed during error checking.g. This information is retrieved by picking a material from the drop list. Note: If an insulation thickness is specified (in the pipe section properties block) but no insulation density is entered. Material 21 permits a totally user defined material. (The coefficient of expansion does not appear on the input screen. material 20 activates CAESAR II’s orthotropic model for use with materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe. by following the input immediately with the letters: SG.) Note that materials 18 and 19 represent cold spring properties. .5-8 Piping Input Piping Material CAESAR II requires the specification of the pipe material’s elastic modulus. e. insulation.85SG (there can be no spaces between the number and the SG). Using a material with a number greater than 100 permits the use of allowable stresses from the database. Fluid density can optionally be entered in terms of specific gravity. The program provides a database containing the parameters for many common piping materials. density.

or by toggling through the screens with the use of the [F12] key or by clicking the appropriate tabs. the model status screen appears.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-9 Auxiliary Data Area The Auxiliary data area is used to display or enter extended data associated with the check box fields. . The dialog changes to accommodate input for the two different methods of flange analysis available in CAESAR II. The data in this area can be displayed by single clicking the appropriate box. Flanges This auxiliary screen is used to enter flange information for in-line flange evaluation. Note: When there is no auxiliary data.

fitting wall thickness. miter cuts. . or at the bend mid-point (“M”). Intermediate node points may be placed at specified angles along the bend. stiffness factor (K-Factor).5-10 Piping Input Bend Data This auxiliary screen is used to enter information regarding bend radius. or attached flanges.

Note: Rigid weights are entered automatically if the Valve and Flange database is used. . If no weight is entered CAESAR II models the element as a weightless construction element.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-11 Rigid Weight This auxiliary screen is used to enter the weight of a rigid element.

Note: Skewed restraints may be entered by entering direction cosines with the type. such as X (1. .1) for a restraint running at 45º in the X-Z plane.0.5-12 Piping Input Restraints This auxiliary screen is used to enter data for up to four restraints per spreadsheet. Restraint types may be selected from the drop list or typed in. all other information is optional (omitting the stiffness entry defaults to “rigid”). Node number and restraint Type are required.

either the transverse or bending stiffness must be omitted. This method may be used (in conjunction with setting a large axial stiffness) to simulate the effect of axial tie-rods. For a non-zero length expansion joint.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-13 Expansion Joint This auxiliary screen is used to enter the expansion joint stiffness parameters and effective diameter. . Note: Setting the effective diameter to zero de-activates the pressure thrust load.

Up to nine displacement vectors may be entered (load components D1 through D9). . Note: Leaving a direction blank for all nine vectors models the system as being free to move in that direction. Specifying “0. If a displacement value is entered for any vector.0” implies that the system is fully restrained in that direction. this direction is considered to be fixed for any other non-specified vectors.5-14 Piping Input Displacements This auxiliary screen is used to enter imposed displacements for up to two nodes per spreadsheet.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-15 Forces This auxiliary screen is used to enter imposed forces and/or moments for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. . Up to nine force vectors may be entered (load components F1 through F9).

until explicitly changed or zeroed out with a later entry. U2 and U3). . as well as all subsequent elements in the model. These uniform loads are applied to the entire current element.5-16 Piping Input Uniform Loads This auxiliary screen is used to enter up to three uniform load vectors (load components U1.

selecting Off turns off both types of loading. (Note that the pipe may not be exposed to both. This screen is also used to enter the Wind Shape Factor (when Wind is specified) and various wave coefficients (if left blank they will be program-computed) when Wave Loading is specified.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-17 Wind/Wave This auxiliary screen is used to specify whether this portion of the pipe is exposed to wind or wave loading. until changed on a later spreadsheet. Entries on this auxiliary screen apply to all subsequent piping. and buoyancy loadings. current. selecting Wave exposes the pipe to wave. .) Selecting Wind exposes the pipe to wind loading. Note: Specific wind and wave load cases are built using the Static Load Case Editor.

A dialog displays where users may enter stress vs. Allowable stresses are automatically updated for material. Enter Material Fatigue Curve data by clicking the Fatigue Curve button. cycle data with up to 8 points per curve. .5-18 Piping Input Allowable Stresses This auxiliary screen is used to select the piping code (from a drop list) and to enter any data required for the code check. temperature and code if available in the Material Database.

Stress Intensification Factors/Tees . E. Users can access these file by clicking the Read from Files button on the Fatigue Curve dialog. F. G. and W.Chapter 5 Piping Input Note: IGE/TD/12 requires the entry of five fatigue curves representing fatigue classes D. 5-19 The Fatigue Curve data may also be read in from a COADE-supplied or user-created file.

CAESAR II automatically calculates the SIF values as per the applicable code (unless overridden by the user). When entered in this way. CAESAR II calculates nozzle loads according to WRC 297. CAESAR II automatically calculates the flexibilities and inserts them at this location. Fields are enabled as appropriate for the selected fitting. or fitting types for up to two nodes per spreadsheet. API 650 or BS 5500 criteria. . Certain fittings and certain codes require additional data as shown. If components are selected from the drop list. Flexible Nozzles This auxiliary screen is used to describe flexible nozzle connections.5-20 Piping Input This auxiliary screen is used to enter stress intensification factors.

Note: CAESAR II provides catalogs for 25 different spring hanger vendors. In this case. or the hanger may be designed by CAESAR II. . the results of which are used as design parameters which are used to select the springs from the user specified catalog. Hanger data may be fully completed by the user.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-21 Hangers This auxiliary screen is used to describe hanger installations. two special load cases are run.

.5-22 Piping Input Node Names Activating this check box allows the user to enter text names for the From and/or To nodes (up to ten characters). These names display instead of the node numbers on the graphic plots and in the reports (note some of the names may be truncated when space is not available).

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-23 Offsets This auxiliary screen is used to specify offsets to correct modeled element length and orientation to actual length and orientation. . Offsets may be specified at From and/or To nodes.

CAESAR II prompts for the name of the new model. or . This is the first step of analysis. followed by the building of the static or dynamic load cases (see Chapter 6). . which can be run from the menu.BMP. Error Check . closing and running the job file.TIFF.JPG file. Save Save As Save As Graphic Image Saves the current CAESAR II job under a new name. toolbars or accelerator keys. The menu options are: File Menu The File menu is used to perform actions associated with opening. CAESAR II prompts for the name Open Saves the current CAESAR II job under its current name.5-24 Piping Input Menu Commands The CAESAR II Piping Input processor provides many commands. Allows the user to assign a password to prevent inadvertent alteration of the model or to enter the password to unlock the file. Opens an existing CAESAR II job. Saves the current CAESAR II job as an HTML page. File Menu for the Piping Input Screen Button and Name New Description Creates a new CAESAR II job. Archive Sends the model through interactive error checking. .

The next step is the output processor. uses the existing or default static load cases. and performs the static analysis).Chapter 5 Piping Input Button and Name Batch Run 5-25 Description Error checks the model in a non-interactive way and halts only for fatal errors. Print Provides print preview of input listing. CAESAR II prompts the user for the data items to include. Allows the user to print out an input listing. . Print Preview Print Setup Recent Piping Files Sets up the printer for the input listing. Open a file from the list of most recently used jobs.

Duplicate Description Moves the spreadsheet to the next element in the model. navigating through the spreadsheets. adding a new element if there is no next element. These commands are: Button and Name Continue Copies the selected element either before or after the current element. . and performing a few small utilities.5-26 Piping Input Edit Menu Edit Menu for the Piping Input The Edit menu provides commands for cutting and pasting.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-27 Duplicate Element Button and Name Insert Description Inserts an element either before or after the current element. Insert Element .

This provides the benefit of showing all of the element data in a context setting.5-28 Piping Input Button and Name Deletes the current element. Copy. Find Element Button and Name Global Description Prompts the user to enter global (absolute) coordinates for the first node of any disconnected segments. Closes a loop by filling in the delta coordinates between two nodes on the spreadsheet. Calculates the distance between the origin and a node. list format that displays a drop down menu where users can select any list. the element must contain both nodes). close Loop Increment Distance Gives the user the opportunity to change the automatic node increment. Renumber on the element data. The list format also permits block operations such as Duplicate. List . Presents the input data in an alternative. Enabling the Zoom To check box will display the element if found. see the Technical Reference Manual. Delete. For more information on the list input format. or between two nodes. Delete Description Find Allows the user to find an element containing one or more named nodes (if two nodes are entered.

First Element Goes to the Last Element. Undo . This can also be accomplished by using the he Ctrl-Z hot key or selecting Edit/Undo from the Main Menu. An unlimited number of steps (limited only by amount of available memory) may be undone. Note that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-29 List Input Format Button and Name Description Skips to the Next Element. Next Element Goes to the Previous Element. Last Element Reverses/Cancels any modeling steps done in the CAESAR II Input module one at a time. Previous Element Goes to the First Element.

Note that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack. This button is enabled when the job is error checked. .5-30 Piping Input Button and Name Redo Description Repeats the last step. Edit Static Load Case Opens the Dynamic Load Case Editor window. This button is enabled when the job is error checked. Note that making any input change while in the middle of the "undo stack" of course resets the "redo" stack. Edit Dynamic Load Case Review Current Units Located on the Edit Menu it allows users to review units used to create the report file. An unlimited number of steps (limited only by amount of available memory) may be undone. To change Input units from the Main Menu use Tools-Convert Input to New Units. Changing units in the configuration file will not affect the input. Opens the Static Load Case Editor window.

system-wide information. as well as means for entering associated. Model Menu Button and Name Break Description Allows the user to break the element into two unequal length elements or into many equal length elements.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-31 Model Menu The Model menu contains modeling aids. Break Break Element . A single node may be placed as a break point anywhere along the element. or multiple nodes may be placed at equal intervals (the node step interval between the FROM and TO nodes determines the number of nodes placed).

Valve and Flange Database Note: Selecting FLG in the CADWORX database adds the length and weight of two flanges (and two gaskets) into the selected valve. Choosing a combination of Rigid Type. Button and Name Valve Description Allows the user to model a valve or flange from one of the CAESAR II databases. and Class constructs a rigid element with the length and weight extracted from the database.5-32 Piping Input Note: Restraint configurations may be automatically copied from any other node in the system to the new nodes. End Type. .

Expansion Joints . using the bellows stiffnesses and rigid element weights extracted from one of the vendors’ expansion joint catalogs.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-33 Button and Name Expansion Joints Description Activates the Expansion Joint Modeler. The modeler automatically builds a complete assembly of the selected expansion joint style.

5-34 Piping Input Button and Name Title Description Allows the user to enter a job title up to sixty lines long. Title .

Chapter 5 Piping Input Button and Name Description Prompts the user for system .wide hanger design criteria. unless overruled at specific hanger locations. . Hanger Design Control Data 5-35 Hanger Design Control Data Note: System-wide hanger design criteria is used for all hanger designs.

Environment Menu Button and Name Description Allows the user to run “what if” tests on the Stress Intensification Factors of intersections. Review SIFs at Bend Nodes .5-36 Piping Input Environment Menu The Environment menu provides some miscellaneous items. Review SIFs at Intersection Nodes Allows the user to run “what if” tests on the Stress Intensification Factors of selected bends.

Items covered include ambient temperature. pressure stiffening. Special Execution Parameters Button and Name Include Piping Input Files Description Allows the user to include other piping models in the current model. Z-axis orientation. displacements due to pressure (Bourdon effect). etc.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-37 Button and Name Special Execution Parameters Description Allows the user to set options affecting the analysis of the current job. Include Piping Files .

Include Structural Files Button and Name Show Informational Messages Reset View or Refresh Description Allows the user to specify whether or not you receive information messages when CAESAR II converts nominal diameter and thicknesses to actual diameter and thicknesses. then changing the rotation angle (ROTY) or nodal increment (Inc) before clicking Add. Allows users to control the way graphics behave when adding new or modifying existing elements.5-38 Piping Input The same file may be included more than once by highlighting it in the list. Opens the configuration file for review and editing. CAESAR II Configuration Option and View menu choices list graphic controls and manipulation commands. Button and Name Include Structural Input Files Description Allows the incorporation of structural models into the piping model. .

When the plot operation is complete.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-39 3-D Modeler Start CAESAR II and launch the Piping Input Processor. The initial view for a job never plotted before is displayed according to the configuration defaults that include: • A rendered view. the graphic automatically plots and displays to the right of the Classic Piping Input window. the status bar message changes to Ready.orthographic projection The plotting begins by displaying the model in centerline/single line mode to speedup the process. To increase the window space available for graphics the Classic Piping Input window may be hidden from view on the side panel by clicking the thumbtack. Then all the elements get changed to their intended state (they are rendered one by one). The status bar at the bottom of the view window displays the drawing progress in the form of Drawing element X of Y. Note: The model is fully operational while actually being drawn. the restraints and other relevant items are added. Users may apply any available option to the model at any time. .isometric view • Tees and nozzles highlighted. Later.restraints shown • XYZ compass . Once in the input.

or front views respectively. selecting drop-down menu items. Alternatively. or back views respectively. Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button. Note that in this mode. or back views respectively. this often makes the view clearer. Note that in this mode. Button and Name Center Line View Description Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode. this often makes the view clearer. or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right. Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button. Note that in this mode. or back views respectively. Front/Back/Top/Bottom/Left/ Right. pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View. using the X. Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode. top. restraints and other element information items still display. Also. Additionally. A Volume or double line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Y. or Z keys will show left. restraints and other element information items still display. top.5-40 Piping Input When the mouse cursor hovers over the buttons the button's name displays. restraints and other element information items still display. holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing. Alternatively. or Z keys will show left. or through the use of hot keys. Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode. Note that in this mode. this often makes the view clearer. Y. Also. Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode. Alternatively. Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode. A Volume or double line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. and a short description of the button’s functionality displays in the status bar at the bottom of the view window. click the Center Line View button. Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button. There are several methods of accomplishing nearly every command in the Input Plot Utility. Also. Y. or Z keys will show left. this often makes the view clearer. A Volume or double line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Commands may be accessed by clicking buttons. or Z keys will show left. or back views respectively. top. Y. Alternatively. restraints and other element information items still display. holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X. using the X. Y. pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View. or front views respectively. Also. click the Center Line View button. Y. Also. A Volume or double line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Note that in this mode. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing. top. this often makes the view clearer. using the X. holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X. Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button. or Z keys will show left. using the X. Y. or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right. Users may wish to verify model data in single line mode. Front/Back/Top/Bottom Left/Right. Note that in this mode. or back views respectively. restraints and other element information items still display. or front views respectively. bottom. or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right. top. Y. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing. or front views respectively. Additionally. A Volume or double line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. restraints and other element information items still display. Additionally. using the X. pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View. click the Center Line View button. Additionally. Front/Back/Top Bottom/ Left/Right. holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X. or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right. Front/Back/Top/Bottom/Left/ Right. pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View. bottom. Alternatively. holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X. click this button. Y. or front views respectively. Front/Back/Top/ Bottom/ Left/Right. Also. click the Center Line View button. bottom. Y. Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button. A Volume or double line plot can be obtained by clicking the corresponding button. Shaded View Silhouette Hidden Line Wire Frame Wire Frame Translucent Front Back Top Bottom Left . bottom. this often makes the view clearer. click the Center Line View button. or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right. Additionally. pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View. pressing the V key on the keyboard will switch the views in the following order: Shaded View (rendered mode) / Two Line Mode / Center Line View. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing. bottom.

restraints. and anchors can be turned off. anchors. Additionally. Alternatively. or Z keys will show left. It is possible to make a sudden change/jump by pressing a combination of the CTRL + ALT + F5 keys before changing the view with one of the described options. Alternatively. or back views respectively. Users can also opt to display node numbers for a specific element i. Forces. only restraints or only anchors. nodes. . hangers. ISO View Displays Node numbers by clicking the Node Numbers button. The sudden jump option is useful for relatively large models as it speeds up the viewing process. Uniform Loads. The sudden jump option is useful for relatively large models as it speeds up the viewing process. or Z keys on the keyboard will set the model in right.e. Select Group and using the mouse to hover over the model produces a bubble displaying relevant information for the desired group of elements. The transition from one orthogonal view to another is a smooth transition. Forces. In addition the symbol (i. Wind/Wave Loads section later in this chapter. by pressing the N key on or by clicking OPTIONS/NODE NUMBERS from then menu. For more information refer to the 3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements. Wind/Wave Loads section later in this chapter. It is possible to make a sudden change/jump by pressing a combination of the CTRL + ALT + F5 keys before changing the view with one of the described options. restraints and/or hangers) size may be changed manually by clicking the black arrow to the right of the relevant button and selecting the Size option from the drop down menu. holding down the SHIFT key while pressing X. bottom. The boundary condition symbols (like restraints. Node Numbers Show Length Select Element Select Group Perspective Orthographic Note: For a clearer view. This will display the elements lengths to verify the input. Displays element lengths by clicking the Show Lengths button or by pressing the L key on the keyboard. or front views respectively. Y.. For more information refer to the 3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements. Uniform Loads.Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-41 Button and Name Right Description Various orthogonal views can be obtained by clicking the appropriate button. Displays an isometric view this option may be activated by pressing the F10 key on the keyboard. Front/Back/Top/Bottom/Left/ Right. The transition from one orthogonal view to another is a smooth transition. using the X.. This option is useful to see the model just like it would be seen on a CAD drawing. top. Y.e. Select Element and using the mouse to hover over the model produces a bubble displaying relevant information for the desired element. and hangers} size is relative to the pipe size OD. the same functionality can be achieved from the menu by clicking OPTIONS/LENGTHS.

Note that while in the zoom mode. Alternatively. while holding down the left mouse button. The actual conversion will depend on the size and complexity of the model. the model may also be zoomed from under any other command or mode by rotating the mouse wheel when applicable. The best way to zoom to a particular area of the model is to use the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the desired area. After clicking the button. The model returns to its default state as defined by the configuration. boundary conditions. move the mouse around to the desired position. the view is updated and the bounding box disappears. the keyboard + and . down. any elements hidden by the Range command are restored. When the left button is released. Load CADWorx Model Zoom to Extents Orbit Pan Walk Through . and moving the mouse up or down while depressing the left mouse button. A. Once the rotation is complete. by activating the Pan button. After pressing the G key. the model returns to its original state. and stretch a box diagonally to the opposite corner of the area while still holding the left mouse button down. lengths. Another method of orbiting the model is the Gyro operator. the model performs a full 360-degree rotation in the plane of view. check the corresponding box on the User Options tab of the Plot Configuration dialog for more information refer to the 3D Graphics Configuration section for details. Simply click the Zoom to Window button. or right. The best way to zoom to a particular area of the model is to use the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the desired area.keys may be used to zoom the model in and out. left. for more information refer to the 3D Graphics Configuration section later in this chapter. The mouse cursor will change to a hand icon. elements. Holding the mouse wheel down and moving the mouse up. Z. Note that while in the zoom mode.keys may be used to zoom the model in and out. then left-click one corner of the desired area. Enables users to explore the scene of the model with a setup similar to a virtual reality application. the keyboard + and . and the view may be panned by moving the mouse while holding down the left mouse button. It produces the effect of walking towards the model Displays the model in CADWorx.5-42 Piping Input Users can adjust the color of the node numbers. the model may also be zoomed from under any other command or mode by rotating the mouse wheel when applicable. Note. Releasing the mouse button halts the zoom. click the Zoom to Extents button. rotate the model by using the mouse or the arrow keys on the keyboard.keys may be used to zoom the model in and out. during rotation operation (only for speedup purposes) the model may be changed to the centerline/ single line mode view or some of the geometry details may disappear or become distorted. the model may also be zoomed from under any other command or mode by rotating the mouse wheel when applicable. The model can be panned using the mouse. the cursor changes to a hand. the model zooms to the selected area. The best way to zoom to a particular area of the model is to use the mouse to draw a rubber band box around the desired area. for more information refer to the Range section for details. If the bounding box is not visible. Activate this feature by pressing the G key. Interactive rotation of the model can be accomplished by clicking the Orbit button. provides the panning effects of riding the elevator up/down or stepping to the side. Alternatively. To use a mouse for rotating the model. Zoom Zoom to Window Zoom to Selection To see the entire model on the screen. click the left mouse button on the model (the bounding box will be drawn to outline the model boundaries. The model can be zoomed by clicking the Zoom button. or D. similar to using the keyboard keys Q. To see a specific element on the model on the screen click this button. the keyboard + and . Button and Name Reset Plot Description All the highlighting and zoom/rotate effects on the model as well as other effects may be reset at once by clicking this button. Note that while in the zoom mode. Once this mode is activated. The view may also be panned from under any other command by holding down the middle mouse button/mouse wheel while moving the mouse (when applicable). When the mouse button is released. Alternatively. by clicking the Change Display Options button. etc.

Chapter 5 Piping Input 5-43 3D Graphics Configuration The CAESAR II 3D Graphics engine remembers the state of the model between sessions. Exiting the input completely and then returning to the input graphics results in the model being displayed in the same state in which it was last viewed. To obtain a more uniform look of graphics users may change the color and font options under TOOLS/CONFIGURE/SETUP/3D VIEWER SETTINGS. . These settings will then be stored in the computer's registry and CAESAR II will always display the graphics according to these settings. Check the Always Use System Fonts and Always Use System Colors boxes located under the Default Visual Settings section.

as an XML data file (job. . This includes the rotation and zoom level of the model. and the current graphics operator. CAESAR II reads this XML file and restores the 3D graphics to its previous state. user startup settings. After launching another input session. The tabs of the Plot Configuration dialog control include: basic graphics colors.XML) in the current data directory.5-44 Piping Input If the check boxes described above are unchecked then the state of each model is maintained individually (job related). color settings. and visibility (the degree of transparency. font selection and size for textural data. data display. Most of the display options can be adjusted by clicking the Change button.name.

by clicking Reset All. Selecting the desired color and clicking OK changes the color of the selected item to the new color. displays the standard Windows™ font selection tool. Similar to the Colors tab. The rotating spring hanger is used to actively view the color selection combinations before altering the entire plot window. then clicking Change. Colors may be reset to CAESAR II defaults. displays a Windows color selection tool. Fonts .Chapter 5 Piping Input Option Colors 5-45 Description Selecting any item in the list. as well as the font face of the selected text item can be previewed in the Font Sample window of the Fonts tab before changing the entire model. Making the desired changes and clicking OK updates the selected item. Use this tool to prevent selecting unsatisfactory color combinations. color. as defined in configuration. the relative size. Selecting any item in the list. then clicking Change.

Disabling the check box activates the Operator Selection radio buttons. CAESAR II Graphics automatically default to orthographic projection. Option Bounding Box Hide Overlapped Text Restore Last Operator Restore Previous View Initial View Default Projection Description Determines if rotations.5-46 Piping Input User Options Specifies the initial display configuration when plotting a model in an input session. or defaults to a specified view. Determines whether the graphics engine remembers your last action (operator) between sessions or always defaults to a specified action (operator) on startup. via the mouse. The 3D Graphics can be configured (on an individual job basis) to restart in a specific manner. Disabling the check box activates the Initial View radio buttons. . Determines the initial projection style of the model. Prevents text from appearing on top of other text items thereby producing a distortion. the graphics can start in a preset view (such as isometric). includes an outline box surrounding the model. or in the last rotated zoomed position. Determines whether the graphics engine remembers the last displayed view of the model. The graphics can start with a preset operator active (such as zoom with mouse). or start with the last operator used still active. Likewise.

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Option
Visibility

Description
Alters the degree of transparency, when translucent pipe is activated. When the Translucent Objects button is enabled, it allows viewing through the pipe. This is especially useful for viewing jacketed piping or piping inside of vessels. Moving the slider to the right increases the degree of visibility, making it easier to see through the pipe elements.

Note: The Visibility option is only effective when viewing the model in rendered mode, and can be activated by clicking the Translucent Objects button.

5-48

Piping Input

Option
Markers Displays a symbol denoting the element’s end points.

Description

Note: Clicking OK on the Plot Configuration dialog saves all changes made to any tab and modifies the model’s view. Clicking Cancel will disregard all changes made.

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HOOPS Toolbar Manipulations
HOOPS Graphics also provides the ability to adjust the graphics toolbar for the purpose of rearranging or removing buttons. There are two methods to make these adjustments, the first method is to right click on the toolbar and click Customize. The second method involves removing or repositioning the button using the drag and drop method. To remove buttons from the toolbar click the down arrow located at the end of each toolbar and then click Remove. To add button removed from the toolbar by clicking the down arrow and clicking Add. To rearrange buttons select them, one at a time, while pressing the ALT key and then drag it to the desired location. To restore the CAESAR II default toolbar configuration, click the Reset button. In addition to the use of the Customize button, individual buttons can be removed or repositioned by pressing the ALT key, and dragging the desired button. To remove a button, drag it off the graphics window, using the left mouse button. To reposition a button, drag it to the desired location, using the left mouse button. When the mouse button is released, the button will be placed on the toolbar at the selected location. Multiple View Ports The 3D/HOOPS Graphics module provides up to 4 views, which can be sized, rotated, and annotated individually by the user. To control the splitter handle, click the Four Views button. It automatically places the horizontal and vertical dividers (splitter bars on the screen, and changes the mouse cursor to a four-way arrow icon. The user may change the position of the splitter bars (and correspondingly the relative size of the views by moving the mouse around. After finding the desired location, click the left mouse button once to fix the position. The vertical and horizontal splitter bars can also be dragged or resized individually: after hovering the mouse over a splitter bar, the mouse cursor will change to vertical or horizontal resize correspondingly. For example, to change the position of the vertical split bar, using the left mouse button, grab the splitter bar and drag it to the right. When the mouse button is released, all the panes are updated. If the splitter bar is dragged to the view frame border, it disappears, and the number of views is decreased in half. This is true for both the horizontal and vertical splitter bars. When the last splitter bar is dragged away to the view frame border, the single view is left. It is also possible to drag from the intersection of the horizontal and vertical dividers to any corner of the view to eliminate 3 views at once. Another way to divide the view into two or four independent views is to drag the splitter located at the top or left scroll bars with the mouse. Notice the two splitter bars at the graphics processor window, one is at the far left of the horizontal scroll bar, and the other is at the very top of the vertical scroll bar. Using the left mouse button, grab the lower left splitter bar and drag it to the right. The graphics window splits into two panes, left and right. When the mouse button is released, both panes are updated. Again using the left mouse button, grab the upper right splitter bar and drag it down. The two existing panes split into two additional panes, upper and lower. When the mouse button is released, all four panes are updated, with the X axis view in the upper left pane, the Y axis view in the upper right pane, the Z axis view in the lower left pane, and a isometric (or original) view in the lower right pane. The screen captures above displays 4 panes in view and the state of the graphics engine when the horizontal split bar is removed leaving 2 panes in view. Note: The image in any of these panes can be manipulated individually. Each pane can be rotated, panned, or zoomed independently of the other panes.

5-50

Piping Input

3D Graphic Highlights - Materials, Diameters, Wall Thickness, Insulation
Often it is necessary to review the piping model in the context of certain data, for example, by diameter, wall thickness, temperature, or pressure. These operations are illustrated below. Button
Diameters

Description
When Diameters is clicked, the display updates to show each diameter in a different color. A color key (legend) is included at the bottom of the plot in its own pane. This option can be used to quickly see the diameter variations throughout the system. This is a good way to verify that diameter changes have been made where appropriate. The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting the Diameters menu options. Alternatively, the user may use the D- key to view different diameters. Produces results similar to the ones described in the Diameters section, the model is colored according to the different data defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left. The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Insulation menu options. Alternatively, the user may use the corresponding user may use the I- key to view the insulation. Produces results similar to the ones described in the Diameters section, the model is colored according to the different data defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left. The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Wall Thickness, menu option. Alternatively, the user may use the corresponding user may use the W- key to view the different wall thicknesses throughout the model. Produces results similar to the ones described in the Diameters section, the model is colored according to the different data defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left. The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Materials menu option. Alternatively, the user may use the M - key to view different materials.

Insulation

Wall Thickness

Materials

Note:

The legend window may be resized, docked, and/or removed from view.

Note: While in the described highlighted mode, the model can still be zoomed, panned and rotated. Any of orthographic projections and single line/volume modes can be used without affecting the model highlighted state. Note: Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.

Note: The same functionality may be achieved from the Options menu by selecting Materials, Diameters, Wall Thickness, or Insulation menu options. Alternatively, the user may use the corresponding keyboard keys: M - to view different materials, D - to view different diameters, W - to view different wall thickness throughout the model, and I - to view the insulation. Note: When the model is being printed using FILE MENU/ PRINT while in one of the highlighted modes described herein, the color key legend will appear in the upper left corner of the page. This is always true, even if the actual legend window has been dragged away from the view.

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3D Graphics Highlights: Temperature and Pressure
Button and Name
Temperatures

Description
Highlight the pipe elements for a particular temperature vector in a different color. A color key (legend) is included on the left side of the plot in a separate window. This option can be used to quickly see temperature variations throughout the system. This is a good way to verify that temperature changes have been made where appropriate. When more than one operating temperature has been specified, a drop list is presented so that the single desired temperature vector can be used in coloring the model. Clicking the Pressure button produces results similar to the ones described in the Temperature section, the model is colored according to the different data defined, and the corresponding legend appears on the left . When more than one operating pressure has been defined, a drop list with up to 9 pressures and a hydro pressure, HYD, as defined choices appears.

Pressure

Note: Note:

Only the pressures and temperatures that were actually defined in the input will appear in the toolbar as a choice. The legend window may be resized, docked, and/or dragged away from the view.

Note: While in the described highlighted mode, the model can still be zoomed, panned and rotated. Any of orthographic projections and single line/volume modes can still be used without affecting the model highlighted state. Note: Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.

Note: The same functionality may be achieved from the Options Menu by selecting the Temperatures or Pressures menu options. Alternatively, the Temperatures can be accessed by pressing keyboard number buttons 1 through 9. Note: When the model is being printed using FILE MENU/ PRINT while in one of the highlighted modes described herein, the color key legend displays in the upper left corner of the page. This is always true, even if the actual legend window has been dragged away from the view.

Button and Name

Description

Highlights the pipe elements of a particular value of corrosion allowance in one color. A legend is included for Corrosion Allowance identification of different corrosion allowances. Highlights the pipe densities through the model in a color-coded fashion and includes a legend. Pipe Density Highlights the different fluid densities through the model in a color-coded fashion and includes a legend. Fluid Density Highlights the different insulation densities through the model in a color-coded fashion and includes a legend. Insulation Density

5-52

Piping Input

3D Graphics Highlights: Displacements, Forces, Uniform Loads, Wind/Wave Loads
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics engine can display applied/predefined displacements, forces, uniform loads, or wind/wave loads in a tabular format. The display windows can be scrolled vertically and or horizontally to view all node points where data has been defined. To flip through the defined displacement or force vectors 1 through 9, use the Next and Previous buttons at the bottom of the tabular legend window. The color key at the far left of the window assists in locating the node points on the model (when the model geometry is complex). Note that the displacements window shows the user specified values as well as free or fixed Degrees of Freedom (DOF). In this case, a DOF is free if a displacement value is not specified in any of the displacement load vectors. Note also that if a certain DOF has a specified displacement in at least one of the load vectors, then it is fixed in all other load vectors. Button and Name
Forces

Description
The 3D/HOOPS Graphics can display applied/predefined displacements and /or forces in a tabular format. The display windows can be scrolled vertically and or horizontally to view all node points where data has been defined. To flip through the defined displacement or force vectors 1 through 9, use the Next and Previous buttons at the bottom of the tabular legend window. The color key at the far left of the window assists in locating the node points on the model (when the model geometry is complex). Forces behave similar to the Displacements option, the model elements are highlighted for a particular force vector, and the color key legend grid window displays on the left. The node number in combination with a color key specifies the location where the force and moment values are defined. Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect. The 3D/HOOPS Graphics can display uniform loads in a tabular format.

Uniform Loads

Uniform Loads has three vectors defined. The Node column represents the start node number where the uniform loads vector was first defined. Since the data propagates throughout the model until changed or disabled, the model is colored accordingly. Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect. The 3D/HOOPS Graphics can display wind/wave loads in a tabular format. Wind/Wave also displays the loading coefficients. The color key is defined as follows: all the elements with wind defined are colored in red color; all the elements with wave data defined are colored in green color. The legend grid shows the relevant data items defined by the user. Clicking the same button twice will deactivate the coloring effect.

Wind/Wave

Note:

The legend window may be resized, docked and/or removed from the view.

Note: While in the described highlighted mode, the model can still be zoomed, panned and rotated. Any of orthographic projections and single line/volume modes can still be used without affecting the model highlighted state. Note: The same functionality may be achieved from the Options Menu by selecting the relevant options. Alternatively, users can access Predefined Displacements by pressing F3 on the keyboard. Forces/moment vectors can be accessed by pressing F5 on the keyboard. Note: When the model is being printed using FILE MENU/PRINT while in one of the highlighted modes described herein, the color key legend appears on the second page following the model bitmap image. The printed legend is presented in the tabular form similar to the legend window. Select Element allows users to obtain element data. When enabled, hovering over a pipe element with the mouse shows a bubble with the element's nodes, delta dimensions, and pipe size data. Clicking on an element highlights the element and updates the information on the spreadsheet. Clicking a different element highlights the relevant element and changes the data in the spreadsheet accordingly. Note: Clicking the empty space of the graphics view de-highlights the element. The spreadsheet will still contain the information from the last element selected.

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Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info; Find Node, Range & Cutting Plane
Sometimes it is necessary to limit the amount of displayed information on the screen. This may be useful when the model is large, or if it has many similar looking branches. There are several ways to achieve this result by clicking the Find Node , Range, or Cutting Plane button. The description of these operations, their advantages and disadvantages are illustrated below. Button and Name
FInd Node

Description
Allows redlining based on the user moving the mouse. Find Node is useful when a specific node or an element needs to be located. Clicking Find Node displays a dialog prompting for the FROM and TO nodes to search for. The node numbers can be entered in either of the two fields, or in both. Entering only the FROM node number causes the feature to search for the first available element that starts with the specified node number. Entering only the TO node number causes the feature to search for an element ending with the specified node number. When the element is located, it is highlighted, and the view zooms to the element. Users may zoom out to better identify the location of the highlighted element within the model. Allows redlining using a rectangular shape. This option is also useful when trying to emphasize a specific element. In many cases, the elements/node numbers are not defined consecutively. Thus, it may be easier to cut a portion of the model at a certain location to see more details. For this operation, use the Create Cutting Plane button. When the cutting plane appears, use the handles to move and or rotate the plane as desired. If cutting the plane's handles are not visible, or the display goes blank, the view may be focused too close for the plane to operate correctly. Use the Zoom button to zoom out; then click the Cutting Plane button again for the handles to appear. To disable the cutting plane and return to view click on the display with the right mouse button. Note the Create Cutting Plane option can be used along any of the three axes.

Create Cutting Plane

Allows redlining using a circular shape. This option is useful when trying to emphasize a specific element. To Create Cutting Plane Horizontally disable the cutting plane and return to view click on the display with the right mouse button. Note the Create Cutting Plane option can be used along any of the three axes. Allows the user to enter text and place it anywhere in the plot area. To disable the cutting plane and return to view click on the display with the right mouse button. Note the Create Cutting Plane options can be used along any of the three axes.

Create Cutting Plane Vertically

Range plots only those elements that contain nodes within the range specified by the user. This is particularly helpful when attempting to locate specific nodes or a group of related elements in a rather large, often symmetrical model. Click the Range button or press the U key to display the Range dialog.

. press the SHIFT key and click the last node of the selection using the mouse button. if part of the model is not visible because of the use of the Range option. the user receives a message asking to download a control from Tech Soft 3D. After saving as . selecting and right-clicking the model shows the available viewing options. Due to certain limitations of the 3D/HOOPS modeler. etc.TIF. Clicking the Reverse Selection button toggles the check marks for the elements to show: it displays the previously hidden elements.HSF. the legend window and text cannot be saved to the bitmap. The model geometry. Windows supported image file extension that can be opened for viewing. colors. HTML. The 3D/HOOPS Graphics view can be saved as a bitmap by clicking FILE/ SAVE AS GRAPHICS IMAGE. (This is a standard. pan. However. Once the model appears. such as orbit. For example.HTML CAESAR II creates two files in the current data directory using the current job name: *. Save an Image for Later Presentation: TIF.HTML file is opened with an Internet browser. zoom. Range enables the selection and dragging of consecutive node numbers (click the left mouse button on the first node of the desired selection. The image can be printed or copied to the clipboard as necessary. but the model may not be properly highlighted.HSF file.HTML file should display the corresponding . Clicking a check box next to a particular node number will enable or disable it. highlighting. Note: This is a static bitmap file. users may click the first node. Note: Find Node may not work properly for the part of the model that is hidden by the Range. all coloring.HTML and *. none of the elements are selected (and the graphics view appears blank). Also if using the Range option hides any nodes containing the predefined displacements. it is necessary to add a graphical representation of a model to the CAESAR II Stress reports. and the image will be displayed. BMP. click the Select All button. Users now have the option to save the graphics as .HTML file. Opening the . Note. as well as restraints and most of the other options will be transferred to the bitmap.5-54 Piping Input A sorted list of all defined node numbers with corresponding check marks appears. then move the mouse while holding the mouse button down. and OK is clicked. different render modes. Alternatively. If only the FROM node is specified and Add is clicked. When Clear All is enabled. the Displacements legend grid still appears. After clicking Save As Graphics Image the Save Image dialog appears asking the user to specify the desired file name and a directory for the file to be saved. and hides the previously displayed elements. and release the button at the last node of the desired selection). the view becomes blank. Answer Yes to allow the download. The first time a CAESAR II created . consecutive clicks will display the dialog with the current state of the shown/hidden elements and the corresponding check marks. if none of the elements are selected. Use this button to clear the selection. The corresponding message will also appear in the status bar. as well as the annotations and markups are successfully saved. then clicking the Show Diameters option will only highlight the elements that are actually visible. To show the entire model. Note this is an interactive file. Note: Using the Range option affects the display and operation of other 3D Graphics Highlighting options. all elements (from this node and up will be selected). Use the FROM and TO fields together with the Add button to specify and/or add to the range of elements that are already selected. JPEG and PDF Occasionally. If the Range option was previously used. Clicking the check mark with the rectangle once toggles the status that is applied to the entire highlighted selection.) The image resolution can also be changed in the Save Image dialog. Note: Only elements with check marks on will display when OK is clicked. The default bitmap file name is the job name with an extension .

and disappear from view with any change like zoom. The color and the font face/size cannot be changed the default color is red. Allows redlining using a rectangular shape. Other annotation options are listed below: Button and Name Freehand Markup Operator Rectangle Markup Circle Markup Annotate Operator Description Allows redlining based on the user moving the mouse. while holding the mouse button down drag the leader line to the annotation point. The CAESAR II 3D/HOOPS Graphics processor provides several types of annotation as discussed below. for more information refer to the 3D Graphics Configuration section in this chapter. rotate. This option is useful when trying to emphasize a specific element Allows redlining using a circular shape. pan. Note: This markup annotation text box is only a single line. then type in the annotation text. This option is useful when trying to emphasize a specific element Allows the user to enter text and place it anywhere in the plot area. Note: Annotation with leader stays with the model on zoom. To add the annotation. When the Annotate Model button is clicked. . Annotation also gets printed to the printer and saved to the bitmap. the annotation text box with a leader line to an element is added to the graphics view. Note: Markup annotations are saved to the . COADE recommends IE6 or later. click with the left mouse button on a particular element to start the leader line. The annotation may be especially useful in the output processor for more information refer to the discussion at the end of this section. Button and Name Annotations Description Used to highlight a problem area. Note: The color and font face/size of the annotation text can be changed by clicking Change Display Options. Annotations are not saved to the HTML file. It may be used to add a short description of the model to the graphics image for printing or saving as a bitmap.Chapter 5 Piping Input Note: 5-55 Internet Explorer (IE) version 5. pan or reset all.0 and earlier may not display the image properly. Note: The geometry and the text of the markup annotations are temporary. and then press the Enter key.TIF file and spooled to the printer. or write a brief description of the model. rotate. they are not saved with the model. and use of any highlight options. Note: The annotation text box is only a single line.

and once close to or inside the model users can look left. derived from the assumption that it is not possible (in real life to walk vertically (for example. right. To correct the problem. left. provides the panning effects of riding the elevator up/down or stepping to the side. navigating to the open the data directory (where the CAESAR II Input file in question is located. the model must be in one of the orthogonal views (such as front. and in the perspective projection. . step to a side. or right). similar to using the keyboard keys Q. down. Walk is useful in providing a real-time interactive view of the model. Locate the *. Then return to the piping input. Z.XML file (the current state of the model is maintained there) by opening Windows Explorer. or D. left. If any of these limitations are accidentally met. To exit from this option. Wheel Down • Pan: Holding the mouse wheel down and moving the mouse up. and down. provides the effect of looking around. the model will display in the CAESAR II default state for more information refer to the discussion at the beginning of the document. up. with regard to lighting relative positions. click any other operator. Left Mouse Button Down • Look Around: Clicking the left mouse button and moving the mouse up. or the viewer is inside the model Wheel Scroll • Scrolling the mouse wheel provides the effect of looking up and/or down at a model. Click Walk Through the mouse’s cursor displays as a pair of feet. This is a limitation of the graphics engine's camera. This option is useful when model is close to the viewer. After clicking Walk Through In order for Walk Through to operate properly. close the Graphics Processor window. • Troubleshooting: While walking it is not possible to look back at the model you need to use the back orthogonal view of the model as a starting point for walking or walk from the top. to enables this feature. from the top of the model down. A. or ride an elevator up and down.XML) and delete it. After starting the 3D Graphics engine. back. left. down. the camera versus lighting position will become undefined.5-56 Piping Input 3D Graphics Interactive Feature: Walk Through CAESAR II enables users to explore the scene of the model with a setup similar to a virtual reality application. . It produces the effect of walking towards the model. or right. or right. Next. find the XML data file (job-name. The mouse cursor will change to a hand icon. and the view may get corrupted.

.......... 6-2 Building Static Load Cases................ 6-12 Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases ......... 6-8 Providing Wind Data .................................................. 6-15 ..............CH AP TER 6 Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases In This Chapter Error Checking ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-9 Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................... 6-11 Execution of Static Analysis................

analyze the system. or notes displays in corresponding text fields above the Message Grid. Error Check saves the input and starts the error checking procedure. Batch Run Once launched. . the Error Checker reviews the CAESAR II model and alerts users to any possible errors. warnings. message number or element/node number by double-clicking the corresponding column header. The assumptions are that the loading cases to be analyzed do not need to change and that the default account number (if accounting active) is correct. The total number of errors. and is initiated by executing the Error Check or Batch Run commands from the toolbar or menu.6-2 Error Checking Static Load Cases Error Checking Static analysis cannot be performed until the error checking portion of the piping preprocessor has been successfully completed. Similarly. or noteworthy items. CAESAR II does not allow an analysis to take place if the input has been changed and not successfully error checked. These items display to users as Errors. Users may sort messages in the Message Grid by type. These criteria are usually met after the first pass through the analysis. or Notes in a grid. Warnings. Batch Run causes the program to check the input data. Users can also print messages displayed in the Message Grid by clicking FILE/PRINT. inconsistencies. Only after error checking is completed are the required analysis data files created. Button Error Check Description Error Checking can only be done from the input spreadsheet. any subsequent changes made to the model input are not reflected in the analysis unless error checking is rerun after those changes have been made. and present the results without any user interaction. Batch processing focuses the user’s attention on the creation of input and the review of output by expediting the steps in between.

since they are fatal to the analysis. . These errors are also called fatal errors. .Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-3 Fatal Error Message Errors are flagged when there is a problem with the model due to which analysis cannot continue. Users can change the view between the spreadsheet and error warning views using the tabs located at the bottom of the window. Clicking on the error message will move the spreadsheet display to the offending element. An example of this would be if no length were defined for a piping element. and must be corrected before continuing.

6-4 Error Checking Static Load Cases Warning Message Warnings are flagged whenever there is a problem with a model. Warnings need not be corrected in order to get a successful analysis. but users should review all warnings carefully as they are displayed. . which can be overcome using some assumptions. An example of this would be if an element’s wall thickness were insufficient to meet the minimum wall thickness for the given pressure (hoop stress).

For notes.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-5 Note Message The third category of alert is the informational note. An example of a note may be a message informing the user of the number of hangers to be designed by CAESAR II.” The first step in the analysis of an error-checked piping model is the specification of the static load cases. . These messages simply inform the user of some noteworthy fact related to the model. there is nothing for the user to “correct.

the available stress types. If the job is entering static analysis for the first time. Please refer to the section for or information.6-6 Error Checking Static Load Cases Button Analysis Statics Description Selection of the Analysis-Static option from the CAESAR II Main Menu or from within the piping input. The entries must be identical to what is shown on the screen. Available stress types can be selected from the Stress Type drop box. Stress type determines the stress calculation method and the allowable stress to use (if any). and the current load cases offered for analysis. Note: The piping input file must have successfully gone through error checking before this option can be chosen. . A typical Load Case Editor screen is shown below: Load Case Editor The user can define up to ninety-nine load cases. After entering the static load case editor. the loads shown are those saved during the last session. CAESAR II presents a list of recommended load cases. Only the load components listed in the upper left-hand portion of the screen may be specified in the load cases. a screen appears which lists all of the available loads that are defined in the input. If the job has been run previously. A discussion of CAESAR II Load Cases is included at the end of this chapter. Load cases may be edited by clicking on a line in the Load List area.

Load cases are selected by clicking on the number to the left of the load case. All basic (non-combination) load sets must all be specified before any algebraic combinations may be declared. Highlighted basic load cases may be dragged down to be added to algebraic combination cases (CAESAR II may prompt for combination type). Import Load Cases . This rule holds true for user defined and edited load cases. Recommend Load Cycles Hides or displays the Load Cycles field in the Load Case list.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-7 Load Cases may be built through drag and drop actions. the load case is added at the end of the list. The units and load types of the copied file must match those of the current file. If no line is selected. Dragging a load component from the Loads Defined in Input list to a line on the load list automatically adds the load component to the load case. Entries in these fields are only valid for load cases defined with the fatigue stress type. Note: Defining a fatigue (FAT) stress type for a load case automatically displays a field in which the number of anticipated load cycles for that load case can be entered. Use the Load Case Options tab to select combination methods and other specifics pertaining to the load cases. File Analysis Allows the user to replace the current load cases with the CAESAR II recommended load cases. if it is not already included. Copies the load cases from another file. Deletes the currently selected load case. The following commands are available on this screen: Button Edit-Insert Edit-Delete Accepts the load cases and runs the job. Description Inserts a blank load case following the currently selected line in the load list.

6-8 Error Checking Static Load Cases Building Static Load Cases .

When wind loads are used in the model. WIN2. and WIN4 to be listed as an available load to be analyzed. Once defined. before an analysis can be made. The only wind load information that is specified in the Piping Input is the shape factor. CAESAR II makes available the screen to define the extra wind load data. It is this shape factor input that causes load cases WIN1. The Wind Load tab appears: Wind Load Specifications There are three different methods that can be used to generate wind loads on piping systems: • ASCE #7 Standard Edition. however. elevation table • User entry of a velocity vs. elevation table . 1995 • User entry of a pressure vs.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-9 Providing Wind Data Up to four different wind load cases may be specified for any one job. WIN3. this input is stored and may be changed on subsequent entries into the static analysis processor. To specify the wind data needed for the analysis click the Wind Loads tab for the appropriate wind load case. More wind data is required.

6 ft.Users may copy the Wind data from any defined Wind Case to any remaining Wind Cases by clicking the Copy Wind Vector button./sec.) Rocky MountainsGreat Plains132.) New England Coastal Areas- Copy Wind Vector . then only a single entry needs to be made in the table.p.6 ft.p.6 ft. ( 85 m. otherwise the user should enter the pressure or velocity profile for the applicable wind loading. This is especially useful for large Wind Pressure or Velocity vs.6 ft.) 132./sec ( 90 m./sec (145 m.h. .) 190.0 in one of the first three boxes.p. the following are typical basic wind-speed values: California and West Coast Areas-124./sec (130 m.0 ft.h.6-10 Error Checking Static Load Cases The appropriate method is selected by placing a value of 1.0 ft. For example.h.) 176.p.p.h./sec ( 90 m./sec (130 m.h.) Gulf CoastFlorida-CarolinasMiami190. all of the fields should be filled in.h. the user is prompted for the corresponding pressure or velocity table.0 ft. Upon pressing the User Wind Profile button. When defining a pressure or velocity vs.) Non-Coastal Eastern United States-132.) 212.h.0 ft. elevation table the user needs to specify only the method and the wind direction on the preceding screen.p. Elevation tables./sec ( 90 m. If a uniform pressure or velocity is to act over the entire piping system. Note: To use the ASCE #7 wind loads.h.p. as per ASCE #7.p./sec (120 m.

. See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion of hydrodynamic analysis. WAV2. Current data and wave data may be specified and included together or either of them may be omitted so as to exclude the data from the analysis. In the Load Case Editor. Several hydrodynamic coefficients are defined on the element spreadsheet. four different wave load profiles can be specified. WAV3. CAESAR II supports three current models and six wave models. Note: Wave data may be copied between any of the four defined vectors to any of the unused vectors by clicking the Copy Wave Vector button. and WAV4 to be available in the Load Case Editor. A CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading dialog is shown in the following figure.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-11 Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters Up to four different hydrodynamic load cases may be specified for any one job. The inclusion of hydrodynamic coefficients causes the loads WAV1.

force & moment. Element stiffnesses are combined to form a global system stiffness matrix. The known deflections however. Using the relationship of force equals stiffness times displacement (F=KX). Each basic load case defines a set of loads for the ends of all the elements.6-12 Error Checking Static Load Cases Execution of Static Analysis The static analysis performed by CAESAR II follows the regular finite element solution routine. During this step. Incore Solution Module .Z) forces and moments at the end of each element. restraints. and fixed displacement points are summed to balance all global forces and moments entering the node. is used with the element stiffnesses to determine the global (X. the Incore Solution status dialog appears. and friction all affect both the stiffness matrix and load vectors. Once the setup for the solution is complete the calculation of the displacements and rotations is repeated for each of the basic load cases. These forces and moments are translated into a local coordinate system for the element from which the code-defined stresses are calculated. the system-wide deflections and rotations.at the displacement. These elemental load sets are combined into system load vectors. Forces and moments on anchors. may change during the analysis as hanger sizing. the unknown system deflections and rotations can be calculated. Algebraic combinations of the basic load cases pick up this process where appropriate . or stress level. The root solution from this equation.Y. nonlinear supports.

For example._P). The iteration count. The remaining scratch files may be eliminated from the system without any impact on the work completed. The right side of the solution screen also provides information to users regarding the status of nonlinear restraints and hangers in the job. Nonlinear restraint status may be stepped through on an individual basis by using the [F2]/[F4] function keys. Following the analysis of the system deflections and rotations.g.g. These total system results are stored in a file with the suffix “_P” (e. The dialog is broken down into several areas. messages noting the number of restraints that have yet to converge or any hangers that appear to be taking no load. and the "OTL" (Output Time Link File) are all that is required to archive the static analysis. The area on the upper left reflects the size of the job by listing the number of equations to be solved and the bandwidth of the matrix. This area also lists the current load case being analyzed and the total number of basic load cases to be solved. By checking the data in this first box. Load cases with nonlinear restraints may require several solutions (iterations) before the changing assumptions about the restraint configuration (e. Note: The “_A” or input file. as well as the current case number. users will have an idea of how much longer to wait for the results. Multiplying the number of equations by the bandwidth gives a relative indication of the job size. and stresses for the basic load cases and all results for the algebraic combinations (e. these results are post-processed in order to calculate the local forces.g. L1-L2). These bar graphs illustrate the speed of the solution. . In the lower left screen of the big box are two bar graphs. the “_P” or output file. active or inactive) are confirmed.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-13 This dialog serves as a monitor of the static analysis. which holds these equations. TUTOR. are displayed here. which indicate where the program is in an individual solution. shows how much “work” has been completed. moments. resting or lifting off.

Use this menu to interactively review the graphic and tabular results of the analysis. Interactive processing of output results is discussed in detail in Chapter 7 of this document. Static Output Screen . Once the last element’s stresses are computed.6-14 Error Checking Static Load Cases During this post processing. the output processor screen is presented. the Status frame lists the current element for which the forces and stresses are being calculated.

No matter what the contents of the load case. internal forces. deadweight. which list restraint loads. For example. the load cases are also tagged with a stress category. Insulation Weight. . An example of a load case is an operating analysis composed of the thermal. and pressure loads together.e. . The table below lists the individual load set designations. Designation W WNC WW T1 T2 T3 . T9 P1 P2 P3 . Insulation Weight. i. the difference in displacements between the operating and installed cases. . a load case is a group of piping system loads that are analyzed together. which make them available for analysis. . Rigid Weight Pipe Weight. Because of piping code definitions of calculation methods and/or allowable stresses. Rigid Weight Pipe Weight. . Water-filled Weight. The piping system loads which compose the basic (non-combination) load sets relate to various input items found on the Piping Input screen. Insulation Weight.. Rigid Weight (usually used for Hydro Test) Temperature #1 Temperature #2 Temperature #3 . it always produces a set of reports in the output. moments. displacements and rotations. for example. A load case may also be composed of the combinations of the results of other load cases.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-15 Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases Definition of a Load Case In CAESAR II terms. the combination mentioned above might be tagged as an EXPansion stress case. and stresses. their names and the input items. Fluid Weight. Thermal Set 9 Pressure Set 1 Pressure Set 2 Pressure Set 3 Temperature #9 Pressure #1 Pressure #2 Pressure #3 Thermal Set 9 Pressure Set 1 Pressure Set 2 Pressure Set 3 Temperature #9 Pressure #1 Pressure #2 Pressure #3 Deadweight Weight No fluid Contents Water Weight Thermal Set 1 Thermal Set 2 Thermal Set 3 Name Input items which activate this load case Pipe Weight. that are assumed to be occurring at the same time. T9 P1 P2 P3 . Another is an as-installed analysis of deadweight loads alone.

. . Designation P9 HP D1 D2 D3 .6-16 Error Checking Static Load Cases . . Force Set 9 Wind Load 1 Wind Load 2 Wind Load 3 Wind Load 4 Wave Load 1 Wave Load 2 Wave Load 3 Wave Load 4 Uniform Loads Uniform Loads Uniform Loads Cold Spring Hanger Initial Loads Pressure Set 9 Name Input items which activate this load case Pressure #9 Hydro Pressure Displacements (1st Vector) Displacements (2nd Vector) Displacements (3rd Vector) Hydrostatic Test Pressure Displacements Set 1 Displacements Set 2 Displacements Set 3 Displacements (9th Vector) Displacement Set 9 Force Set 1 Force Set 2 Force Set 3 Displacements (9th Vector) Displacements (9th Vector) Forces/Moments (1st Vector) Forces/Moments (2nd Vector) Forces/Moments (3rd Vector) Forces/Moments (9th Vector) Wind Shape Factor Wind Shape Factor Wind Shape Factor Wind Shape Factor Wave Load On Wave Load On Wave Load On Wave Load On Uniform Loads (1st Vector) Uniform Loads (2nd Vector) Uniform Loads (3rd Vector) Material # 18 or 19 Hanger Design or Pre-specified Hangers . F9 WIN1 WIN2 WIN3 WIN4 WAV1 WAV2 WAV3 WAV4 U1 U2 U3 CS H . . . . Displacements (9th Vector) D9 F1 F2 F3 .

. wind or earthquake) only one loading need be entered in the piping input module. WIND1. Load Rating Design Factor (LRDF) methods may be implemented by scaling individual load components by their riskdependent factors. In the event that a loading may be directionally reversible (i. The stress categories: SUStained.. it may be used in a scaled or unscaled form in the Load Case Editor. safe Shutdown Earthquake being two times Operating Basis Earthquake.1T1+1. only one loading need be entered in the piping input module. Results of the basic load cases may be combined using algebraic combination cases. Basic load cases may consist of a single load such as WNC for an as-installed weight analysis. etc. references to previous load cases may also be preceded by scale factors as well.5. or they may include several loads added together such as W+T1+P1+D1+F1 for an operating analysis. occasional. L2. These algebraic combinations are always entered following the last of the basic load cases. load components (such as W. operating.to switch direction. Note: All load cases with stress type FATigue must have their expected number of Load Cycles specified.05W + 1. Likewise.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-17 Note: Available piping system loads display on the left side of the Static Load Case screen. This provides the user with a number of benefits: In the event that one loading is a multiple of the other (i. -0. D1.25 WIND1 Note: Available stress types may be selected from the pull-down list on each line. when building combination cases.0.e. The complete definition of the two examples are: WNC (SUS) and W+T1+P1+D1+H (OPE). for example: 1. When building basic load cases.1D1+1. etc. etc.) may now be preceded by scale factors such as 2. T1.e.. it may be used preceded by a + or a . Combinations of basic load cases are designated using the prefix L1. Each basic load case is entered in this manner in a list for analysis. expansion. and FATigue are specified at the end of the load case definition.

000 cycles. maximum wind 2X.67 scale factor which takes credit only for 2/3 of the cold spring Cold operating: with cold spring included Traditional sustained case Wind case. Load Case 1 Designation W+T1+P1+H+0. note this will be manipulated later to represent average wind 1X. cold to hot (note reference to "L" for "Load". Hot operating with maximum wind (in positive direction). Hot operating with average wind (in positive direction).67CS(OPE) W1+P1+H(SUS) WIN1(OCC) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 L1-L2(EXP) L1-L2(FAT) L1+L4(OPE) L1-L4(OPE) L1+2L4(OPE) L1-2L4(OPE) L2+L4(OPE) . Hot operating with maximum wind (in negative direction). The following family of load cases provides a valid example of algebraic combinations. Same case but now evaluated for fatigue at 10. 2 3 4 W1+P1+H+0. rather than "DS". Traditional expansion case. note the 0. also positive and negative directions.6-18 Error Checking Static Load Cases An example set of loads displays below. Hot operating with average wind (in negative direction). Cold operating with average wind (in positive direction).67CS (OPE) Comments Hot operating.

this screen allows the user to define alternative and more meaningful Load Case names. as shown in the figure below. . User Defined Names The user-defined names appear in the Static Output Processor in the Load Case report (for more information. Cold operating with maximum wind (in positive direction). Note: Load case names cannot exceed 132 characters in length. Note: CAESAR II permits the specification of up to ninety-nine load cases for analysis. by activating the appropriate option. sustained plus average wind. see below). In the rare situation where more cases are required. Among other features. the model should be copied to a new file in order to specify the additional load cases. sustained plus maximum wind. Occasional stress case. Maximum restraint load case (the combination option should be MAX). Load Case Options Tab CAESAR II offers a second tab on the Static Load Case screen . and may also be used in place of the built load case names anywhere in the Static Output Processor. Occasional stress case. Cold operating with maximum wind (in negative direction).Load Case Options.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-19 Load Case 12 13 14 15 16 17 Designation L2-L4(OPE) L2+2L4(OPE) L2-2L4(OPE) L3+L4(OCC) L3+2L4(OCC) L9+L10+L11+L12(OPE) Comments Cold operating with average wind (in negative direction).

Force . likewise the default for all new cases (except for HGR load cases) is also Keep. global and local forces only. in the load list shown in the figure. Hanger Stiffness The three options available here are As Designed. This would be a good choice for Operating cases. By default. As Designed should be used for most "real" (non-hanger design) load cases. Disp . all load cases except the HGR cases are converted as Keep. while other types of load cases default to an inactive state.Provides displacements. global and local forces. when designing to those codes which do a code check on operating stresses. Stress . and Ignore. and ensure that only meaningful results are retained.Provides displacements restraint loads. Note that for all load cases created under previous versions of CAESAR II. respectively. and cause CAESAR II to (1) consider the actual spring hanger stiffnesses. This could be used to help minimize clutter on the output end. For example. This is done through the use of two controls found on the Load Case Options tab. which have received a Keep status. because the load case would be of interest for interference checking (displacements) and restraint loads at one operating extreme (forces). or intermediate construction cases. and code compliance (stresses). and stresses.Provides stresses only. Rigid. global and local forces. This would be a good choice for a sustained plus Occasional load case (with Abs combination method). Disp/Stress . restraint loads. and has no great value as a standalone load case. Disp/Force . Note that load cases used for hanger design (i..Provides restraint loads. the weight load case and hanger travel cases designated with the stress type HGR) must be designated as Discard.e. global and local forces.Provides restraint loads.Provides displacements and stresses only.Provides displacements only.the available options are Keep or Discard. These are: Output Status This item controls the disposition of the entire results of the load case -. because the load case would be of interest for restraint loads at one operating extreme (forces). or (3) remove the spring hanger stiffnesses from the model. . The available options are: Disp/Force/Stress . since it was built only to be used in subsequent combinations. Rigid should be used for the Restrained Weight Case and any Hydrotest Case (if the spring hangers are pinned during it). the latter option would be used for artificial cases such as the preliminary hanger cases. The former would be used when the load case is producing results that the user may wish to review.6-20 Error Checking Static Load Cases User Control of Produced Results Data CAESAR II allows the user to specify whether any or all of the load case results are retained for review in the Static Output Processor. Snubbers Active? Activating this option causes the snubbers to be considered to be rigid restraints for this particular load case. This might be a good choice for the Sustained (cold) case. Note that ST combination load cases developed under previous versions of CAESAR II are converted with this Stress type. and stresses. Output Type This item designates the type of results that are available for the load cases. (2) model the spring hangers as rigid restraints. This would be a good choice for OPE cases when designing for those codes which do not do a code check on OPE stresses. since this is basically an artificial construct used for code stress checking purposes only. Note that FR combination loads cases developed under previous versions of CAESAR II are converted with this Force/Stress type. OCC load cases activate this option. Force/Stress . the Wind only load case could have been optionally designated as Discard.

Elastic Modulus Designates use of Cold (EC) or any of the nine (EH1-EH9) hot elastic moduli in determining results on a load case per condition basis. L2. The friction factor (Mu) used at each restraint will be this multiplier times the Mu factor at each restraint. Setting this value to zero deactivates friction for this load case...e. unless designated by the user). or when doing an Occasional Stress Code check (i. Also. Note that Algebraic combinations may be built only from basic (i. In that case. most of the combination cases typically are built with the Algebraic method. In that case. most of the combination cases are typically built with the Algebraic method. User-Controlled Combination Methods For combination cases. moments. and stresses of the designated load cases in a Scalar manner (i. restraint loads. and pressures of the designated load cases in an algebraic (vectorial) manner. non-combination) load cases or other load cases built using the Algebraic combination method. The available methods are: Algebraic This method combines the displacements. moments.e. etc. scalar addition of the Sustained and Occasional stresses).. the user should select As Designed for those cases as well. for a negative multiplier.8. Friction Multiplier This multiplier may be used to alter (or deactivate) the friction factors used in this particular load case. forces. with the combination method selected from a drop list on the Load Case Options tab.) Ignore is normally used for the Operating for Hanger Travel Cases -. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the combination (for example. etc.. -.except in those cases where the user wishes to include the stiffness of the selected spring in the Operating for Hanger Travel Case (and iterate to a solution). Therefore.Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-21 (Note that during the Restrained Weight Case user-defined hangers will not be made rigid. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors (1. new combination cases automatically default to this method. This method might typically be used when adding plus or minus seismic loads to an operating case. Scalar This method combines the displacements. Load cases to be combined are designated as L1. and pressures are then used (along with the SIFs and element cross-sectional parameters) to calculate the piping stresses.e. load cases built in previous versions of CAESAR II using the DS and FR methods are converted to the Algebraic method. Load Case 2. moments. not as vectors. stresses would be subtractive). The obsolete CAESAR II combination methods DS and FR used an Algebraic combination method. load cases built in previous versions of CAESAR II using the ST method are converted to the Scalar method. In the load case list shown in the figure. The obsolete CAESAR II combination methods ST used a Scalar combination method. forces.) prior to doing the combination. restraint loads. Therefore. Note that in the load case list shown in the figure. CAESAR II provides the user with the ability to explicitly designate the combination method to be used. for Load Case 1. but retaining consideration of sign). etc. it is very important that the hanger load in the Cold Case (in the physical system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load. The resultant forces. .

ABS This method combines the displacements. This combination method would typically be used in conjunction with the SignMax method to find the design range for each value (i. this combination method selects the displacement. three types of load cases: Operating. due to the squaring used by the combination method.) from a number of loads. restraint load. etc. from the designated load cases. the maximum positive and maximum negative restraint loads).. Sustained. due to the absolute values used by the combination method. This method is typically used when determining the design case (worst loads. restraint loads. moments.6-22 Error Checking Static Load Cases SRSS This method combines the displacements. based on the loads defined in the model. This method may be used when doing an Occasional Stress code check (i. Note: The maximum Restraint Load case shown in the figure uses a Max combination method. Max For each result value. takes place. this combination method selects the displacement. and stress having the smallest actual value.. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the selection of the maxima. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the selection of the minima. so no actual combination per se. takes place. moments. from the designated load cases. and stresses of the designated load cases in a Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) manner. so no actual combination per se. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the selection of the maxima. and stresses of the designated load cases in an Absolute Value manner. and Expansion (but not occasional). Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to the selection of the minima. SignMax For each result value. and stress having the largest absolute value from the designated load cases. force.e. force. negative values vs. takes place. SignMin For each result value. negative values vs. forces. restraint load. restraint loads. stress. This combination method would typically be used in conjunction with the SignMin method to find the design range for each value (i. and stress having the smallest absolute value from the designated load cases. forces.e. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the combination however. restraint load. this combination method selects the displacements. the maximum positive and maximum negative restraint loads). restraint load. . positive values will yield no difference in the result. considering the sign. takes place. this combination method selects the displacements.. Recommended Load Cases When the user first enters the Static Load Case Editor CAESAR II recommends. so no actual combination per se. force. Min For each result value. This method is typically used when combining seismic loads acting in orthogonal directions. considering the sign. moment. force. Note: The Occasional Stress cases in the figure are built using this method.e. Load case results are multiplied by any scale factors prior to doing the combination however. positive values will yield no difference in the result. absolute summation of the Sustained and Occasional stresses). moments. and stress having the largest actual value. moments. so no actual combination per se. moment.

(W+D1+T1+P1). Conversely. the load cases may always be reset to the program recommended set at any time. Operating cases are used to find hot displacements for interference checking..Chapter 6 Error Checking Static Load Cases 6-23 Operating load cases represent the loads acting on the pipe during hot operation.SUSTAINED LOAD CASE Case # 4L1-L3 (EXP).the user should add this since it is not recommended by CAESAR II. as well as to calculate as-installed restraint and equipment loads. and an operating load case is run. the first pressure set (if defined). Note: CAESAR II does not recommend any occasional load cases. W+P1+H (SUS). Generally when recommending operating load cases.. etc.. The first load case (traditionally called “Restrained Weight”) consists of only deadweight (W). and hot restraint and equipment loads. the hanger is replaced with an upward force equal to the calculated hot load.EXPANSION LOAD CASE The user should review any load recommendations made by CAESAR II.. If the user has an operating temperature below ambient in addition to one above ambient the user should add another expansion load case as follows: Case # 1 Case # 2 Case # 3 W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) . The load on the restraint from this analysis is the deadweight that must be carried by the support in the hot condition.SUSTAINED LOAD CASE L1-L2 (EXP).. Sustained load cases are used to satisfy the code sustained stress requirements. and then with any hanger loads.. This usually coincides with the cold (as-installed) load case. Sustained load cases represent the primary force-driven loadings acting on the pipe. Expansion load cases are used to meet expansion stress requirements..... and then with any cold spring loads.. and any displacements. Definition of these is the responsibility of the user. they may always be deleted or modified. and hanger loads with each of the thermal load cases (displacement set #1 with thermal set #1. Such input would simplify the recommended cases to something like: Case # 1 Case # 2 Case # 3 W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) . displacement set #2 with thermal set #2. including both primary (weight pressure... CAESAR II combines weight. For this analysis CAESAR II includes a rigid restraint in the vertical direction at every location where a hanger is to be sized. This load case (traditionally called “Free Thermal”) includes the deadweight and thermal effects. The vertical displacements of the hanger locations..).... two additional load cases must first be analyzed in order to obtain the data required to select a variable support.EXPANSION LOAD CASE Case # 6L2-L1 (EXP). Sustained load cases are generally built by combining weight with each of the pressure and force sets.. If these recommended load cases do not satisfy the analysis requirements.... pressure case #1...e. Most users will specify only one temperature and one pressure. along with the previously calculated deadweights are then passed on to the hanger selection routine.OPERATING W+P1+H (SUS). i.. The two basic requirements for sizing hangers are the deadweight carried by the hanger (hot load) and the range of vertical travel to be accommodated.. W+D2+T2 +P1+H (OPE) .. For the second load case.... . Expansion load cases represent the range between the displacement extremes (usually between the operating and sustained cases).EXPANSION LOAD CASE Case # 5L2-L3 (EXP). weight and pressure alone... and force) loadings and secondary (displacement and thermal) loadings. Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection If spring hangers are to be designed by the program.

) CAESAR II then continues with the load case recommendations as defined above. Also notice how the displacement combination numbers in case 5 have changed to reflect the new order.. If multiple temperatures and pressures existed in the input.OPERATING (HGRS. one additional load case (WNC+H) would appear before case #3 above.. other load cases must additionally appear before the case #3 above. Note how cases 3. An extra hanger design operating load case must be performed for each additional operating load case used to design springs. Refer to the discussion of the hanger design algorithm for more information on these options..in this case it would represent the pre-defined operating loads.. the added forces are removed and replaced with the selected supports along with their pre-loads (cold loads)..OPERATING FOR HANGER TRAVEL Case # 3W+D1+T1+P1+H (OPE) . Two other hanger design criteria also affect the recommended load cases. If the “actual cold loads” for selected springs are to be calculated. A typical set of recommended load cases for a single operating load case spring hanger design appears as follows: Case # 1W . (Note that load component H may appear in the load cases for hanger design if the user has predefined any springs. 4.. INCLUDED Case # 4W+P1+H (SUS) . designated by load component H. they too would appear in this set after the second spring hanger design load case...WEIGHT FOR HANGER LOADS Case # 2W+D1+T1+P1 ... & 5 match the recommended load cases for a standard analysis with one thermal and one pressure defined.6-24 Error Checking Static Load Cases Once the hangers are sized.. If the piping system’s hanger design criteria is set so that the proposed springs must accommodate more than one operating condition... ..EXPANSION LOAD CASE These hanger sizing load cases (#1 & #2) generally supply no information to the output reports other than the data found in the hanger tables.SUSTAINED LOAD CASE Case # 5L3-L4 (EXP) .

........................................................... 7-26 ........................................................ 7-23 Animation of Static Results Notes.................................................................................................................... 7-21 3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor ......................... 7-17 Output Viewer Wizard........................................................................................ 7-2 Custom Reports Toolbar.......................................................................... 7-20 Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes ...............CH AP TER 7 Chapter 7 Static Output Processor In This Chapter Entering the Static Output Processor ........................ 7-6 Custom Reports ............................................ 7-10 General Computed Results .......................... 7-7 Report Options.............................................................

Static Output .7-2 Static Output Processor Entering the Static Output Processor With the completion of a static analysis the CAESAR II Output screen automatically appears. Users may also be access the static results anytime after the analysis has been completed through the CAESAR II Main Menu option . allowing interactive review of the analytical results.Output-Static.

Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-3 Once the output processor is launched. The left-hand column shows the load cases that were analyzed. by either of the mentioned paths. Static Output Processor . The center column shows the available reports associated with those load cases. such as input listings or hanger selection reports that are not associated with load cases. Note The proper job must be made current through the File-Open option before selecting the Static-Output processor through the Main Menu. The right-hand column shows reports. the output screen appears.

clicking the button again. This feature is activated through use of the Microsoft Word button when producing a report. Also available on the Options menu. a Table of Contents is added to the file. selecting the next report to be added. reflecting the cumulatively produced reports. • Add Title lines to output reports. or the title may be changed for each individual report before it is moved to the output device. clicking the Microsoft Word button. After selecting the desired combination of one or more active load cases with any combination of report options and executing the View-Reports button. Input Allows the user to enter report titles for this group of reports. The user is prompted for the file to be opened. etc. Allows users to select formatting of node numbers and names to output to reports. Displays the selected reports on the terminal. The user is initially prompted for the file name. etc. each report is presented one at a time for inspection. always appears on the first page of the Word document. Prints the selected reports. When CAESAR II receives this command a dialog prompts for the titles Description Opens a different job for output review. Users may • Interactively review reports for any selected combination of load cases and/or report types. or exiting. To move to the next report the user should close the current report. Users can append multiple reports to form a final report. File-Save File-Print View-Reports Find Microsoft Word Select Case Names Select Node Name Enter Titles .7-4 Static Output Processor The Processor screen enables users to manipulate all output review activity. A table of contents. Word is available as an output device to the Static and Dynamic Output Processors. • Print or save to file copies for any combination of load cases and/or report types. margin control. by selecting the desired reports. When all reports have been reviewed. This is described later in the chapter. Users may scroll through the reports vertically and horizontally where necessary. or using any combination of the two forms. CAESAR II allows the user to customize the report with a two line title or description. After closing. The user-defined load case names are entered in the load case editor under the Load Options tab. The CAESAR II Output Processor was designed so that piping results could be quickly reviewed in tabular form. a Table of Contents is printed. A number of commands are available: Button and Name File-Open Saves the selected reports to a disk file. Note CAESAR II enables users to select either extended and/or summarized versions of most standard reports. Specific node numbers or results can be located and highlighted with the button.) and printer support from CAESAR II. This permits the analysis data to be reviewed interactively in text format. Animation Returns to the piping input processor. CAESAR II provides the ability to send output reports directly to Word. After closing. graphically. additional report selections may be made. or exit. This permits the use of all of Word’s formatting features (font selection. This title may be assigned once for all load case reports sent to the printer or a disk drive. For those users with access to Microsoft Word. closing Word. Also available on the Options menu as Load Case Name. Allows users to view graphic animation of the displacement solution. Allows users to select either the CAESAR II Default Load Case names or the user-defined load case names for output reports.

Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-5 Report Titles Note 28 characters of each entered title line are displayed for 80 column output reports and 50 characters of each entered title line are displayed for 132 column output reports. Plot More . Opens the Output Viewer Wizard to the right of the Static Output Processor. Button and Name Description This command allows the user to superimpose analytical results onto a plot of the system model. It aids the user in selecting specific reports and reviewing their order before sending the output to the selected device. This is described in more detail later in the chapter.

Enables users to navigate through the reports. Double clicking the column headers allows sorting of the results. Any number of load cases analyzed and any number of custom reports can be selected to view. Custom Reports are presented one at a time for inspection. View Custom Report On Screen Enables users to view existing custom reports on screen. all the user defined or modified custom report templates will be replaced by the CAESAR II default ones. Edit Existing Custom Report Template Delete One or More Custom Report Templates Reset Default Custom Report Templates Enables users to replace the current custom report templates (whether CAESAR II or user defined) with the CAESAR II Default Custom Report templates. At least one load case must be selected from the Load Cases Analyzed list box in addition to the custom report name to preview the report. When all reports have been viewed. Users may scroll through the reports vertically and horizontally where appropriate. Button and Name Add New Custom Report Template Description Enables users to create new custom reports. Enables users to permanently remove a custom report templates. one at a time.7-6 Static Output Processor Custom Reports Toolbar The Custom Reports toolbar enables users to access a variety of functions that can be used to manipulate the generated reports. View Previous Report View Next Report . Note: This action affects ALL jobs system-wide and can not be undone. Enables users to modify and save existing custom reports. the Reports Viewer dialog closes and returns control to the Static Output Processor. After executing this command the Report Template Editor dialog displays. Enables users to navigate through the reports. When all reports have been viewed. This action can not be undone. After executing this command. At least one load case must be selected from the Load Cases Analyzed list box to enable preview. the Reports Viewer dialog closes and returns control to the Static Output Processor. After executing this command the Report Template Editor dialog displays.

Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-7 Custom Reports Report Template Editor After selecting the appropriate load case and custom report name and clicking Edit Existing or Add New Custom Report Template the Report Template Editor dialog appears. Restraints. . The template editor has a tree-like structure and resembles Window Explorer’s folder view. and several output fields. Displacements. and select the report type. enter a brief description of the report. The report name followed by the template description display on the preview grid if the Include Report Name option is checked under the Template Settings category. and Hanger Table Data. Stresses. Global and Local Forces. The Template Name category allows users to specify the report name. There are 8 major categories available: Template Name and Template Settings for general report editing. Report Template Editor Dialog The Report Template Editor Dialog consists of two sections: the template editor to the left and the preview grid to the right.

formatting and alignment. Displacements category contains three translational (DX. Allows the user to control whether or not and where the Element Index appears. Note Any changes in the editor are immediately reflected in the preview window to the right. and Code stresses among other stress related fields. Each field contains following information that can be easily controlled by the user: Field Name Column Number Precision Sort Order Display Node Number Display Element Index Display Units Font Align Values Field Caption Column Width Indicates the order of the fields in the output report.7-8 Static Output Processor There are 3 report types available: • Individual . Note: The generic font settings for the entire report should be set at the Template Settings -> Body category. or in no order. Allows the user to control appearance of the node number. Allows the user to control whether or not and where the Units label is displayed. This gives the user flexibility of reviewing reports for maximum (or minimum) values without extra effort.generates an output stress check report for multiple load cases as a single report. or center alignment of the values in the column. Bending. • Summary . Stresses contains Axial. For example. size. RY. DY. Allows the user to control the size of the column. right. Each of the following categories consists of related output data. descending. When nothing or zero value is specified. Indicates the number of decimal places to be displayed. Allows the user to customize the name of the field as it appears on the report by typing the new caption. • Code Compliance . Allows the user to specify text font face. The user may wish to include or remove specific header data by toggling the check box next to a particular piece of information. Template Settings provides options for the report header and the report body text. similar to the standard Code Compliance report.generates a single output report for all the specified load cases as a summary. and color for both headers and the report body may be set here. Note Actual columns and their order on the reports are controlled solely by the user. Allows the user to control left. currently has only "general" formatting as an option. in the format similar to the standard Displacements or Restraints reports. Data from various categories can be customized on a single report to suit user's needs. and DZ) and three rotational (RX. this column will not be included in the current report. Description Note When a category or any particular field is highlighted in the editor. size and color for this field whenever special formatting is required. .generates output reports. and RZ) fields. in the format similar to the standard Restraint Summary report. currently has only "general" formatting as an option. the help text for this field is displayed in the Help box at the bottom of the editor section. The font face. currently has only "general" formatting as an option. one per selected load case. Specifies whether the data in the column is in ascending. A number next to the field name indicates the Column Number this field will be placed in.

Clicking Preview Report enables users to remove the grid lines from the Preview Grid. The dragged column number or sorted order value will automatically be saved in the Column Number or Sort Order entry of that field in the editor tree. Clicking the column header once will highlight that field in the editor tree. The entire report will be available after selecting the appropriate load case(s) and the custom report name on the Static Output Processor screen and clicking View Report. Clicking the same button again will add the grid lines for editing. ... extend its contents and scroll it to view. dialog appears prompting the user to enter the new template name a brief description. The Save As. The custom report template can also be saved under a different name by clicking Save As.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-9 The Preview Grid on the right of the Custom Report Template Editor dialog is interactive. Any current changes to the custom report template can be saved by clicking Save.. Note The Preview Grid is limited to the first 50 lines for performance speedup. Double clicking the column header will sort that column’s values in ascending or descending order.. Users may drag the columns by their heading to arrange the order of the fields in the reports. and the report type.

7-10 Static Output Processor Report Options For most load cases (except hanger design and fatigue) there are a variety of different report options that can be selected for review. Displacements Translations and rotations for each degree of freedom are reported at each node in the model. .

. Restraint Summary Similar to the restraint report. this option provides force and moment data for all valid selected load cases together on one report.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-11 Restraints Forces and moments on each restraint in the model are reported. There is a separate report generated for each load case selected.

Refer to the Technical Reference Manual for information on this local coordinate system.7-12 Static Output Processor Global Element Forces Forces and moments on the piping are reported for each node in the model. . Local Element Forces These forces and moments have been transferring into the CAESAR II Local Coordinate system.

The code stresses are compared to the Allowable stress at each node as a percentage.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-13 Stresses SIFs and Code Stresses are reported for each node in the model. . Note that stresses are not computed at nodes on rigid elements for more information see the figure on the following page.

7-14 Static Output Processor Stress Summary The highest stresses at each node are presented for all load cases selected in summary format for quick review. .

on an element-by-element basis. The resultant report shows the stress calculation for all load cases together. available from the Static Output processor.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-15 Code Compliance Report Stress checks for multiple load cases may be included in a single report using the Code Compliance report. and then highlights Code Compliance under the Report Options. For this report. the user selects all load cases of interest. .

regardless of the number of load cases selected. Once the Cumulative Usage report is generated. . showing the combined impact of simulating selected fatigue loadings.7-16 Static Output Processor Cumulative Usage Report The Cumulative Usage report is available only when there are one or more fatigue-type load cases present.

Load Cycles. and Load Case Options (Output Status. Hanger Stiffness Status. Output Type. Snubber Status. and Friction Multiplier) of the static load cases. Combination Methods. User-Defined Names. . This report is available from the General Computed Results column of the Static Output Processor.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-17 General Computed Results Load Case Report The Load Case Report documents the Basic Names (as built in the Load Case Builder).

which is the load on the hanger when the pipe is empty. material properties. If constant effort supports are selected then the hanger constant effort force is reported. operating conditions. . and the horizontal movement determined from the CAESAR II output. which is what the hangers are set to in the field prior to pulling the pins. the actual installed load. the hanger table figure number and size. Information provided includes the node number. the spring rate from the catalog. and boundary conditions are available in this report option. the hot load. the theoretical installed load. the number of springs required. Input Echo The input echo allows the user to select which portions of the input are to be reported in this output format. All basic element data (geometry).7-18 Static Output Processor Hanger Table with Text This report provides basic information regarding spring hangers either selected by CAESAR II or the user.

Bend Data. Nozzle Flexibility Data.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-19 Miscellaneous Data This report displays the Allowable Stress Summary. Thermal Expansion Coefficients used during analysis. . the Center of Gravity Report. and Wind and Wave input data. Bill of Materials. Pipe Report. Warnings All warnings reported during the error checking process are summarized here.

Output Viewer Wizard The Output Viewer Wizard consists of the Report Order window and auxiliary operational buttons. It enables users to add any report to the view by clicking Add or delete any report not needed by clicking Remove. Users can arrange the order of the reports by moving them up or down by clicking Move Up or Move Down on the selected report. . Note The TOC will display if Send to Screen was selected.7-20 Static Output Processor Output Viewer Wizard After clicking More >> in the lower right corner of the Static Output Processor. The Output Viewer Wizard can be hidden again by clicking Less <<. Users may send a report to screen or to printer by checking the appropriate radio button in the upper section of the Output Viewer Wizard dialog. After clicking Finish. an Output Viewer Wizard dialog displays to the right. regardless if the TOC check box was enabled or disabled. the reports are automatically sent to the specified device in the order displayed in the Report Order window. If the user places a corresponding check mark in the Generate Table of Contents (TOC) box a (TOC) is appended to the printed reports .

Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-21 Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes The tabular results brought to the screen may be sent directly to a printer. each followed by the File-Print command. After initial selection. to create a single report. Save As Dialog . Sends reports to a file (in ASCII format) rather than the printer. use the Output Viewer Wizard to populate the report order tree. equipment loads Note Load cases used for hanger sizing produce no reports. To print hard copies of multiple reports as a single report. equipment loads As-installed restraint. Also. Button and Name Description Prints hard copies of the reports. Different combinations of load cases and report types may be chosen. To save multiple reports as a single report to a file. select FILE-SAVE AS. use the Output Viewer Wizard. File Save Typically. click Send To Printer and then Finish.name. users are a file dialog appears where users must select the file. the hanger table and hanger table with text reports are printed only once even though more than one active load case may be highlighted. the set of output reports that a user might wish to print out for documentation purposes might be: Load Case SUSTAINED EXPANSION OPERATING OPERATING SUSTAINED STRESS STRESS DISPLACEMENTS RESTRAINTS RESTRAINTS Report Code compliance Code compliance Interference checks Purpose Hot restraint. To change the file name for a new report.

The interface uses a style names "report table" which users can setup in "header.doc". address details and formatting for tables. The Element Force/Moment report shows the forces and moments that act “ON” each element to keep that element in static equilibrium. The intent is that "header.7-22 Static Output Processor Note: The signs in all CAESAR II Reports show the forces and moments that act “ON” something.doc" contains the company logo.doc" exists in the \caesar\system directory. its contents will be read and used as the page header when CAESAR II exports the report to MSWord. The Restraint Force/Moment report shows the forces and moments that act “ON” each restraint. . if a file named "header. Note: When sending reports to MSWord.

Restraints. The Static Output 3D Graphics Engine shares the same general capabilities as the Piping Input Processor's Graphics. or Z displacements on the currently displayed model. This option can also be accessed from the Show menu. orbit. Clicking the Maximum Displacements button again clears the view of the displayed values and highlighting.Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-23 3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor The Static Output Processor Graphics Engine is used to review analytic results in graphic mode. noting which ones could be most appropriate for a given application. by clicking DISPLACEMENT/DEFLECTED SHAPE. Some of the output options are discussed below. Y. and stresses of the model. pan. restraint loads. Adjust Deflection Scale Maximum Displacements Places the actual magnitude of the X. One of the major advantages of the 3D Graphics over the original CAESAR II graphics is the graphical representation of stresses by value and by percent using color. Note: The element containing the displaced node is highlighted. and several other options among them the ability to switch views and modes. Output Toolbar A variety of CAESAR II Output Plot functions are accessed from the Show menu that is broken into sub-menus Displacements. Forces/Moments. the default report shown will be the Stresses Report for currently selected load case. This option can also be accessed from the Show menu. Alternatively. If none of the highlighted operations was previously used. Clicking the arrow to the right of this button displays an additional menu with the selected feature checked and the Adjust Deflection Scale option. Button and Name Deflected Shape Description Overlays the scaled geometry with a different color into the current plot for the selected load case. Users are encouraged to experiment with all the output options. . and the camera viewpoint is repositioned (preserving the optical distance to the model) to bring the displaced node to the center of the view. OR Z). these functions can be activated by clicking the appropriate buttons The CAESAR II Output Graphics Engine is extensive. highlighting and zooming to maximum displacements. It starts with highest value for the given direction. Entering a scale value that is too large may graphically "break" or discontinue the model. the remaining values are placed in a similar manner until all values are exhausted or become zero. Additional capabilities of the Static Output Graphics Engine can be found on the Output Toolbar and include the display of displaced shapes. Y. Note: Entering a value that is too small may prevent visual detection of the deflected shape. after pressing Enter. and Stresses. by clicking DISPLACEMENT/MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT/(X. It uses the same HOOPS Standard Toolbar that enables users to zoom. Specifies the deflected shape plot scale factor.

the stress value is displayed next to the node and the element containing the node is highlighted and is moved to the center of the view. Button and Name Code Stress Colors by Value In addition to the model color highlight in the graphics view. clicking an element on the graphics view highlights the corresponding data row in the report view of the Event Viewer dialog. or rotated at the discretion of the user. it can be zoomed. Selecting a node or an element in the grid view (when Select Elements is enabled) highlights the corresponding element on the graphics view. etc. After pressing Enter the 2nd.7-24 Static Output Processor Button and Name Show Event Viewer Grid Description Shows/hides the Event Viewer on the plot. and even viewing the reports for other load cases. where the color corresponds to a certain boundary value of the code stress. The Event Viewer dialog is also used in conjunction with the Select Elements button. Allows the user to select one element at a time in the graphics. CAESAR II highlights it and displays it in the Event Viewer dialog with the corresponding element highlighted in the report grid. navigate to various reports within a load case.e. on the Plot Colors tab. Selecting the report displays the data in the grid view to the right. After pressing Enter any remaining values will be placed in a similar manner. The model is still fully functional. and zooms to the selected element if the corresponding Zoom to Selection is enabled. Restraints are plotted as arrowheads with the direction of the arrow indicating the direction of the force exerted by the restraint on the piping geometry Places the actual magnitude of the calculated restraint loads (corresponding to the particular button) for a selected load case on the currently displayed geometry. The Zoom to Selection and Show Event Viewer Grid options are still available at the discretion of the user. Nodes with a calculated "code stress to allowable stress ratio" of 100% or more display in red. Description Displays the piping system in a range of colors. where there are allowable stresses available). the remaining nodes/elements display in the color selected for the lowest percent ratio. the corresponding color key legend window is displayed in the top left corner of the graphics view. The colors and corresponding stress levels can be set in the CONFIGURATION/SETUP module. The legend window can be resized and moved. . Thus. In addition to the "dry" numbers that could be found in a corresponding report. The Zoom to Selection and Show Event Viewer Grid options are still available at the discretion of the user. the element containing the node is highlighted and is brought to the center of the graphics view. When Select Elements is active. Clicking the + sign for a particular load case will expand the tree of its reports. Displays the overstressed point distribution for a particular load case. Overstress Note: Overstressed conditions are only detected for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i. The Maximum Restraints Loads button displays the load magnitude value next to the node. This feature is useful to quickly observe the overstressed areas in the model. This feature is used to quickly see the distribution of the code stresses in the model for a particular load case. this is a bidirectional connection. or when users double click on an element. this option gives the user graphical representation and distribution of large calculated code stresses throughout the system.. One of the advantages of the Event Viewer Grid dialog is its ability to navigate among the elements. Select Elements Output Restraints Symbols Maximum Restraint Loads Displays the stress magnitudes in descending order one at a time. highest value is placed in the similar manner with corresponding element highlighting. Changing the load case within the Event Viewer Grid dialog will update the graphics view (if applicable) and the Load Case Selection pull-down box on the toolbar. Maximum Code Stress Note: The Maximum Code Stress buttons’ operation is similar to the Maximum Displacements button. Similarly. Adds restraints symbols to the plot. Note: Note: Overstressed nodes will display in red in the Event Viewer Grid (if it is enabled). the 3rd. This is done in the Report Selection window on the left in the dialog. panned. This window has a tree structure similar in operation to Windows Explorer™.

XML file in the current job data directory (see 3D/HOOPS Graphics in Piping Input Processor.. These settings are related to the particular job they are set for and are saved in the corresponding job_name. The legend window can be resized and moved. 3D Graphics Configuration chapter for more information on the *. where the color corresponds to a certain percent ratio of code Code Stress Colors by Percent stress to allowable stress. where there are allowable stresses available).Chapter 7 Static Output Processor 7-25 Button and Name Description Displays the piping system in a range of colors. Selecting the Adjust Settings option displays the Stress Settings dialog where desired values and corresponding colors could be set or adjusted. This option is only valid for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i. Code Stress Colors by Percent . Clicking the arrow to the right of this button displays an additional menu with two options: Display and Adjust Settings .XML file). Code Stress Colors by Percent is similar to the Stress Colors by Value option and is generally used to quickly see the distribution of the code stress to allowable ratios in the model for a particular load case. The legend window with the corresponding color key also displays in the left upper corner of the graphics view.e. Selecting the Display option displays the color distribution.

Motion uses centerline representation while Volume Motion produces 3D graphics.HSF must be transferred along with the HTML file for proper display. Note The corresponding animation graphics file <job_name>. . CAESAR II also enables users to save animated plots as HTML files by clicking FILE/SAVE AS ANIMATION. Animations may be sped up or slowed down or stopped using the toolbars. The desired load case may be selected from the drop down list. After saving these files users can view them on any machine outside of CAESAR II. execute the View-Animate command. Motion and Volume Motion are the commands to activate the animation. The following screen appears: Animated Graphic Screen The Animated Plot menu has several plot selections.7-26 Static Output Processor Animation of Static Results Notes CAESAR II allows the user to view the piping system as it moves to the displaced position of the basic load cases. To animate the static results.

...................... 8-5 Input Overview Based on Analysis Category ........... 8-36 ................................................... 8-9 Earthquake (Spectrum) ..................... 8-12 Relief Loads (Spectrum)...............................................The Spectrum Wizard ..................................................................................... 8-18 Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) ...................................................................................... 8-33 Error Handling and Analyzing the Job ............. 8-7 Harmonic ........................................................................... 8-32 Time History................................................................................................................CH AP TER 8 Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis In This Chapter Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II ............................ 8-2 Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview ................ 8-17 DLF/Spectrum Generator .................................................

These loads are modeled as concentrated forces or displacements at one or more points in the system.8-2 Dynamic Input and Analysis Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II The dynamic analysis capabilities found in CAESAR II include natural frequency calculations. The stresses for these analyses. may vary between the three global directions and may even change for different groups of supports (independent as opposed to uniform support motion). and rapid valve closure type loads all cause single impulse dynamic loads at various points in the piping system. The fourth type of dynamic analysis is time history analysis. then the dynamic motion due to the cyclic excitation would be from +5. A system’s modal natural frequencies typically should not be too close to equipment operating frequencies and. calculation speed and time) than other methods. This is one of the most accurate methods. velocity. should be compared to the occasional stress allowables defined by the piping code. Each mode of vibration of the piping system is related to one response on the spectrum. Therefore. slug flow loads. Ground motion associated with a seismic event is supplied as displacement. if the results show an X displacement at node 45 of 5. for example the spectrum method offers sufficient accuracy. Another response spectrum application is based on single point loading rather than a uniform inertial loading.8 cm. which loads the system. it may not pay to use this method when. and stresses. the full cyclic stress range. Applications of harmonic analyses include fluid pulsation in reciprocating pump lines or vibration due to rotating equipment. it is this inertial effect. requires more resources (memory. water hammer loads. These modal responses are summed together to produce the total system response.8 cm. For example. To provide the proper phase relationship between multiple loads a phase angle can also be associated with these forces or displacements. The stresses shown are one half of. as a general rule. . Harmonic responses represent the maximum dynamic amplitude the piping system undergoes and have the same form as a static analysis . but due to its exact solution. Included with the CAESAR II Dynamic modules are processors. An example is the processor. and any operating modes. CAESAR II also provides for the analysis of dynamic loads that are cyclic in nature. Natural frequency information can indicate the tendency of a piping system to respond to dynamic loads. Spectral analysis can be used in a wide variety of applications. or acceleration response spectra. at this point in the system. The response to these dynamic forces can be confidently and conservatively predicted using the force spectrum method.node deflections and rotations. harmonic analysis. and time history analysis. This ability to define different types of dynamic effects improves the accuracy of dynamic modeling and makes these methods suitable for a wider range of dynamic problems. higher natural frequencies usually cause less trouble than low natural frequencies. local forces and moments. in that it uses numeric integration of the dynamic equation of motion to simulate the system response throughout the load duration. to -5. summed with the sustained stresses. The third type of dynamic analysis available in CAESAR II is the response spectrum method. The assumption is that all the supports move with the defined ground motion and the piping system “catches up” to the supports. The shock spectra. response spectrum analysis. CAESAR II’s Time History Analysis method can solve any type of dynamic loading. CAESAR II provides both calculation of a system’s modal natural frequencies. Relief valve loads. which can generate several types of dynamic loads. restraint loads. which define the ground motion.8 cm. frequency spectra. CAESAR II makes effective use of this technique to analyze a wide variety of impulse type transient loads. as well as animated plots of the associated mode shapes. or one amplitude of. which converts loading with respect to time into a force response spectrum. Any number of forcing frequencies may be analyzed allowing easy analysis of equipment start-up. The response spectrum method allows an impulse type transient event to be characterized by a response vs.

Friction effects must also be linearized for use in dynamic analysis. The stiffness of these springs is a userdefined function of the friction has calculated in the static analysis. the friction stiffness would be added in the X and Z directions. Converting friction damping into a stiffness is usually not mathematically legitimate. and the user-defined Stiffness Factor for Friction is 50.. For example. An example of a nonlinear effect is slapping. By default CAESAR II excludes the effects of friction from the dynamic analysis. The stiffness of these springs is a user-defined function of the friction load calculated in the static analysis. then springs having a stiffness of 350*0. Most often the user selects the operating case to set the nonlinear restraint configuration. The nonlinear restraints used in the static analysis must be set to be active or inactive for the dynamic analysis. and the operating case is used to set the status of the nonlinear supports for dynamics. Dynamic responses associated with nonlinear effects are not addressed. For a Y restraint with friction.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-3 Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis The dynamic techniques employed by CAESAR II require strict linearity in the piping and structural systems. the friction coefficient (mu) is 0. For a Y restraint with friction.0=5250 lb. and by the user-defined Stiffness Factor for Friction.3. CAESAR II installs a double-acting Y support at that location for the dynamic analysis. For example. . For the dynamic model the pipe must be either held down or allowed to move freely.3*50. if the normal force on the on the restraint from the static analysis is 350lb.0. The pipe will not move up or down at that point regardless of the dynamic load or tend to move. the friction stiffness would be added in the X and Z directions./in are inserted into the dynamic model in the two directions perpendicular to the friction restraint's line of action. CAESAR II computes the friction stiffness by multiplying the normal force on the restraint from the selected static case results. CAESAR II allows the user to set the nonlinear restraints to any configuration found in the static results (this is done by specifying the number of the Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status). if a +Y support is active in the static operating case (normally case 1 or 3). If requested CAESAR II can approximate the friction resistance to movement in the dynamic model by including spring stiffness normal to the restraint line of action. A second nonlinear effect is friction. such as when a pipe lifts off the rack at one moment and impacts the rack the next. but can serve as a good engineering approximation for dynamic friction in a wide variety of situations. by the friction coefficient.

that the static configuration for nonlinear restraints (if any) is defined. which implies that no friction stiffness will be used). or selected. or time history. and the friction factor for including friction in the dynamic run is entered (the default friction factor is 0. and other supports in the static analysis model. built. Finally. (Their inclusion in the analysis would cause a large increase in solution time without a corresponding improvement in the general accuracy of the analysis. Rotational moments of inertia are ignored in the dynamic mass model. The major function of the control parameter list is to set the type of analysis to be performed: calculation of natural frequencies and mode shapes. harmonic analysis. Starting and error checking the analysis Except for starting the analysis. Due to the amount of data. it is best to establish some sort of pattern in defining the input. General settings for the analysis are also defined in the control parameter list such as maximum frequency cutoff and mode summation methods. The response spectra or time history profile must be defined. Some situations. however. Setting the parameters that control the analysis 4. These parameters should only be altered under special circumstances. Creating the dynamic loads for spectra or time history analysis requires the most attention by the user. Usually this occurs in analyses where the “unnecessary” masses are far from the area of interest in the model or where the “unnecessary” degrees of freedom do not act in the direction of interest.0. There is no reason to specify dynamic loads if only natural frequencies are to be counted or calculated. Modifying the mass and stiffness model 3. These shock absorbers or snubbers can be entered (if not entered in statics) during the dynamic input as additional stiffness. hangers. For dynamic analysis. these steps may occur in any order. These masses are used as translational inertias only. The masses assigned to each node are one half the sum of all element masses framing into the node. too. . Additional stiffness is added at the mass (node) points to model anchors.8-4 Dynamic Input and Analysis Major Steps in Dynamic Input Developing dynamic input for CAESAR II comprises four basic steps: 1. which may be specified. CAESAR II provides several processors to simplify many of these tasks. Force sets must be built for force response spectra and time history analysis. It is here. restraints. Specifying the load(s) 2. Some piping systems have supports that are installed to suppress vibration and do not effect the static analysis. spectral analysis. additional load cases may be constructed by combining shock results with static results to check code compliance on occasional stresses.) In many instances the mass and stiffness established in the static model will be used without modification in the dynamic analysis. can be improved by the deletion of mass points or degrees of freedom. Harmonic analysis requires the input of driving frequencies and forces or displacements to define and locate the sinusoidally varying point loads. CAESAR II converts each piping element from a continuous beam element between two nodes to a stiffness between two masses. Response spectra /time history (and force sets) are combined with other data to build the load cases to be analyzed. The advanced option allows the user to change the parameters governing the eigensolution (which does the modal extraction).

Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-5 Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview Entering the Dynamic Analysis Input Menu The dynamic input module allows the user to specify the dynamic loads imposed on the piping system. the static model must first be created and error checked through the CAESAR II Input processor. If nonlinear supports are present the static analysis must be run and the results made available before the dynamic analysis can be performed. Usually the model is also run through static analysis before the dynamic analysis begins but this is not a requirement unless nonlinear supports or hanger selections are included in the model. To enter the dynamics input. Analysis-Dynamics Option . the proper job name must be current prior to selecting the Analysis-Dynamics file options of the Main Menu. To perform a dynamic analysis.

After data is entered. Checks the input data for errors or inconsistencies. or analyzed. Input data is organized in pages according to type. Tools-Spectrum Data Points Allows the user to generate a file containing a Dynamic Load Factor vs. Edit-Add Entry Deletes the selected data lines on the current input page. the input screen changes to reflect the required inputs.8-6 Dynamic Input and Analysis Upon entering the dynamic input processor. Frequency Spectrum from a Force vs. error checked only. Users can access these pages by selecting their title tabs. the user should select the analysis from the drop list. the following screen appears. Saves the current input data. Description . and other results for gas or liquid relief valves. File-Run Analysis Adds a new data line on the current input page (tab page). A variety of dynamic analysis options are available and require different types of input. Once selected. Dynamic Input Processor The type of analysis is indicated in the drop down list in the upper left portion of the screen (new jobs default to Other). To simplify the input process. Edit-Delete Entry DLF Spectrum Generator Tools-Relief Load Synthesis Used to enter data points for user-defined spectra. using the menu commands or toolbars. Dynamic Analysis Type Specification Available commands during dynamic input processing are: Button File-Save Input File-Check Input Starts the dynamic analysis. Time profile. the job can be saved. flows. Provides a utility for estimating loads.

Therefore no loadings need to be or may be specified. i. Masses may also be deleted from the static mass model. these two systems (piping and structure) are independent of each other in the X and Z directions. other sections of the system may be removed from the dynamic model by removing their mass. so the X and Z mass of the structure can be removed without affecting the piping model’s results. Extra mass which may have been ignored as insignificant in the static model (e.. the calculations for the piping structural model proceed much faster. forces due to gravity acting on a mass). if a piping system includes a structural frame which supports the weight (the piping rests on the structure and is connected to the structure only in the Y direction). this is the same as deleting degrees-of-freedom. If the system response to some dynamic load is isolated to specific sections of the piping system. Mass can also be deleted selectively for any of the three global coordinate directions when deletion of directional degrees-of-freedom is desired. With the X and Z masses removed. Modal Specifying the Loads Modal analysis simply extracts natural frequencies and shapes for the system’s modes of vibration. Snubbers Snubbers .Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-7 Input Overview Based on Analysis Category The multitude of dynamic analysis types available in CAESAR II can be somewhat intimidating at first. must be added here (CAESAR II does not assume that concentrated forces are system weights.e. Also weights modeled as downward acting concentrated forces. a flange pair) can be directly entered here. For the most part. mass deletion is a tool used to economize the analysis. Those items are discussed by analysis type. the user may add or delete mass from the mass model. For example.g. Selection of Analysis Type from the pull down list displays only those tabs for which input is appropriate. Lumped Masses On this page.

called snubbers. while allowing static displacement. Snubbers must have their stiffness explicitly entered (they do not default to rigid. such as that due to thermal growth.8-8 Dynamic Input and Analysis Certain supports. this page would be used to set the number of modes of vibration to extract by specifying a maximum number. . Control Parameters Control Parameters These parameters describe how the analysis will be conducted. Details on these entries are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. Note: Snubbers may also be entered in the input processor rather than in the dynamic processor. see the Technical Reference Manual. or both. In general. It is on this page that snubbers can be included in the model. For more information. since snubbers are typically not as stiff as other types of restraints). only resist dynamic loading. a cutoff frequency. Advanced Parameters Show Screen These parameters rarely need to be changed by the user.

Any number of individual frequencies. or frequency ranges (indicated by a starting. one to a line. Harmonic Forces Harmonic Displacements .Excitation Frequency Harmonic load definition is broken down into two parts: 1) definition of the excitation fraudulency or frequencies and 2) location and magnitude of the force and/or displacement load(s). Otherwise. direction. CAESAR II performs a separate analysis for each frequency requested. the load cases are calculated with a fatigue stress type. ending. These pages allow the user to enter loads (either force or displacement). Note The number of anticipated load cycles may be entered for each frequency range. If the number is entered. phase angle and node(s). Harmonic loads may be specified on the Harmonic Forces or Harmonic Displacements input tabs.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-9 Harmonic Specifying the Loads Harmonic Loads . Three input tabs are available for specifying the loads. the load cases are calculated with an occasional stress type. and incremental frequency) may be specified.

in the X direction and zero phase at nodes 10 and 105). to the right or to the left together). if two harmonic loads are acting along the same line but at different nodes. It is the phase angle. or the loads could be directed in the same direction (i. The magnitude of the pressure load at each elbow is Harmonic Force = 0.” or same direction dynamic load in the system (1500 lbf. The two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and reciprocating pumps. in opposite directions). which primarily determines this relationship.e. a speed. The harmonic load data 1500 X 0 10 1500 X 0 105 produces an “in phase. while 1500 X 0 10 1500 X 180 105 produces an “out of phase. This load is applied along both axes perpendicular to the shaft axis and at a 90º phase shift. This pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. These pressure waves will cause loads at each bend in the piping system. Rotating equipment may have an eccentricity. In the case of a reciprocating pump. Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model Lumped masses and snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis.” or opposite direction dynamic load on the system. The phase angle (entered in degrees) relates the timing of one load to another. is calculated from phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360º where frequency is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump. For example. which will tend to pull the system apart. The phase shift. which would produce a net dynamic imbalance in the system equal to the sum of the two forces. and length is the distance from the first elbow to the current elbow under study. in degrees from the first elbow. The magnitude of the harmonic load is computed from: Fn = (mass)(speed)2(eccentricity).8-10 Dynamic Input and Analysis Phasing can be important if more than one force or displacement is included. The load on each subsequent elbow in the system starting from the first elbow will be phase shifted by an amount that is a function of the distance between the elbows. the loads can be directed towards each other (i. from the first elbow to the current elbow. which would produce no net dynamic imbalance on the system. It is the amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs that produces the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. where (speed) is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second. the pump introduces a pressure wave into the line at some regular interval that is related to the valving inside the pump and the pump speed. and a mass.5 (Pressure variation) (Area) Note All specified loads are considered to act together (with phasing considerations) at each applied frequency.e. . These items must be converted into a harmonic load that acts on the rotor at the theoretical mass centerline.

0. Details of these fields are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. Undamped harmonic analysis may be done by setting damping to 0.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-11 Control Parameters Harmonic Control Parameters These parameters describe how the analysis will be conducted. .

or Displacement) as well as the interpolation method for each axis. without the “#” symbol. If the spectrum data is to be read from a file. . the second part of the shock definition is not necessary. (The name of the file is the name of the spectrum. In either case. for more information refer to the DLF/Spectrum Generator . Note To indicate that the spectrum is to be read from a file the symbol “#” should immediately precede the spectrum name. Velocity. Note The Spectrum Wizard automates common shock definitions.1) the statement of the name and type of data and 2) the table of actual spectrum data points. the user should add a blank line. Spectrum Definitions Response spectrum table values can be entered directly or built and stored as a file for use by CAESAR II. for a response table to be used by CAESAR II it must first be defined in the Spectrum Definitions page. There are two parts to the shock definition . and no extension is allowed. The Spectrum Wizard also serves this purpose -providing the spectrum definitions and data points.8-12 Dynamic Input and Analysis Earthquake (Spectrum) Specifying the Loads Earthquake loads are defined by defining one or more response spectra and applying them in a specified direction over part or all of the piping system. Acceleration.The Spectrum Wizard section later in this chapter.) Subsequent references to that spectrum do not use the “#” symbol. Force Multiplier/DLF. Spectrum Definition describes the type of data in the spectrum (period or frequency vs. In order to define a spectrum. Data stored in a file can be referenced by any job run on the machine.

Other AEC vertical spectra for 0.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-13 If not read in from a file.Introduction to Structural Dynamics.60V.Spectra from Uniform Building Code. 1.5 .U. the data points for a user-entered spectrum may be entered by using the Tools .60H. 1. Data Points CAESAR II also has several shock spectra built in.60 Rev. Dec. 1940 El Centro California earthquake N-S component. These spectra may be used as part of a shock load case without further input.60V10 UBCSOIL1 .Spectra from Uniform Building Code. and applies to elastic systems with 5-10% damping.60H2 . Likewise. soil type 1 UBCSOIL2 .5 .60H7 1.Based on the May 18. 7 and 10% critically damped systems.5. 7 and 10% critically damped systems. S. Atomic Energy Commission Regulatory Guide 1. 1973 Horizontal Design Response Spectra for 0. 1991 soil type 2 .60V2 1. 1991.60H10 1. and entering the data. 5. 1.Other AEC horizontal spectra for 2. clicking the Read From File button will read in data from any text file set up with two entries per range. selecting the spectrum name.60V7 1.5% critically damped systems. 1.Spectrum Data Points command. Values are taken from Biggs . ELCENTRO .60H5 1. 1. 5.60V5 1. 2.

Y. This is the maximum ground acceleration at the site and is used to scale the spectrum curves. . one for the ground supports. parts of the system are exposed to different shocks. supports attached to the building will not be exposed to the same shock as the supports attached to the ground. The “factor” is used to modify the magnitude of the shock. In this case two different shock inputs are required. 1991 soil type 3 Note: Use of the Reg.5g. For example.Spectra from Uniform Building Code. Guide 1. Additionally. CAESAR II also supports options for independent support motion earthquakes. To specify an independent support motion shock the node range that defines a particular group of supports must be given.0 (100%) times of the El Centro spectrum in the X direction and 0. and one for the building supports.8-14 Dynamic Input and Analysis UBCSOIL3 .0 in Z and 0.67 (67%) times of the El Centro spectrum in the Y direction and 2) 1. For earthquakes. Each spectrum in the shock case is assigned a direction and factor. and Z). The default ZPA is 0. the “direction” input defines the orientation of the uniform inertial loading (commonly earthquakes have 3 direction components: X. Spectrum Load Cases Spectrum Load Cases Load cases consist of simultaneously applied spectra. the seismic evaluation of a piping system might include two Spectrum/Time History Load Cases: 1) 1. Because the building will filter the earthquake.60 or UBC spectra requires the input of the ZPA (zero period acceleration) in the Control Parameters.67 in Y. Here. the maximum displacement (seismic anchor movements) of the support attachment point must be specified. An example is a piping system supported both from ground and building supports.

however. There is a 33% reduction in the earthquake’s magnitude in the Y direction. For stresses. Stress types may be assigned to the spectrum load cases by selecting from the drop list. moments. and stresses.24 The uniform support motion earthquake above contains only components of the El Centro earthquake acting uniformly through all of the supports. and the 101-300 group. The independent support motion earthquake above has two different support groups: the 1-100 group. forces. Different horizontal and vertical components were given for both the ground and the building spectra. the user should also enter the number of anticipated load cycles. If the Fatigue stress type is selected.667 X Z Y * INDEPENDENT SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT HGROUND HGROUND VGROUND HBUILDING HBUILDING VBUILDING 1 1 1 1 1 1 X Z Y X Z Y 1 1 1 101 101 101 100 100 100 300 300 300 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.36 0.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-15 The example below shows first a typical uniform support earthquake specification. Static/Dynamic Combinations Static/Dynamic Combinations Each shock case produces an output report listing displacements. The 1-100 group is exposed to a ground spectrum. and second a typical independent support motion earthquake: * UNIFORM SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT ELCENTRO ELCENTRO ELCENTRO 1 1 . It is the sustained plus occasional stress sum that is compared to the occasional allowable stress. .25 0. The last values specified are the seismic support movements.167 0. most piping codes combine the occasional dynamic stresses with the sustained static stresses. The static load case number identifies one of the static load cases (usually the sustained case) in the static output.25 0.36 0. The 101-300 group is exposed to a building spectrum. This occasional stress combination is provided through the Static/Dynamic Combinations page. Each combination references the static load case number and the dynamic load case number to be combined.

There can be any number of static or dynamic loads summed together in a single load case.0 times) of static case 2 with 100% (1. SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) methods or ABS methods can be used. For more information see the Technical Reference Manual. Control Parameters These parameters describe how the analysis is to be conducted.0 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model Lumped Masses and Snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis.0 times) dynamic case 1 appears as follows: S2 1. There is also independent control of the combination method.8-16 Dynamic Input and Analysis In most cases this is static load case 4 if hanger sizing is included. Each case to be added should be placed on a separate line. Any static/dynamic combination specified will produce an additional dynamic output report.0 D1 1. Factors are specified with the static and dynamic case numbers to increase or decrease the summed values. . The numbers used to reference the dynamic cases are set by the order of the dynamic load case input. Advanced Parameters These rarely need to be changed by the user. Both static only and dynamic only cases can be manipulated. The default is the ABS method. or load case 2 if it is not. Particular attention should be paid to the modal summation methodology Details are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. The input to sum 100% (1.

see the Technical Reference Manual. This must then be converted to a Force Multiplier (Dynamic Load Factor) spectrum. exit velocities. time profile of the applied load. Means of estimating the Force-Time profile for a relief load are shown in the Applications Guide. This utility can be used to estimate relief valve thrust loads.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-17 Relief Loads (Spectrum) Specifying the Loads This method is set up to solve a relief valve loading through Force Spectrum Methodology. For more information. clicking the Calculate Results button performs the calculations. In order to analyze a piping system for a relief valve loading. and pressures which can in turn be used to estimate the force vs. the Tools-Relief Load Synthesis Command provides a calculation scratch pad based upon a model of a relief valve venting steam or liquid to atmosphere. The applied force then must be applied in conjunction with this spectrum. . it is first necessary to estimate the force-time profile for the loading. Once all data is entered. Relief Load Synthesis Relief Load Synthesis If the user does not know the characteristics of the relief valve load.

click Done. Supplying these parameters to the DLF/Spectrum Generator or Spectrum Wizard will produce these shock definitions. may be entered in its place.8-18 Dynamic Input and Analysis DLF/Spectrum Generator . Three sources for seismic spectra are used . without blanks.the safety relief valve response spectrum found in B31. Two types of force response spectra (dynamic load factor versus frequency) are also built here . Clicking the icon in the dynamic analysis input processor opens the Spectrum Wizard.to build period versus g load spectra. ASCE 7 and the International Building Code .The Spectrum Wizard Several common shock definitions are based on just a few parameters. This icon is identified in the following illustration: The following window appears: Each of the five spectra may be selected using the radio buttons on the left side of the window. Once the input parameters are entered.1 and a general force response spectrum derived from the user's own time history. . A default spectrum name is provided but any valid file name. the spectrum is built for the analysis by clicking the Generate Spectrum button. To exit this processor.the Uniform Building Code.

The OK button will do that. .Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-19 After clicking Generate Spectrum. the spectrum definitions will be listed and generated spectra can be reviewed by clicking the Enter/Edit Spectra Data button at the top of the dynamic analysis input window. Be sure to specify a unique spectrum name. Cancel Clicking Cancel on this display will quit the display without loading the data into the dynamic input. the processor will load the appropriate data in the Spectrum Definitions tab in the Dynamic Input and move the data to the dynamic input. The specifics for each spectrum generator are discussed on the following page. A completed shock spectrum is shown below: Save to File Saves the spectrum as a file with the same spectrum name in the current folder. OK or Cancel. Once this processor is closed. Use the Save to File button only if you wish to reuse the data in other CAESAR II Dynamic analyses. It is not necessary to save the spectrum data to a file to use the data in the current job. the dynamic input will be updated. the processor will display the spectrum data and await a user response . Two files will be saved for the seismic spectra.Save to File. one horizontal and one vertical (distinguished by the suffix H or V at the end of the name). OK By clicking OK. as this processor will overwrite any existing files of the same name.

Ts=Cv/2. These names would also be used as data file names if so requested. . these names will be listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases.8-20 Dynamic Input and Analysis UBC Selecting this option creates earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the 1997 Uniform Building Code. The calculated spectrum accelerations will be multiplied by this value to generate the shock spectra. Importance Factor This is the Seismic Importance Factor. I.5Ca & T0=Ts/5 The vertical spectrum will be set to 50% of I·Ca across the entire period range. Spectrum Name This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that will be generated here. Values range from 1. Once properly entered.25 based on the function of the structure. as defined in Table 16-K. The horizontal design response spectrum will be based on the curve shown in UBC Figure 16-3 (below).0 to 1. A suffix of H and V will be added to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum. Do not include a space in the spectrum name. respectively.

Seismic Coefficient Cv Based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor. this is the "Zero Period Acceleration" for the site as defined in Table 16Q. this parameter sets the ground acceleration at higher periods (lower frequencies) for the site as defined in Table 16-R. .06 to 1. Table values range from 0. Table values range from 0.66.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-21 Seismic Coefficient Ca Based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor.06 to 0.92. ASCE7 Selecting this option creates earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the ASCE 7-02 Standard.

Fv is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped 1-second period maximum considered earthquake acceleration (S1).5.4b.4a. Short period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 9. A suffix of H and V will be added to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum.8-22 Dynamic Input and Analysis Spectrum Name This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that will be generated here. Neither I nor R affects the vertical spectrum.4.2. Site Coefficient Fv Listed in Table 9.2 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over 50 years is 2%.5 based on the function of the structure Site Coefficient Fa Listed in Table 9. Importance Factor This is the Occupancy Importance Factor. as defined in Table 9.8 to 3. I. Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS) This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system location for a structure having a period of 0. Values range from 1. Above a period of 4 seconds.1.1.5.4.4. the horizontal spectrum acceleration changes.4. These names would also be used as data file names if so requested. The vertical spectrum will be set to 20% of SDS across the entire period range.2. these names will be listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases. The calculated horizontal spectrum accelerations will be multiplied by this value to generate the shock spectra. .0 to 1. Do not include a space in the spectrum name. Table values range from 0.1.8 to 2.1.2.1. respectively. The horizontal design response spectrum will be based on the curve shown in ASCE 7-02 Figure 9. Fa is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped short period maximum considered earthquake acceleration (SS). Table values range from 0.2. Once properly entered. This value is used with the mapped short period acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions. This value is used with the mapped 1-second period acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions.6 (below).4. Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5.

The calculated horizontal spectrum accelerations will be divided by this value to generate the shock spectra in accordance with Equation 9. This term reflects system ductility.5 for piping is not atypical.0 for most plant structures and 3.1.5. One-second period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 9. IBC Selecting this option creates earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the International Building Code 2000 . Values range from 3.5-3.2. R.2.4.6.5. Response Modification R This is the Response Modification Coefficient.0 to 8. as defined in Table 9.2.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-23 Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1) This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system location for a structure having a period of 1 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over 50 years is 2%.

1. as defined in Section 1616. Mapped MCESRA at Short Period (SS) This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system location for a structure having a period of 0. This value is used with the mapped 1-second period acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions.8 to 3.1. Short period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 1615.5.1. respectively. Site Coefficient Fv Listed in Table 1615. Table values range from 0.5. This value is used with the mapped short period acceleration to set the response accelerations based on local soil conditions. Do not include a space in the spectrum name. .1. Values range from 1. these names will be listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases.2(2).2 and shown in Table 1604. Fa is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped short period maximum considered earthquake acceleration (SS). Fv is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped 1-second period maximum considered earthquake acceleration (S1).1.4 (below).15. These names would also be used as data file names if so requested. Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5 The vertical spectrum will be set to 20% of SDS (implied in 1617.2 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over 50 years is 2%.8-24 Dynamic Input and Analysis Spectrum Name This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that will be generated here. The horizontal design response spectrum will be based on the curve shown in IBC 2000 Fig.5 based on the function of the structure. The calculated spectrum accelerations will be multiplied by this value to generate the shock spectra. 1615. A suffix of H and V will be added to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum. IE.5. Importance Factor This is the Occupancy Importance Factor.8 to 2. Once properly entered. Table values range from 0.2(1). Site Coefficient Fa Listed in Table 16.2) across the entire period range.0 to 1.

as defined in Table 9. The calculated horizontal spectrum accelerations will be divided by this value to generate the shock spectra in accordance with Equation 9.0 for most plant structures and 3.0 to 8.2.2.5. This term reflects system ductility. B31.1 Appendix II .Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-25 Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1) This is the mapped ground acceleration (the maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration) at the system location for a structure having a period of 1 second and 5% critical damping where the probability of its exceedance over 50 years is 2%. Values range from 3.5-3.5 for piping is not atypical. R. Response Modification R This is the Response Modification Coefficient.6.Rules for the Design of Safety Valve Installations.1. .5. One-second period accelerations are defined in the maps of Section 1615.1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response Spectrum Selecting this option creates a normalized force response (Dynamic Load Factor) spectrum for loads from a safety valve discharge into an open system in accordance with the non-mandatory rules of B31.

1 Appendix II. refer to Fig. Do not include a space in the spectrum name. This name would also be used as the data file name if so requested. Opening Time (milliseconds) Enter the opening time of the relief valve. Once properly entered. User Defined Time History Waveform Selecting this option creates a normalized force response (Dynamic Load Factor) spectrum based on a user-entered load vs. this name will be listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used to build Spectrum Load Cases. Do not include a space in the spectrum name.8-26 Dynamic Input and Analysis Spectrum Name This is the name for the force response spectrum that will be generated here. II-3-2 (below). Once properly entered. The spectrum is based on the curve shown in B31. this name will be listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be used with Force Sets to build Spectrum Load Cases. . This name would also be used as the data file name if so requested. Spectrum Name This is the name given to the Force Response Spectrum created from the time history load defined here. time history.

at time 0 there is no load.0 Number of Points Enter the number of frequency/dynamic load factor pairs to be generated for your data.0 (the load is normalized here) in 80 milliseconds. Table Frequency Enter the maximum frequency desired for the force response spectrum about to be generated. this load ramps up to full load of 1. This upper limit should be beyond the peak of the dynamic load factors calculated here. . the maximum table frequency will show a constant dynamic load factor of 1. the load remains constant for the next 920 msec (at the time 1000 msec) and then ramps down to zero over 250 msec. Ideally. In the following example a "trapezoid" event is defined .Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-27 Max. Enter Pulse Data Clicking this button displays a table in which the time history of the event is defined. A value of twenty is typical.

it must be located in the same directory as the piping job. the second part of the shock definition is not necessary. If the spectrum data is to be read from a file. The name of the hard disk file is the name of the shock spectrum without the symbol and without an extension. Data stored in a file can be referenced by any job run on the machine. Spectrum Definitions Spectrum Definitions Response spectrum table values can be entered directly or built and stored as a file for use by CAESAR II such as those generated through the DLF Spectrum Generator. instead. .8-28 Dynamic Input and Analysis Generate Spectrum Clicking this button will convert the time history into its equivalent force response spectrum in terms of Dynamic Load Factor versus frequency (below). The buttons on this window perform the same tasks as those defined at the start of this section.1) the statement of the name and type of data and 2) the table of actual spectrum data points. the symbol # should precede the spectrum name to indicate that the data comes from a file on the hard disk. There are two parts to the shock definition . The Spectrum Wizard also serves this purpose -providing the spectrum definitions and data points.

the force spectrum input might appear as shown below: -2134 Y 104 1 -2134 X 104 1 This demonstrates multiple components in a single pulse spectrum set. With relief valves (and other point loadings) the load is not uniformly distributed and is not proportional to the mass. Forces are grouped into like-numbered force sets when these forces occur together. A water hammer load. and location. the loading is uniform over the entire structure and proportional to the pipe’s mass. for example. is proportional to the speed of sound and the initial velocity of the fluid. These forces obviously belong in the same force set. For a skewed load. . differ from earthquake analyses in that there is no implicit definition of the load distribution. or need to be manipulated in the analysis together. For example. the table is comprised of frequency versus force multiplier data. In this case the "#" should be omitted from the spectrum declaration. (In the case above the pulse spectrum set number is 1). This information is the load magnitude. Force-Multiplier data. Its point of application is at subsequent elbow-elbow pairs. 35 is the node number. since different components of a skewed load always occur together. (The actual file only contains a table of data points. Note The data in this file may alternatively be read in directly from the Spectrum Data Points dialog box.) This will always be Frequency vs. for earthquakes. and is to be interpolated linearly. direction.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-29 Note The Spectrum Wizard automates common shock definitions. Y is the direction. Typical force set input might appear as -3400 Y 35 1 -1250 Y 35 2 where the -3400 and the -1250 are clearly the loads. Force spectrum analyses require more information than the more common earthquake simulations. This might indicate two different loading levels of one particular load. the user must tell CAESAR II the type of data which resides in the file. and the 1 and 2 are the respective load cases.The Spectrum Wizard later in this chapter. such as a relief valve loading. with linear interpolation) so a typical definition might look like #TESTFILE FREQ FORCE LIN LIN This line tells CAESAR II that there is a file containing spectrum table points on the hard disk by the name of TESTFILE. When using a file created by the DLF Spectrum Generator. Force Sets Force Sets Force spectrum analyses. for more information refer to the DLF/Spectrum Generator .

and force set number is given.8-30 Dynamic Input and Analysis Spectrum/Load Cases Spectrum Load Cases Spectrum Load Cases for force spectrum analyses are set up somewhat differently than Spectrum Load Cases for earthquake analyses. Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model Lumped masses and snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis. . direction. TESTFILE 1. The Spectrum Load Cases for force spectrum runs must link a Force Multiplier spectrum to a force set.0). Static/Dynamic Combinations This is discussed under Earthquake. More complex nuances of force spectrum load cases are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.0 Y 1 Note The direction specified on this line does not need to be the direction of the load (which is specified in the force set). scale factor (usually 1. “dependent” loadings. The complexity increases as the number of components in the load case goes beyond 1. This direction is used for labeling and designation of “independent” vs. The load case definition consists of one or more lines on which a spectrum. and as the time history phenomena being modeled deviates from true impulse type loading.

Details are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual. Particular attention should be paid to the modal summation methodology. Advanced These rarely need to be changed by the user. .Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-31 Control Parameters Control Parameters These parameters describe how the analysis is to be conducted. see the Technical Reference Manual. For more information.

subsequent steps proceed as described for Relief Loads. Means of estimating the Force-Time profile are shown in the Applications Guide. Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generation This is discussed under Relief Loads. Static/Dynamic Combinations Static/Dynamic combinations are set up as discussed under Earthquake. Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model Lumped masses and snubbers are modified in the same way as described for Modal Analysis. except the relief load synthesizer is not necessary. which is then linked to Force sets in the load cases. then turns it into a Force Multiplier spectrum. Spectrum Definitions This is done in the same way as described under Relief Loads. The user estimates a Force-Time profile.8-32 Dynamic Input and Analysis Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) Specifying the Load This method of solving water hammer or slug problems is the force spectrum method as used for relief valve loadings. Force Sets These are set up in the same way as described under Relief Loads. . Spectrum Load Cases Development of the load cases is identical to that discussed under Relief Loads.

the data must also be defined-either directly or by reading in from a file (in which case the file name must be preceded by the “#” symbol).the profile must be given a name. Specifying The Load Loadings are specified in terms of Force-Time profiles and force sets. the force set is used to define the load direction and location. the results of which are then summed to find the system results. One force-time profile should be defined for each load which hits the piping system (i. data definitions (which must be Time vs. and interpolation methods.0 (depending on how the force sets are defined). Time History Profile Definitions Profile Definitions Time history profiles are defined in a way similar to the definition of response spectra -..e. The Force-Time profile is used to define the load timing. Either the profile or the force set can be used to define the magnitude.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-33 Time History Time history analysis is used to solve the dynamic equation of motion for the extracted nodes of vibration. Force). or normalized to 1. The loading case consists of one or more force profiles which may create a staggered loading on the system. As for response spectra. The profile data may either be either be entered with actual forces. each independent point load). .

Only a single load case may be defined for Time History analyses.0. Note For Time History analysis. Note If the force-time profiles were normalized to 1. If the profiles were entered using their actual values. Static/Dynamic Combinations This is discussed under Earthquake. the maximum magnitude of the loads should be entered here. Time History Load Cases Time history load cases consist of the multiple linkages of force-time profiles to force sets. Modifying Mass and Stiffness Models Lumped masses and snubbers are modified as described for Modal Analysis. the force set values should be entered as 1.0.8-34 Dynamic Input and Analysis Force Sets Force Sets Force sets are defined as described for Relief Loads. rather than as an analytic input value. the direction entry is used only for labeling. There should be one (or more) force set for each load profile defined. as described to Relief Loads. .

Advanced These rarely need to be changed by the user. For more information see the Technical Reference Manual.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-35 Control Parameters Control Parameters These parameters define how the analyses are to be conducted. . Details are discussed in the Technical Reference Manual.

For Dynamics. harmonic. . and Time History . spectrum.modes. the next stop is normally the output review. the element and system stiffness matrices are assembled. Each of the four types of dynamic analyses are discussed below. the ESL is accessed (limited run ESLs are decremented). In this case.8-36 Dynamic Input and Analysis Error Handling and Analyzing the Job Button Check Input Performs the error check. Once the dynamic input is saved and checked. start in the same manner. and then if no errors are found. From this point the processing progresses according to the type of analysis selected. the system mass matrix is also generated. All of these analyses. Run Analysis Performing the Analysis Each of the four dynamic analysis methods . The account number is requested if accounting is activated. and load vectors are created where appropriate. Description Reviews the entries on each page and notifies the user of any errors which must be fixed. however.has their own procedure for producing results. CAESAR II follows an execution path similar to that found in Statics. performs the analysis.

Eigensolution may be cancelled at any time. The root results for each frequency. CAESAR II uses the Sturm Sequence Check to confirm that no modes were skipped. and the system deflections. CAESAR II enters the eigensolver. This choice can be made after checking deflections at pertinent nodes for those frequencies. its largest calculated deflection. The eigensolver calculates the natural frequencies and modes of vibration.) Eigensolver After calculation. If the check fails. and the phase angle associated with it are listed on the screen. the grouping of the frequencies and the cutoff settings. (Sturm Sequence Check failures are usually satisfied if the frequency cutoff is set to a value greater than the last frequency calculated. These analyses are similar to static analyses and take the same amount of time to complete. the user may either return to the dynamic input or continue with the spectral analysis. After the last frequency is calculated. The processor essentially searches for the natural frequencies. control is passed to the Dynamic Output Processor. and continues until the frequency cutoff is exceeded or the mode count reaches its limit. Each natural frequency appears on the screen as it is calculated.Chapter 8 Dynamic Input and Analysis 8-37 Modes Once dynamic initialization and the basic equation assembly is completed. Natural frequencies and mode shapes can be reviewed in text format. perhaps three in rapid succession and then one more several seconds later. The amount of time to calculate (or find) these frequencies is a function of the system size. CAESAR II performs a separate analysis. Only twenty frequencies may be carried beyond this point and into the output processor. When all frequencies are analyzed. with the analysis continuing using the mode shapes selected up to that point. Both the frequency cutoff and mode cutoff are dynamic analysis control parameters. . or the node shapes can be displayed in and animated fashion. At the completion of each solution the forcing frequency. Harmonic For each forcing frequency listed in the dynamic input. are saved for further processing. starting with the lowest. The elapsed time of the analysis is also listed with the frequency. CAESAR II presents the frequencies on the screen and allows the user to select those needed (in terms of frequency and phase angle) for further analysis. The frequencies appear to pop out in a random fashion.

the displacements and stresses are often checked for a number of points during the cycle for each excitation frequency. yielding system responses at each time step. force. there is no way of knowing beforehand just when the maximum stresses. and the user may also review the natural frequencies and animated mode shapes. Since there are only 99 cases possible for any one harmonic output processing session.8-38 Dynamic Input and Analysis Selection of Phase Angles Phased solutions are generated when damping is considered or when the user enters phase angles in the dynamic input. Users should remember that all harmonic results are amplitudes. system displacements. Each separate phase angle solution represents a point in time during one complete cycle of the system’s response. forces. The modes of vibration of the system are computed. After the natural frequencies are calculated. moment. but this is not always guaranteed. (including the cycle maxima and minima) for each excitation frequency. one load combination) with the maximum loads developed throughout the load application. The total stress range due to this particular dynamic loading would be 30400 psi.1) calculate the system’s natural frequencies. with the modal results being summed. Time History The modal time history analysis follows steps similar to a spectrum analysis. forces. Control then shifts to an output processor identical to the static output processor. can be expected to vary between +15200 psi and -15200 psi. Spectrum The spectrum analysis procedure can be broken down into three tasks . The spectral results may be examined here. 3) combine the modal responses and directional components of the shock. The user must select these points interactively when the harmonic solution ends. The output processor displays one load case (and optionally. The first part of the analysis proceeds exactly as with the modal analysis. moments. The primary difference between a solution with and without phase angles is when phase angles are entered. For this reason. The user is also presented with the option of letting CAESAR II select the frequency/phase pairs offering the largest displacements on a system basis. the user with many excitation frequencies must use the interactive selection process judiciously. moment. and stress solution for each frequency/phase selected for output. the dynamic analysis output screen appears. pull the corresponding response amplitudes from the spectrum table and calculate the system response for each mode of vibration. There also are as many “snap-shot” cases as requested by the user. mode shapes. . 2) using the system frequencies. if a harmonic stress is reported as 15200 psi. For all “phased” harmonic analyses. and stresses are calculated on the modal level and combined. the user is given a choice of selecting from 18 separate phase angle solutions. The output processor also provides the user an animated display of the harmonic results. and displacements are going to occur during the cycle. For example. In most cases the largest displacement solution will represent the largest stress solution. the dynamic equation of motion is solved through numeric integration techniques for each mode at a number of successive time steps. The displaced shapes for the remaining frequencies are then processed just like static cases with local force. and mass participation factors. There will be a complete displacement. Once all the results are collected. and stress calculations. which will be superimposed onto any steady state component of the stress. then the stress due to the dynamic load.

.. 9-17 3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor ............................ 9-5 Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File .................................................................CH AP TER 9 Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing In This Chapter Entry into the Processor. 9-18 ..... 9-2 Report Types...............................................................................................................................................

Dynamic Analysis Output There are four types of dynamic output results to process: • Harmonic results • Frequency/Modal results from a Mode-Only solution (this solution also exists if a spectrum solution was run). waterhammer. • Spectrum results. or it may be accessed anytime subsequently from the Main Menu Output options. from earthquake.9-2 Dynamic Output Processing Entry into the Processor The dynamic output processor is accessed directly following completion of the dynamic analysis. and relief valve solutions • Time History results .

For Time History analysis. or reports that are not associated with load cases. The other three solution types share the same dynamic output processor. . a screen similar to that of the static output processor appears: Dynamic Processor The left-hand column shows the load cases that were analyzed.Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-3 Harmonic results are reviewed using the static output processor. The right-hand column shows General Results. the load cases listed constitute all of the Spectrum load cases as well as all of the static/dynamic combinations. the listed loads are the “results maxima” case and each of the “snap-shot” cases for the single Time History load case and each of the static/dynamic combinations. For Spectrum analyses. The top center column shows the reports available for those load cases. After entering this processor. which is discussed in Chapter 7 (special notes on reviewing harmonic results are presented later in this chapter).

etc.9-4 Dynamic Output Processing The user can select the reports and the load cases to be viewed by highlighting one or more load cases (if necessary) and simultaneously one or more reports (reports that display in the right-hand column do not require that the report is highlighted to print). saved to file or displayed. CTRL clicking. closing Word. etc._t files. Modal/Spectrum results are stored in *. by selecting the desired reports. To move to the next report click the right-arrow button.) These reports can then be sent to a printer. and SHIFT clicking with the mouse. A table of contents. in ASCII format. The user is prompted for the desired file. one at a time. for inspection. clicking the button.) and printing features. Prints the selected reports. (Selection is done by clicking. Each report selected is presented. scale factor. This feature is activated when producing a report and enables the use of all of Word’s formatting (font selection. printed to file. Modem and spectrum results allow animation of the mode shapes. Input Allows the user to enter report titles for this group of reports Title View Load Cases Provides a summary of each dynamic load case including the spectrum name. clicking the button again. selecting the next report to be added. Users can append multiple reports to form a final report. Provides the ability to send output reports directly to Microsoft® Word . Animate View Reports Microsoft t Word . Displays the selected reports on the terminal. margin control. and node range. Save Allows the user to view animated motion. direction cosines._s files. Print Writes the selected reports to file. Users may scroll through the reports where necessary. while Time History results are stored in *. while time history analysis provides an animated simulation of the system response to the force-time profile. Specific node numbers or results can be located and highlighted with the FIND (Ctrl-F) command. Returns to the piping input processor. is displayed reflecting the cumulatively produced reports. A number of commands are available from this screen: Option File-Open Description Opens a different job for output review.

moments and stresses. Restraints This report gives the magnitude of the reactions for each load case.e. This form of dynamic output report allows us to know if there is a problem. Displacements This report gives the magnitude of the displacement for each load case. there are no load cases. For time history analysis. The direction of the displacement is indeterminate. so the center column is blank Reports associated with load cases are those associated with the spectral or time history displacement solution. The displacement report gives the maximum displacement that is anticipated due to the application of the dynamic shock. and the third line for each node tells which mode and loading was responsible for the maximum. note that all of the displacement values are positive. i. For spectral analysis. . and produced by the first X direction component (either the first support motion set for displacement response spectrum analysis or the first force set for force response spectrum analysis). and if there is. due to summing methodology. This form of the report permits easy identification of the culprit modes. reactions. there will be a tendency for the system to oscillate due to the potential energy stored after undergoing some maximum dynamic movement. The mode identification line is broken down as follows: 2 mode X load direction (1) (load component) For example. The second line for each node contains the maximum modal contribution to the load. due to mode 2. all displacement values in this report are positive.Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-5 Report Types There are two types of reports available from the dynamic output processor. There are those associated with specific load cases (the Report Options shown in the center column) and those not associated with specific load cases (the General Results in the right column). A typical entry is shown as follows: NODE 5 FX 716 649 2X(1) The first line for each node contains the maximum load that occurred at some time during the dynamic event. the values are correctly signed. forces. at node 5 the resultant dynamic load due to the shock was 716. then which mode of vibration and load component is the major contributor to the problem. Note For Modal analysis. For spectral results. The displacements printed are relative to the movement of the earth. The Report Options are displacements. The largest modal component (of the 716) was 649.

A typical restraint report follows: . If the component shows up as an (M).9-6 Dynamic Output Processing If the component shows up as a (P). this indicates that it was the missing mass contribution. then it was the pseudostatic (seismic anchor movement) contribution of the loading that resulted in the major component of the response.

Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing

9-7

Local Forces
This report gives elemental forces and moments in the element local a-b-c coordinate system. The a-b-c coordinate system is defined as follows:
This report gives elemental forces and moments in the element local a-b-c coordinate system. The a-b-c coordinate system is defined as follows: For straight pipe not connected to an intersection: “a” is along the element axis (i.e. perpendicular to the pipe cross-section) “b” is axY, unless a is vertical and then b is along X “c” is axb. For bends and elbows, and for each segment end: “a” is along the element axis (i.e. perpendicular to the pipe cross-section) “b” is to the plane of the bend “c” is axb For intersections, and for each segment framing into the intersection: “a” is along the element axis (i.e. perpendicular to the pipe cross-section) “b” is to the plane of the intersection “c” is axb

Note:

X indicates the vector cross product.

Force, moment, and stress reports are similar to restraint reports in that each has the maximum response, followed by the modal maximum, followed by the modal maximum load identifier. All force/moment reports are setup to represent the forces and moments that act on the end of the element to keep the element in equilibrium.

9-8

Dynamic Output Processing

Global Forces
This report contains information identical to that given above for local forces except that it is oriented along the global X, Y, and Z axes. A typical report follows:

Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing

9-9

Stresses
The stress report contains axial, bending, maximum octahedral, and code stresses as well as in-plane and out-of-plane stress intensification factors. These reports contain mode, and modal maximum data as well. A typical report follows:

9-10

Dynamic Output Processing

Forces/Stresses
This report is intended to be a brief summary of the forces and code stresses for a particular load case. This report contains maximum responses only, the calculated stress, and it's allowable.

Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing

9-11

Cumulative Usage
This report is available only when there are one or more Fatigue Stress types present. Only one report is generated, regardless of the number of Fatigue load cases selected. The report shows, on an element-by-element basis, the impact of each load case on the total Fatigue allowable, as well as the cumulative impact of all simultaneously selected load cases. If the total Usage Factor exceeds 1.0; this implies Fatigue failure under that loading condition.

9-12

Dynamic Output Processing

The General Results reports comprise the following and are independent of the load cases selected. They are as follows:

Mass Participation Factors
This report gives one number for each mode and load direction for each dynamic load case. This value provides the user with a “feel” for the effect the dynamic loading and the mass had on the particular mode. Neither the absolute magnitude nor its sign has any significance, only the relationship between values for a single load case is important.

Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing

9-13

Natural Frequencies
Calculated modal natural frequencies are reported in Hertz and radians per second; period is reported in seconds.

Modes Unity Normalized This report scales the largest displacement in the mode shape to 1. and this report was generated to make it easier for CAESAR II users to compare their results to other programs’ results. .0 and all other displacement values are scaled accordingly. with all other displacements and rotations scaled accordingly.9-14 Dynamic Output Processing Modes Mass Normalized A mass normalization procedure is used to compute valued magnitudes for mode shapes. This mode report is the easiest way to get a “feel” for the shape of the mode. A number of programs use this \normalization procedure. and in the second mode the largest single component is in the Z direction. The example shows two mode shapes from a small job. Users should note that in the first mode the largest single component is in the Y direction (which we would expect from the earlier participation factor report). Note Unity normalized means that the largest displacement component in the mode is set to 1.0.

and the direction cosines. .) The final column displays the % Force Added. This value gives an indication of the accuracy of the total system response captured by the dynamic model. the Shock Description. Following the % Mass Included is the % Force Active. lists the input for the piping model or for the dynamic input. Note that CAESAR II ignores rotational terms. which may be displayed or printed. and then applying the SRSS method to each of the three directions. and the percent of system mass/force included in the missing mass correction (if any) for each of the individual shocks of each of the dynamic load cases. (The sums of the three directions are added vectorally. The mass lumping report shown below is very uniform in distribution and should produce a good dynamic solution. straight runs of pipe. The mass lumping report should show a fairly uniform distribution of masses. The next item.Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-15 Included Mass Data The Included Mass Data report displays the percent of the total system mass/force included in the extracted modes. the % Mass Included. This value is computed by taking the algebraic sum in each of the global directions. Input Listing This report. Mass Model The Mass Model Report shows how CAESAR II lumped masses for the dynamic runs. with 100% being the difficult to achieve ideal. This value is obtained by taking the % Force Active and subtracting from 100. Usually these large values can be reduced by breaking down exceedingly long. and Z directions. Y. The first 3 items displayed by the report are the Load Case. shows the percentage of mass active in each of the X. Large or irregular variations in the values shown should be investigated.

and just how friction resistance was modeled.9-16 Dynamic Output Processing Boundary Conditions The Active Boundary Condition Report shows the user how CAESAR II dealt with the nonlinear restraints in the job. which gaps were assumed closed. . It shows which directional supports were included.

the user should click the File-Save button.) After closing the report. (These output files are only closed when a new output device. Sends reports to Microsoft Word™. the user should select FILE-SAVE AS. To send reports to a file rather than the printer. file or printer is defined. the user is presented with a file dialog to select the name of the file. After initial selection. a table of contents is added. To change the file name for a new report. The reports display in Microsoft Word ™ where you can access Microsoft Word’s feature set.Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-17 Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File The tabular results brought to the screen may be sent directly to a printer. Subsequent reports sent to the file during the session are appended to the file started in the session. . To print a hard copy of the reports click FILE-PRINT. All reports that are to be saved in the output file need not be declared at one time.

while time history analysis provides an animated simulation of the system response to the force-time profile. the animation processor can also be activated from each of the individual STATIC/DYNAMIC OUTPUT PROCESSORS by clicking the View Animation button. The animation options can be accessed from the CAESAR II Main Menu. allow animation of the mode shapes. Animation of any type has identical set of buttons and menu choices (similar to ones described in the Piping Input Graphics Processor) that will be described herein. The mode and spectrum results. for example. . Launching the Animation Processor causes the following dialog to display.9-18 Dynamic Output Processing 3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor The Animation module allows users to view animated motion of the system for static displacements or various dynamic movements. Any relevant differences will be described below for each corresponding animation type. by going to the OUTPUT/ANIMATION and selecting the appropriate animation type from the sub-menu choices. In addition.

0 and earlier may not display the image properly. it can be displayed in any of the defined orthographic views Front/Back. After selecting a different load case or mode shape from the drop down list. The animated plot menu displays several plot selections. Motion uses the centerline representation while Volume Motion produces the volume graphics image. isometric view. it may be sped up.HTML file is opened with Internet Explorer or other Internet browser. Static animation graphics has all the model projection and motion toolbar options described earlier. Each of the motion options causes the graphics processor to animate the current plot. One of the motion buttons should be clicked again to activate the model “movement”. Perspective or orthographic projections can also be set.Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-19 The piping model is shown in its default state (volume mode. The load case can be selected from the drop down list. There will be two files cremated an *. If the Node Numbers button is clicked.0 or later. or returned to the isometric view. The image can be printed or copied to the clipboard as necessary. this option can be accessed from the dynamic plot menu File/Save Animation.Displacements CAESAR II allows the user to view the piping system as it moves to the displaced position for the basic load cases. The frequency of the load case associated with the animation is shown at the top of the view plot whenever the Titles option (available from the Action menu) is activated. the standard Windows Save As Dialog will display prompting the user to enter the file name and directory to save the files. right-clicking the model will show the available viewing options. Zoom to Window and Zoom to Selection options are also available. zoom. slowed down. execute the Options/View Animation menu choice from the Static Output Menu. To view the saved animation. Print Motion option (available from the File menu) prints all of the vibration positions of the current mode. Note The *. such as orbit. The first time a CAESAR II created . after which the image will display. Top/Bottom. Since Internet Explorer 5.HTML is an interactive file. Node numbers can be displayed by clicking the Nodes button. Left/Right. Similar to the Input Processor Graphics. It is not available for the Time History animation. The Volume Motion option generates a printout which is often too cluttered to be useful.HTML file and double click on it within Windows Explorer. and/or different render modes. the node number text is moved together with the corresponding node.0 is no longer supported by Microsoft. COADE recommends Internet Explorer 6. Once the plot is “moving” on the screen. the model can be interactively rotated. The *. . Alternatively. Once the model appears. Note Internet Explorer 5.HSF file. For the convenience of the user. pan. or stopped using appropriate toolbar button. zoomed. Alternatively. After activating this option. For clarity purposes. the user will receive a message requesting permission to download a control from Tech Soft 3D. find the corresponding *.HTML file contains useful buttons to play or pause the animation. clicking View Animation allows the user to view graphic animation of the displacement solution. The user should answer “Yes” to allow the download. it is recommended to use the single line (Motion) option to generate the printouts.HTML file and a *. or panned. The corresponding *. The desired load case or mode shape can be selected from the corresponding drop down list. orthographic projection). Motion and Volume Motion are the commands to activate the animation. or Isometric by clicking the corresponding buttons. Save Animation to File The animated graphics can be saved to a file by clicking the Create an Animation File button. The model can also be viewed at different orthogonal planes. To animate the static results. Animation of Static Results .HSF file containing the animation routines will be displayed. the motion automatically stops. The title consists of the load case name followed by the file name and can be toggled on and off from the Action menu. By default the current file name and current data directory will be used.

controls the speed of the movement. and/or saved to an HTML file for later presentation as described above. There are several ways to animate the model using the Motion button. clicking the Next Step / Previous Step buttons. Deflected Shape. It is better to use the Deflected Shape button on the 3D/HOOPS Graphics view of the Static Output Processor toolbar. and the animation can be saved to a file as described above. or panned and can be set to different orthographic projections. Note The static animation does not have much physical meaning behind it. Occasional cases corresponding to the excitation frequencies may be selected from the drop down list. due to complexity of the time history calculations and to decrease the animation time. After invoking the Modal animation type. For more information refer to 3D/HOOPS Graphics Tutorial for Static Output Processor. The animation screen displays the same toolbar options described earlier that allow single line and volume motion as well as speed up and slow down options. forces. The system displays in its default isometric state. Animation of Dynamic Results – Modal/Spectrum This option allows the user to view the calculated modes of vibration that correspond to particular natural frequencies of the system. or using the Time Slider. and SIF information provided for the current element at a current time step. file name. This response can be animated. It is available from the Dynamic Output Processor after running the Modal analysis. the animation is only available in centerline mode. code stress. jumping to the beginning or the end of the time history animation. The Element Viewer dialog displays specific element information for a given time step. After clicking the Element Viewer button. The system displays in the centerline isometric mode. Animation of Dynamic Results – Time History The Time History animation module can be launched from the CAESAR II Dynamic Output processor by clicking View Animation. The title shows the natural frequency in Hz followed by the current file name and the date. initial SUS system sag and/or any other related loads). The model can be rotated. The title may be disabled from the Action menu. Animation of Dynamic Results – Harmonic During the harmonic analysis. Note The SAVE ANIMATION TO FILE option is not available in the time history animation for the same reason. An additional feature of the Time History animation engine is the Element Viewer. The current time history time step and the job name are shown in the title on the top of the graphics view. the Element Info dialog appears displaying the nodal displacements. Clicking the Next >> or << Previous buttons will change the information to correspond to the next or previous element in the system for the same time step. zoomed. The animation screen display the same toolbar options described earlier. CAESAR II calculates the system response to the excitation frequency. . The title shows the currently selected frequency. the system is displayed in its default state. Animated graphics for a particular mode shape (frequency) can be viewed in a single line or volume mode motion with speed control. This is just a “one-time” move produced from the CAESAR II calculated displacements (from temperature growth. moments. Animated graphics for each load case analyzed can be saved to an HTML file for later presentation. and the date. Note.9-20 Dynamic Output Processing The Static Animation processor allows viewing of the single line and volume motion. Natural frequencies can be selected from the drop down list to animate the corresponding mode shape. The Harmonics Animation module can be launched from the Harmonic Output Processor by clicking View Animation.

Dragging the Time Slider to the appropriate time step. Clicking the Next Time Step or Previous Time Step button while the Element Info dialog is active will update the dialog information for the current element for the next or previous time step.Chapter 9 Dynamic Output Processing 9-21 Clicking the Motion button will start the animation. The animation speed can be increased. and the task bar at the bottom of the animation graphics view will show the progress. the highlighted element information is updated to correspond to the current time step. decreased. the current time step will be displayed in the title line. . Clicking View Animation again after stopping the animation will continue the time history motion from the location (the time step) where the animation was stopped. or stopped by clicking the appropriate toolbar buttons. If the Element Info dialog is active. If the animation is stopped. this will advance or back space the animation one step. Clicking the Plot the First Time Step or Plot the Last Time Step button will bring the animation to the beginning or the end correspondingly. The bar’s position adjusts automatically as the animation progresses or users can click on the slider with the left mouse button and drag it along the time-line to find the desired time step or to see the model’s displaced shape.

As the animated elements move.9-22 Dynamic Output Processing Time History Animation View with Element Viewer Dialog Clicking the corresponding button can enable the node numbers however. the node numbers are redrawn for every position in the system thereby creating a blinking effect making it hard to follow the animation. it is recommended to have node numbering disabled during operation of the animation processor. .

............................................. 10-2 3D/HOOPS Graphics......... 10-31 ........... 10-11 Structural Steel Example #2 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-10 Structural Steel Example #1 .. 10-18 Structural Steel Example #3 ..................................................... 10-8 Sample Input..............CH AP TER 1 0 Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler In This Chapter Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II...........................................

10-2 Structural Steel Modeler Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II Structural Steel Frame .

and then using the Input-Structural command. The following screen appears: Input .Structural Steel Note Structural file names should be limited to eight characters (with no embedded spaces) since CAESAR II currently is unable to include long file names in piping models. . The structural file must also be located in the same directory as the piping model.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-3 Start the CAESAR II Structural Element Preprocessor from the Main Menu by first opening an existing (or new) structural file.

. <parameter #n> or <keyword>. This is a method of input most familiar to the finite element/structural analyst and probably not so familiar to the piping engineer. EDIM 5 10 DY=12-0Define vertical member from 5 to 10.. FIX 5 ALL Fixes node 5.... <key2 = n2>. <key3 = n3> For example.. <parameter #1>.. Those users not already familiar with “keyword type” input should pay particular attention to the examples... Example Input . .. <key1=n1>.. <parameter #2>. and make liberal use of the help functions ([F1]). The general input format is: <keyword>.10-4 Structural Steel Modeler Input is interactive/batch keyword. all degrees of freedom SECID = 1. .W10X49Defines properties for section #1.

BRACES. additionally the user may define any arbitrary cross sectional shapes. options. the above method of single element generation is well suited to most pipers’ needs.BIN.BIN) must be selected using the Configuration/Setup Module before starting the construction of a structural model.BIN. AUST90. . DEFAULT sets the default section and material ID.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-5 Since many structures have a considerable degree of “repeatability”. The full AISC database with over 900 cross-sectional shapes is available on a “per-member-name” basis. UK. and BEAMS. For the most part however. To delete a command highlight it and click Edit-Delete Card. Sections may be selected from a tree structure.BIN.BIN. or GERM91. The most commonly used keywords display below: EDIM Define structural element FIX UNIF Define structural anchor (ALL) or restraint Define uniform loads LOAD Define concentrated forces SECID Define cross section properties A full explanation of all keywords is included in the Technical Reference Manual. Certain commands set parameters that remain set for all further element generations. AISC89. BIN. and albeit with a little more time and effort. there are various forms. New lines may be created by selecting a keyword command from the menu or from the toolbars. and deviations of the above commands to help the user generate large structural models quickly and easily.BIN. SAFRICA. KOREAN. ANGLE sets the default element orientation. The proper database (either AISC77. and COLUMNS set the default end connection type. grouping sections by type.

After completing these steps return to the Main Menu.5000X0. To run a structural model alone: 1 After selecting a job name. and build CAESAR II Execution files if there are no errors. Displacements.5000. forces. 5 Run the Analysis Program to ensure that the most heavily loaded members still satisfy the code. Select the load cases to be analyzed. i. Several of the example problems contain free end connection specifications and should be studied for details. 2 Enter the structural steel model and its loading use File-Save to exit model building. 3 Start CAESAR II up at the analysis level. do error checking.e. or may be included in piping jobs. . Member end connection freedom is a concept used quite frequently in structural analysis that has no real parallel in piping work. and moments will be available for each structural element. enter the standard CAESAR II Output Processor. Structural models may be run alone.10-6 Structural Steel Modeler Configuration/Setup AISC names should be keyed in exactly as shown in the AISC handbook with the exception that fractions should be represented as decimals to four decimal places. 4 When the analysis level finishes. enter the Structural Input processor using INPUT-STRUCTURAL from the Main Menu. Do not use CAESAR II’s recommendations unless a weight-concentrated load case is all that is needed. the angle L6X3-1/2X1/2 would be entered: L6X3.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-7 To include a structural model (or models) in a piping job: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Enter the structural steel input processor as described above. and build the CAESAR II Execution files if there are no errors. . do error checking. except that stresses are not computed. run the entire model. Once error checking finishes without a fatal message. Perform and error check of the model. Note: A stand alone AISC Code Check Program is available to verify that forces and moments on standard structural shapes do not exceed the various allowables as defined by the American Institute of Steel Construction. Enter the structural steel model and its loading. From the Include Structural Files dialog use the Browse button to select the structural files to include in the piping job. the structural elements are included in the piping output processor as though they were pipe. After analysis. Open the Piping Input file. Use FILE-SAVE to exit model building. After the piping model has been entered to the user’s satisfaction click EnvironmentInclude Structural Files. Exit the preprocessor after all structural models have been properly included in the piping job.

refer to the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual. When using Method 1 .Element Definition EDIM (similar to defining elements in the CAESAR II Piping Input Processor). For more information and a comparison of the two methods. pan. if only NODEs (absolute coordinates of a point in space) are generated. the compass. The Structural Steel Graphics Engine can also show or hide the supports and restraints. The Structural Steel Modeler 3D Graphics Engine shares the same general capabilities as the Piping Input Processor's Graphics. It uses the same HOOPS Standard Toolbar that enables users to zoom. the corresponding graphical element displays after the EDIM command is completed. and element lengths. when ELEM is defined (to specify a single element between two points in space). The restraints may also be changed in size relative to the structural elements. anchors. node numbers. orbit. the corresponding graphical element displays. along with a graphics view that instantly reflects any changes. nothing can be shown. For example. . Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler. The geometry displays on the screen to the right when the user defines enough information. and several other options among them the ability to switch orthographic views and volume to single line mode.10-8 Structural Steel Modeler 3D/HOOPS Graphics The 3D/HOOPS Graphics Engine in the Structural Steel Modeler is mainly used to verify the model geometry for completeness and accuracy. using Method 2 Node/Element Specification Generator. An Interactive Command Generator allows user-friendly entering and updating of the element data. However.

An additional feature of the Structural Steel Modeler is its ability to flip the coordinate system. To show/hide (open/close) the Structural Steel Commands Generator. Note Loads. are not available in plot/graphics mode in the Structural Steel Modeler. . such as Uniform or Wind. the Structural Steel Modeler has a Change Display Option that enables users to change the default colors for all steel elements and restraints. it can be removed from the view or closed. either Y-up or Z-up. It may also be docked on or off the main frame. on the fly.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-9 The Structural Steel Command Generator may be resized and/or disabled to allow the graphics to fill the entire viewing area. All relevant user-entered data is also modified to comply with the newly selected coordinate system. Just as the Piping Input Graphics does. For more information refer to the discussion in the Piping Input 3D Graphics Processor. Once docked off. click VIEW-INPUT.

10-10 Structural Steel Modeler Sample Input This section contains three Structural Steel Examples. This is without question the best way to become familiar with the structural capability in CAESAR II. These examples are presented so that the user can enter them into the computer from the listed input. .

F z= 1350. Structural Steel Example #1 A U-bolt pins the pipe to the top of the channel at node 20. F y= -1975. Use the estimated “rigid support” piping loads from the piping analysis to back calculate each stiffness. The piping loads output from the pipe stress program are: F x= -39.0 lbs. .0 lbs.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-11 Structural Steel Example #1 Determine the stiffness of the structural steel support shown below.0 lbs.

10-12 Structural Steel Modeler Select FILE-NEW from the CAESAR II Main Menu. click the Structural Input radio button and enter a job name (for example SUPP).Structural Steel . Then enter the CAESAR II Structural Steel Processor by selecting option Input-Structural from the CAESAR II Main Menu. ready to define the units. This brings up the blank data entry screen. Input .

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-13 At this time the user enters the keywords and parameters that define the model input. Input for the example is as follows: .

10-14 Structural Steel Modeler .

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-15 .

DEFINE ELEMENTS . for a full explanation of keywords refer to the Technical Reference Manual.FIL MATID 1 30E6 .DEFINE CROSS SECTIONS Input Structural Steel .TRY A PLOT HERE LOAD 20 FX=-39 FY=-1975 FZ=1350 .283 . SECID.5000 EDIM 5 10 DY=144. EDIM.10-16 Structural Steel Modeler The UNIT.6E6 36000.800 SECID 3 L6X4X0.SPECIFY MATERIAL SECID 1 W16X26 SECID 2 MC8X22. MATID.3 11.SPECIFY LOADS .Sample .SPECIFY SUPPORTS . 0. FIX. and LOAD structural element keywords display in the example below. SECID=1 EDIM 15 20 DZ=70 SECID=2 EDIM 20 25 DZ=20 SECID=2 EDIM 25 10 DZ=-90 DY=-72 SECID=3 FIX 5 ALL . UNIT ENGLISH. SECID=1 EDIM 10 15 DY=72.

63 in.88 in. = 4.88 in.. the Analysis-Static menu option should be chosen. The desired results from the analysis of SUPP are the displacements at node 20 of: x y z = = = -9./in. 0.0 lb. = 1534. / 0. These displacements are excessive for a support which is to be assumed rigid in another analysis.05 lb. and moments. the CAESAR II Execution files are written.44 in.63 in. / 9. At this time the input is checked. Note: Don't forget to include F1 in the SUS load case. (For the purposes of this example the model will be analyzed by itself.0 lb. When this is done.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-17 The model can be checked and saved with the File-Save command. Ky = 1975. From this point. / 0. The translational stiffness for the support can be computed as follows: Kx = 39. and the model may be used in a piping analysis or analyzed by itself.) When error checking has completed successfully. -0./in.44 in. Output from a structural analysis is comprised of displacements. the user is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu. forces. Kz = 1350. and if no fatal errors are found. .64 lb.0 lb. = 4488./in .09 lb. structural steel analysis is performed just like a piping analysis.

lb. Mtorsion = 10000 ft. = 1500 lb.10-18 Structural Steel Modeler Structural Steel Example #2 A support must be designed to limit the loads on the waste heat boiler’s flue gas nozzle connection. Check the piping and structure shown in the following four figures: Structural Steel Example #2 . lb. The maximum allowable loads on the nozzle are: Fshear = Mbending = 500 lb. Faxial 5000 ft.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-19 Piping Dimensions .

10-20 Structural Steel Modeler Structure Nodes .

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-21 Structure Dimensions .

The structural input screen appears: Input .Structural Steel .10-22 Structural Steel Modeler Select a job name (for example SUPP2) and enter the structural input processor as described earlier.

608.DEFINE MATERIALS ANGLE=90 EDIM 230 235 DY=10EDIM 235 220 DY=13-10 EDIM 200 205 DY=10EDIM 205 210 DY=13-10 EDIM 245 250 DX=8.COLUMN ORIENTATION .DY=10EDIM 250 220 DX=11. then the CAESAR II Execution files are written.3 G=11.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-23 At this time the user enters the keywords and parameters (using menu options and/or toolbars) that defines the model input.392.THE FINAL SET OF HORIZONTAL BEAMS ALONG THE X AXIS HAVE A STANDARD . If no fatal errors are found.FIL SECID 1 W24X104 SECID 2 W18X50 MATID 1 YM=29E6 POIS=0.608EDIM 255 205 DX=11.DY=13-10 DEFAULT SECID=2.STRONG AXIS ORIENTATION ANGLE=0. SECID.ANCHOR THE BASE NODES FIX 245 ALL FIX 260 ALL FIX 230 ALL FIX 200 ALL At any time during input the user can generate plots of the model by executing OPERATIONS-PLOT. Once the user is satisfied that the model is correct. exiting with File-Save command checks and saves the model. for a full explanation of keywords refer to the Technical Reference Manual.SLOPED COLUMNS . and adds them to the file using the Edit-Add command. The model may now be used in a piping analyses or analyzed by itself.5EDIM 240 205 DZ=-2.VERTICAL COLUMNS .283 .0 EDIM 250 235 DX=11.5EDIM 220 215 DZ=-2.DEFINE SECTIONS . and LOAD structural element keywords display in the example below.608.DY=13-10 EDIM 255 210 DX=11.392.) SECTION . FIX.5EDIM 250 255 DZ=-5. Input for the example is as follows: UNIT ENGLISH.MAKE BEAMS DEFAULT EDIM 235 240 DZ=-2. (For the purposes of this example the model will be analyzed with a piping model.6E6 DENS=0. MATID.5EDIM 215 210 DZ= -2.DY=10EDIM 260 255 DX=8. EDIM. The UNIT.608.

The input for this job is shown below: . The user should change the jobname to the name of the piping input filename (PIPE2 for this example) and enter the input for the piping system to be analyzed.10-24 Structural Steel Modeler When error checking has completed successfully. the user is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-25 .

Define the connectivity between pipe and structural nodes using restraints with connecting nodes. For the example problem. the node 115 in the pipe model should be tied to node 215 in the structural model in the X and Z directions similarly. Enter the name of the structural steel model to be included (SUPP2). These connecting nodes may be defined from the piping spreadsheet on any convenient element.10-26 Structural Steel Modeler To connect the pipe to the structure. Auxiliary field input for these two connections is shown as follows: Restraint Auxiliary Data . by typing or browsing for it. From the Input Spreadsheet select the Kaux-Include Structural Files Menu option. node 120 in the pipe model should be tied to node 240 in the structural model. follow these procedures: 1 2 3 The user must tell CAESAR II the name of the structural steel file to include. The Include Structural Files Dialog appears.

The CONNECT_GEOMETRY_THRU_CNODES directive was not set to YES in the Configuration/Setup module.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-27 If the pipe and structure do not plot properly relative to one-another then either: a) b) The connecting nodes were not defined correctly. The properly plotted pipe and structure is shown below: Structural Steel Example #2 Plot .

. the piping input processor can be exited and error checking performed. The execution files that are written also include the structural data. In the output the pipe and structure are also plotted together and can only be separated via the plot RANGE command.10-28 Structural Steel Modeler Once the pipe and structure are properly plotted relative to one-another. The error checker includes the pipe and structure together during checking.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-29 The loads on the anchor at 5 are grossly excessive. Some displaced shape plots from the analysis are shown in the next figure: Plot Showing Displacement . The structural steel frame and pipe support structure as shown are not satisfactory.

Plot Showing Displacement Using the RANGE command the structure is plotted without the pipe. displacement of the structure is small relative to the displacement of the pipe. These displacements will only result in higher loads on the boiler nozzle. i.e. along with a repositioning of the structural supports vertically. The vertical location of the structural supports should be studied more closely. The pipe is thermally expanding out away from the boiler nozzle and down. the support at 120 should be moved down so that its line of action in the X direction more closely coincides with the center line of the pipe between 25 and 40. . away from the boiler nozzle. Perhaps vertical springs at 30 and 35 would help. The displaced shape of the structure shows that the pipe is pulling the structure in the positive X direction at the top support and pushing the structure in the negative X direction at the bottom support.10-30 Structural Steel Modeler In this example.

only the on-diagonal. the stiffness of a threedimensional structure. and Z stiffness of the structure at the point 1000. (Note that.) Structural Steel Example #3 . translational stiffnesses are often estimated. Y.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-31 Structural Steel Example #3 Estimate the X. must be represented by a 6 6 stiffness matrix. as is being done here. As a first estimate. in general. condensed down to the stiffness of a single point.

10-32 Structural Steel Modeler Select a job name (for example SUPP3) and enter the structural input processor as described earlier. At this time the user enters the keywords and parameters (using menu commands and/or toolbars) that define the model input. The structural input screen appears. Input for the example is shown below: Example Input .

Elements and Properties . Also the free-end-connection lists show that the specification entered for the beams produced the desired results. Once the user is satisfied that the model has been entered properly. then the CAESAR II execution files are written. If no fatal errors are found. Of particular interest in this model is the element orientation data that shows that the columns strong axis was indeed rotated 90 degrees.) The structural input processor generates a number of lists to be used for documentation and checking.Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-33 At any time during input the user can generate plots of the model executing Operations-Plot. the model can be checked and saved with the File-Save command. Click the List Options tab for various list types. The model may now be used in a piping analysis or analyzed by itself. (For the purposes of this example the model will be analyzed by itself.

10-34 Structural Steel Modeler Nodal Fixities .

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-35 Nodal Loads .

10-36 Structural Steel Modeler Element Material Data .

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-37 Element Geometry Data .

10-38 Structural Steel Modeler Element of Orientation Data .

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-39 .

When this is done the Analysis-Static menu option should be selected. the user is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu. Output from a structural analysis is comprised of displacements. even though the Z dimension is greater due to the orientation of the columns. and moments. This is because the transfer of the load to the beams in this model is due to rotations at the column ends. forces.) The 1000 end of the elements from 20-1000 and from 40-1000 carries a moment because it is not a pinned end connection. . and not translations. 1000 is just a point at midspan for the application of the load. The Force/Moment report is particularly interesting given that all of the beams have pinned ends. From this point structural steel analysis is performed just like a piping analysis. The displacement and force report for the (Force Only) load case follows. (Cross-braces would eliminate this problem and cause the beams to pick up more of the load.10-40 Structural Steel Modeler When error checking has completed successfully. Note that the structure is stiffer in the X direction. Note that most of the beams carry no load. The user should change the current jobname to that of the structural filename.

Chapter 10 Structural Steel Modeler 10-41 .

10-42 Structural Steel Modeler .

... 11-12 .............................................................. 11-9 Recommended Procedures.............. 11-11 Original Unburied Model .................................................................................................................................................................... 11-3 Notes on the Soil Model ................... 11-2 Using the Underground Pipe Modeler .................................................CH AP TER 1 1 Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling In This Chapter CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler .........

CAESAR II uses a zone concept to break down straight and curved sections. or in conjunction with CAESAR II’s automatically generated soil stiffnesses. Breaks down straight and curved lengths of pipe to locate soil restraints. Where transverse bearing is a concern (near bends. and entry/exit points). . Input parameters include axial. The Modeler contains the equations for buried pipe stiffnesses that are outlined later in this chapter. These equations are used to calculate first the stiffnesses on a per length of pipe basis. tees. transverse. and then generate the restraints that simulate the discrete buried pipe restraint. To achieve this objective the Modeler performs the following functions for users: Allows the direct input of soil properties. Allows the direct input of user-defined soil stiffnesses on a per length of pipe basis.11-2 Buried Pipe Modeling CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler The CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler is designed to simplify user input of buried pipe data. soil restraints are spaced far apart. and downward stiffnesses. as well as ultimate loads. Users can specify user-defined stiffnesses separately. soil restraints are located in close proximity and where axial load dominates. upward.

This second input file typically contains a much larger number of elements and restraints than the first job. is overwritten by the successful generation of a buried pipe model. and then choosing Input-Underground from the CAESAR II Main Menu. The modeler removes any restraints in the buried section during the process of creating the buried model. It is the buried job that is eventually run to compute displacements and stresses. From this basic input CAESAR II creates a second input data file that contains the buried pipe model. Any additional restraints can be entered in the resulting buried model. if it exists. The buried job. When the Buried Pipe Modeler is initially started. CAESAR II names the buried job by appending a “B” to the name of the original job. the following screen appears: . The second file that contains the element mesh refinement and the buried pipe restraints is termed the buried job. Note The original job must already exist and serves as the pattern for the buried pipe model building.Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-3 Using the Underground Pipe Modeler Users can start the Buried Pipe Modeler by selecting an existing job. The first job that serves as the “pattern” is termed the original job. The Modeler is designed to read a standard CAESAR II Input Data File that describes the basic layout of the piping system as if it was not buried.

. where Do is the outside diameter of the piping. either many. • allows the input of user-defined soil stiffnesses Typical buried pipe displacements are considerably different than similar above ground displacements. starting at 1. The length over which the pipe deflects laterally is termed the “lateral bearing length” and can be calculated by the equation: Lb = 0. low stiffness supports are added or a few. (defined later) CAESAR II places three elements in the vicinity of this bearing span to properly model the local load distribution. So for a given stiffness per unit length.25 Where: E = Pipe modulus of elasticity I = Pipe moment of inertia Ktr = Transverse soil stiffness on a per length basis. • allows users to define mesh spacing at specific element ends. and how CAESAR II views this “element breakdown” or “mesh distribution” is illustrated on the following page. The axial displacement lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 3 lengths. Where the deformation is “lateral”. The optimal size of an element (i. CAESAR II or the user. and progressing in equal increments to the last which is 50*Do long at the Zone 3 end.e. In areas far removed from bends and tees the deformation is primarily axial.11-4 Buried Pipe Modeling This spreadsheet is used to enter the buried element descriptions for the job. must locate additional point supports along a line to simulate this continuous support. the distance between a single FROM and a TO node) is very dependent on which of these deformation patterns is to be modeled Not having a continuous support model. closely spaced.5 times the length of a Zone 1 element at its Zone 1 end.75( ) [4EI/Ktr] 0. distant and high stiffness supports are added. Zone 3 element lengths (to properly transmit axial loads) are computed by 100*Do. and the intermediate lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 2 lengths. Buried pipe deforms laterally in areas immediately adjacent to changes in directions (i. The Zone 2 mesh is comprised of up to 4 elements of increasing length. smaller elements are needed to properly distribute the forces from the pipe to the soil. The bearing span lengths in a piping system are called the Zone 1 lengths.e. bends and tees). A typical piping system. The buried element description spreadsheet serves several functions: • allows users to define which part of the piping system is buried.

Note It is the user’s responsibility to tell CAESAR II where the other Zone 1 areas are located in the piping system.Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-5 Zone Definitions A critical part of the modeling of an underground piping system is the proper definition of Zone 1 (or lateral) bearing regions. . These regions primarily occur: • On either side of a change in direction • For all pipes framing into an intersection • At points where the pipe enters or leaves the soil CAESAR II automatically puts a Zone 1 mesh gradient at each side of the pipe framing into an elbow.

11-6 Buried Pipe Modeling The left side of the Buried Element Description Spreadsheet displays below: Buried Element Description Spreadsheet There are 13 columns in this spreadsheet The eight not shown above carry the user-defined soil stiffnesses and ultimate loads. The first two columns contain element node numbers for each piping element included in the original system. The second three columns are discussed in detail below: .

A 1 in this column implies that the user wishes to enter user defined stiffnesses. on a per length of pipe basis. The figure below is illustrative: Lateral Bearing Mesh Definitions . For example: FROM NODE 5 TO NODE 10 SOIL 2 FROM TO MODEL MESH MESH The element 5 to 10 is buried. column points to a CAESAR II soil restraint model generated using the equations outlined later under Soil Models from user entered soil data. at this point in the model. and the node 5 end will have a fine mesh so that lateral bearing will be properly modeled. CAESAR II will generate the soil stiffnesses from user-defined soil dataset #2.Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-7 Soil Model No. Since CAESAR II automatically places lateral bearing meshes adjacent to all buried elbows. A nonzero entry in this column implies that the associated element is buried. Any number greater than 1 in the SOIL MODEL NO. These stiffnesses must follow in column numbers 6 through 13. the user must only be concerned with the identification of buried tees and points of soil entry or exit. From/ To End Mesh Type—A check in either of these columns implies that a lateral loading mesh should be placed at the corresponding element end.—This column is used to define which of the elements in the model are buried.

Print Allows the user to specify soil data for CAESAR II to use in generating one or more soil restraint systems. 110 and 130. Description Soil Models Convert . File Open File-Change Buried Pipe Job Name Renames the buried job (in the event that the user does not wish to use the CAESAR II default of “B” appended to the original job name). and places restraints on the elements in these zones accordingly. From/To Lateral Bearing mesh specifications are not needed for nodes 30. Converts the original job into the buried job by meshing the existing elements and adding soil restraints. since CAESAR II places lateral bearing meshes on each side of a bend by default. All densities on buried pipe elements are zeroed. The conversion process creates all of the necessary elements to satisfy the Zone 1. which details the process in full. CAESAR II checks before using a node number to make sure that it will be unique in the model. and Zone 3 requirements. Prints the element description data spreadsheet. Commands available in this module are: Button Opens a new piping file as the original job.11-8 Buried Pipe Modeling Please note the following: The user has separated the node numbers in the original piping system by 10’s or 20’s instead of the usual 5. Node numbers are generated by adding “1” to the element’s FROM node number. Zone 2. The tendency for lateral deflection must be defined for each element framing into an intersection (node 50). This is so that CAESAR II can maintain the sequence of node numbers for the added moves. All elbows are broken down into at least two curved sections. A lateral bearing mesh is not needed at 90 because there is no tendency for the model to deflect in any direction NOT axial to the pipe. to simulate the continuous support of the pipe weight. and very long radius elbows are broken down into segments whose lengths are not longer than the elements in the immediately adjacent Zone 1 pipe section. A conversion log is also generated. This is described in detail below. File.

If entered the thermal strain is used to compute and print the theoretical “virtual anchor length. Upon entry. once the ultimate load on the soil is reached there is no further increase in load even though the displacement may continue. Typically for clays the friction coefficient would be left blank and would be automatically estimated by CAESAR II as Su/600 psf. this differentiation is often not warranted. Peng in his paper entitled “Stress Analysis Methods for Underground Pipelines. COADE’s soil restraint modeling algorithm is generally based on the ideas presented by L. i. Soil model number 1 is reserved for user-defined soil stiffnesses. Button Description The user enters soil data by executing the Soil Models Command. upward. (The TEMPERATURE CHANGE is optional.) Once the axial and lateral ultimate loads are known.”) These equations are: Axial Ultimate Load (Fax) Fax = µD[ (2 sH) + ( p t) + ( f )(D/4) ] . (Many researchers differentiate between horizontal. Researchers have found that the yield displacement is related to both the buried depth and the pipe diameter. the soil modeler dialog appears. The soil restraint equations use these soil properties to generate restraint ultimate loads and stiffnesses. Up to 15 different soil models may be entered for a single job.e. The yield stiffness is typically set close to zero. The ultimate loads and stiffnesses computed are on a force per unit length of pipe basis.C. and downward transverse loads. Either the friction coefficient or the undrained shear strength may be left blank.Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-9 Notes on the Soil Model The following procedures for estimating soil distributed stiffnesses and ultimate loads should be used only when the analyst does not have better data or methods suited to the particular site and problem. the stiffness in these directions can be determined by dividing the ultimate load by the yield displacement. Note Valid soil model numbers start with 2. and a yield stiffness. This option allows the user to specify the soil properties for the CAESAR II Buried Pipe Equations. but when the variance in predicted soil properties and methods are considered. an ultimate load.” published in 1978 in Pipeline Industry. Note that CAESAR II allows the explicit entry of these data if so desired. The two basic ultimate loads that must be calculated to analyze buried pipe are the axial and transverse ultimate loads. Both sandy soils and clay-like soils may be defined here. Soil supports are modeled as bi-linear springs having an initial stiffness.

e. Backfill efficiency can be approximated by the Proctor Number. This result should then be used as the compaction multiplier. Many experienced pipeline engineers do not wish to add this "extra conservatism. typical values are: 27-45 for sand 26-35 for silt 0 for clay OCM = Overburden Compaction Multiplier If Su is given (i. the soil data is saved in a file entitled . (The Proctor Number is a ratio of unit weights. Axial Stiffness (Kax) on a per length of pipe basis: Kax=Fax / yd Transverse Stiffness (Ktr) on a per length of pipe basis: Ktr=Ftr / yd Once the user clicks OK.11-10 Buried Pipe Modeling Where: µB= Friction coefficient.015. Ftr is multiplied by the OCM as well. have a clay-like soil).) The standard practice when the Proctor Number is known is to multiply the default value 8 by the Proctor Number. To do this. Yield Displacement (yd): yd = Yield Displacement Factor x (H+D) Note The Yield Displacement Factor defaults to 0. Note that since in many cases the stiffer the soil." and prefer to use values that are more in line with those that have been used in the past. defined in most soils textbooks. depending on the degree of compaction of the backfill. then Ftr as calculated above is multiplied by Su/250 psf.6 for clay or Su/600 Su = Undrained shear strength D = s Pipe diameter Soil density Buried depth to the top of pipe Pipe density Pipe nominal wall thickness Fluid density = = = = = H p t rf Transverse Ultimate Load (Ftr) Where: B= Angle of internal friction.5 for sand . typical values are: . the more conservative the results.6 for gravel . Common practice has been to reduce it (from its default of 8) to values from 5 to 7.4 for silt .SOI. the OCM is the parameter that is usually adjusted. .

The modeler will remove any existing restraints (in the buried portion). and will serve as the basis for the new buried pipe model. 2 3 4 5 A fairly simple buried-pipe example problem is shown in the following section. From here the user may perform the analysis of the buried pipe job. The original job must already exist. This example illustrates the features of the modeler and should in no-way be taken as a guide for recommended underground piping design. Add any underground restraints to the buried model.Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-11 Recommended Procedures The recommended procedure for using the buried pipe modeler is outlined below: 1 Select the original job and enter the buried pipe modeler. Convert the original model into the buried model by clicking Convert Input. Rename the buried job if CAESAR II default name is not appropriate. Enter the soil data using Soil Models. and define any required fine mesh areas using the buried element data spreadsheet. Exit the Buried Pipe Modeler and return to the CAESAR II Main Menu. . Describe the sections of the piping system that are buried. This step produces a detailed description of the conversion. The original model should only contain the basic geometry of the piping system to be buried.

11-12 Buried Pipe Modeling Original Unburied Model The following input listing represents the unburied model shown above. .

. Soil Model Number 2.Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling 11-13 Terminal nodes 100 and 1900 are above ground. is entered. a sandy soil. Nodes 1250 and 1650 (on the sloped runs) mark the soil entry and exit points.

. Zone 1 meshing is indicated at the entry and exit points.11-14 Buried Pipe Modeling Elements 1250-1300 through 1600-1650 are buried using soil model number 2.

Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling

11-15

Clicking Convert starts the conversion to a buried model.

11-16

Buried Pipe Modeling

The screen listing can also be printed.

Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling

11-17

The original unburied model is shown along with the "buried" model below. Note the added restraints around the elbows and along the straight runs.

11-18

Buried Pipe Modeling

Note the bi-linear restraints added to the buried model. The stiffness used is based upon the distance to the next node.

Chapter 11 Buried Pipe Modeling

11-19

Note that the first buried element, 1250-1251, has no density.

The buried job can now be analyzed.

CH AP TER

1 2

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance In This Chapter
Intersection Stress Intensification Factors ............................................... 12-3 Bend Stress Intensification Factors.......................................................... 12-6 WRC 107 Vessel Stresses........................................................................ 12-10 WRC Bulletin 297 ................................................................................... 12-17 Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations ........................................................ 12-20 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines, B31G.................................. 12-28 Expansion Joint Rating ............................................................................ 12-32 Structural Steel Checks - AISC ............................................................... 12-39 NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) .............................................................. 12-47 API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) .................................................................. 12-54 API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) ........................................................ 12-60 API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) .................................................. 12-62 Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters........... 12-67 API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) .......................... 12-68

The CAESAR II Equipment and Component Compliance Analytical Modules are executed from the CAESAR II Main Menu using the Analysis Menu. Vessels, flanges, turbines, compressors, pumps and heat exchangers can be checked for excessive piping loads in accordance with appropriate standards. Input is via tabbed spreadsheets, and help screens are available for each data cell (launched with [F1] or the ? key). Output reports can be sent to the printer, terminal or files. Often suction (inlet), discharge (exhaust), and extraction lines are analyzed for forces and moments in separate runs of a pipe stress program. Once all of the loadings for a particular piece of equipment are computed, the equipment program is executed to determine if these loads are acceptable in accordance with the governing code. The user enters the equipment’s basic geometry and the loads on its nozzles computed from the piping program. The equipment analysis determines if these loads are excessive. One convenient feature of the CAESAR II Equipment programs is that nozzles on equipment can be analyzed separately. Often times a user will only have suction side loads, and often the particular dimensions of the pump are unknown, or are difficult to obtain. In these cases, CAESAR II accepts zeros or “no-entries” for the unknown data and will still generate a “single-nozzle” equipment check report. Therefore, while overall compliance may not be evaluated, the user can still check the individual nozzle limits. This is a valuable tool to have, as in this case the user is looking more for load guidance, rather than for some fixed or precise limit on allowables.

12-2 Equipment Component and Compliance Analysis Menu All of these program modules share the same interface for easy transition. The individual modules are described following section. .

intersection stress intensification factors (SIFs) can be computed for any of the three-pipe type intersections available in CAESAR II: Intersection Types .Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-3 Intersection Stress Intensification Factors With this module.

Intersection Stress Intensification Factors .12-4 Equipment Component and Compliance A sample input spreadsheet is shown below.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-5 Stress intensification factors are reported for a range of different configuration values.Report . Intersection Stress Intensification Factors .

12-6 Equipment Component and Compliance Bend Stress Intensification Factors This module provides a scratch pad for determining stress intensification factors (SIFs) for various bend configurations under different codes. Budlong and Albano. 129. These calculations are done exactly according to the piping code being used. Pipe bends with a trunnion attachment. The bend stress intensification factor input spreadsheet is shown below: Bend Stress Intensification Spreadsheet . Bend stress intensification factors can be computed for Pipe bends without any additional attachments. in the PVP Vol.” by Hankinson. 1987. These calculations are done exactly according to the piping code being used. These calculations are taken from the paper “Stress Indices for Piping Elbows with Trunnion Attachments for Moment and Axial Loads. Mitered pipe bends.

the help screens should be queried.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-7 Input here is fairly straight forward.Trunnion . Bend Stress Intensification Factors . For example. if there is a question about a particular data entry. In most cases data that does not apply is left blank. the three trunnion related input fields should be left blank. to review the SIFs for a bend that does not have a trunnion.

8 . It is the ovalization that provides for a large amount of the bend’s flexibility. Including pressure stiffening where it is not included by default will draw more of the system moment to the nozzle adjacent to the bend. but is most commonly left to the default condition. Bends with Trunnions There are certain limits that must be satisfied before SIFs can be calculated on trunnions. These limits come directly from the paper by Hankinson.12-8 Equipment Component and Compliance Pressure Stiffening The pressure stiffening option in the input is provided so the user can see the effect that pressure stiffening has on the bend’s flexibility factor and stress intensification factor. This option is controlled by the user in CAESAR II via the setup file. and they are: t/T D/T d/D Where: t = Wall Thickness of the Trunnion T = Wall Thickness of the Bend d = Outside Diameter of the Trunnion D = Outside Diameter of the Bend 0. Budlong and Albano. Pressure stiffening has its most significant effect in larger diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment (compressors). Flanges Attached to Bend Ends This is essentially the number of rigid fittings that are attached to the end of the bend preventing the ovalization of the bend. BS-806 (The British Power Piping Code) recommends that flanges or valves (or any rigid cross-sectional fitting) that are within two diameters of the ending weldpoint of the bend be considered as being attached to the end of the bend for this calculation.0 60 0.3 and and and t/T D/T d/D 2.2 20 0. The default is different for each piping code because some of the codes mention pressure stiffening explicitly and some do not.

7 or 2. where (t) is the characteristic thickness of the part. That relationship has long been taken to be (m)(i) = (C2)(K2) Where: m i C2 K2 = = = = multiplier. Note If the user enters a trunnion (where there will be a weld between the trunnion and the elbow). Peak stresses typically only exist in a very small volume of material. and the B31 code “i” factor (or stress intensification factor).Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-9 Stress Concentrations and Intensification The stress intensification calculation for bends with trunnions is based on the relationship between the ASME NB stress indices C2. and where no transition radius is provided the peak stress index approaches values of 2. usually either 1. sockets. B31 stress intensification factor ASME NB secondary stress index ASME NB peak stress index The peak stress index (K2) is commonly known as the “stress concentration factor. at an intersection or an elbow) and the nominal local computed stress at the same point. gross imperfections or other anomalies.0. on the order of fractions of the wall thickness of the part.e. and does not enter a stress concentration factor (the third input for the trunnion). At unfinished welds. this factor is the ratio of the highest point stress at an intensification (i. K2. . CAESAR II assumes a stress concentration factor of 2. Simply put.0. Because most piping components are formed without crude notches.” and is so-called in CAESAR II. the peak stress index is kept well in control. the peak stress index is typically taken as 1.0. Where a smooth transition radius is provided which is at least t/2.

along negative ML axis. 2. Cylindrical Shells : 1. 3. C—Position on vessel at junction. 3. means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction. ! : ! : u—upper. along positive MC axis. 2. C—Position on vessel at junction. P-axis: Along Nozzle centerline and positive entering vessel. M1-axis: Perpendicular to nozzle centerline along convenient global axis. WRC 107 Bulletin provides an analytical tool to evaluate the vessel stresses in the immediate vicinity of a nozzle. and report the stresses in the longitudinal and circumferential axes of the vessel/nozzle intersection. B—Position on vessel at junction." WRC Axes Orientation . along negative MC axis. A—Position on vessel at junction. l—lower. along negative M1 axis. means stress on outside of vessel wall at junction. and in the same direction as the bending axis "ML. D—Position on vessel at junction. M2-axis: Cross P-axis into M1 axis and the result is M2-axis. A—Position on vessel at junction. P-axis: Along Nozzle centerline and positive entering vessel. the default is set by the user in the ConfigureSetup option. means stress on inside of vessel at junction. B—Position on vessel at junction. Spherical Shells : 1. M2-axis: Cross the P-axis with MC axis and result is ML-axis. l—lower. The convention adopted by WRC 107 to define the applicable orientations of the applied loads and stresses for both spherical and cylindrical vessels are shown in the figure below. means stress on inside of vessel at junction. Note: Shear axis "VC" is parallel. D—Position on vessel at junction. There are three editions of WRC 107 available from the program. This method can be used to compute the stresses at both the inner and outer surfaces of the vessel wall.12-10 Equipment Component and Compliance WRC 107 Vessel Stresses The Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 (WRC 107) has been used extensively since 1965 by design engineers to estimate local stresses in vessel/attachment junctions. along positive M2 axis. u—upper. along negative M2 axis." Shear axis "VL" is parallel. MC-axis: Along vessel centerline and positive to correspond with any parallel global axis. along positive ML axis. and in the opposite direction as the bending axis "MC. along positive M2 axis.

These vary according to the attachment and vessel types. WRC 107 can be activated by selecting ANALYSIS . subjected to the same nozzle loading. if any. WRC 107 should probably not be used when the nozzle is very light or when the parameters in the WRC 107 data curves are unreasonably exceeded. the curve abscissa.WRC 107/297 from the Main Menu. The stress state in the vessel wall when the nozzle has a reinforcing pad can be estimated by considering a solid plug. The user may be prompted to enter a job name. then the calculated stresses may not be reliable. and the values retrieved. The user is referred to the WRC 107 bulletin directory for this information.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-11 It has also been a common practice to use WRC 107 to conservatively estimate vessel shell stress state at the edge of a reinforcing pad. and then the following data entry screen appears: Analysis . Output from the WRC 107 program includes the figure numbers for the curves accessed. if parameters for a particular problem are always near or past the end of the figures curve data.WRC 107 . the user should always make sure that the geometric restrictions limiting the application of WRC 107 are not exceeded. The user is urged to check these outputs against the actual curve in WRC 107 to get a “feel” for the accuracy of the stresses calculated.D. with an outside diameter equal to the O. of the reinforcing pad. Before attempting to use WRC 107 to evaluate the stress state of any nozzle/vessel junction. For example.

display in red. the second and third sheets collect the vessel and the nozzle (attachment) geometry data. respectively. Any allowable values entered manually or modified by the user. Vessel Data .12-12 Equipment Component and Compliance The input data is accumulated by the processor in four spreadsheets. Division 2 can be entered manually or updated from the Material Database by providing the Material Name and Operating Temperature in the corresponding fields. From the Vessel Data tab click the WRC 107 radio button. The WRC 107 Version/Year and Use Interactive Control checkboxes can also be enabled from this spreadsheet. The Hot and Cold Allowable Stress Intensities of the vessel as defined per ASME VII. The first sheet displays the title block.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-13 Nozzle Data .

To enter loads in WRC 107 convention. the WRC 107 analysis may be initiated through the Analyze-WRC 107/297 menu option or by clicking the Local Stress Analysis button on the toolbar. . you may do so by changing the WRC 107 default from “USE LAST CURVE VALUE” to “INTERACTIVE CONTROL” on the Computation Control tab located inside the Configure-Setup module of the Main Menu or directly in the WRC 107 input file. on the Vessel Data tab. i. The loads convention may be freely converted from global to local and back provided the direction cosines are present. click the WRC 107 radio button. Note.12-14 Equipment Component and Compliance The nozzle loading is specified on the last spreadsheet. Div. the vessel and nozzle centerline direction cosines must be present. etc. however.. which include sustained. some extrapolation of the WRC method must be used. so the loads may be input in either the Global CAESAR II convention. should any of the interpolation parameters.. CAESAR II will automatically performs the ASME Section VIII. fall outside the limits of the available curves. button. or in the Local WRC 107 coordinate system. The WRC 107 specific local input coordinate system has been incorporated into the program. 2 summation. These loads are found in the CAESAR II Output Restraint Load Summary under the corresponding load cases or may be extracted from the static output files automatically by clicking the Get From Output. If one wishes to control the extrapolation methodology interactively. Beta. If the Global CAESAR II convention is used. The current default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table.e. Nozzle Loads (SUS) Nozzle curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping. After entering all data. according to specific load cases. the positive direction is the Nozzle centerline vector pointing from the nozzle connection towards the vessel centerline. expansion and occasional cases.

they do not fall immediately under the B31 code rules as defined by B31. This calculation provides a comparison of the stress intensities to the entered allowables. . The allowable stress intensity for the second stress combination is 1. and its allowable is limited to 1. The value of k can be taken from Table AD-150. Pl is the local membrane stress at the junction due to the sustained piping loads. where P is the design pressure of the system.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-15 Output reports may be viewed at the terminal or printed. This summation is done automatically following the WRC 107 analysis. Division 2 (“Mandatory Design Based on Stress Analysis”) does however provide a detailed approach for dealing with these local stresses. Both Pl and Q will be calculated by the WRC 107 program.1 of the code (which ranges from 1. performs the initial WRC 107 calculation WRC 107 Stress Summations Because the stresses computed by WRC 107 are highly localized. The analysis procedure outlined in the aforementioned code is used in CAESAR II to perform the stress evaluation. as defined by the Figure 4-130. due to thermal expansion piping loads. while Smh is the hot stress intensity allowable at the given design temperature.0 for sustained loads to 1. three stress combinations (summations) must be made: Pm Pm + Pl + Pb Pm + Pl + Pb + Q Where Pm is defined as the general membrane stress due to internal pressure removed from discontinuities. See the Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion. In order to evaluate the stresses through an elastic analysis. Pb is the local bending stress (defined as zero at the nozzle to vessel connections per Section VIII. The Appendix 4-1 of ASME Section VIII. The third combination actually defines the “range” of the stress intensity.5(Smc+Smh). and can be estimated for the vessel wall from the expression (PD) / (4t) for the longitudinal component and (PD) / (2t) for the hoop component.1 or B31.1 of the Code. Failed items display in red.5kSmh. or the bending stress due to internal pressure thrust and sustained piping loads.3. while Q is defined as the secondary stress. Division 2 of ASME Code). Clicking the and summation and sends the result to MicroSoft™ Word. button. along with a corresponding PASS-FAIL ruling. The allowable for Pm is kSmh where Smh is the allowable stress intensity (See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for definition).2 for sustained plus wind loads or sustained plus earthquake loads).

EXP. . and OCC) can be varied by selecting from the choices listed on the drop-down menu.12-16 Equipment Component and Compliance The WRC 107 Analysis module can provide a graphical representation of the nozzle and its imposed loads. WRC 107 Analysis Module The displayed load case (SUS. This can be accessed via the button on the toolbar.

5). and imposed loads. The loads may be entered in either Global CAESAR II convention. Vessel and Nozzle data fields function the same way as those in WRC 107. The module provides spreadsheets for vessel data. Welding Research Council (WRC) 297 attempts to extend the existing analysis tools for the evaluation of stresses in cylinder-to-cylinder intersections.) The CAESAR II WRC 297 module shares the same interface with WRC 107. nozzle data. click the WRC 297 radio button. To enable the WRC 297 analysis.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-17 WRC Bulletin 297 Published in August of 1984. WRC 297 differs from the widely used WRC 107 primarily in that WRC 297 is designed for larger d/D ratios (up to 0. and that WRC 297 also computes stresses in the nozzle and the vessel. Analysis . (WRC 107 only computes stresses in the vessel. If Global CAESAR II convention is selected vessel and nozzle direction cosines must be present in order to convert the loads into the Local WRC 297 convention as discussed in the WRC 297 bulletin.WRC 297 . or in the Local WRC 107 coordinate system. Currently WRC 297 supports one set of loads. from the Vessel tab.

12-18 Equipment Component and Compliance Nozzle Screen .

When provided with the necessary input. Div. the nozzle flexibility calculations described in WRC 297 refer to Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference Manual. but is added here as a convenience for the user. multiplied by the stress intensification factors found in ASME Section VIII. Table AD-560.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-19 . The pressure stress calculation is not a part of the WRC 297 bulletin. Stresses are calculated on both the outer and inner surfaces (upper and lower). Refer to the WRC 107 discussion for more information on the allowable limits for these stresses and output processing. CAESAR II calculates the stress components at the four locations on the vessel around the nozzle and also the corresponding locations on the nozzle.Loads The CAESAR II version of WRC 297 also adds the pressure component of the stress using Lame’s equations. Note CAESAR II also utilizes. WRC 297 .7. These stress components are resolved into stress intensities at these 16 points around the connection. 2. through the piping input processor. .

The results compare favorably with three dimensional finite element analysis of the flange junction. and pressure. where. or the stiffness of the bolting.12-20 Equipment Component and Compliance Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations The Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations are started by selecting the Main Menu option ANALYSIS-FLANGES. Using B16. Input for the Flange Module is broken into four sections.5 estimated stress calculations to predict leakage does not consider the gasket type.5 rating table approach. i. Several trends have been noticed as flange calculations have been made: The thinner the flange. Stiffer gaskets have a greater tendency to leak. and BC is the diameter of the bolt circle. and its ability to rotate under moment. that (G-ID) < (BC-G). i. Leakage is a function of bolt tightening stress. The stress calculation methods are from the following sources: ASME Section VIII ANSI B16. Leakage is very weakly tied to allowable stress.e. Using the B16. . Larger diameter flanges have a greater tendency to leak.5 to estimate leakage makes the tendency to leak proportional to the allowable stress in the flange. if at all. These correlations assume that the distance between the inside diameter of the flange and the center of the effective gasket loading diameter is smaller than the distance between the effective gasket loading diameter and the bolt circle diameter. There have been primarily two different ways to calculate stress and one way to estimate leakage for flanges that have received general application over the past 20 years. ID is the inside diameter of the flange. The first section describes flange geometry. Leakage is a function of the relative stiffnesses of the flange. G is the effective gasket loading diameter. axial force. a flange with a higher allowable will be able to resist higher moments without leakage.e. gasket and bolting. the greater the tendency to leak. stiffness of the flange. Equations were written to model the flexibility of the annular plate that is the flange. The CAESAR II Flange Leakage Calculation is COADE’s first attempt to improve upon the solution of this difficult analysis problem.5 Rating Tables The leakage calculations were also based on the B16.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-21 Flange Analysis .

Bolts and Gasket .12-22 Equipment Component and Compliance The second section contains data on the bolts and gasket.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-23 The third section is used to enter material and stress-related data. Material and Stress Data .

the initial bolt stress input field that appears in the first section of data input. The ASME Code bases it's stress calculations on a prespecified. The value for the bolt tightening stress used in the ASME Flange Stress Calculations is as defined by the ASME Code: Bolt Load = Hydrostatic End Force + Force for Leaktight Joint If the Bolt Initial Tightening Stress field is left blank.12-24 Equipment Component and Compliance The fourth section contains the imposed loads. For this reason. fixed equation for the bolt stress. is used only for the flexibility/leakage determination. Imposed Loads Note on Bolt Tightening Stress This is a critical item for leakage determination and for computing stresses in the flange. Bolt Initial Tightening Stress. CAESAR II uses the value . The resulting value is however often not related to the actual tightening stress that appears in the flange when the bolts are tightened.

It is not unusual for the “rule-of-thumb” tightening stress to be larger than the ASME required stress. This is a very important number for leakage determination. This computed value is printed in the output from the flange program. It is interesting to compare this value to the bolt stress printed in the ASME stress report (also in the output). When the ASME required stress is entered into the Bolt Initial Tightening Stress data field.000 psi is a constant and d is the nominal diameter of the bolt (correction is made for metric units). Users are strongly encouraged to “play” with these numbers to get a feel for the relationship between all of the factors involved. The higher the modulus the greater the tendency for the program to predict leakage. This value is more commonly recognized as “m”. Errors on the high side when estimating this value will lead to a more conservative design.1 in the ASME Section VIII code. Effective Gasket Modulus Typical values are between 300. a comparison of the leakage safety factors can be made and the sensitivity of the joint to the tightening torque can be ascertained. as it represents the ratio of the pressure required to prevent leakage over the line pressure. . and is termed the “Gasket Factor” in the ASME code.000 and 400. Unique input cells are discussed as follows: Leak Pressure Ratio This value is taken directly from Table 2-5. These parameters include Flange Inside Diameter Flange Thickness Bolt Circle Diameter Number Of Bolts Bolt Diameter Effective Gasket Diameter Uncompressed Gasket Thickness Effective Gasket Width Leak Pressure Ratio Effective Gasket Modulus Externally Applied Moment Externally Applied Force Pressure The help screens (press [F1] or ? at the data cell) are very useful for all of the input items and should be used liberally here when there are questions.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-25 where 45. This is a rule of thumb tightening stress that will typically be applied by field personnel tightening the bolts.000 psi for spiral wound gaskets. Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler Only the following input parameters are required to get a leakage report. This table is reproduced in the help screens.

(Of course both flanges would have essentially the same “flexibility” tendency to leak. As mentioned above. Material allowables may be acquired from the Section VIII. the leakage predictions that resulted were a function of the allowable stress for the flange material.00 ANSI/API Max Equivalent Pressure Allowed 1815. the minimum and maximum rating table values from ANSI and API were stored and are used to print minimum and maximum leakage safety factors that would be predicted from this method. according to this older method./sq.in. and not the flexibility.e.85 ANSI/API Min Equivalent Pressure Allowed 1080.) 1639. i. Division 1 material library that is accessed from the pull-down list.00 This output shows that leakage. . and leakage did not occur if an alloy flange was used.12-26 Equipment Component and Compliance Flange Rating This is an optional input. it has been a widely used practice in the industry to use the ANSI B16. occurred if a carbon steel flange was used.5 and API 605 temperature/pressure rating tables as a gauge for leakage. but results in some very interesting output. modulus of elasticity of the flange. To give the user a “feel” for this old practice. and were not intended for leakage prediction.) The following input parameters are used only for the ASME Section VIII Division 1 stress calculations: Flange Type Flange Outside Diameter Design Temperature Small End Hub Thickness Large End Hub Thickness Hub Length Flange Allowables Bolt Allowables Gasket Seating Stress Optional Allowable Multipliers Flange Face & Gasket Dimensions The flange type can be selected from the icons on the first spreadsheet. Because these rating tables are based on allowable stresses. Example output that the user will get upon entering the flange rating is shown as follows: EQUIVALENT PRESSURE MODEL ————————Equivalent Pressure (lb.

) 3.279E+08 Bolt Allowable @Design Temperature(lb.) 1.in.lb.000 Bolt Allowable @Ambient Temperature(lb.000.690 Large End Hub Thickness [g1](in.000.) 33.063 Basic Gasket Width [b0] (in.in./sq.) 33.440 Hub Length [h](in.620 Flange Allowable @Design Temperature(lb.000 Gasket Seating Stress [y](lb.) 24.060 300.000 Flange Modulus of Elasticity @Design(lb.) Flange Thickness [t](in.) 33.) 25.) 1./sq./sq.000.) Flange Rating (Optional) 4.in.500.000 30.000 Flange Outside Diameter [A](in.) 0.000 Pressure [P](lb.500 Flange Face ID or Lapjt Cnt ID(in.700./sq.) 3. see ?-Help or Alt-P to plot) 1.) 36.) 0.500 Bolt Initial Tightening Stress(lb.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-27 An input listing for a typical flange analysis is shown below: CA E S A R I I MISCELLANEOUS REPORT ECHO Flange Inside Diameter [B](in.in.500.000 Externally Applied Force (optional)(lb.000 Bolt Diameter (in./sq.000 Disable Leakage Calculations (Y/N) N .000 Nubbin Width (in.) 34.500 Design Temperature°F 650.) 0.in.000 Flange Allowable @Ambient Temperature(lb.) 300.560 Bolt Circle Diameter (in./sq.500 38.000 Externally Applied Moment (optional)(in.000 Disable Leakage Calculations (Y/N) N Flange Face OD or Lapjt Cnt OD(in.000.) Number of Bolts 32.000 Gasket Inner Diameter (in.) 0.) Facing Sketch 1.000 Gasket Outer Diameter (in.000 Small End Hub Thickness [g0](in.) 6.888 Uncompressed Gasket Thickness (in.) 1.000.375 Leak Pressure Ratio [m] 2.in.) 17.750 Effective Gasket Modulus(b./sq.000 Facing Column 2.) 400.in./sq.000 The following inputs are required only if the user wishes to perform stress calcs as per Sect VIII Div.) 25./sq./sq.000 Bolt Allowable Stress Multiplier (VIII Div 2 4-1411.in.in.279E+08 Flange Modulus of Elasticity @Ambient(lb.) 41. 1 Flange Type (1-8.000 Flange Allowable Stress Multiplier 1.in.) 17.) Effective Gasket Diameter [G] (in.

Exact—The corroded area is determined numerically using the trapezoid method. CAESAR II determines the following values according to the original B31G criteria and four modified methods. Note that if the sub length which produces the worst case coincides with the total length. The original B31G document incorporates a healthy dose of conservatism and as a result. All input cells have associated help text for user convenience. Effective—This method also uses a numerical trapezoid summation. various sub lengths of the total flaw length are used to arrive at a worst case condition. Equivalent—The corroded area is determined by multiplying the average pit depth by the flaw length.12-28 Equipment Component and Compliance Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines. additional work has been performed to modify the original criteria. These values are the hoop stress to cause failure the maximum allowed operating pressure the maximum allowed flaw length The four modified methods vary in the manner in which the corroded area is estimated. B31G The B31G criterion provides a methodology whereby corroded pipelines can be evaluated to determine when specific pipe segments must be replaced. The details of the original B31G criteria as well as the modified methods are discussed in detail in this report. by Battelle. This additional work can be found in project report PR3805. The user is then presented with two spreadsheets on which the problem specific data can be entered.85 times the maximum pit depth times the flaw length. CAESAR II implements these B31G computations from the Main Menu select Analysis-B31G. the Exact and Effective methods yield the same result.85dL—The corroded area is approximated as 0. Inc. Additionally. however. . Note that most of the data required by this processor is acquired through actual field measurements. The input screens from the B31G processor are shown below. an equivalent flaw length (flaw length * average pit depth / maximum pit depth) is used in the computation of the Folias factor. These methods are .

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-29 Data Spreadsheet .

Measurements Spreadsheet .12-30 Equipment Component and Compliance A maximum of twenty pit measurements may be entered on the Measurements spreadsheet.

A typical output report is shown as follows. For additional information or backup on these computations. . please refer to either the B31G document or the Battelle project report PR-3805. The data in the input and the resulting output are consistent with the example from the PR-3-805 report on page B-19.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-31 Once the data has been entered. an intermediate computation file is generated. For additional information on this processor. the Analyze menu option initiates the computations.

. unbalanced forces are set up which tend to distort the expansion joint further. These relative movements are reported in both the local joint coordinate system and the global coordinate system. [as an expansion joint is rotated or deflected laterally] it should be noted that one side of the bellows attains a larger projected area than the opposite side. ey = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed lateral deflections. According to EJMA (Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association). Under the action of the applied pressure. “Also. In addition. bending. Therefore.12-32 Equipment Component and Compliance Expansion Joint Rating CAESAR II provides a computation module which computes a limit for the total displacement per corrugation of an expansion joint. In order to control the effects of these two factors a second limit is established by the manufacturer upon the amount of angular rotation and/or lateral deflection which may be imposed upon the expansion joint. This module computes the terms defined in the above equation and the movement of the joint ends relative to each other. This value should be obtained from the Expansion Joint Manufacturer’s catalog. the maximum permitted amount of axial movement per corrugation is defined as erated where ex + ey + eq < erated The terms in the above equation are defined as: ex eq = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed axial movements. i.” This CAESAR II computation module is provided to assist the expansion joint user in satisfying these limitations. The expansion joint rating module can be entered by selecting MAIN MENU ANALYSIS -EXPANSION JOINT RATING option. This limit may be less than the rated movement. care must be exercised to avoid exceeding either of these manufacturer’s limits. in the selection of an expansion joint. The user is then presented with two input spreadsheets on which the joint geometry and end displacements are specified. EJMA states. erated= The maximum permitted amount of axial movement per corrugation.e. = The axial displacement per corrugation resulting from imposed angular rotation.

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-33 Geometry Spreadsheet .

12-34 Equipment Component and Compliance Displacements and Rotation .

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-35 .

Rotations are in units of degrees. The units used for the coordinate and displacement values are the length units defined in the active units file.12-36 Equipment Component and Compliance A report displaying both the input echo and the output calculations are shown as follows. .

“theta” (deg)1.000 Rotation of “from” end (deg).250 RELATIVE MOVEMENTS OF END “i” WITH RESPECT TO END “j” (Local Joint Coordinate System) Relative Relative Relative Relative Axial Displacement.222 Rotation of “from” end (deg).100 Displacement due to Lateral .095 Rotation about X (deg).000 Rotation of “from” end (deg)1.399 Y Displacement-.)4.000 Y Coordinate of “from” end (in.242 Rotation about Z (deg).100 Displacement of “to” end (in.).000 Z Coordinate of “from” end (in.).000 X Coordinate of “to” end (in.996 X Coordinate of “from” end (in.)4.).)-.).890 OUTPUT: AXIAL DISPLACEMENTS PER CONVOLUTION Axial Axial Axial Axial Displacement.132 Z Displacement.120 Displacement of “to” end (in.000 Number of Convolutions 4.020 Rotation of “to” end (deg).Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-37 C A E S A R II MISCELLANEOUS REPORT ECHO EJMA EXPANSION JOINT RATING Node Number for “FROM” end 120.).133 Displacement due to Rotation.019 RELATIVE MOVEMENTS OF END “i” WITH RESPECT TO END “j” (Global Piping Coordinate System) Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative Relative X Displacement-.000 Rotation of “to” end (deg)-. “y”.000 Flexible Joint Length (in.300 Displacement of “from” end (in.447 Effective Diameter(in.511 Torsion (deg) .016 Displacement TOTAL.)4.000 Rotation of “to” end (deg). “x”.860 .030 Displacement of “to” end (in.).158 Bending.401 Lateral Displacement.000 Node Number for “TO” end 125.447 X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z Displacement of “from” end (in.).).250 Displacement of “from” end (in.000 Rotation about Y (deg)-1.

. If e(total) is greater than the rated axial displacement per corrugation. lateral. and rotational displacement of the expansion joint ends. the axial displacement total in the report is the total axial displacement per corrugation due to axial. Note that most manufacturers allowed rating is for some set number of cycles (often 10.000. Be sure that the displacement rating from the manufacturer is on a per corrugation basis. In special situations manufacturers should almost always be consulted because many factors can affect allowed bellows movement. then the allowed movement can be smaller. (Note that CAESAR II does not include “x” into the denominator for the lateral displacement calculations as outlined in EJMA.000). The “y” in the report is the total relative lateral displacement of one end of the bellows with respect to the other. then there is the possibility of premature bellows failure.12-38 Equipment Component and Compliance In the previous output. If the actual number of cycles is less. This is the value that would be compared to the rated axial displacement per corrugation. If not then multiply the axial displacement total by the number of corrugations and compare this value to the manufacturer’s allowable axial displacement. and “theta” is the total relative angular rotation of one end of the bellows with respect to the other. if the actual number of cycles is greater than 10. then the allowed movement can often be greater. Similarly.

AISC Code compliance for structural steel shapes is performed according to the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) code.AISC. The database must be either AISC77. This code check uses the forces and moments at the ends of the structural members. Global Parameters After launching this module. Note Member properties are obtained from the AISC database and used to compute the actual and allowable stress values for the axial and bending terms comprising the “unity check” equations.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-39 Structural Steel Checks . If the “unity check” value is less than 1. The specific database is set using the ConfigureSetup module. Global Input Spreadsheet . the member is acceptable for the given loading conditions.BIN or AISC89. and allowables.BIN. computes stresses. CAESAR II performs the AISC unity check according to either the 1977 or the 1989 edition of the AISC code.0. To perform “unity check” calculations from the Main Menu click Analyze . and determines a “unity check” value. the user is presented with the Global Input spreadsheet.

However. However.6.0 for members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation in the plane of bending Young’s Modulus The slope of the linear portion of the stress-strain diagram.000. Bending Coefficient The bending coefficient Cb shall be taken as 1. Typically this value is 1.85 for members whose ends are restrained against rotation in the plane of bending 1. in lieu of such analysis. 0.85 for compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sidesway). For more details see the AISC code. Cb shall also be unity when the bending moment at any point in an unbraced length is larger than the moment at either end of the same length. but not less than 0. making the Allowable Stress Increase Factor = 1.0. For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between supports.3(M1/M2)2 but not more than 2. Particular fields are: Structural Code The entry in this field should be either AISC 1977 or AISC 1989 respectively.) .6-1a.0 in computing the value of Fby and Fbz for use in Formula 1.5. For structural steel this value is usually 29.12-40 Equipment Component and Compliance This screen is used to enter data that applies to all members being evaluated.05(M1/M2) + 0.0. Cb shall be Cb = 1. Allowable Stress Increase Factor The Allowable Stress Increase Factor is a multiplication factor applied to the computed values of the axial and bending allowable stresses. Form Factor Qa The form factor is an allowable axial stress reduction factor equal to the effective area divided by the actual area. For restrained compression members in frames braced against sidesway and not subject to transverse loading between supports in the plane of bending: 0. Stress Reduction Factors Cmy and Cmz Cmy and Cmz are interaction formula coefficients for the strong and weak axis of the elements (in-plane and out-of-plane). Users should set this entry to match the database in use.33. Material Yield Strength The specified minimum yield stress of the steel being used. of that portion of the member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration. section 1. Otherwise. Normally a 1/3 increase is applied to the computed allowables. the value of Cmy may be determined by rational analysis.75 + 1.4 Where (M1/M2) is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments at the ends.3 where (M1/M2) is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments at the ends. (Consult the latest edition of the AISC code for the current computation methods for the effective area. Examples of extreme events are earthquakes and 100 year storms.000 psi.4(M1/M2).6 . the following values are suggested per the AISC code: 0. in extreme events the AISC code permits the allowable stresses to be increased by a factor.

the element is resized to a smaller shape. Resize Members Whose Unity Check Value Is . the box is checked). .e. Maximum Desired Unity Check This is a required entry if the redesign option has been activated. This entry defines the maximum acceptable unity check allowed. This check box determines whether or not the AISC program attempts to resize specific members as a result of the unity check computations. Minimum Desired Unity Check This is a required entry if the redesign option has been activated. the element is resized to a larger shape. for frames braced against sidesway. If the computed unity check falls outside this range. Additionally. This entry defines the minimum acceptable unity check allowed. The final member size is shown in the output report. . moments at each end of the member are required. If a unity check falls below this point. If a unity check falls above this point. . the program resizes the member appropriately. Activating this option requires the user to specify a desired minimum unity check and a desired maximum unity check. Normally sidesway is allowed (i.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-41 Allow Sidesway The ability of a frame or structure to experience sidesway (joint translation) affects the computation of several of the coefficients used in the unity check equations..

Member Type The member type is the AISC shape label found in the AISC manual.12-42 Equipment Component and Compliance Local Member Data Local Member Data must be entered for each member being evaluated. Use the on line help to list typical member designations. The node number entered should be an integer value between 1 and 32.000. This is a required entry. Local Member Data Spreadsheet Particular fields are the following: Member Start Node The member start node is the “i” end of a structural element. The shape label is used to acquire the member geometric properties from the database. The node number entered should be an integer value between 1 and 32. The label entered in this field must match exactly the label in the database for properties to be obtained. This is a required entry. Member End Node The member end node is the “j” end of a structural element.000. .

65 0. Unsupported Length (In-Plane Bending) This length is the length of the member between braces or supports which prevent bending about the strong axis of the member.000 psi.2 1. For structural steel this value is usually 29.75 inches. .1 2. Material Yield Strength The specified minimum yield stress of the steel being used.0.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-43 Since many of the angle labels can be found in the single angles.000. This cell should contain a D for double angles with equal legs.8 1.5 0. The spacing as defined in the AISC manual must be 0. Typically.0 2. This value of the material yield strength overrides the value specified on the “global” input spreadsheet. require an “angle type” to tell them apart. .And Out-Of-Plane Fixity Coefficients Ky And Kz The coefficients used to compute the strong and weak axis slenderness ratios. and double angles with long legs back to back. This cell should contain a B for double angles with short legs back to back.0 2. and the double angles (short legs back to back).0 Theoretical K 0. respectively are End Conditions fixed-fixed fixed-pinned fixed-sliding pinned-pinned fixed-free pinned-sliding 0.7 1. Young’s Modulus The slope of the linear portion of the stress-strain diagram.0 2. This value of Young’s modulus overrides the value specified on the “global” input spreadsheet. or .375. Double Angle Spacing Double angles normally have a gap or space separating the adjacent legs. In. the double angles (long legs back to back). this is the total length of the member. Unsupported Length (Out-Of-Plane Bending) This length is the length of the member between braces or supports which prevent bending about the weak axis of the member.0 1.0 Recommended Design K Unsupported Axial Length This length is the length used to determine the buckling strength of the member.

all positive loads. The sign of the number is not significant. the end moments must be specified. since a worst case load condition will be assumed. Out-of-Plane Bending Moment The maximum bending moment in the member (when sidesway is permitted) which will cause bending about the weak axis Z-Z of the member. since a worst case load condition will be assumed. i. This value is the smaller of the two out-of-plane bending moments which cause bending about the weak axis Z-Z of the member. This value is the larger of the two out-of-plane bending moments which cause bending about the weak axis Z-Z of the member. This value is the larger of the two in-plane bending moments which cause bending about the strong axis Y-Y of the member. The sign of the number is not significant. This value is the smaller of the two in-plane bending moments which cause bending about the strong axis Y-Y of the member. In-Plane “Large” Bending Moment For structures braced against sidesway. Out-of-Plane “Large” Bending Moment For structures braced against sidesway. all positive loads.e. In-Plane “Small” Bending Moment For structures braced against sidesway.e. the end moments must be specified. all positive loads. i. Out-of-Plane “Small” Bending Moment For structures braced against sidesway. since a worst case load condition will be assumed. The sign of the number is not significant. . In-Plane Bending Moment The maximum bending moment in the member (when sidesway is permitted) which will cause bending about the strong axis Y-Y of the member. i. the end moments must be specified. the end moments must be specified.12-44 Equipment Component and Compliance Axial Member Force This is the force (tension or compression) which acts along the axis of the member.e.

This summary is shown on the following page: AISC Output Summary .Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-45 AISC Output Reports The output reports can be directed to either the terminal or a printer. The output report begins with a one page summary describing the current global data and units.

. CAESAR II stores the name of the active database in the input file for the AISC Program when the data file is first created. and a new factor “kc” has been added. Several constants for Qs have been altered. the second report is applicable to jobs where sidesway is prevented. The first report is applicable to jobs where sidesway is allowed. The steps necessary to compute the unity check for single angles can be followed by reviewing the message file (generated upon user request). Sidesway Permitted Differences Between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Codes There are a few differences between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Code Revisions that affect unity check computation. The most noticeable difference between these two revisions is that the 1989 code provides a method for computing the unity check on single angles. Member Output Report. Two sample member output reports are shown in the following figures. The last column of the report contains the most important data (namely the unity check value) and the governing AISC equation.12-46 Equipment Component and Compliance The remaining pages in the output report show the data for the individual members. This procedure (which was not addressed in the 1977 code) can be found in a special code section following the commentary. Attempting to switch databases or compute unity checks on angles using the 1977 code will generate error messages and the program will abort. Users are urged to consult the applicable AISC Manuals when using this program. Because of these code differences. “kc” is a compression element restraint coefficient defined in the 1989 edition of the code. The other differences between these two code revisions deal with members in compression.

• Cumulative equipment allowables.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-47 NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) There are two types of force/moment allowables computed during a NEMA run: • Individual nozzle allowables. effective nominal pipe size of the connection. and extraction nozzle must satisfy the equation: 3F + M < 500De Where: F M De = = = resultant force on the particular nozzle. Each individual suction. resultant moment on the particular nozzle. A typical discharge nozzle calculation is shown as follows: . discharge.

FC(RSLT) is the result of these forces. Dc is the diameter of the equivalent opening as discussed above.12-48 Equipment Component and Compliance For cumulative equipment allowables NEMA SM23 states "the combined resultants of the forces and moments of the inlet. be within a certain multiple of Dc. A typical turbine cumulative (summation) equipment calculation is shown as follows: SFX. The output from a CAESAR II analysis of this piping system includes the forces and moments acting on the pipe elements that attach to the turbine: NODE 30 35 50 55 -108 108 -192 192 FX -49 67 7 -63 FY -93 93 -11 11 FZ 73 162 369 78 MX 188 -47 -522 117 MY 603 -481 39 -56 MZ To find the forces acting on the turbine at points 35 and 50 simply reverse the sign of the forces that act on the piping: LOADS ON TURBINE @ 35 -108 -67 11 -93 -369 -162 522 47 -39 481 LOADS ON TURBINE @ 50 192 -7 . SFY. and SFZ are the respective components of the forces from all connections resolved at the discharge nozzle. SMX. SMY and SMZ are the respective components of the moments from all connections resolved at the discharge nozzle. and exhaust connections resolved at the centerline of the exhaust connection". NEMA Turbine Example Consider a turbine where node 35 represents the inlet nozzle and node 50 represents the outlet nozzle. extraction. where Dc is the diameter of an opening whose area is equal to the sum of the areas of all of the individual equipment connections.

Applied loads should be entered in global coordinates or extracted directly from the CAESAR II output file (using the on-screen button). there is only one input spreadsheet for the NEMA turbine. NEMA Input Inlet . click Add Nozzle.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-49 Aside from the description. This interface enables iterative addiction of an arbitrary number of nozzles to the model. To add a nozzle.

12-50 Equipment Component and Compliance NEMA Input Exhaust .

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-51 The first page of the output is the input echo. NEMA Input Echo Report . Note The actual number of output pages will vary and depends on the number of nozzles defined in the input. the last page displays the summation calculations. the second and some of the remaining pages display the individual nozzle calculations while.

If the turbine had failed. in red. the symbol **FAILED** would have displayed.12-52 Equipment Component and Compliance The NEMA output report for the above turbine example shows that the turbine passed. under the “STATUS” column opposite to the load combination that was excessive. The highest summation load is only 56% of the allowable. NEMA Output Nozzle Calculations .

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-53 NEMA Output Summation Calcs .

F.K.K.1 is NOT satisfied.1. as well as on the pump base point respectively.3 ARE satisfied then the pump is still O. are shown on the bottom of the report. then the pump is O. The F.1.1.1.1. Referring to the API 610 report.2.3 requirements give equations relating the resultant forces and moments on each nozzle. API released the 8th edition of API 610 for centrifugal pumps for general refinery service.1.2.2. The API 610 load satisfaction criteria is outlined below: If clause F. If the ratio exceeds 2.1.2 and the F.1 states that the individual component forces and moments acting on each pump nozzle flange shall not exceed the range specified in Table 2 by a factor of more than 2. Clause F.1. and F. but clauses F. . and whether or not they have satisfied API 610.1. The requirements of these equations.12-54 Equipment Component and Compliance API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) In August of 1995.1 is satisfied by comparing the Force/Moment Ratio to 2.1 states that the individual component nozzle loads must fall below the allowables listed in the Nozzle Loadings table (Table 2) shown below: If clause F.1. the user can see if F. the nozzle status is reported as “FAILING”.1 is satisfied.1.2.2.2.2. Clause F.2.

API 610 Input Data .Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-55 The following example is taken from the API 610 code and shows the review of an overhung end-suction process pump in English units. The three CAESAR II input screens are shown. followed by the program output.

12-56 Equipment Component and Compliance API 610 Suction Nozzle .

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-57 API 610 Discharge Nozzle .

12-58

Equipment Component and Compliance

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance

12-59

Vertical In-Line Pumps
Note that on the first screen there is a check box for a vertical in-line pump. This is to be used when the pump is the vertical in-line type supported only by the attached piping. API states that if this is the case then 2.0 times the loads from Table 2 can be used. However, even if the pump fails the 2.0 Table 2 criteria, it may still pass. If the principal stress on the nozzle is less than 6,000 psi, then that nozzle passes. If the principal stress on either nozzle is greater than 6,000 psi, the overall status will be reported as “Failed.” In API 610 there is an example problem which illustrates the way that the stresses are computed on these in-line pump nozzles. The two basic equations for determining stress are stresses (s) = Force / Area + Moment / Section Modulus Shear Stresses (t) = Force / Area + Torque * distance / J Where J is the polar moment of inertia. In equation number 2, both terms of the equation will always add together. On the other hand, the Force/Area term in equation 1 will depend on the sign of the force (tension or compression) that the user enters in the force and moment spreadsheet. The sign of the force is determined from the user-entered Centerline Direction Cosine, which for vertical inline pumps should be entered in the direction extending from the discharge to the suction nozzle. The distances that are usually entered for pedestal mounted pumps can be left blank since they are not used.

12-60

Equipment Component and Compliance

API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors)
The requirements of this standard are identical to those of NEMA SM-23 (1991), except that all of the NEMA allowables are increased by 85%. API 617 Allowables = 1.85 * NEMA SM-23 Allowables The input screens for this evaluation display below:

API 617 Input

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance

12-61

API 617 Suction/Discharge Input

12-62

Equipment Component and Compliance

API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers)
This calculation covers the allowed loads on the vertical, co-linear nozzles (item 9 in the figure) found on most single, or multi-bundled air cooled heat exchangers. The several figures from API 661 illustrate the type of open exchanger body analyzed by this standard.

API 661 Heat Exchangers

The input for API 661 is self-explanatory. The “Heat Exchangers” figure and the Resultant Force/Multiplier inputs for Spreadsheet #1 are optional (default equals 1). The two requirements for API 661 to be satisfied are as follows: 5.1.11.1 - “Each nozzle in the corroded condition shall be capable of withstanding the moments and forces defined in Heat Exchangers figure.” 5.1.11.2 - The sum of the forces and moments on each fixed header (i.e. each individual bundle) will be less than 1,500 lb. transverse to the bundle, 2,500 lb. axial to the bundle, and 3,000 pound axial on the nozzle centerline. The allowed moments are 3,000, 2,000, and 4,000 ft.lb. respectively. “This recognizes that the application of these moments and forces will cause movement and that this movement will tend to reduce the actual loads.”

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance

12-63

API 661 Input Data

12-64

Equipment Component and Compliance

API 661 Inlet Nozzle Data

Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-65 API 661 Outlet Nozzle Data .

12-66 Equipment Component and Compliance A typical API 661 report is shown as follows: .

the nozzle fails if the location of the loads falls outside the triangle. If this relationship is plotted (using the moments as the abscissa and the forces as the ordinate).Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-67 Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters This module of the CAESAR II Rotating Equipment program provides a method for evaluating the allowable loads on shell type heat exchanger nozzles. the nozzle passes if the location of these loads falls inside the triangle. The CAESAR II HEI output has been modified to include both the plot of the allowables and the location of the current load set on this plot. Note that since the pressure is greater than zero. CAESAR II automatically computes the pressure thrust and adds it to the radial force if the Add Pressure Thrust check box is enabled. A sample input for the HEI module is shown below. a straight line can be drawn between the maximum permitted force and the maximum permitted moment vector. the effect of the pressure on the nozzle thrust has not. Then for any set of applied forces and moments. however. The HEI bulletin states that the effect of internal pressure has been included in the combined stresses.14 of the HEI bulletin discusses the computational methods utilized to compute these allowable loads. The method employed by HEI is a simplification of the WRC 107 method. Section 3. This requires combination with the other radial loads. forming a triangle with the axes. HEI Nozzle/Vessel Input . Conversely. a pressure thrust force will be computed and combined with the radial force. in which the allowable loads have been linearized to show the relationship between the maximum permitted radial force and the maximum permitted moment vector.

as shown in the figure below: API 560 Input Data . Input consists of the tube nominal diameter and the forces and moments acting on the tube.12-68 Equipment Component and Compliance API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) This module of the CAESAR II Rotating Equipment Program provides a method for evaluating the allowable loads on Fired Heaters.

API 560 Equipment Report . CAESAR II compares the input forces and moments to the allowables as published in API 560 Example output is shown below.Chapter 12 Equipment Component and Compliance 12-69 Upon execution of the analysis.

.

8-35 Advanced parameters • 8-16 Advanced Parameters • 8-16 Advanced parameters show screen • 8-8 Advanced Parameters Show Screen • 8-8 AISC code comparisons • 12-46 AISC database • 10-2 AISC output reports • 12-45 AISC Output Reports • 12-45 AISC unity checks Performing a spectral analysis Mas • 8-38 Selection of phase angles Harmonic • 8-38 Angle spacing. Wall Thickness.Displacements • 919 Animation of Static Results Notes • 7-26 Announcing Builds • 1-7 .Index 3 3D Graphic Highlights • 5-50 3D Graphic Highlights .and Press. Diameters. Uniform Loads. Wind/Wave Loads • 5-52 Temp. Forces. Insulation • 5-50 3D Graphics Configuration • 5-43 3D Graphics Highlights Displacements.Materials. • 5-51 Temperature and Pressure • 5-51 3D Graphics Interactive Feature Walk Through • 5-56 3D HOOPs Graphics • 10-8 3-D Modeler • 5-39 3D/HOOPS Graphics • 10-8 3D/HOOPs Graphics in the Animation Processor • 9-18 3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Animation Processor • 9-18 3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Output Processor • 723 3D/HOOPS Graphics in the Static Output Processor • 7-23 3D/HOOPS in the Animation Processor • 9-18 Allow sidesway • 12-39 Allowable stress increase factor • 12-39 Bending coefficient • 12-39 Double angle spacing • 12-42 Fixity coefficients • 12-42 Form factor qa • 12-39 Member type • 12-42 Stress reduction factors • 12-39 Structural code • 12-39 Algebraic • 6-21 Allowable stress increase factor • 12-39 Allowable stresses • 5-18 Allowable Stresses • 5-18 Alpha tolerance • 5-6 Ambient temperature • 5-6 Analysis menu • 4-6 Analysis Menu • 4-6 Analyzing the dynamics job Eigensolver • 8-37 Mode shapes • 8-37 Performing a harmonic analysis For • 8-37 Pha • 8-37 Performing a modal analysis Eigens • 8-37 Freque • 8-37 Modes • 8-37 Natura • 8-37 Sturm • 8-37 A About the CAESAR II documentation • 1-5 About the CAESAR II Documentation • 1-5 ABS • 6-21 ABS Method • 8-15 ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS OF AGREEMENT BY THE USER • 2 Actual cold loads • 6-23 Adjust Deflection Scale • 7-23 Advanced • 8-31. double • 12-42 Animation Motion • 7-26 Animation of Dynamic Results odal/Spectrum • 919 Animation of Dynamic Results-Harmonic • 9-19 Animation of Dynamic Resultsime History • 9-19 Animation of Dynamic Results-Modal/Spectrum • 9-19 Animation of Dynamic Results-Time History • 919 Animation of static results • 7-26 Animation of Static Results .

8-11. 8-16. 8-16. About • 1-2 Can Builds Be Applied To Any Version? • 1-7 Center of gravity report • 3-9 Tutorial • 3-9 Checking the installation • 2-5 Code compliance • 8-3 Code Compliance Report • 7-15 Code Stress Colors by Percent • 7-23 Code Stress Colors by Value • 7-23 Code stresses for dynamics • 9-5 Cold loads • 6-23 Column reports • 7-2 Combination load cases • 6-15 Combination Method • 8-15 Combination Methods • 6-21 Concentrated forces • 8-2 Configuration • 2-5 Connecting nodes • 10-18 Construction element • 5-6 Control parameters • 8-3. 9-5 Boundary Conditions • 5-7 BS-806 • 12-8 Building static load cases • 6-5 Building Static Load Cases • 6-8 Building the load cases • 3-11 Building the Load Cases • 3-11 Builds. Version • 1-7 Buried pipe displacements • 11-3 Buried pipe example • 11-12 Buried Pipe Modeling • 11-1 Buried pipe restraints • 11-3 C CADWorx/PIPE • 1-4 CAESAR II Installation • 2-5 CAESAR II LICENSE AGREEMENT • 2 CAESAR II Quick Start • 3-2 CAESAR II Technical Changes • 1-12 CAESAR II Underground Pipe Modeler • 11-2 CAESAR II. B31G Calculating corroded area • 12-28 Flaw Lengt • 12-28 Axial length.1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response Spectrum • 8-25 Backfill • 11-9 Backfill efficiency • 11-9 Bandwidth • 6-12 Basic load cases • 6-15 Basic operation • 3-5 Basic Operation • 3-5 Batch run • 6-2 Bend data • 5-10 Bend Data • 5-10 Bend stress intensification factors • 12-6 Bend Stress Intensification Factors • 12-6 Bending coefficient • 12-39 Bending moment. 8-31. 835 Control Parameters • 8-8.5 • 12-25 API 560 (fired heaters for general refinery services) • 12-68 API 560 (Fired Heaters for General Refinery Services) • 12-68 API 605 rating tables • 12-25 API 610 Centrifugal pumps Load Satisfaction Criteria. 8-35 Corroded pipelines. API 610 • 12-54 API 610 (centrifugal pumps) • 12-54 API 610 (Centrifugal Pumps) • 12-54 API 617 (centrifugal compressors) • 12-60 API 617 (Centrifugal Compressors) • 12-60 API 661 (air cooled heat exchangers) • 12-62 API 661 (Air Cooled Heat Exchangers) • 12-62 Application guide • 1-5 Applications of CAESAR II • 1-3 Archive • 6-12 Archiving and reinstalling • 1-8 Archiving and Reinstalling an Old.2 Index ANSI B16. 8-8. Unsupported • 12-42 Axial member force • 12-42 B B31. Patched Version • 1-8 ASCE #7 wind loads • 6-9 ASCE7 • 8-21 Auxiliary data area • 5-9 Auxiliary Data Area • 5-9 Auxiliary data fields Auxiliary screens • 5-9 Expansion joint Effective diameter of b • 5-13 Pressure thrust in expa • 5-13 Bends with trunnions • 12-8 Bends with Trunnions • 12-8 Bilinear springs • 11-9 Bilinear supports • 11-9 Bolt tightening stress • 12-24 Bolts and gasket • 12-20 Boundary conditions • 5-7. Out-of-plane • 12-42 Bending stress • 12-15 Cumulative usage • 9-5 . 8-11. In-plane • 12-42 Bending moment. 8-31.

frequency • 8-2 Sustained stresses in • 8-2 Time history analysis • 8-2 Dynamic capabilities in CAESAR II • 8-2 Dynamic Capabilities in CAESAR II • 8-2 Dynamic imbalance • 8-9 Dynamic Input and Analysis • 8-1 Dynamic load case number • 8-15 Dynamic load factor • 8-17 Dynamic load specification • 8-3 Dynamic Output Processing • 9-1 Dynamic output processor • 9-2 .The Spectrum Wizard • 8-18 Double angle spacing • 12-42 Driving frequencies • 8-3 Dynamic amplitude • 8-2 Dynamic analysis input processor • 8-5 Dynamic analysis types • 8-5 Dynamic input commands • 8-5 Initiating dynamic input • 8-5 Prerequisites for dynamic inp • 8-5 Dynamic Analysis Input Processor Overview • 8-5 Dynamic capabilities Modal analysis • 8-2 Mode shapes • 8-2 Natural frequency • 8-2 Spectrum analysis • 8-2 Impulse analysis • 8-2 Relief valve • 8-2 Response spectrum meth • 8-2 Response vs. 9-5 DLF spectrum generator • 8-28 DLF/Spectrum Generator • 8-18 DLF/Spectrum Generator . 5-4 Customize Toolbar • 5-3 Cutoff frequency • 8-8 Cyclic stress range • 8-2 Harmonic analysis • 8-2 Concentrated forces • 8-2 Cyclic stress range • 8-2 Dynamic amplitude • 8-2 Equipment start-up • 8-2 Fluid pulsation • 8-2 Forcing frequencies • 8-2 Phase angle • 8-2 Rotating equipment • 8-2 Vibration • 8-2 D Damping • 8-11 Data fields • 5-4 Data Fields • 5-4 Definition of a load case • 6-15 Definition of a Load Case • 6-15 Deflected Shape • 7-23 Densities • 5-8 Design CADWorx/PIPE • 1-4 Detecting/Checking Builds • 1-8 Diagnostics menu • 4-9 Diagnostics Menu • 4-9 Differences Between the 1977 and 1989 AISC Codes • 12-46 DISCLAIMER . 7-10.Index 3 Cumulative Usage Report • 7-16 Custom Reports • 7-7 Custom Reports Toolbar • 7-6. 7-10 Customizable Toolbar • 5-3.CAESAR II • 4 Disp • 6-20 Disp/Force • 6-20 Disp/Force/Stress • 6-20 Disp/Stress • 6-20 Displacement load case • 6-22 Displacements • 5-14.

dynamics • 9-5 Maximum load on • 9-5 Maximum modal c • 9-5 Mode identifica • 9-5 Spectrum results • 9-2 Static/dynamic comb • 9-2 Stresses. dynamics • 9-5 Mass model • 9-5 Lumped masses • 9-5 Mass participation factors • 9-5 Modes mass normalized • 9-5 Modes unity normalized • 9-5 Natural frequencies • 9-5 Report types.4 Index Boundary conditions • 9-5 Friction resista • 9-5 Nonlinear restra • 9-5 Spectrum definitions • 8-12 Response spect • 8-12 Shock definiti • 8-12 Spectrum data • 8-12 Spectrum name • 8-12 Forces/stresses. dynamics • 9-5 Global forces. dynamics Displacements • 9-5 Report option • 9-5 Restraints. dynamics • 9-5 Harmonic results • 9-2 General results • 9-2 Spectrum load cases Earthquake • 8-14 El Centro earth • 8-14 Independent sup • 8-14 Included mass data • 9-5 % Force active • 9-5 % Force added • 9-5 % Mass included • 9-5 Extracted modes • 9-5 Missing mass corr • 9-5 System response • 9-5 Spectrum load cases example • 8-14 Static/dynamic combinations ABS • 8-15 Combina • 8-15 Hanger • 8-15 Occasio • 8-15 Piping • 8-15 SRSS • 8-15 Sustain • 8-15 Local forces. dynamics • 9-5 Code stresses for • 9-5 Stress intensific • 9-5 Stress report • 9-5 Time history results • 9-2 E Earthquake (spectrum) • 8-12 Earthquake (Spectrum) • 8-12 Earthquake input spectrum Earthquakes • 8-29 Edit Dynamic Load Case • 5-26 Edit menu • 5-26 Edit Menu • 5-26 Edit Static Load Case • 5-26 Effective diameter • 5-13 Effective gasket modulus • 12-25 Eigensolution • 8-3 Eigensolver • 8-37 EJMA (expansion joint manufacturers association) • 12-32 El centro • 8-12 Element Direction Cosines • 5-5 Element length • 11-3 Element lengths • 5-4 Element Lengths • 5-4 End connections • 10-2 Entering the dynamic analysis input menu • 8-5 Entering the Dynamic Analysis Input Menu • 8-5 Entering the static output processor • 7-2 Entering the Static Output Processor • 7-2 ENTIRE AGREEMENT • 3 Entry into the processor • 9-2 Entry into the Processor • 9-2 Environment menu • 5-36 Environment Menu • 5-36 Equipment and component evaluation • 12-1 .

5-24 File Menu • 4-3. 8-14. 8-34 Force Sets • 8-29. 6-22 EXPORT RESTRICTIONS • 4 External software lock ESL updating • 4-10 Local ESL • 2-15 Network ESL • 2-15 Extracted modes • 9-5 Flange rating ANSI B16. 5-31 Expansion Joint • 5-13 Expansion joint rating • 12-32 Ejma • 12-32 Maximum axial movement • 12-32 Maximum lateral deflection • 12-32 Maximum rotation • 12-32 Output • 12-32 Expansion Joint Rating • 12-32 Expansion load cases • 3-11. and notes • 6-2 Error Checking • 6-2 Error Checking Static Load Cases • 6-1 Error checking the model • 3-9 Error Checking the Model • 3-9 Error handling and analyzing the job • 8-36 Error Handling and Analyzing the Job • 8-36 Errors Errors and warnings • 3-9 ESL • 8-36 ESL installation on a network • 2-15 ESL Installation on a Network • 2-15 ESL menu • 4-10 ESL Menu • 4-10 Excitation frequency • 8-9 Executing static analysis • 3-12 Executing Static Analysis • 3-12 Execution of static analysis • 6-12 Execution of Static Analysis • 6-12 Expansion joint • 5-6. 8-37 Form factor QA • 12-39 Frequency • 8-9 Frequency cutoff • 8-37 .5 • 12-25 API 605 • 12-25 Rating Table • 12-25 Leak pressure ratio Gasket • 12-25 Flange Leakage/Stress Calculations • 12-20 Flange modeler • 12-25 Flange rating • 12-25 Flanges • 5-9 Flanges attached to bend ends • 12-8 Flanges Attached to Bend Ends • 12-8 Flaw length • 12-28 Flexible nozzles • 5-20 Flexible Nozzles • 5-20 Fluid pulsation • 8-2 Force • 6-20 Force sets • 8-3. 5-13. 8-29. 5-24 Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info • 5-53 Fixity coefficients ky and kz • 12-42 Fixity coefficients. 6-15 Fatigue curve • 5-18 Fatigue curve data • 5-18 Fatigue curve dialog • 5-18 Fatigue failure • 9-5 Fatigue load cases • 9-5 Fatigue loadings • 7-16 Fatigue stress types • 6-5. 8-32. AISC • 12-42 Flange leakage/stress calculations • 12-20 Flange leakage • 12-20 Methodology • 12-20 Bends with trunnions Trunn • 12-8 Equipment checks • 12-1 Flanges attached to bend en • 12-8 Intersection SIFs • 12-3 Pressure stiffening Flexib • 12-8 Stress • 12-8 Stress concentrations and i • 12-9 Equipment Component and Compliance • 12-1 Equipment start-up • 8-2 Error Check • 6-2 Error checking • 6-2 Errors. 8-9.Index 5 Bend SIFs Trunnion • 12-6 F Fatal error dialog • 6-3 Fatal Error Message • 6-3 Fatigue (FAT) • 6-5. 8-33 Forcing frequency • 8-2. warnings. 9-5 Fatigue-type load cases • 7-16 File menu • 4-3. 8-34 Force spectrum methodology • 8-17 Force Stress • 6-20 Forces • 5-15 Forces/stresses • 9-5 Force-time profiles • 8-32. 8-32.

2-5 Installation menu options • 2-5 .6 Index Friction Multiplier • 6-20 Friction resistance • 9-5 Full run • 1-9 Full Run • 1-9 Harmonic displacements • 8-9 Harmonic forces • 8-9 Harmonic load definition • 8-9 Excitation f • 8-9 G Gasket factor • 12-25 GENERAL • 3 General Computed Results • 7-17 Global element forces • 7-12 Global Element Forces • 7-12 Global forces • 9-5 Global parameters • 12-39 Global Parameters • 12-39 Phasing of harmonic loads Damping • 8-11 Frequency • 8-9 Harmonic co • 8-11 Harmonic fo • 8-9 Pressure wa • 8-9 Reciprocati • 8-9 Rotating eq • 8-9 H Hanger • 5-21. 6-23 Hanger Design • 6-20 Hanger design control data • 5-31 Hanger selection Actual cold loads • 6-23 Additional hanger • 6-23 Design load cases • 6-23 Hanger sizing load cases • 6-23 Hot load • 6-23 Operating load cases • 6-23 Recommended load cases • 6-23 Restrained weight • 6-23 Spring hanger design • 6-23 Hanger sizing • 6-23. 8-3 Harmonic analysis input Harmonic control parameters • 8-11 Harmonic displacements • 8-9 Harmonic force • 8-9 Harmonic loads • 8-9 Harmonic results • 8-38. 8-15 Hanger Stiffness • 6-20 Hanger Table with Text • 7-18 Hangers • 5-21 Hardware requirements • 2-3 Harmonic • 8-9. 9-2 Harmonic stress • 8-38 Heat Exchange Institute Standard For Closed Feedwater Heaters • 12-67 Heat exchangers • 12-62 HEI standard for closed feedwater heaters • 12-67 Help menu • 4-12 Help Menu • 4-12 HOOPS Toolbar Manipulations • 5-49 HOOPS‘ License Grant • 4 Hot load • 6-23 I IBC • 8-23 Identifying Builds • 1-7 IGE/TD/12 • 5-5 Impulse • 8-30 Impulse analysis • 8-2 Included mass data • 9-5 Incore solution • 6-12 Independent support motion • 8-14 Index numbers. structural steel input • 10-2 In-plane bending moment • 12-42 In-plane large bending moment • 12-42 In-plane small bending moment • 12-42 Input Echo • 7-18 Input listing • 9-5 Input menu • 4-5 Input Menu • 4-5 Input overview based on analysis category • 8-7 Input Overview Based on Analysis Category • 8-7 Installation • 2-1. 8-37 Harmonic analysis • 8-2.

8-16. 6-15 Example of load cases • 6-15 Expansion load case • 6-22 Occasional load cases • 6-22 Operating load cases • 6-22 Recommended load cases • 3-11 Stress category • 6-15 Stress types • 6-15 Sustained load case • 6-22 Types of load cases • 3-11 Types of loads • 6-15 Load cycles • 6-15 Load. 6-5. 89. 7-26. Range. 9-5. 5-7. 8-12. Find Node. 8-30. Missing • 9-5 Mass model • 8-7. 6-15. Ultimate • 11-9 Loading conditions • 5-7 Loading Conditions • 5-7 Local element forces • 7-12 Local Element Forces • 7-12 Local forces • 9-5 Local member data • 12-42 Local Member Data • 12-42 Lumped masses • 8-7 M Main menu • 4-2 Analysis Menu items • 4-6 File • 3-2 Default data directory • 4-3 Input file types • 4-3 New command • 4-3 Open command • 4-3 Select an existing job file • 4-3 Input Data entry • 3-5 Input menu items • 4-5 Main Menu • 4-1 Major Steps in Dynamic Input • 8-4 Mass and stiffness model • 8-3 Mass and stiffness model. 6-23. 3-13. 9-2. 6-12. 9-5 Material elastic properties • 5-8 Material Elastic Properties • 5-8 Material fatigue curve • 5-18 Material name • 5-8 . 9-5 Mass participation factors • 8-38. Modifying • 8-10. 10-2. 8-38. 5-21.Index 7 Installing Builds • 1-7 Installing CAESAR II • 2-4 Installing CAESAR II in Silent Mode • 2-13 Installing CAESAR II Overview • 2-4 Insulation density • 5-8 Intersection stress intensification factors • 12-3 Intersection Stress Intensification Factors • 12-3 Introduction • 1-1 K Kaux menu items Include Piping Input Files • 5-36 Include structural input files • 5-36 Review sifs • 5-36 Review SIFs at Bend Node • 5-36 Special execution parameters • 5-36 Kaux-include structural files • 10-2 L Lateral bearing length • 11-3 Leak pressure ratio • 12-25 Lease • 1-9 LICENSE GRANT • 2 License types Full run • 1-9 Lease • 1-9 Limited run • 1-9 LIMITATIONS OF REMEDIES • 3 Limited run • 1-9 Limited Run • 1-9 LIMITED WARRANTY • 2 Limiting the Amount of Displayed Info. 7-21. 10-31. 8-32. 7-2. 8-34 Mass correction. 8-30. Cuttin • 5-53 Load case list • 6-5 Load Case Options Tab • 6-19 Load Case Report • 7-17 Load cases • 3-2. 7-16. 5-24. 5-6. 12-10 Basic load cases • 3-11 Combination load cases • 3-11.

Local • 12-42 Member end node • 12-42 Member start node • 12-42 Member type • 12-42 Membrane stress • 12-15 Menu commands • 5-24 Menu Commands • 5-24 Min • 6-21 Minimum desired unity check • 12-39 Miscellaneous Data • 7-19 Missing mass correction • 9-5 Modal • 8-7 Modal analysis • 8-2 Modal analysis input Control parameters Cutoff frequency • 8-8 Modes of vibration • 8-8 Control parameter • 8-3 Dynamics • 8-3 Conversion • 8-3 Mass and st • 8-3 Specifying loads • 8-3 Cod • 8-3 Dri • 8-3 Dyn • 8-3 For • 8-3 Har • 8-3 Loa • 8-3 Nat • 8-3 Occ • 8-3 Poi • 8-3 Sho • 8-3 Sta • 8-3 Lumped masses • 8-7 Modes of vibration • 8-7 Natural frequencies • 8-7 System response • 8-7 Mass model • 8-7 Modes of vibration • 8-7 Natural frequencies • 8-7 System response • 8-7 Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis • 8-3 Modes • 8-37 Modes mass normalized • 9-5 Modes of vibration • 8-7. 9-5 NEMA SM23 Steam turbines Cumulative equipment calculations. 8-30. 8-32. 8-16. 12-42 Max • 6-21 Maximum Code Stress • 7-23 Maximum desired unity check • 12-39 Maximum Displacements • 7-23 Maximum Restraints Loads • 7-23 Member data. 8-34 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Model • 8-10. 8-37 Model menu • 5-31 Model Menu • 5-31 Model menu items Expansion joints • 5-31 Hanger design control data • 5-31 Title • 5-31 Valve • 5-31 Model modifications for dynamic analysis NEMA SM23 (Steam Turbines) • 12-47 NEMA turbine example • 12-48 NEMA Turbine Example • 12-48 Network ESLs • 2-16 Node Names • 5-22 Node numbers • 5-4 Node Numbers • 5-4 Nominal pipe size • 5-5 Nonlinear restraints • 6-12. 8-37. 8-30.8 Index Material number • 5-8 Material yield strength • 12-39. 8-8. 9-5 Note dialog • 6-8 Note Message • 6-5. 8-7. 8-37 Modes unity normalized • 9-5 Modifying mass and stiffness model • 8-10. 6-8 Note on Bolt Tightening Stress • 12-24 Notes on CAESAR II Load Cases • 6-15 . N • 12-47 Mode identification line • 9-5 Mode shapes • 8-2. 8-16. 8-32 Modifying Mass and Stiffness Models • 8-34 More • 7-2 Motion • 7-26 N Natural frequencies • 8-3.

8-3. elevation table • 6-9 Pressure wave • 8-9 Printing or saving reports to a file • 9-17 Printing or Saving Reports to a File Notes • 7-21 Proctor number • 11-9 Produced Results Data • 6-20 Program Changes • 1-10 Program support • 1-6 Technical support phone numbers • 1-6 Training • 1-6 Program support/user assistance • 1-6 Program Support/User Assistance • 1-6 Providing wind data • 6-9 Providing Wind Data • 6-9 Pulse table/DLF spectrum generation • 8-18. 8-37 Phasing • 8-9 Pipe modeler • 11-3 Pipe section properties • 5-5 Pipe Section Properties • 5-5 Piping codes for earthquakes • 8-15 Piping dimensions • 10-18 Piping input • 3-5 Alpha tolerance • 5-6 Ambient temperature • 5-6 Construction element • 5-6 Densities • 5-8 Expansion joints • 5-6 Input spreadsheet • 5-2 Insulation density • 5-8 Material name • 5-8 Material number • 5-8 Nominal pipe size • 5-5 Rigid elements • 5-6 Sif & tees • 5-6 Specific gravity • 5-8 Stress intensification factors • 5-6 Thermal strains • 5-6 Piping Input • 5-1 Piping input generation • 3-5 Piping Input Generation • 3-5 Piping job • 10-2 Piping material • 5-8 Piping Material • 5-8 Plot • 5-39 Plotting Static output review • 3-13 Tutorial • 3-5 Point loads • 8-3 Preface • 2 Pressure stiffening • 12-8 Pressure Stiffening • 12-8 Pressure thrust • 5-13 Pressure vs. bends • 12-8 Overstress • 7-23 Overview • 2-2 Overview of Structural Capability in CAESAR II • 10-2 P Peak stress index • 12-9 Performing the analysis • 8-36 Performing the Analysis • 8-36 Phase angle • 8-2.Index 9 Notes on Network ESLs • 2-16 Notes on Printing or Saving Reports to a File • 721. 9-17 Notes on the Soil Model • 11-9 Novell file server ESL installation • 2-15 Novell File Server ESL Installation • 2-15 Novell workstation ESL installation • 2-15 Novell Workstation ESL Installation • 2-15 Nozzle data • 12-10 Nozzle flexibility • 12-17 Nozzle loads • 12-10 Nozzle screen • 12-17 O Obtaining Builds • 1-7 Occasional dynamic stresses • 8-15 Occasional load cases • 6-22 Occasional stress • 8-2. 8-9. 8-15 Offsets • 5-23 Operating conditions Temperatures and pressures • 5-6 Operating Conditions Temperatures and Pressures • 5-6 Operating load cases • 6-22 Original Unburied Model • 11-12 Out-of-plane bending moment • 12-42 Out-of-plane large bending moment • 12-42 Out-of-plane small bending moment • 12-42 Output menu • 4-7 Output Menu • 4-7 Output Type • 6-20 Output Viewer Wizard • 7-20 Ovalization. 8-32 Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generation • 8-32 Q Quick start • 3-2 Quick Start and Basic Operation • 3-1 .

7-11. B31G • 12-28 Remaining strength of corroded pipelines. 8-29. AISC • 12-39 SIFs & tees • 5-6 SignMax • 6-21 SignMin • 6-21 Skewed load • 8-29 Slug flow Specifying the load Force sets. 8-9 S Sample input • 10-10 Sample Input • 10-10 Save Animation to File • 9-19 Save As Graphics Image • 5-53 Scalar • 6-21 Screens • 5-9 Seismic analysis • 8-2 Select by Single Click • 7-23 Select Case Names • 7-2 Selection of phase angles • 8-38 Selection of Phase Angles • 8-38 Shape factor. slug flow • 8-32 Relief load synthesizer • 8-32 Relief valve • 8-32 Water hammer • 8-32 Relief load synthesis Dynamic load fact • 8-17 Force spectrum me • 8-17 Relief valve • 8-17 Thrust loads • 8-17 Spectrum definitions DLF spectrum gener • 8-28 Spectrum data • 8-28 Spectrum load cases Impulse • 8-30 Time history • 8-30 Relief valve • 8-2.10 Index R Reciprocating pumps • 8-9 Recommended load cases • 6-22 Recommended Load Cases • 6-22 Recommended load cases for hanger selection • 623 Recommended Load Cases for Hanger Selection • 6-23 Recommended procedures • 11-11 Recommended Procedures • 11-11 Relief load synthesis • 8-17 Relief Load Synthesis • 8-17 Relief load synthesizer • 8-32 Relief loads (spectrum) • 8-17 Relief Loads (Spectrum) • 8-17 Relief loads spectrum Force sets for relief loads Earthquakes • 8-29 Relief valv • 8-29 Skewed load • 8-29 Water hamme • 8-29 Restraint auxiliary data • 10-18 Restraint summary • 7-11 Restraint Summary • 7-11 Restraints • 5-12. slug flow • 8-32 Force-time profile • 8-32 Load cases. 8-32 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines. 9-5 Review Current Units • 5-26 Review Units • 5-26 Rigid elements • 5-6 Rigid weight • 5-11 Rigid Weight • 5-11 Rotating equipment • 8-2. 8-17.B31g • 12-28 Report options • 7-10 Report Options • 7-10 Report Template Editor • 7-7 Report types • 9-5 Report Types • 9-5 Resize members • 12-39 Response spectrum method • 8-2 Response spectrum table • 8-12 Response vs. frequency spectra • 8-2 Restrained weight • 6-23 Slug flow analysis • 8-2 Snubbers • 8-7 Snubbers Active • 6-20 Software revision procedures • 1-7 Software Revision Procedures • 1-7 Soil model • 11-9 Soil model numbers • 11-9 Soil Models • 11-3 . wind • 6-9 Shock definition • 8-12 Shock results • 8-3 Shock spectra • 8-2 Show Event Viewer Gr • 7-23 Sidesway • 12-39 Sidesway.

8-15 Start. 8-32 Spectrum Definitions • 8-28. 8-17. 8-28 Spectrum definitions • 8-28. 9-5 Stresses. 8-12. 8-14 Stresses • 7-13. 10-18. 9-2 Static/Dynamic Combinations • 8-15. 8-32 Spectrum load cases • 8-14. 8-33 Specifying the Loads • 8-9. 8-34 Stiffness matrix • 6-12 Stiffness model. 8-12. 8-9. 834. Allowable • 12-39 Stress intensification factors • 5-6. 832. 8-32. 8-16. AISC • 12-39 Structural files. 8-32. CAESAR II • 3-2 Starting CAESAR II • 3-2 Static load case number • 8-15 Static load cases Building static load cases • 6-5 Limitations of the load case editor • 6-5 Recommended load cases • 6-5 Static output plot • 10-18 Static output processor 132 column reports • 7-2 Animation of static solution • 7-2 Commands in static output • 7-2 Initiating the static output processor • 7-2 Plotting statics • 7-2 Report options • 7-2 Report titles • 7-2 View-reports • 7-2 Static Output Processor • 7-1 Static output review • 3-13 Plotting static output • 3-13 Static Output Review • 3-13 Static results • 8-3 Static solution methodology • 6-12 Archive • 6-12 Incore solution Bandwidth • 6-12 Nonlinear restrai • 6-12 Static analysis Stiffness matrix • 6-12 Static/dynamic combinations • 8-15. 8-30. 8-30. Include • 5-36 Structural steel checks . 8-34 Stress • 6-20 Stress category • 6-15 Stress concentration factor • 12-9 Stress Concentrations and Intensification • 12-9 Stress concentrations and intensifications • 12-9 Stress increase factor AISC • 12-39 Stress increase factor. 9-5 Stress intensification factors/tees • 5-19 Stress Intensification Factors/Tees • 5-19 Stress reduction factors cmy and cmz • 12-39 Stress reduction factors. 8-32.AISC • 12-39 Structural steel example • 10-11. aisc • 12-39 Stress report • 9-5 Stress Summary • 7-14 Stress types • 3-11. Modifying • 8-10.AISC • 12-39 Structural Steel Checks . 8-30. 9-2 Spectrum Load Cases • 8-14. 8-32 Spectrum name • 8-12 Spectrum results • 9-2 Spectrum/Load Cases • 8-30 Spreadsheet overview • 5-2 Spreadsheet Overview • 5-2 Spring hanger design • 6-23 SRSS • 6-21. Allowable • 5-18 Structural capability in CAESAR II • 10-2 Structural code • 12-39 Structural code. 8-30. 10-31 Structural Steel Example #1 • 10-11 Structural Steel Example #2 • 10-18 Structural Steel Example #3 • 10-31 Structural steel input • 10-2 . 6-15. 8-32.Index 11 Soil properties • 11-2 Soil stiffnesses • 11-2 Soil supports • 11-9 Special element information • 5-6 Special Element Information • 5-6 Special execution parameters • 5-36 Specific gravity • 5-8 Specifying hydrodynamic parameters • 6-11 Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters • 6-11 Specifying loads. 6-5. dynamics • 8-3 Specifying the Load • 8-32 Specifying The Load • 8-33 Specifying the loads • 8-7. 8-17 Spectrum • 8-38 Spectrum analysis • 8-2 Spectrum data • 8-12.

8-34 Time History Load Cases • 8-34 Overburden Compaction Multiplier • 11-9 Soil model numbers • 11-9 Spreadsheet Buried element descr • 11-3 Underground pipe modeler • 11-2 Buried • 11-3 Soil pr • 11-2 Soil st • 11-2 Zones • 11-3 Lateral bearing regions • 11-3 Uniform loads • 5-16 Uniform Loads • 5-16 Unsupported axial length • 12-42 Unsupported length (in-plane bending) • 12-42 Unsupported length (out-of-plane bending) • 1242 Updates and license types • 1-9 . tutorial • 3-5 U UBC • 8-20 Underground pipe modeler • 11-2. 12-8 Tutorial Center of gravity report. 9-5 Convert input command • 11-3 Element length • 11-3 Buried pipe displ • 11-3 Lateral bearing l • 11-3 Meshing Lateral bearing meshes • 11-3 T Technical Changes • 1-12 Technical reference manual • 1-5 Technical support phone numbers • 1-6 TERM • 2 The CAESAR II Main Menu • 4-2 The Spectrum Wizard • 8-18 Thermal load case • 6-22 Thermal strains • 5-6 Thrust loads • 8-17 Time history • 8-30. force • 8-33 Title • 5-31 Tools menu • 4-8 Tools Menu • 4-8 Training • 1-6 Trunnion • 12-6.12 Index AISC database. tutorial • 3-9 Plotting. 11-3 Underground pipe/buried pipe Bilinear supports • 11-9 Bilinear sprin • 11-9 Soil supports • 11-9 Ultimate load • 11-9 Yield displace • 11-9 Yield stiffnes • 11-9 Initiating structural steel input • 10-2 Help • 10-2 Keywords in structural steel input • 10-2 Running structural steel input • 10-2 Static output plot • 10-18 Range command • 10-18 Structural Steel Modeler • 10-1 Structure dimensions • 10-18 Structure nodes • 10-18 Sturm sequence check • 8-37 Sustained load cases • 6-22 Sustained stresses • 8-2. 8-15 Sustained sustained load cases • 3-11 System and hardware requirements • 2-3 System and Hardware Requirements • 2-3 System requirements • 2-3 System response • 8-7.structural steel input • 10-2 Format of structural steel input • 10-2 Include in piping job • 10-2 Include a struct • 10-2 Kaux-include str • 10-2 Index numbers. 8-38 Time history analysis • 8-2 Time history load case • 9-2 Time history load cases • 8-14. structural steel input • 10-2 Connecting pipe to structure • 10-18 Connectin • 10-18 Displaced • 10-18 Editing structural steel input • 10-2 End connections. 8-38 Force-time profiles • 8-33 Vibration • 8-33 Time History • 8-33. structural steel input • 10-2 Initiate structural steel input Struct • 10-2 Time history profile definitions • 8-33 Time History Profile Definitions • 8-33 Time history results • 9-2 Time vs. tutorial • 3-5 Sample model input. 8-33.

slug flow • 8-32 Relief load synthesizer • 8-32 Relief valve • 8-32 Slug problems • 8-32 Water hammer analysis • 8-2 Water hammer/slug flow (spectrum) • 8-32 Water Hammer/Slug Flow (Spectrum) • 8-32 Welding Research Council Bulletin 297 • 12-17 What are the Applications of CAESAR II? • 1-3 What Distinguishes CAESAR II From Other Pipe Stress Packages? • 1-4 What is CAESAR II? • 1-2 .Index 13 Updates and License Types • 1-9 Usage factor • 9-5 User assistance Technical support phone numbers • 1-6 Training • 1-6 User Control of Produced Results Data • 6-20 User Defined Time History Waveform • 8-26 User-Controlled Combination Methods • 6-21 Using the CAESAR II Flange Modeler • 12-25 Using the Underground Pipe Modeler • 11-3 V Valve • 5-31 Velocity vs. elevation table • 6-9 Wind/wave • 5-17 Wind/Wave • 5-17 Windows server installation • 2-15 Windows Server Installation • 2-15 WRC 107 (vessel stresses) • 12-10 WRC 107 stress summations • 12-15 WRC 107 Stress Summations • 12-15 WRC 107 Vessel Stresses • 12-10 WRC 297 Nozzle flexibility • 12-17 Nozzle screen • 12-17 WRC axes orientation • 12-10 WRC Bulletin 297 • 12-17 Y Yield displacement • 11-9 Yield stiffness • 11-9 Young's modulus • 12-39. WRC 107 • 12-10 Nozzle data. elevation table • 6-9 Vertical in-line pumps • 12-59 Vertical In-Line Pumps • 12-59 Vessel attachment stresses/WRC 107 Input data. WRC 107 • 12-10 Curv • 12-10 Inte • 12-10 What is Contained In A Specific Build? • 1-7 Wind data ASCE #7 wind loads • 6-9 Methods of wind loading • 6-9 Pressure vs. WRC 107 • 12-10 Nozzle loads. elevation table • 6-9 Shape factor • 6-9 Velocity vs. WRC 107 • 12-15 Vessel data • 12-10 Vibration • 8-2. 12-42 Reinforcing pad • 12-10 Stress summations. slug flow • 8-32 Force-time profile • 8-32 Load cases. 8-33 View Menu • 4-11 View Output • 5-26 Z Zone definitions • 11-3 W Warning Message • 6-4 Warnings • 7-19 Water hammer • 8-29 Specifying the load Force sets.

10 Last Revised 111/2007 .com Web: www. 12777 Jones Road Suite 480 Houston. Texas 77070 Phone: (281)890-4566 Fax: (281)890-3301 Email: sales@coade.com CAESAR II Technical Reference Version 5.COADE Inc.coade.