MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Free International University of Moldova

International Relations and Political Science Chair

Analytical program of the course

Philosophy and History of Philosophy (30 hours)

Chisinau 2010

Approved Vice-rector of studies ULIM, “……”………………….2010

The program of the course „Philosophy and History of Philosophy” is for the students of the Departments of Economy, Journalism, Engineering and Design, for the I year (30 hours), from them 20 hours of lectures and 10 hours of seminars. The program is elaborated by A. Curararu, doctor of philosophy, conf. of the university. The program is approved at the meeting of the Chair of Humanitarian Sciences from „ ___ „ _________________ 2010. Author: master of law, lectureur A. Curararu

Head of the International Relations and Political Science Chair M. Cernencu

Standard curriculum of the discipline Philosophy and History of philosophy Number of hours - 60: I year, I semester - 30; Number of the hours of contact – 30; from them: lectures – 20, seminars – 10; Number of hours of individual work – 30; Credits: 2; Evaluation: Semester I – examination (written); Audience: I year, social-humanitarian cycle Preliminary gnoseological and praxiological competences: before starting the discipline Philosophy and History of philosophy the students are to study several social-humanitarian disciplines in the lyceum that give knowledge and notions of the general character in this domain. Interdisciplinary: The course Philosophy and History of philosophy is in direct connection with the social-humanitarian disciplines that are to be studied in the respective departments, as for example: History of Culture, Logics, Psychology, Political science, Sociology, etc. Position of the discipline in the plan of studies: the discipline is presented as socialhumanitarian disciplines that are foreseen by the plan elaborated by the Ministry of Education. Philosophy and History of philosophy is the discipline from the social-humanitarian branch, that harmoniously fits the system of theoretical and practical disciplines directed on the preparation of future specialists in different domains. In comparison to other courses the discipline Philosophy and History of philosophy is a theoretical course that foresees the following: GENERAL OBJECTIVES to develop students’ skills to understand the essence of the phenomena, processes and objects of the natural and social character, to learn to think logically and clear, to form the abilities to analyze and critical thinking;
1)

to enlarge students’ theoretical knowledge in the domain of philosophy and history of philosophy, acquaintance with the humanitarian values that are the components of the basic principles and ideas of philosophy that can influence students’ future activity as economists, engineers and journalists.
2)

These two main objectives will be realized by the help of other related objectives, as: to improve competences in the analysis and synthesis of theoretical sources of the respective domain of science;
a)

To develop skills of expression and presentation in public and the skills to argue about the problems of philosophy;
b)

c)

to develop the ability to use interdisciplinary knowledge. FORMATIVE/DEVELOPING OBJECTIVES :

At the end of the course Philosophy and History of Philosophy students have to acquire the following competences.

GNOSEOLOGICAL COMPETENCES (of knowledge): a) to reproduce fundamental notions of the course Philosophy and History of Philosophy; b) to operate the epistemiologic system of the domain; c) to understand contemporary fundamental problems of phylosophy. PRAXIOLOGICAL COMPETENCES (APPLICATION IN PRACTICE) a) to use and apply fundamental postulates of the course Philosophy and History of philosophy in the process of study of the basic disciplines and in the judgments of general character; b) to develop skills of analysis and synthesis of the personal experience; c) to appreciate personal activity and the activity of semenilor through the prism of the basic moral understandings; d) to understand the interdisciplinary connection of the course Philosophy and History of philosophy with other disciplines. COMPETENCES OF INVESTIGATION (CREATION). a) to investigate different problems connected to the theme of the course from the supplementary sources and alternatives; b) to develop the skills of systematization and the theorization of the information; c) to develop skills of the formation of new ideas, their analysis and classification. CONTENT OF THE COURSE Nr. Topic and summary of content Form of realizat ion Lectur e 2 hours Usage of didactic material Semin ar 2 hours Form of current evaluati on Reports, discussi ons
Obligatory informativ e sources

1.

2.

Philosophy and its problems. What is philosophy? Genesis of philosophy. Ratio between philosophy, science, art and religion. The crisis of philosophy in the contemporary epoch. Ontology and its basic categories. Definition of "ontology". Basic concepts of ontology. Category of

1,4,6,7

2 hours

Reports, discussi ons

4,6,7

3.

"existence". Material and movement. Space and time. "Element", "structure", "system" – basic concepts of general theory of systems. Gnoseology: knowledge and truth. Concept of "knowledge" sensor knowledge and rational knowledge. Concept of truth. Essence of truth and checking criteria. Human philosophy. Human nature and essence. Individual, individuality, personality. Liberty and necessity. Man and human condition. Culture philosophy. Concept of culture. Culture and civilization. Ratio between culture, nature and society. Culture and knowledge. Culture and value. Culture and creation. Culture and communication. Philosophy of society. Definition of society. Economic sphere. Social structure of society. Political structure of society. Global problems of our days.

2 hours

2 hours

Reports, discussi ons

4,6,7

4.

2 hours

Reports, discussi ons 2 hours Reports, discussi ons

4,6,7

5.

1 hours

4,6,7

6.

1 hours

7.

8.

Ancient philosophy. Philosophical currents in the thoughts of Ancient China and Ancient India. Greek pre-Socratic philosophy. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Hellenic epoch philosophy. Late antiquity philosophy. Philosophy of Middle Age and of Renaissance. Patristic. Philosophy of Aurelian Augustine. Scholastics. Dispute between universals. Philosophy of Tom d'Aquino. Humanism and philosophy of nature in the Renaissance period. Social thinking in the Renaissance period. Modern epoch philosophy. Empirics and English sensuality: F.Bacon, J.Locke, D.Hume, G.Berkeley. Rationalism: R.Descartes, B.Spinoza, G.Leibniz. Illuminist philosophy. Classical German philosophy. Critic philosophy of Im. Kant.

2 hours

2 hours

Works of ancient philosophers, reproductions and copies from ancient art. Works of medieval and renaissance philosophers. Reproductions and copies from the medieval and renaissance periods. Works of modern philosophers, reproductions. Works of I.Kant and G.Hegel

Reports, discussi ons

1,4,5

2 hours

Reports, discussi ons

1,4,5

9.

2 hours

1 hour

Reports, discussi ons

1,4,5

10.

2 hours

Reports, discussi

1,4,5

11.

Philosophical system and dialect method of Hegel. Contemporary philosophy. "Life philosophy". Positivism, neopositivism, postpositivism. Existentialism. Pragmatism. Postmodernity. Romanian philosophy. Humanism and illuminism. Theory of universal curliness of V.Conta. Energetic personalization of C.Rădulescu-Motru. Cultural philosophy of L. Blaga. Human being philosophy of C.Noica. Existence theory of E.Cioran.

ons 1 hours 1 hour Works of contemporary philosophers. Reproductions and copies. Works of Romanian philosophers. Reports, discussi ons Reports, discussi ons 1,2,4

12.

1 hours

1,3

Total hours

20 hours

10 hours

Credits: 2
. Topics for the seminars.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.

Philosophy and its problems. Origin of philosophy. Mythology and philosophy. Philosophic crisis in the contemporary period. Postmodernism.

Ontology. 1. Problem of matter and substance in philosophy. 2. Contemporary theories of time and space. Gnoseology. 1. Consciousness and its functions. 2. Truth and its criteria. 3. Scientific knowledge, methods and functions.
3.

Human philosophy. 1. Man as an individuality and personality. 2. Human liberty and necessity. 3. Human condition in contemporary period.
4.

Culture philosophy. 1. Culture among knowledge and value. 2. Creation – important element of culture.
5.

Philosophy of society. 1. State and individual. Etatism. 2. Rights and obligations. Social values.
6.

Antic philosophy. 1. Fundamental principle of the world in pre-Socrates’ philosophy. 2. Dialectics of Plato and his theory about ideas.
7.

3. Matter and form in the philosophy of Aristotle. Philosophy of Middle Ages and Renaissance. 1. The problem of essence and existence in medieval philosophy. 2. Dispute between realism and nominalism in the problem of universals.. 3. Man in the Renaissance philosophy. 4. Scientific thought in the Renaissance epoch.
8.

Modern epoch philosophy. 1. Empirics from Bacon to Hume. 2. Rationalism from Descartes to Leibniz. 3. Concept of the person and society in illuminist philosophy.
9.

Classic German philosophy. 1. Critical philosophy of Im. Kant. 2. Philosophic system and dialectic method of G.W.F.Hegel.
10.

Contemporary philosophy. 1. Positivistic philosophy between cognitive and social.. 2. The essence of the human existence in the philosophy of existentialism. 3. Life philosophy from Fr.Nietzsche to H. Bergson. 4. Pragmatism between theory and practice.
11.

Romanian philosophy. 1. History philosophy of Dimitrie Cantemir. 2. Culture philosophy of Lucian Blaga. 3. Existence and desperation in the novels of Emil Cioran. 4. Ontologic model of a creature of Constantin Noica.
12.

STRATEGIES OF EVALUATION. Evaluation at the discipline Philosophy and History of philosophy is realized as currently, the same at the end of the semester. Semester finishes with examination. Examination card. Examination is organized in the written form, general mark from those received at the lesson constitues part of the mark received at the examination. Examination card contains 2 questions: 1. Question from the content of theoretical philosophy. 2. Question from the content of the course of the history of philosophy. Assesment of the questions: Mark - question from theoretical philosophy - 55%

Mark – question from the history of philosophy – 45% Mark 10 (ten) - is awarded to the student that a) shows exceptional and multilateral theoretical knowledge, exceeding the limits of the curriculum content of the respective discipline, b) possesses skills of induction and deduction to formulate his own opinion concerning the touched problem c) realizes the principle of interdisciplinary, operating with the concepts and terms from the areas adjacent to the course, without making mistakes in the explanation of the material, d) fluently and correctly expresses himself, using his own arguments based on individual researches, carried out beyond the program, with the ability to formulate original judgments and conclusions. Mark 9 - is awarded to the student that a) gives evidence of a very good theoretical and practical knowledge, according to the material of the program, b) possesses skills of induction and deduction to formulate his own opinion concerning the touched problem, c) operates with concepts and terms from the areas adjacent to the course, without making mistakes in the explanation of the material d) correctly expresses himself. Mark 8 - is awarded to the student that a) gives evidence of the good theoretical and practical knowledge, according to the material of the program, b) certifies sufficient ability to apply theoretical knowledge, c) possesses the skills of synthesis of the exposed material e) shows correct understanding of the basic concepts of the discipline, but some essential gaps are found in the explanation. Mark 7 (seven) - is awarded to the student that a) gives evidence of the sufficient theoretical knowledge, according to the material of the program, b) shows conscious knowledge of the material and understands correctly key concepts of the respective discipline c) makes some mistakes and has gaps in the presentation of the material, one of which is essential. Mark 6 (six) - is awarded to the student that a) gives evidence of the sufficient theoretical knowledge, according to the material of the program, b) shows the knowledge of the material, but insufficient c) makes mistakes in speech and has gaps in presentation of the theoretical notions. Mark 5 (five) - (lowest passing mark) is assigned to the student that a) gives evidence of theoretical knowledge of several chapters of the curriculum, b) shows insufficient knowledge of the material of the program, c) makes mistakes and essential gaps in the presentation of the material of the program d) has many mistakes in presentation of the theoretical notions.

MODEL OF THE EVALUATION STRATEGIES OF THE WRITTEN TESTS/ANSWERS AT THE EXAMINATION

1) 2) 3)

Requirements for the formulation of the questions: Clarity and correctness of the questions’ formulation; Questions’ correspondence to the material of the program; Objective division of the material (on volume, content and essence) in every proposed question.

In case when the examination card contains 2 questions, both theoretical, as in the examination card, the same at the definition presented on the blackboard or screen during the examination to all the students, thus in the analytical plan: 1) Should be indicated maximum possible score (points) accumulated for the correct answer, axhaustive to all three questions;

Should be inticated maximum possible score (points) accumulated for the correct answer, eaxhaustive for each question ; 3) Should be specified the percents’ parameters from which the number of points is given;
2)

Model of mark calculation at the written examination: For the total score of 100 points Mark for the question from theoretical philosophy - 55% Mark for the question from the history of philosophy- 45% From 97 to 100 points – mark „ten” From 91 to 97 – mark „nine” From 81 to 90 – mark „eight” From 72 to 80 – mark „seven” From 61 to 71 – mark „six” From 51 to 60 – mark „five” From 41 to 50 – mark „four” From 31 to 40 – mark „three” From 21 to 30 – mark „two” From 11 to 20 – mark „one” Explanation of the poits by parametres: For the I question (theoretical) – evaluation of gnoseological competences: 1. Logical, consecutive, convincing presentation of the material of the program – 20 points.
2. Argumentation of philosophical concepts, mentioning philosophers in this domain and the reference to their works – 15 points. 3. Usage of personal arguments on the basis of individual investigation, realized beyond the program, with formulation of some original conclusions – 15 points. 4. Linguistic level of presentation (use of scientific terminology of the discipline, style, orthography, language)- 5 points.

For the II question (theoretical) – evaluation of gnoseological competences: 1. Logical, consecutive, convincing presentation of the material of the program – 15 points. 2. Argumentation of philosophical concepts, mentioning philosophers in this domain and the reference to their works – 15 points. 3. Usage of personal arguments on the basis of individual investigation, realized beyond the program, with formulation of some original conclusions – 10 points. 4. Linguistic level of presentation (use of scientific terminology of the discipline, style, orthography, language)- 5 points. Example of the model of mark calculation at the oral examination: For the total score of 100% Mark for the question from the theoretic philosophy – 55 % Mark for the question from history of philosophy – 45% 100% - mark „ten” 90% - mark „nine”

80% - mark „eight” 70% - mark „seven” 60% - mark „six” 50% - mark „five” 40% - mark „four” 30% - mark „three” 20% - mark „two” 10% - mark „one” Explanation of the points by parametres: For the I question (theoretical) – evaluation of gnoseological competences: 1. Logical, consecutive, convincing presentation of the material of the program – 15 points. 2. Argumentation of philosophical concepts, mentioning philosophers in this domain and the reference to their works – 15 points. 3. Usage of personal arguments on the basis of individual investigation, realized beyond the program, with formulation of some original conclusions – 15 points. 4. Linguistic level of presentation (use of scientific terminology of the discipline, style, orthography, language)- 10 points.

For the II question (theoretical) – evaluation of gnoseological competences: 1. Logical, consecutive, convincing presentation of the material of the program – 15 points. 2. Argumentation of philosophical concepts, mentioning philosophers in this domain and the reference to their works – 15 points. 3. Usage of personal arguments on the basis of individual investigation, realized beyond the program, with formulation of some original conclusions – 15 points. 4. Linguistic level of presentation (use of scientific terminology of the discipline, style, orthography, language)- 10 points. QUESTIONS FOR THE EXAMINATION 1. What is philosophy? 2. The origin of philosophy 3. The relation among Philosophy, Science and Religion 4. The concept of “ Ontology” 5. The concept of “existence” 6. The fundamental concepts of Ontology, Matter and Conscience 7. The fundamental concepts of Ontology. Time and Space. 8. The concept of “learning” 9. Rational and sensory learning 10. The concept of “truth” 11. Human essence and existence 12. Individual. Individuality. Personality. 13. Human freedom and necessities. 14. The man and the human condition 15. The concept of “culture” 16. Culture and civilization 17. Culture and knowledge

18. Culture and values 19. Culture and communication 20. Greek pre-Socratic philosophy. 21. Socratic philosophy. Socratic schools. 22. Plato’s philosophy 23. Aristotle’s philosophy. 24. Philosophy in the Hellenistic period 25. Patristic philosophy. Apologetics. 26. Patristic philosophy. Aureliu Augustin. 27. Scholastic philosophy. The Dispute between Realism and Nominalism. 28. Scholastic philosophy. Toma d`Aquino. 29. Philosophy in Renaissance Period. Humanism. 30. Philosophy in Renaissance. Nature Philosophy. 31. Philosophy in Renaissance. Social thought and the reformist movement. 32. Philosophy in the Modern period. The Empiricism. 33. Philosophy in the Modern period. The Rationalism. 34. Philosophy in the Modern period. Illuminism. 35. The critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant. 36. The philosophic system of G.W.F. Hegel. 37. Marxist philosophy. 38. Positivist philosophy. 39. Life philosophy. 40. Existentialist philosophy 41. Pragmatist philosophy 42. Romanian philosophy. Humanism and Illuminism. 43. Romanian philosophy. Vasile Conta, Titu Maiorescu, C. Rădulescu-Motru 44. Romanian philosophy. Lucian Blaga. Mircea Florian, Constantin Noica.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Mandatory sources
Location of Publication Oxford Oxford Bucuresti Bucuresti Oxford Year of publication 2010 2010 2008 1995 2010

Nr. 1 2 3 4 5

Author Alvarez Andreou, White Aristh Mirela Bagdasar N. Bartha

Title Kinds of Reasons The Thief of Time Introducere in filosofie Antologie filosofică By Parallel Reasoning

Publisher Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Edusoft Editura Universal Dassi Oxford University Press

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Beebee, Dodd Bernecker Boboc Al. Boghossian Burge Burge Capcelea V. Cohen Crowther Currie Davies Davis, Keshen et al

Truthmakers Memory Filosofia contemporană. Orientări şi stiluri de gândire. Fear of Knowledge Truth, Thought, Reason Origins of Objectivity Filosofie. Manual pentru instituţiile de învăţământ superior. Rousseau The Kantian Aesthetic Narratives and Narrators Philosophical Perspectives on Art Ethics and Humanity

Oxford Oxford Bucuresti Oxford Oxford Oxford Chişinău Oxford Oxford Oxford Oxford Oxford

Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Editura didactică şi pedagogică Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Editura ARC Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press

2005 2009 1995 2006 2005 2010 2002 2010 2010 2010 2007 2010

B. Optional sources
Nr. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Author Fantl, McGrath Feldman Forrest García-Carpintero, Kölbel Gendler, Hawthorne Griffin Guyer Title Knowledge in an Uncertain World What Is This Thing Called Happiness? Developmental Theism Relative Truth Perceptual Experience On Human Rights Kant's System of Nature and Freedom Location of Publication Oxford Oxford Oxford Oxford Oxford Oxford Oxford Publisher Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Oxford University Press Year of publication 2009 2010 2007 2008 2006 2008 2005

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

Helm Holden Holtug Horgan, Timmons Horsten Leon, Pettigrew Richard Huggett Hylton Lackey, Sosa Leng Macdonald, Macdonald Meyers Miller Paddy McQueen , Hilary McQueen, Priest, Beall et al Ravenscroft Skyrms Smith, Thomasson Wendler Wilkinson

Love, Friendship, and the Self Spectres of False Divinity Persons, Interests, and Justice Metaethics after Moore Continuum Companion to Philosophical Logic Everywhere and Everywhen Propositions, Functions, and Analysis The Epistemology of Testimony Mathematics and Reality Emergence in Mind Journalism Ethics Globalizing Justice Philosophy: Key Texts The Law of Non-Contradiction Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals Signals Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind The Ethics of Pediatric Research Choosing Tomorrow's Children

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Useful internet links:

Ancient Greek Philosophy
• • ALEXANDRIA on the Web Ancient Philosophy Home Page

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aristotle, On the Soul(de anima) Bjorn's Guide To Philosophers Bryn Mawr Classical Review Classical Resources (J. Ruebel) Classics Alcove Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology Home Page Classics at the Online Literature Library Classics Resource List (Gopher):University of Toronto Database Union List for Oxford Academic Libraries Diotima's Art Links Diotima: Women & Gender in the Ancient World English-Greek Word Search Epicurus & Epicurean Philosophy Page Exploring Ancient World Cultures Gnomon: Titelseite Hellenistic Greek Linguistics Pages HTML Index to TOCS-IN Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts Web Laboratoire d'Analyse Statistique des Langues Anciennes-Universite de Liege Library of Congress Greek and Latin Classics Internet Resources Library of Congress Resources for Greek and Latin Classics Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon Perseus Project Home Page Plutarque: Des Opinions des Philsophes, en francais, tr. J. Amyot Plotinus' The Six Enneads Rhetorical Figures-A Glossary of Rhetorical Terms with Examples Traditio:A leading journal of ancient and medieval history, thought, and religion Universite de Liege - Laboratoire d'Analyse Statistique des Langues Anciennes The U.K. Classics Department VOICE OF THE SHUTTLE HOME PAGE Works of Aristotle in English Translation Works of Plato in English Translation Back to top of Page.

Ancient Roman Philosophy
• • • • • • • • Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar, Table of Contents Caesar, Julius: De bello gallico(Latin text) Classics 203: Latin Resources Electronic Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Latin texts(Caesar,Cicero...) Index of Resources for History Recentiores: Later Latin Texts and Contexts: Monograph series published by U. of Michigan Back to top of Page.

Medieval Philosophy
• • • • • • • • Accessus ad linguam latinam medii aetatis A Long Latin Wordlist of Learning Medieval Latin ARTFL Project: Database Search Form Athena Auteurs d'Expression francaise Augustine Augustinus: De dialectica (latin text) Augustinus: De dialectica (English tr.by J. Marchand) Boethius:Consolation of Philosophy

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Bryn Mawr Medieval Review Classics 203:Latin Resources The Ecole Initiative: Index Page The City of God Fathers of the Church Guide to Christian Literature on the Internet Guide to Early Church Documents Guide To Philosophers - Augustine Guide To Philosophers - Aquinas Index of history/Europe/Medieval/latintexts/ James J. O'Donnell Home Page Labyrinth Library: Latin Texts The Online Medieval and Classical Library (DL SunSITE) Summa Theologica:Hypertext Version by Kevin Knight & Richard Cheung Vatican Exhibit Rome Reborn Back to top of Page.

Modern Philosophy
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Berkley, George: A Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Bacon, Francis: On Truth(1601) Deism--The World Union of Deists Rene Descartes and the Legacy of Mind/Body Dualism Philosophers - Descartes Edinburghers-Adam Smith 1723-90 Eighteenth-Century Resources Emerson, Ralph Waldo: The Method of Nature(1841) Guide To Philosophers - Heidegger Heidegger Reference Philosophers - Hegel Philosophers - Hobbes Philosophers - Hume Guide To Philosophers - Kant Kant: The Critique of Practical Reason, tr. by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason, tr. by J.M.D.Meiklejohn Kant: The Critique of Judgement, tr. by James Creed Meredith Leibniz Guide To Philosophers - Leibniz Locke, John: An Essay concerning Human Understanding Locke, John: A Letter concerning Toleration:tr. in English by William Popple Philosophers - Locke Malblanche, Nicolas: Meditations sur l'humilite et la penitence The Marx/Engels Internet Archive Philosophers - Mill Philosophers - Nietzsche The Nietzsche Page at USC Pascal, Blaise: La Machine d'Arithmetique Pascal: Pensees, tr. in English by W. F. Trotter

Dr. Christian Perring's Home Page

• • •

Visit Chris Phillip's Society for Philosophical Inquiry - Excellent! The Karl Popper Web The Ayn Rand Institute Web site.

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Guide To Philosophers - Rousseau Guide To Philosophers - Russell From Cliff Skoog: Thinking's Legacy and the Evolution of Experience From Kevin Solway: The Thinking Man's Minefield Philosophers - Spinoza More on Spinoza Allan Sztab: PHILOSOPHY FOR FREE - A Comprehensive Treaty On Freedom And Morality Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited (book) by Shmuel Vaknin, PhD Voltaire: Candide Voltaire: Micromegas Otto Weininger on the Internet Guide To Philosophers - Wittgenstein Back to top of Page.

Philosophy in general including the Tao Te Jing.
• • • • • • • • • A Trilogy on Utopian philosophy Philosophy - Excellent resource. Information on 19 different philosophers from Plato to Wittgenstein. Ethics Updates Les Humains Associйs LisThink, the philosophy mailing list for everyone. Project Muse Home Page PSYCHE: an interdisciplinary journal of research on consciousness Resources in Philosophy Lao Tzu's 'Tao teh Ching' -a new, corrected and readable version.

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