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Lesson Plan in Science

I. Objectives
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
1. determine what is genetic mutation
2. identify DNA and RNA using the Genetic Code Table

II. Subject Matter


A. Topic: Mutation
B. Materials: Visual aids, videos
C. References:
 Science Learner’s Material 10, pp. 280-293
 www.shmoop.com
 education-portal.com
D. Science Process: Observing, Communicating, Comparing, Classifying
E. Value Integration: To appreciate the importance of mutating genes

III. Learning Task


A. Preliminary Activities
1. Prayer
2. Checking of Attendance
3. Review
Ask the students about the previous discussion.
4. Unlocking of difficult terms
 amino acid – the building blocks of a protein molecule
 codon – sequence of 3 DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino
acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
 anticodon - a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger
RNA
 mRNA – messenger RNA; brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the
cytoplasm
 tRNA – transfer RNA; an adaptor molecule composed of RNA that serves as the physical
link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins

B. Lesson Proper
1. Activity
Procedure:
1. Copy and fill in the table.
2. Refer to the Genetic Code Table to identify the amino acid.
Order of bases Order of bases Order of bases Amino Acid
in DNA in mRNA in tRNA Coded into
(codon) Proteins
TAG AUC
CAT
GUC
CCA
Methionine
Valine
ACU
ACA UGU
AAA
GAA CUU
3. To determine the order of the bases in the first column (DNA), second column (codon),
and third column (anticodon), consider the complementary base pairs in DNA: adenine
pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. While in RNA, adenine pairs with
uracil and guanine pairs with cytosine.
4. To identify the amino acid, look at the bases in the mRNA codon, e.g., AUG using the
Genetic Code Table. Look for the first letter of the mRNA codon on the left side of the
genetic code table (A), the second letter of the mRNA on the second letter column (U),
and the third letter on the right side column (G). AUG cods for the amino acid –
methionine.
5. Do the same with the other codons in the chart.

2. Analysis

Common Mistakes in Mutation

Changes in the DNA sequence may delete such protein or change its structure. When the
code in a gene is changed, a different message may result. Any change in the sequence of
nitrogenous bases in the DNA, any mistake in the transcription of genetic information from
DNA to RNA or pairing of the codon and anticodon, may cause changes in the kind,
sequence and number of amino acids of proteins synthesized by cells.
Mutations can occur in 2 different types of cells: reproductive cells and body cells. Only
mutations in sex cells pass on to offspring. Mutations affect the reproductive cells of an
organism by changing the sequence of nucleotides within a gene in a sperm or an egg cell. If
these cells are fertilized, then the mutated gene becomes a part of the genetic makeup of the
offspring.
There are 2 types of mutations that can occur in gamete cells:
 Gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene.
 Chromosomal mutation occurs at the chromosome level resulting in gene deletion,
duplication or rearrangement that may occur during the cell cycle and meiosis. It may be
caused by parts of chromosomes breaking off or rejoining incorrectly.

Many diseases are caused by the effects of inherited genes. In most cases, there is only a
small difference between DNA sequences in the defective gene and a normal one. This
difference is enough to cause serious and often serious and often fatal diseases. These
disease-causing genes are the result of a mutation. They may be passed from one generation
to the next if present in gametes.

Hemoglobin Gene Mutation


This shows the changes in the sequences of bases in normal hemoglobin and the one
affected by mutation. A recessive gene causes sickle-cell anemia, where most of the red
blood cells stiffen and become sickle shape in affected people. These diseased cells carry less
oxygen than normal cells. People affected by the disease eventually die.

3. Abstraction
What is mutation?
How many amino acids are there in the Genetic Code Table?

4. Application
What if there are no proteins in our body, what would happen?

IV. Evaluation
Given the list of amino acids, determine the sequence of bases in the codon of the mRNA and
anticodon tRNA. Refer to the Genetic Code Table.
1. Methionine
2. Leucine
3. Arginine
4. Threonine
5. Lysine
6. Asparagine
7. Valine
8. Glycine
9. Aspartic acid
10. Glutamic acid

V. Assignment
Bring modeling clay with different colors for the next activity.

Patricia Ann F. Palencia


Central Philippines State University