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PETROGRAPHIC REPORT ON THIRTEEN DRILL CORE

SAMPLES FROM THE ABONG PROJECT, ACEH, INDONESIA

For

East Asia Minerals Corporation

Reference: Meeting with David Royle 17-3-08

P.M. Ashley (MAusIMM, FSEG)


Paul Ashley Petrographic and Geological Services
37 Bishop Crescent
Armidale
NSW 2350
Australia
Phone: 61 2 6772 8293, email: pashley@une.edu.au

ABN 59 334 039 958


April, 2008 Report #488
SUMMARY

A suite of thirteen small drill core slab samples was delivered on 17-3-08 for
petrographic preparation, description and interpretation. The samples were
derived from the Bintang and Bulan (Fikri) mineralised zones of the Abong
prospect, located in Aceh Province, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Samples
from Bintang were labelled BIN1-6 and were from drill hole ABD 08. Samples
from the Bulan (Fikri) zone were labelled FIK1-7 and were from drill holes
ABD 01, 02, 03, 06, 12 and 21. Depths of samples from the various drill holes
were all rather shallow, from 14-15 m to 67.7 m downhole. Consequently,
several samples displayed evidence of minor supergene oxidation effects. Ten
polished thin sections were prepared from the samples, as many contained
visible sulphide minerals. From the remaining three samples, standard thin
sections were prepared. Polished thin sections were examined
microscopically in transmitted and reflected light whereas the thin sections
were examined in transmitted and oblique reflected light. Each sample was
measured for magnetic susceptibility, but all readings were found to be very
low. Photomicrographs were taken in order to illustrate selected textural and
mineralogical features.

Summary descriptions of each sample are listed following:

BIN1 ABD08 24.6m TS


Summary: Very strongly hydrothermally altered amygdular andesite. The rock was
originally dominated by small plagioclase laths, with minor interstitial ferromagnesian
material, fine grained groundmass and FeTi oxide. It contains scattered amygdules, the
“lizard eggs” of the handspecimen. There is no textural evidence for the rock to represent a
pyroclastic (e.g. lapilli tuff) or for the quartz-rich amygdular masses to represent
hydrothermal replacement of pre-existing rock. The andesite has been completely replaced by
fine grained quartz and illite-sericite, with minor disseminated pyrite and trace leucoxene.
Amygdules are variably lined by pyrite and infilled by medium grained, grading to fine
grained quartz, in places with traces of illite-sericite and carbonate.

BIN2 ABD08 28.0m PTS


Summary: Very strongly hydrothermally altered andesite, with total replacement by fine
grained illite-sericite and quartz, plus minor disseminated pyrite and marcasite. The rock
retains moderately preserved relict texture, with pseudomorphs after former small feldspar
(e.g. plagioclase) grains. There is no textural evidence to indicate that the rock was originally
pyroclastic. The altered rock has been pervaded by several irregular veins, ranging from
being rich in quartz to having abundant pyrite and marcasite. Quartz vein textures include
fine to medium grained inequigranular and prismatic types, including crystal growth into
voids. No discrete precious metal phase is observed.

BIN3 ABD08 34.5 m PTS


Summary: Finely laminated, fine grained mudstone, locally with thin siltstone laminae and
containing small amounts of disseminated pyrite and marcasite, along with carbonaceous
wisps and pervasive weak carbonaceous pigmentation. Relict bedding laminations are
present, defined by small variations in detrital grain type and grainsize. Quartz is the main
detrital grain phase. Matrix material, dominating the mudstone, is composed of very fine
illite-sericite and quartz. The rock may have undergone diagenetic alteration, with
emplacement of a couple of thin cross-cutting veins of opaline silica. The Fe sulphides occur
as disseminations, porphyroblastic aggregates and small pyrite framboids.

BIN4 ABD08 39.8 m PTS


Summary: Fine grained, hydrothermally silicified sedimentary rock, perhaps originally a
mudstone or cherty argillite. The rock was rather massive and had scattered small detrital
quartz grains. There has been almost completely replacement of the original rock by fine
grained granular quartz, with a little clay. There has been emplacement of a breccia vein and
several other sub-planar veins and irregular patches dominated by fine to medium grained
quartz, with locally coarsely crystalline quartz in the breccia vein. Textures of hydrothermal
quartz range from granular to inequigranular and prismatic and are typical of the epithermal
environment. The rock contains minor amounts of pyrite and marcasite in scattered irregular
aggregates and fine disseminations, mainly in the veining. Minor supergene oxidation effects
have led to patchy dissolution of the Fe sulphides and the formation of minor aggregates and
veins of jarosite and/or goethite.

BIN5 ABD08 47.8 m PTS


Summary: Hydrothermal breccia with a matrix-supported texture and scattered strongly
altered fragments in a fine to medium grained hydrothermal matrix composed largely of
quartz. The breccia fragments represent former fine grained siltstone with relict detrital
quartz grain texture and have been largely replaced by fine grained quartz, with minor clay
(kaolinite), illite-sericite, pyrite and marcasite. The matrix quartz is mostly finely
inequigranular, but ranges to medium grained and prismatic, growing into scattered cavities.
There is minor disseminated marcasite and pyrite, with a little clay partly filling some
cavities. Supergene oxidation effects are largely manifest by a few thin jarosite veins.

BIN6 ABD08 66.5 m TS


Summary: Coarse bioclastic limestone, with fine to medium grained recrystallisation.
Fragments are composed of former fossil material as well as micrite and are variably enclosed
in a fine grained recrystallised micritic matrix. The latter has minor amounts of fine grained
pyrite (locally concentrated into stylolitic aggregates) and a clay/illite-sericite phase. A few
irregular calcite veins cut the recrystallised rock.

FIK1 ABD01 23.2 m PTS


Summary: Hydrothermal breccia displaying a texture that ranges from clast-supported to
matrix-supported. Fragments in the breccia are angular, commonly veined and composed of
strongly altered fine grained siltstone, grading to mudstone. They have been replaced by
finely granular quartz, with generally minor illite-sericite and traces of disseminated pyrite
and marcasite. The infill between fragments and veins in fragments is composed of fine
grained, grading to medium grained inequigranular to prismatic quartz, in places with
crystalline quartz projecting into cavities. The infill also contains a little fine grained
disseminated marcasite and pyrite. Most of the sulphides have been destroyed by supergene
oxidation, with development of jarosite veins, cavity infillings and disseminations.

FIK2 ABD02 63.6 m PTS


Summary: Matrix-supported hydrothermal breccia, with scattered small fragments of altered
fine grained sedimentary rock (siltstone-mudstone with relict detrital quartz grains and
minor carbonaceous material and finely dispersed Fe sulphides). The breccia fragments are
enclosed in a hydrothermal matrix of dominant finely granular quartz, with minor illite-
sericite and isolated grains of medium grained quartz and patches of quartz infilling of
cavities, plus aggregates of fine grained marcasite and pyrite. Subsequently, it appears as
though the rock has been invaded by fine to medium grained inequigranular to prismatic
quartz, forming irregular masses and a couple of sub-planar veins. Quartz textures in the
sample are typical of formation in an epithermal environment.

FIK3 ABD03 14-15 m PTS


Summary: Matrix-supported hydrothermal breccia exhibiting angular to slabby fragments of
altered fine grained mudstone, veined by, and enclosed in, a quartz-rich hydrothermal
matrix. The fragments have been largely replaced by fine grained quartz, with minor illite-
sericite and a little disseminated fine grained pyrite, marcasite and arsenopyrite. Breccia infill
is composed of paragenetically early domains of finely inequigranular quartz, with
intergrown fine grained arsenopyrite and a little pyrite, with later deposited fine to medium
grains (and locally coarse grained) inequigranular to prismatic and plumose textured quartz
in cavity and vein infillings. The latter type of quartz has minor included aggregates of
arsenopyrite and local traces of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and tetrahedrite.
Patchy supergene oxidation effects have led to development of a few veins of fine grained
jarosite and scorodite.

FIK4 ABD06 30-31 m PTS


Summary: Hydrothermal infill material dominated by differing quartz textural types, all
characteristic of deposition in an epithermal environment. The rock contains a few small
wispy fragments of possible host rock that have been replaced by fine grained illite-sericite
and quartz (possible former mudstone). There are three textural types of quartz, with early
finely granular material, followed by medium grained quartz showing sub-radiating,
plumose and prismatic texture, followed by later stage fine grained quartz, with the latter
commonly intergrown with fine grained clay, carbonaceous material and pyrite. Fine grained
marcasite and pyrite, with trace arsenopyrite occur in the other textural types of quartz.
Slight supergene oxidation is manifest by development of traces of jarosite.

FIK5 ABD06 67.7 m TS


Summary: Recrystallised bioclastic limestone, with scattered fragments of former fossil and
micritic material in a recrystallised matrix. Fine to medium grained inequigranular calcite is
intergrown with traces of quartz and pyrite. There are a few very thin stylolites, possibly
composed of carbonaceous material. The rock has been pervaded by several veins of fine to
medium grained calcite.

FIK6 ABD12 27.05m PTS


Summary: Fine grained mudstone/siltstone, with scattered small detrital grains of quartz in a
matrix of fine grained illite-sericite and quartz, with minor fine grained disseminations and
aggregates of pyrite (including framboids). The rock has probably undergone diagenesis,
followed by hydrothermal alteration, with the latter process indicated by the occurrence of
elongate to irregular aggregates of fine to medium grained marcasite, commonly
overgrowing aggregates of pyrite. There is no strong evidence for the rock to have undergone
silicification.

FIK7 ABD21 29.0m PTS


Summary: Fine to medium grained, strongly altered intermediate to mafic igneous rock,
originally dominated by plagioclase laths, with minor amounts of ferromagnesian
phenocrysts and interstitial groundmass material. There has been complete replacement of
the igneous rock by albite, carbonate, illite-sericite, and clay, with minor disseminated fine
grained marcasite, pyrite and leucoxene. The altered rock has been cut by several irregular to
sub-planar veins that range from carbonate-rich to Fe-sulphide-rich. Sulphides are dominated
by fine to medium grained marcasite, in places enclosing pyrite aggregates. There is no
textural evidence that the sample represents a pyroclastic rock.

Interpretation and comments

Samples in the suite represent variably hydrothermally altered fine grained


clastic sedimentary rocks, bioclastic limestone and intermediate to mafic
igneous rocks. The fine grained clastic sedimentary rocks are mudstone and
siltstone, being represented in samples BIN3-5, FIK1-4 and FIK6. However, in
samples FIK4 and BIN5, the proportion of altered sedimentary rock is minor
and restricted to a few fragments within hydrothermal breccias. Bioclastic
limestone is present in BIN6 and FIK5, with the igneous rocks being
represented by BIN1-2 and FIK7.

Primary mudstone and siltstone are massive to weakly laminated (bedding


laminations), with siltstone typically displaying fine grained relict detrital
grain texture (mostly detrital quartz). The siltstone matrix material and the
mudstone are essentially the same, having little or no recognisable detrital
grains and being dominated by very fine grained illite-sericite and quartz,
with some samples containing small amounts of carbonaceous material (e.g.
as pervasive pigmentation, as small wispy aggregates) and (diagenetic) Fe
sulphides (fine grained pyrite, marcasite). It is assumed that the mudstone-
siltstone type sedimentary rocks would have been initially deposited in rather
reducing conditions. Bioclastic limestone displays fragmental texture, with
fragments of fossil material and micrite, generally enclosed in a micritic
matrix. The igneous rocks have moderate preservation of relict texture and
this demonstrates (a) that none of these samples represent pyroclastic
material (at least on the scale of the handspecimens) and that (b) the
macroscopic “lizard egg” texture in BIN1 is due to quartz-rich amygdular
fillings. The igneous rocks were originally dominated by randomly oriented
small plagioclase laths, but there are pseudomorphs after possible
ferromagnesian grains in FIK7. Due to strong pervasive hydrothermal
alteration, it is not possible to accurately gauge the original compositions of
the igneous rocks, although they were most likely intermediate to mafic.

All the samples in the suite display alteration, with many also showing
veining and hydrothermal brecciation. Alteration is pervasive, and although
in some of the fine grained clastic sedimentary rocks and the limestones,
might be simply the product of diagenesis, it is more likely that it is due
largely to hydrothermal processes. In the igneous rocks, pervasive alteration
is of argillic-phyllic type in BIN1-2, with replacement by illite-sericite, quartz
and minor Fe sulphides and leucoxene. The amygdules in BIN1 are mainly
filled by fine to medium grained quartz, with minor pyrite around amygdule
rims. In FIK7, alteration is interpreted to be of transitional propylitic-argillic
type, with replacement by albite, illite-sericite and carbonate, with minor Fe
sulphides and leucoxene. In the limestones, alteration is probably manifest by
recrystallisation, but there has also been minor development of pyrite and
local quartz and clay/illite-sericite. In the mudstone-siltstone, alteration
ranges between argillic-phyllic type and strong silicification, with the
replacement assemblages ranging from being rather rich in illite-sericite, to
being dominated by quartz. In places, kaolinitic clay has developed, along
with fine disseminations and aggregates of pyrite and marcasite, trace
leucoxene, trace arsenopyrite (in FIK3), and maturation of carbonaceous
material (perhaps to form coaly or pyrobitumen material as well as ultrafine
pyrite, e.g. in FIK4). In the fine grained clastic rocks, silicification is
demonstrated by more-or-less complete replacement by finely granular
quartz. In several of the sedimentary rock samples, it is evident that tiny
framboidal pyrite aggregates formed as part of the hydrothermal alteration.

Hydrothermal brecciation phenomena occur in several samples (BIN5, FIK1-


4), with veining also occurring in several others. Brecciation has led to the
formation of angular to locally slabby fragments, commonly arranged in
matrix-supported fashion. Only locally are the breccia textures clast-
supported. Many breccia fragments are also veined by the same material and
the breccia infill. The latter is typically dominated by quartz, with a wide
range of grainsize (very fine through to coarse) and textures (includes
granular, inequigranular, crustiform banded, prismatic, crystalline projections
into cavities, plumose and lattice). Quartz textures in infill (and also as
replacement of clastic sedimentary fragments) are typical of those found in
epithermal systems. There is evidence for the former presence of chalcedony,
subsequently replaced by quartz, and of former bladed carbonate, replaced by
quartz (lattice texture, e.g. in BIN5), indicative of hydrothermal fluid boiling.
Other components of breccia and vein fillings include disseminations and
aggregates of pyrite and marcasite (in most samples), carbonate (only in veins
in FIK7 and in the bioclastic limestone samples BIN6 and FIK5), illite-sericite
and clay (e.g. in FIK4), carbonaceous material (e.g. in FIK4), arsenopyrite (in
FIK3-4) and base metal sulphides (only in FIK3).

Mineralisation in most samples in the suite is restricted to the presence of


disseminated and vein hosted Fe sulphides (pyrite and/or marcasite). These
phases are typically fine to medium grained. Pyrite occurs uncommonly in
tiny framboidal aggregates in the altered fine grained clastic sedimentary
rocks (diagenetic perhaps) and locally in hydrothermal infill. Marcasite and
pyrite commonly form composite intergrowths, in places with marcasite
deposited in crustiform fashion on pyrite. It is speculated that pyrite and
marcasite are likely to be As-bearing. Arsenopyrite has only been observed in
FIK3 and FIK4, mostly within hydrothermal infill. The occurrence of base
metal sulphides is restricted to sample FIK3, where vein quartz hosts a few
grains and composite aggregates of sphalerite (probably Fe-poor),
chalcopyrite, galena and tetrahedrite. No discrete precious metal phase has
been observed in any sample. Consequently, it is assumed that gold grades in
the samples are hosted “invisibly” (i.e. chemically held) in arsenian pyrite and
marcasite, and arsenopyrite, and/or in sub-microscopic particles.

Supergene oxidation effects are present in several samples (e.g. BIN4-5, FIK1,
FIK3-4), resulting in partial dissolution of the Fe sulphides and the formation
of fine grained disseminations and irregular veins and aggregates of jarosite,
along with a few voids. Scorodite has been identified as an oxidation phase in
FIK3 and it possibly occurs in a couple of other samples, although it is
difficult to distinguish from jarosite. Traces of goethite also occur locally. It is
possible that supergene oxidation might (a) cause local enhancement of gold
assay values, and (b) cause particulate gold of high fineness to form.

The alteration and mineralisation characteristics of the suite are interpreted to


be consistent with formation in a low-sulphidation epithermal system.
Individual sample
descriptions
BIN1 ABD08 24.6m TS
Summary: Very strongly hydrothermally altered amygdular andesite. The rock was
originally dominated by small plagioclase laths, with minor interstitial ferromagnesian
material, fine grained groundmass and FeTi oxide. It contains scattered amygdules, the
“lizard eggs” of the handspecimen. There is no textural evidence for the rock to represent a
pyroclastic (e.g. lapilli tuff) or for the quartz-rich amygdular masses to represent
hydrothermal replacement of pre-existing rock. The andesite has been completely replaced by
fine grained quartz and illite-sericite, with minor disseminated pyrite and trace leucoxene.
Amygdules are variably lined by pyrite and infilled by medium grained, grading to fine
grained quartz, in places with traces of illite-sericite and carbonate.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a fine grained, buff to pale grey coloured,
strongly altered igneous rock, with scattered spheroidal to ovoid patches of fine grained grey
quartz up to 8 mm across. These were colloquially termed “lizard eggs”. The rock has been
strongly replaced by fine grained sericite or clay, with associated quartz and minor pyrite,
and has been cut by a single quartz vein. The sample is essentially non-magnetic, with
susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, relict igneous texture is moderately
preserved. The rock was originally dominated by a mass of small feldspar laths up to 1 mm
long that are randomly oriented (Fig. 1). It is likely that they were plagioclase, judging by
relict shape. Interstitial to the feldspar grains was a minor amount of fine groundmass,
possible ferromagnesian material and a little FeTi oxide. The rock has distinctive rounded to
irregular quartz-rich masses up to 7 mm across that are interpreted as amygdules (Fig. 1).
There is no textural evidence that the quartz-rich masses have actually replaced pre-existing
rock, but simply represent infill. Similarly, there is no textural evidence that the rock was
originally fragmental (e.g. lapilli tuff); it was in fact a relatively homogeneous intermediate
igneous rock, perhaps of andesitic composition.
Fig. 1: Amygdule (left) filled with finely granular quartz and lined by somewhat coarser
quartz, plus pyrite (black) in altered intermediate igneous rock, with relict texture after
former plagioclase laths. The host rock has been altered to fine grained illite-sericite, quartz
and pyrite. Transmitted light, crossed polars, field of view 2 mm across.
b) Alteration and structure: There has been very strong pervasive hydrothermal alteration
imposed. The rock has been totally replaced, with all former feldspar, groundmass and
ferromagnesian material being replaced by fine grained quartz, illite-sericite, disseminated
pyrite (Fig. 1) and a trace of leucoxene. Former small FeTi oxide grains have been replaced by
leucoxene. There are several scattered fine to medium grained quartz-rich replacement zones
and these are morphologically different to the spheroidal to irregular quartz-rich masses. The
latter are up to 7 mm across and have hydrothermal infill components, not replacement. They
are commonly partly lined by pyrite aggregates, with infill of medium grained
inequigranular to prismatic quartz (Fig. 1), in places projecting into voids. A few amygdules
have final filling by finely granular quartz and others contain traces of carbonate and illite-
sericite and one shows a thin crust of chalcedony deposited on to crystalline quartz infill. The
observed alteration assemblage in the sample is of argillic-phyllic type.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The rock contains disseminated pyrite throughout as part
of the alteration assemblage and as initial amygdule filling (Fig. 1). Individual anhedral pyrite
grains are up to 0.7 mm across, with aggregates up to 2 mm across.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 50%, illite/sericite 45%, pyrite
4% and traces of leucoxene, carbonate and chalcedony.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample represents a very strongly
hydrothermally altered amygdular andesite. It contained abundant small plagioclase laths,
with minor interstitial ferromagnesian material, FeTi oxide and fine grained groundmass.
There is no textural evidence for the rock to represent a pyroclastic (e.g. lapilli tuff) or for the
quartz-rich amygdular masses to represent hydrothermal replacement of pre-existing rock.
The andesite has been completely replaced by fine grained quartz and illite-sericite, with
minor disseminated pyrite and trace leucoxene. Amygdules are variably lined by pyrite and
infilled by medium grained, grading to fine grained quartz, in places with traces of illite-
sericite and carbonate.
BIN2 ABD08 28.0m PTS
Summary: Very strongly hydrothermally altered andesite, with total replacement by fine
grained illite-sericite and quartz, plus minor disseminated pyrite and marcasite. The rock
retains moderately preserved relict texture, with pseudomorphs after former small feldspar
(e.g. plagioclase) grains. There is no textural evidence to indicate that the rock was originally
pyroclastic. The altered rock has been pervaded by several irregular veins, ranging from
being rich in quartz to having abundant pyrite and marcasite. Quartz vein textures include
fine to medium grained inequigranular and prismatic types, including crystal growth into
voids. No discrete precious metal phase is observed.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a fine grained, pale grey coloured, strongly
altered igneous rock, with dark grey, diffuse veins up to several millimetres wide cutting in
random orientation. The rock has been altered to fine grained sericite/clay and quartz, with
the veins being composed of fine grained pyrite, locally with centrally located quartz. The
sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, it is evident that the rock is very strongly
hydrothermally altered and veined, but relict igneous texture is moderately preserved (Fig.
2). The rock is very similar to BIN1 and displays pseudomorphs after former small feldspar
laths (probably plagioclase) up to 0.8 mm long. There would have been a minor amount of
interstitial groundmass, perhaps including ferromagnesian material and FeTi oxide. From the
relict texture, the sample is inferred to represent a coherent igneous rock, e.g. andesite. There
is no textural evidence for it to have been pyroclastic.

Fig. 2: Altered intermediate igneous rock, with pseudomorphic texture after former
plagioclase laths, and replacement by fine grained illite-sericite, quartz and pyrite. The
altered rock is cut by a couple of veins of quartz showing granular and prismatic texture.
Transmitted light, crossed polars, field of view 2 mm across.
b) Alteration and structure: Very strong pervasive hydrothermal alteration has been imposed.
The rock has been totally replaced, with all former feldspar, groundmass and ferromagnesian
material being altered to fine grained quartz, illite-sericite, disseminated pyrite and marcasite
(Fig. 2), and a trace of leucoxene. In places, there are irregular quartz aggregates up to 2 mm
across as well as a few very fine grained aggregates of pyrite up to 0.5 mm across. The altered
rock has been cut by several anastomosing veins up to a few millimetres wide that range
from quartz-rich (Fig. 2) to Fe-sulphide-rich. The latter contain abundant pyrite and marcasite
and have diffuse margins, grading into the host rock. Sulphide-rich veins locally contain
quartz-rich centres. In the veins, quartz ranges from fine to medium grained and from
inequigranular to prismatic, with crystals growing into local cavities (Fig. 2). The alteration
assemblage in the sample is of argillic-phyllic type.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The rock contains abundant Fe-sulphides, mainly in


irregular veins, but there is also a minor amount disseminated as part of the pervasive
alteration assemblage. In the veins, aggregates of intergrown marcasite and pyrite, or discrete
masses of pyrite, are up to several millimetres across. Individual grainsize of pyrite or
marcasite is up to 0.4 mm, but commonly finer. It is speculated that pyrite and marcasite are
As-bearing, with pyrite being weakly anisotropic under crossed polars. No discrete precious
metal phase has been observed.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 50%, illite/sericite 42%, pyrite
5%, marcasite 3% and a trace of leucoxene.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is a very strongly


hydrothermally altered and veined andesite. The rock retains moderately preserved relict
texture, with pseudomorphs after former small feldspar (e.g. plagioclase) grains. There is no
textural evidence to indicate that the rock was originally pyroclastic. The rock has undergone
total replacement by fine grained illite-sericite and quartz, plus minor disseminated pyrite
and marcasite, and has been pervaded by several irregular veins ranging from quartz-rich to
pyrite-marcasite-rich. Quartz vein textures include fine to medium grained inequigranular
and prismatic types, including crystal growth into voids. No discrete precious metal phase is
observed.
BIN3 ABD08 34.5 m PTS
Summary: Finely laminated, fine grained mudstone, locally with thin siltstone laminae and
containing small amounts of disseminated pyrite and marcasite, along with carbonaceous
wisps and pervasive weak carbonaceous pigmentation. Relict bedding laminations are
present, defined by small variations in detrital grain type and grainsize. Quartz is the main
detrital grain phase. Matrix material, dominating the mudstone, is composed of very fine
illite-sericite and quartz. The rock may have undergone diagenetic alteration, with
emplacement of a couple of thin cross-cutting veins of opaline silica. The Fe sulphides occur
as disseminations, porphyroblastic aggregates and small pyrite framboids.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a relatively massive, fine grained dark brown-
grey sedimentary rock, e.g. mudstone. It may have very fine laminations and is probably
composed of sericite and quartz, with possible carbonaceous pigmentation causing the dark
colour. Uncommon aggregates of pyrite up to several millimetres across are sparsely
scattered. The sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, the rock exhibits fine scale sub-planar
bedding laminations, with thin siltstone layers up to 0.5 mm wide intercalated with thicker
(up to several millimetres) layers of finer grained mudstone (Fig. 3). Detrital grain texture is
well preserved in the siltstone laminae, with individual grains up to 0.1 mm across. Detrital
grains are rarer in the mudstone, which is dominated by fine matrix material. Detrital grains
are mostly quartz, although there are a few small sericitic lithics, altered feldspar, muscovite
and tourmaline. The matrix material is dominated by very fine grained illite-sericite and
quartz, with scattered small elongate carbonaceous aggregates (Fig. 3), a little disseminated
pyrite and marcasite (Fig. 3) and trace leucoxene. The rock is interpreted as a fine grained,
laminated mudstone/siltstone, with small carbonaceous and Fe sulphide components.

Fig. 3: Mudstone with thin siltstone intercalations (small detrital quartz grains), showing
brownish carbonaceous pigmentation and a few small dark brown carbonaceous aggregates.
The black aggregates are pyrite ± marcasite. The rock has been cut by a thin vein of opaline
silica. Plane polarised transmitted light, field of view 2 mm across.

b) Alteration and structure: The rock has probably undergone diagenetic alteration and minor
veining. Former muddy matrix material has finely recrystallised to abundant illite-sericite,
showing slight preferred orientation and containing scattered small wispy aggregates of
carbonaceous material (Fig. 3). The latter represent former organic material that has been
matured into a coaly carbonaceous substance. The rock also contains minor disseminated Fe
sulphides and trace leucoxene. Finer grained Fe sulphides include composite aggregates and
individual grains of pyrite and/or marcasite (Fig. 3), as well as small framboidal aggregates
of pyrite. In composite aggregates, marcasite tends to overgrow pyrite. The rock contains a
single large (6 mm) aggregate of fine to medium grained crystalline pyrite. A couple of sub-
planar veins up to 0.2 mm wide cut the bedding laminations at low angles. The veins contain
opaline silica (Fig. 3).

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The rock contains irregularly distributed Fe-sulphides,


including as small aggregates of pyrite in framboids, in small disseminated grains and
composite aggregates of pyrite and/or marcasite (rarely up to 2 mm across), and a single
ovoid aggregate of fine to medium grained pyrite about 6 mm across. In composite
aggregates, marcasite tends to overgrow pyrite.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: illite/sericite 50%, quartz 42%, pyrite
3%, carbonaceous material 2%, marcasite and opaline silica each 1% and a traces of
muscovite, altered feldspar, tourmaline and leucoxene.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample represents a finely laminated,
mudstone, with thin siltstone laminae and containing small amounts of disseminated pyrite
and marcasite, along with carbonaceous wisps and pervasive weak carbonaceous
pigmentation. Relict bedding laminations are defined by small variations in detrital grain
type and grainsize. Quartz is the main detrital grain phase. Matrix material, dominating the
mudstone, is composed of very fine illite-sericite and quartz. The rock may have undergone
diagenetic alteration, with emplacement of a couple of thin cross-cutting veins of opaline
silica. The Fe sulphides occur as disseminations, porphyroblastic aggregates and small pyrite
framboids.
BIN4 ABD08 39.8 m PTS
Summary: Fine grained, hydrothermally silicified sedimentary rock, perhaps originally a
mudstone or cherty argillite. The rock was rather massive and had scattered small detrital
quartz grains. There has been almost completely replacement of the original rock by fine
grained granular quartz, with a little clay. There has been emplacement of a breccia vein and
several other sub-planar veins and irregular patches dominated by fine to medium grained
quartz, with locally coarsely crystalline quartz in the breccia vein. Textures of hydrothermal
quartz range from granular to inequigranular and prismatic and are typical of the epithermal
environment. The rock contains minor amounts of pyrite and marcasite in scattered irregular
aggregates and fine disseminations, mainly in the veining. Minor supergene oxidation effects
have led to patchy dissolution of the Fe sulphides and the formation of minor aggregates and
veins of jarosite and/or goethite.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a fine grained brownish-grey quartz-rich rock,
perhaps representing the product of hydrothermal silicification, or perhaps a chert like
composition. It is locally fractured and veined, with a couple of sub-planar, dark grey breccia
veins up to 6 mm wide and a few thinner white quartz veins. It is possible that the dark vein
fillings are pigmented by finely dispersed sulphides. Slight supergene oxidation is apparent
with thin goethite coatings on a few fractures. The sample is essentially non-magnetic, with
susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, the rock is evidently strongly
hydrothermally altered and veined. It retains possible fine grained relict detrital grain
texture, with small isolated quartz grains, generally <0.01 mm across, in a finely recrystallised
matrix. The rock texture resembles chert (Fig. 4), but judging by the amount of veining and
apparent replacement, it is likely that it represents a hydrothermally silicified mudstone.
Fig. 4: Altered mudstone, replaced by finely granular quartz and cut by a vein of fine to
medium grained granular to prismatic quartz. A jarosite aggregate (dark brownish) occurs
top right. Transmitted light, crossed polars, field of view 2 mm across.

b) Alteration and structure: It is interpreted that an original fine grained clastic sedimentary
rock underwent strong hydrothermal silicification, with replacement of the protolith by finely
granular quartz (with slightly varying grainsize) (Fig. 4), a little fine grained, low-birefringent
clay (e.g. kaolinite) and traces of pyrite, marcasite and leucoxene/rutile. The altered rock has
been cut by a breccia vein about 6 mm wide in which there are fragments of the altered host
rock in a hydrothermal matrix of generally fine grained quartz, but with considerable
variations in grainsize (up to medium to coarse grained and inequigranular to prismatic) and
texture, along with scattered small interstitial patches of clay (kaolinite) and traces of
disseminated pyrite and marcasite. There are also other scattered sub-planar veins and
irregular patches of fine to medium grained inequigranular to prismatic quartz (Fig. 4), in
places accompanied by fine disseminations and coarser aggregates of Fe sulphides, as well as
a few kaolinite aggregates. The latter include discrete very grained framboidal aggregates of
pyrite, isolated small marcasite grains and a few irregular aggregates of fine to medium
grained pyrite and marcasite up to 4 mm long. In places, there is evidence of patchy
supergene oxidation, with dissolution of the Fe sulphides and formation of small aggregates
and thin veins of jarosite (Fig. 4) as well as goethite. Quartz textures in the replaced rock and
in infillings in veining are typical of the epithermal environment.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The silicified host rock contains traces of fine grained
pyrite and marcasite, but most of the Fe sulphides occur in the breccia vein and other quartz-
rich veins, as fine disseminations and aggregates, but grading into substantial elongate
aggregates in some of the quartz veins and patches. The Fe sulphide aggregates are up to 4
mm long, are fine to medium grained and have pyrite intergrown with minor marcasite.
Finely disseminated Fe sulphides include tiny framboidal aggregates of pyrite as well as
discrete grains of marcasite. No particulate precious metal phase has been observed in the
sample.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 90%, clay (kaolinite) 6%, pyrite
2%, marcasite 1% and traces of leucoxene/rutile, jarosite and goethite.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is hydrothermally silicified


sedimentary rock, perhaps originally a fine grained mudstone or cherty argillite apparently
containing small detrital quartz grains. There has been almost completely replacement of the
original rock by fine grained granular quartz, with a little kaolinite and tiny traces of
marcasite and pyrite. There has been emplacement of a breccia vein and several other sub-
planar veins and irregular patches dominated by fine to medium grained quartz, with locally
coarsely crystalline quartz in the breccia vein and a little clay. Textures of hydrothermal
quartz range from granular to inequigranular and prismatic and are typical of the epithermal
environment. The rock contains minor amounts of pyrite and marcasite in scattered irregular
aggregates and fine disseminations, mainly in the veining. Minor supergene oxidation effects
have led to patchy dissolution of the Fe sulphides and the formation of minor aggregates and
veins of jarosite and/or goethite.
BIN5 ABD08 47.8 m PTS
Summary: Hydrothermal breccia with a matrix-supported texture and scattered strongly
altered fragments in a fine to medium grained hydrothermal matrix composed largely of
quartz. The breccia fragments represent former fine grained siltstone with relict detrital
quartz grain texture and have been largely replaced by fine grained quartz, with minor clay
(kaolinite), illite-sericite, pyrite and marcasite. The matrix quartz is mostly finely
inequigranular, but ranges to medium grained and prismatic, growing into scattered cavities.
There is minor disseminated marcasite and pyrite, with a little clay partly filling some
cavities. Supergene oxidation effects are largely manifest by a few thin jarosite veins.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a type of hydrothermal breccia, with a largely
matrix-supported texture. There are pale to dark grey, fine grained siliceous altered
sedimentary rock fragments up to several centimetres across, enclosed in a pale grey to white,
fine grained quartz-rich matrix in which there are scattered voids up to several millimetres
across. Minor fine grained white clay occurs in some voids and there has been slight
imposition of supergene oxidation, with local goethite staining. It is possible that some of the
darker pigmentation in the rock is due to the presence of finely disseminated sulphides. The
sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, it is evident that the sample is a matrix-
supported hydrothermal breccia. There is a large (~3 cm) angular altered sedimentary
fragment and a few small fragments in the breccia, but the latter is dominated by
hydrothermal infill. The fragments are composed of fine grained massive sedimentary rock in
which there is moderate preservation of relict detrital grain texture, with scattered quartz
grain up to 0.1 mm across in a largely recrystallised, fine grained matrix. It is interpreted that
the breccia fragments represent a former siltstone.

b) Alteration and structure: The original fine grained sedimentary rock was strongly
hydrothermally altered and brecciated, with fragments subsequently being dispersed to form
a matrix-supported breccia. Fragments have been largely replaced by fine grained quartz,
with minor fine grained low-birefringent clay (e.g. kaolinite), illite-sericite and traces of
pyrite, marcasite, leucoxene and a carbonaceous substance, possibly graphitic. Altered
siltstone fragments exhibit replacement by scattered irregular fine grained patches of
hydrothermal quartz up to 1.5 mm across and have been cut by a couple of thin veins
containing quartz and clay. The hydrothermal breccia matrix is dominated by finely granular
quartz (Fig. 5), although there are considerable variations in grainsize and gradations into
diffusely banded growth texture, local pseudomorphic texture after former bladed carbonate
(lattice texture) (Fig. 5), pseudomorphic colloform growth textures after former chalcedony,
gradations into patches of medium grained inequigranular to prismatic quartz and rarely into
coarse grained (up to 4 mm) quartz. The irregular patches of medium grained quartz are
commonly associated with cavity infill, although there remain scattered voids, and a few
infillings of low-birefringent clay. Scattered throughout the quartz-rich breccia matrix are fine
disseminations and scattered aggregates up to 0.5 mm across of marcasite and pyrite. There
has been minor imposition of supergene oxidation, indicated by a few irregular veins up to
0.2 mm wide of fine grained jarosite and the occurrence of rare goethite aggregates.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The breccia matrix and the altered breccia fragments
contain minor fine grained disseminated marcasite and pyrite, with aggregates up to 0.5 mm
across. Marcasite is more common than pyrite in the breccia matrix. No discrete precious
metal phase has been observed.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 85%, clay (kaolinite) 10%, illite-
sericite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite each 1% and traces of leucoxene, carbonaceous material
(graphite) and goethite.
Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is a hydrothermal breccia with
a matrix-supported texture and scattered strongly altered fragments in a fine to medium
grained hydrothermal matrix composed largely of quartz. The breccia fragments represent
former fine grained siltstone with relict detrital quartz grain texture and have been largely
replaced by fine grained quartz, with minor clay (kaolinite), illite-sericite, pyrite and
marcasite. The matrix quartz is mostly finely inequigranular, but ranges to medium grained
and prismatic, growing into scattered cavities. There is minor disseminated marcasite and
pyrite, with a little clay partly filling some cavities. Supergene oxidation effects are largely
manifest by a few thin jarosite veins. Quartz textures in the sample are characteristic of
formation in the epithermal environment and imply hydrothermal fluid boiling (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5: Portion of the infill of the hydrothermal breccia with finely granular quartz hosting a
couple of bladed pseudomorphs after former carbonate prisms. The texture is interpreted as a
result of fluid boiling. Transmitted light, crossed polars, field of view 2 mm across.
BIN6 ABD08 66.5 m TS
Summary: Coarse bioclastic limestone, with fine to medium grained recrystallisation.
Fragments are composed of former fossil material as well as micrite and are variably enclosed
in a fine grained recrystallised micritic matrix. The latter has minor amounts of fine grained
pyrite (locally concentrated into stylolitic aggregates) and a clay/illite-sericite phase. A few
irregular calcite veins cut the recrystallised rock.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a type of a brecciated limestone. The texture is
largely clast-supported, with scattered angular to highly irregular pale grey fragments up to
1.5 cm across, with a brown-grey, fine grained matrix that contains a little fine grained pyrite.
Some of the fragments have relict textures indicative that they represent recrystallised
macrofossils. Testing of the section offcut with dilute HCl gave a strong reaction, confirming
that the carbonate present in the limestone is calcite. The sample is essentially non-magnetic,
with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, it is evident that the sample represents a
strongly recrystallised coarse bioclastic limestone. It contains abundant angular fragments up
to 1.5 cm across that include recrystallised fossil material (e.g. portions of shelly material,
corals, possible bryozoa) and fine grained micrite (Fig. 6). Larger fragments are enclosed in a
largely recrystallised matrix that comprises micritic material with scattered small fossil
fragments <1 mm across (Fig. 6). In the matrix, there are aggregates and disseminations of
fine grained pyrite, a pale yellow-brown phase that may include fine grained clay and illite-
sericite (possibly pigmented by organic material) and a tiny dusting of hematite.

Fig. 6: Irregular calcite vein cutting micrite containing small fossil fragments. There is also a
veinlike aggregate of fine grained brown clay and disseminated pyrite (black). Plane
polarised transmitted light, field of view 2 mm across.
b) Alteration and structure: The bioclastic limestone has been strongly recrystallised, with
former micrite remaining fine grained, but most of the fossil fragments recrystallising into
coarser aggregates (e.g. grainsize up to 0.5-1 mm). In places, matrix pyrite and the clay/illite-
sericite phase are concentrated into thin irregular stylolitic concentrations. The rock has been
cut by a couple of irregular medium grained calcite veins up to 3 mm wide (Fig. 6).

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The sample contains disseminations and aggregates of fine
grained pyrite (Fig. 6), mainly in the matrix, interstitial to recrystallised fragments. Pyrite
aggregates are locally stylolitic and up to 3 mm long.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: calcite 97%, pyrite 2%, clay/illite-
sericite 1% and a trace of hematite.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is a coarse bioclastic limestone,
with fragments of recrystallised fossil fragments and micrite, enclosed in a fine grained
recrystallised micritic matrix. The latter has minor amounts of fine grained pyrite (locally
concentrated into stylolitic aggregates) and a clay/illite-sericite phase. A few irregular calcite
veins cut the recrystallised rock.
FIK1 ABD01 23.2 m PTS
Summary: Hydrothermal breccia displaying a texture that ranges from clast-supported to
matrix-supported. Fragments in the breccia are angular, commonly veined and composed of
strongly altered fine grained siltstone, grading to mudstone. They have been replaced by
finely granular quartz, with generally minor illite-sericite and traces of disseminated pyrite
and marcasite. The infill between fragments and veins in fragments is composed of fine
grained, grading to medium grained inequigranular to prismatic quartz, in places with
crystalline quartz projecting into cavities. The infill also contains a little fine grained
disseminated marcasite and pyrite. Most of the sulphides have been destroyed by supergene
oxidation, with development of jarosite veins, cavity infillings and disseminations.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a type of hydrothermal breccia. There are
angular fragments of fine grained altered sedimentary rock up to 2 cm across arranged to
form a mostly clast-supported texture, although in places, the texture is matrix-supported.
Fragments appear to be composed of silicified and the matrix is also dominated by fine
grained quartz. The rock is mostly pale grey in colour, but darker grey domains might be
pigmented by finely dispersed sulphides. Several quartz-rich veins cut the rock and they
display voids where sulphides have been leached out due to supergene oxidation. The rock
has been patchily stained yellow and orange-brown due to the formation of jarosite and
goethite. The sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, it is evident that the sample is a
hydrothermal breccia, with texture ranging from clast-supported (Fig. 7) to matrix-supported.
Fragments are angular and up to 1.5 cm across, with considerable veining and infill between
fragments being dominated by hydrothermal quartz. Fragments are composed of strongly
altered and partly recrystallised fine grained sedimentary rock, in places showing relict
detrital grain texture (quartz grains up to 0.1 mm across). There appears to be a range in
composition from original mudstone to siltstone (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7: Hydrothermal breccia with clast-supported texture. Fragments include mudstone with
illite-sericite alteration (pale yellow-brown) and silicified mudstone-siltstone. Infill is by fine
grained quartz with a little disseminated pyrite (black). Plane polarised transmitted light,
field of view 2 mm across.

b) Alteration and structure: It is interpreted that the original fine grained sedimentary rock
was strongly hydrothermally altered and brecciated, with fragments being incorporated into
a hydrothermal breccia (Fig. 7). Fragments have been replaced by dominant finely granular
quartz, with variable, but commonly minor to negligible amounts of fine grained illite-
sericite, plus traces of fine grained pyrite, marcasite and leucoxene (Fig. 7). Veining through
the fragments and enclosing hydrothermal matrix are dominated by fine grained
inequigranular quartz, grading to medium grained prismatic quartz, with local crystalline
growth into scattered cavities. Quartz textures in the sample are typical of those formed in
the epithermal environment. The infill quartz also contains a little fine grained marcasite and
pyrite (Fig. 7). However, most sulphides in the sample have been destroyed by supergene
oxidation, resulting in the formation of fine grained disseminated jarosite, anastomosing thin
jarosite veins and patchy infill of cavities by jarosite and trace goethite.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: A little fine grained disseminated marcasite and pyrite
formed in the altered fragments and in the hydrothermal infill of the breccia (Fig. 7). Most
sulphides have since been oxidised, with the formation of jarosite and trace goethite.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 85%, illite-sericite 10%, jarosite
4% and traces of pyrite, marcasite, leucoxene and goethite.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample represents a hydrothermal


breccia with textures ranging from clast-supported to matrix-supported. Fragments in the
breccia are angular, commonly veined and composed of strongly altered fine grained
siltstone, grading to mudstone. They have been replaced by finely granular quartz, with
generally minor illite-sericite and traces of disseminated pyrite and marcasite. The infill
between fragments and veins in fragments is composed of fine grained, grading to medium
grained inequigranular to prismatic quartz, in places with crystalline quartz projecting into
cavities. The infill also contains a little fine grained disseminated marcasite and pyrite. Most
of the sulphides have been destroyed by supergene oxidation, with development of jarosite
veins, cavity infillings and disseminations. Quartz textures in the sample are characteristic of
formation in the epithermal environment.
FIK2 ABD02 63.6 m PTS
Summary: Matrix-supported hydrothermal breccia, with scattered small fragments of altered
fine grained sedimentary rock (siltstone-mudstone with relict detrital quartz grains and
minor carbonaceous material and finely dispersed Fe sulphides). The breccia fragments are
enclosed in a hydrothermal matrix of dominant finely granular quartz, with minor illite-
sericite and isolated grains of medium grained quartz and patches of quartz infilling of
cavities, plus aggregates of fine grained marcasite and pyrite. Subsequently, it appears as
though the rock has been invaded by fine to medium grained inequigranular to prismatic
quartz, forming irregular masses and a couple of sub-planar veins. Quartz textures in the
sample are typical of formation in an epithermal environment.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a dark grey, strongly silicified, fine grained
sedimentary rock, commonly displaying a microbreccia texture, with small dark grey
fragments enclosed in a paler grey, fine grained quartz-rich matrix. The rock has been cut by
a couple of sub-planar milky quartz veins up to 3 mm wide and also contains discrete milky
quartz patches and minor disseminated pyrite, locally forming aggregates up to 3 mm across.
The sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, it is evident that the sample is a type of
hydrothermal breccia. There are angular to sub-rounded altered fine grained sedimentary
rock fragments up to 2.5 mm across enclosed in a matrix dominated by finely granular
hydrothermal quartz. The fragments are arranged to form a matrix-supported breccia texture.
Fragments are composed of fine grained siltstone, grading to mudstone, with the siltstone
contains scattered relict detrital quartz grains up to 0.1 mm across in a matrix of fine grained
quartz, plus a little illite-sericite, dark brown carbonaceous pigmentation and a little finely
disseminated pyrite and marcasite. The gradation into mudstone is manifest by increase in
the amount of illite-sericite.

b) Alteration and structure: It is interpreted that the original fine grained sedimentary rock
ranging from slightly carbonaceous and sulphidic siltstone, grading into mudstone, was
subjected to hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. The sedimentary fragments were partly
recrystallised and replaced by fine grained quartz, variable amounts of illite-sericite,
disseminations and small aggregates of fine grained marcasite and pyrite, and a trace of
leucoxene. In places, former carbonaceous pigmentation has aggregated into fine grained
masses, perhaps graphitic in character. The altered sedimentary rock fragments are up to 2.5
mm across and are found enclosed with a finely granular hydrothermal matrix of quartz with
minor illite-sericite and disseminated pyrite and marcasite. Within the matrix material, there
are a few larger individual quartz grains up to 0.5 mm across (?hydrothermal
porphyroblasts). The fine grained breccia matrix as well as fragments, have been pervaded by
irregular masses and a couple of sub-planar veins containing fine to medium grained
inequigranular to prismatic quartz, locally growing into small cavities. There are also
scattered irregular aggregates of fine grained marcasite and pyrite up to 3 mm across (Fig. 8).
Vein quartz is commonly prismatic, with growth normal to vein walls; veins are up to 3 mm
wide. Quartz textures in the sample are characteristic of having formed in an epithermal
system.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The altered sedimentary rock fragments contain minor fine
grained disseminated pyrite and marcasite. Most sulphides occur, however, in the breccia
matrix, as fine disseminations and most commonly, as aggregates up to 3 mm across of fine
grains (Fig. 8). The aggregates are commonly composite, with marcasite tending to be
paragenetically later than pyrite (Fig. 8). No discrete precious metal phase has been observed
in the sample.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 90%, illite-sericite 7%, pyrite,
marcasite and carbonaceous material each 1% and a trace of leucoxene.
Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is a hydrothermal breccia,
with scattered small fragments of fine grained altered sedimentary rock (carbonaceous and
sulphidic siltstone, grading to mudstone) forming a matrix-supported texture. Fragments are
enclosed in a hydrothermal matrix of finely granular quartz, with minor illite-sericite and
isolated grains of medium grained quartz with aggregates of fine grained marcasite and
pyrite. Subsequently, it appears as though the rock has been invaded by fine to medium
grained inequigranular to prismatic quartz, forming irregular masses and a couple of sub-
planar veins. Quartz textures in the sample are typical of the epithermal environment.

Fig. 8: Aggregate of fine grained pyrite, mantled by a rim of marcasite (whiter than pyrite)
and enclosed in quartz (grey, smooth polishing). To the right is altered sedimentary rock,
composed of fine grained quartz and illite-sericite (dark grey). Plane polarised reflected light,
field of view 1 mm across.
FIK3 ABD03 14-15 m PTS
Summary: Matrix-supported hydrothermal breccia exhibiting angular to slabby fragments of
altered fine grained mudstone, veined by, and enclosed in, a quartz-rich hydrothermal
matrix. The fragments have been largely replaced by fine grained quartz, with minor illite-
sericite and a little disseminated fine grained pyrite, marcasite and arsenopyrite. Breccia infill
is composed of paragenetically early domains of finely inequigranular quartz, with
intergrown fine grained arsenopyrite and a little pyrite, with later deposited fine to medium
grains (and locally coarse grained) inequigranular to prismatic and plumose textured quartz
in cavity and vein infillings. The latter type of quartz has minor included aggregates of
arsenopyrite and local traces of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and tetrahedrite.
Patchy supergene oxidation effects have led to development of a few veins of fine grained
jarosite and scorodite.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a type of hydrothermal breccia. It contains


scattered dark grey, altered fine grained sedimentary rock fragments up to 3 cm across,
tending to be concentrated in one part of the sample, where the texture is matrix-supported.
Elsewhere in the sample, the rock is dominated by pale grey, fine to medium grained quartz-
rich hydrothermal infill, with a few small aggregates of a silvery fine grained sulphide phase.
The sedimentary rock fragments appear to be composed of silicified mudstone. Locally, there
is orange-brown goethite staining due to slight supergene oxidation effects. The sample is
essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, the sample contains ~25 volume % of fine
grained altered sedimentary rock fragments, with the remainder being hydrothermal infill
between fragments and as veins in fragments. Mudstone is the constituent of the fragments; it
is fine grained, with scattered tiny (<0.05 mm) relict detrital quartz grains in an altered and
replaced matrix, now dominated by quartz, with minor illite-sericite, a little disseminated
fine grained pyrite, arsenopyrite and marcasite, plus trace leucoxene and small wispy
aggregates of dark carbonaceous material.

b) Alteration and structure: It is interpreted that the mudstone was hydrothermally altered
and brecciated, forming a matrix-supported breccia. Angular to slabby breccia fragments are
up to 3 cm long and have been replaced by very fine grained quartz, minor illite-sericite and
fine disseminations of pyrite and marcasite (Fig. 9), with a few small aggregates of fine
grained arsenopyrite. Pyrite locally occurs as small framboidal aggregates. The hydrothermal
infill enclosing fragments, as well as veining, is dominated by quartz (Fig. 9). There are two
types of infill; a paragenetically earlier type is dominated by domains up to several
millimetres across of finely inequigranular quartz, intergrown with minor fine grained
prismatic arsenopyrite and a little pyrite (Fig. 9). This type of infill has been overgrown by
and veined by quartz that ranges from fine to medium grained to locally coarse grained (up
to 3 mm) and from inequigranular to prismatic to plumose in texture. The breccia fragments
are commonly encrusted by the coarser grained quartz. In the paragenetically later quartz
domains, there are scattered aggregates up to 1.5 mm across of fine to medium grained
arsenopyrite and trace pyrite, with one veinlike quartz mass also containing a little
disseminated sphalerite and associated traces of chalcopyrite, galena, tetrahedrite and pyrite
(Fig. 10). Quartz textures in the infill are typical of formation in an epithermal system. In
places in the sample, supergene oxidation effects have led to partial destruction of sulphides,
resulting in the formation of a few irregular veins up to 1.5 mm wide containing fine grained
jarosite and scorodite. There is also a little disseminated jarosite and scorodite, as well as
diffuse goethite staining.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The altered mudstone fragments contain minor fine
grained disseminated pyrite, marcasite and arsenopyrite, with the last phase occurring in fine
grained aggregates. Pyrite locally displays framboidal form. In the fine grained quartz
domains in the breccia matrix, quartz is intergrown with finely prismatic arsenopyrite (Fig. 9)
and a little pyrite. In the coarser quartz infill, there are scattered aggregates of fine to medium
grained arsenopyrite up to 1.5 mm across, along with trace pyrite. One veinlike quartz mass
contains a little disseminated sphalerite (rather Fe-poor, with individual grains up to 0.5 mm
across), plus traces of associated pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and tetrahedrite (Fig. 10). No
discrete precious metal phase has been observed. Supergene oxidation of sulphides has
occurred locally, with formation of veins up to 1.5 mm wide, plus disseminations, of fine
grained jarosite and scorodite.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 90%, illite-sericite 4%,
arsenopyrite 2%, pyrite, jarosite and scorodite each 1% and traces of marcasite, sphalerite,
chalcopyrite, galena, tetrahedrite, carbonaceous material, leucoxene and goethite.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is a matrix-supported


hydrothermal breccia exhibiting angular to slabby fragments of altered fine grained
mudstone, veined by, and enclosed in, a quartz-rich hydrothermal matrix. Textures in the
latter are typical of formation in an epithermal system. Mudstone fragments have been
altered to quartz, plus minor illite-sericite and a little disseminated fine grained pyrite,
marcasite and arsenopyrite. Breccia infill is composed of paragenetically early domains of
finely inequigranular quartz, with intergrown fine grained arsenopyrite and a little pyrite,
with later deposited fine to medium grains (and locally coarse grained) inequigranular to
prismatic and plumose textured quartz in cavity and vein infillings. The latter type of quartz
has minor included aggregates of arsenopyrite and local traces of pyrite, sphalerite,
chalcopyrite, galena and tetrahedrite. Patchy supergene oxidation effects have led to
development of a few veins of fine grained jarosite and scorodite.

Fig. 9: Edge of a breccia fragment (left) of altered mudstone (replaced by fine grained quartz,
illite-sericite and pyrite), with enclosing hydrothermal quartz infill containing scattered
needles of arsenopyrite (silvery). Plane polarised reflected light, field of view 1 mm across.
Fig. 10: Quartz vein infill (medium grey) containing a composite aggregate of sphalerite (pale
grey), chalcopyrite (yellow), pyrite (creamy white, left), galena (white) and tetrahedrite (very
pale olive-grey). Plane polarised reflected light, field of view 1 mm across.
FIK4 ABD06 30-31 m PTS
Summary: Hydrothermal infill material dominated by differing quartz textural types, all
characteristic of deposition in an epithermal environment. The rock contains a few small
wispy fragments of possible host rock that have been replaced by fine grained illite-sericite
and quartz (possible former mudstone). There are three textural types of quartz, with early
finely granular material, followed by medium grained quartz showing sub-radiating,
plumose and prismatic texture, followed by later stage fine grained quartz, with the latter
commonly intergrown with fine grained clay, carbonaceous material and pyrite. Fine grained
marcasite and pyrite, with trace arsenopyrite occur in the other textural types of quartz.
Slight supergene oxidation is manifest by development of traces of jarosite.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a type of siliceous hydrothermal breccia. There
are irregular massive to slightly crustiform banded, pale grey fine grained quartz-rich
domains up to several centimetres across. There are apparently enclosed in fine grained, dark
grey quartz, probably pigmented by fine grained sulphides and carbonaceous material. The
sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, most of the sample appears to represent
hydrothermal infill (Fig. 11). There are a few wispy aggregates composed of fine grained
illite-sericite and quartz up to 0.5 mm across that might represent small altered host rock
fragments (e.g. former mudstone), enclosed in a dominantly quartz-rich hydrothermal
matrix.

Fig. 11: Sub-radiating aggregates of plumose texture quartz (lower right), associated with
paragenetically later black aggregates of carbonaceous material and ultrafine pyrite, and with
finely granular to prismatic infill quartz. Transmitted light, crossed polars, field of view 2
mm across.
b) Alteration and structure: Most of the rock is interpreted as hydrothermal infill and there is
only 1-2 % of small fragments of possible altered fine grained sedimentary rock, replaced by
illite-sericite and quartz. In the hydrothermal infill, there are three compositional and textural
domains: (1) apparently paragenetically early masses of finely granular quartz up to a few
millimetres across, with a little intergrown marcasite and pyrite, (2) later abundant masses of
fine to medium grained sub-radiating, plumose and prismatic texture quartz (Fig. 11), locally
in veins, and intergrown with a little interstitial illite-sericite, pyrite, marcasite and trace
arsenopyrite, and (3) paragenetically later fine grained quartz, apparently including masses
of textural type (2), and intergrown with fine grained low-birefringent clay, pyrite and
carbonaceous material. In the latter type, there are scattered aggregates up to 0.5 mm across
of carbonaceous material and ultrafine pyrite (Fig. 11), in places associated with aggregates of
framboidal pyrite. Quartz textures in the hydrothermal infill are typical of those found in
epithermal systems (Fig. 11). Slight supergene oxidation effects occur locally, with traces of
fine grained jarosite occurring as late infill in veinlike quartz masses.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The sample contains minor finely dispersed pyrite and
marcasite throughout, but the sulphides are more abundant in association with quartz
textural type (2), and occur with a trace of arsenopyrite. Composite aggregates of marcasite
and pyrite are up to 0.3 mm across, but the sulphides also occur as discrete grains, with
framboidal aggregates of pyrite occurring locally in association with quartz textural type (3)
and carbonaceous material. No discrete precious metal phase has been observed.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 90%, carbonaceous material 3%,
illite-sericite, clay and pyrite each 2%, marcasite 1% and traces of arsenopyrite and jarosite.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample represents hydrothermal infill,
dominated by differing quartz textural types. The sample contains a few small wispy
fragments of possible host rock that have been replaced by fine grained illite-sericite and
quartz (possible former mudstone). There are three textural types of quartz, with early finely
granular material, followed by medium grained quartz showing sub-radiating, plumose and
prismatic texture, followed by later stage fine grained quartz, with the latter commonly
intergrown with fine grained clay, carbonaceous material and pyrite. Fine grained marcasite
and pyrite, with trace arsenopyrite occur in the other textural types of quartz. Slight
supergene oxidation is manifest by development of traces of jarosite. Quartz textures in the
sample are characteristic of deposition in an epithermal environment.
FIK5 ABD06 67.7 m TS
Summary: Recrystallised bioclastic limestone, with scattered fragments of former fossil and
micritic material in a recrystallised matrix. Fine to medium grained inequigranular calcite is
intergrown with traces of quartz and pyrite. There are a few very thin stylolites, possibly
composed of carbonaceous material. The rock has been pervaded by several veins of fine to
medium grained calcite.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a pale grey, finely recrystallised limestone. In
places, there is a ghosted fragmental texture, with possible fossil fragments up to several
millimetres across. A few carbonate veins are present. The sample is essentially non-
magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, it is apparent that the rock is strongly
recrystallised and veined, but there are outlines after original fragments up to 1 cm across.
Many fragments could represent former fossil material (e.g. shelly fragments), but others are
composed of fine micritic material, in places enclosing small fossil fragments. Matrix
material, in which the fragments are enclosed, is totally recrystallised. The relict features
imply that the rock represents a bioclastic limestone.

b) Alteration and structure: The rock has been strongly recrystallised. Micritic material has
generally retained a fine grainsize, but fossil fragments and matrix material have
recrystallised into fine to medium grained, inequigranular calcite aggregates in which there
are a few isolated grains and small aggregates of quartz and a little fine grained pyrite,
forming aggregates up to 0.2 mm across. Several very thin irregular stylolites occur in the
sample and may be composed of carbonaceous material. The recrystallised rock has been cut
by several sub-planar to irregular veins of fine to medium grained calcite up to 2 mm wide.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The sample contains a trace of fine grained pyrite, locally
in isolated aggregates up to 0.2 mm across.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: calcite 99% and traces of quartz, pyrite
and carbonaceous material.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample represents a recrystallised


bioclastic limestone, with scattered fragments of former fossil and micritic material in a
recrystallised matrix. Fine to medium grained inequigranular calcite is intergrown with traces
of quartz and pyrite. There are a few very thin stylolites, possibly composed of carbonaceous
material. The rock has been pervaded by several veins of fine to medium grained calcite.
FIK6 ABD12 27.05m PTS
Summary: Fine grained mudstone/siltstone, with scattered small detrital grains of quartz in a
matrix of fine grained illite-sericite and quartz, with minor fine grained disseminations and
aggregates of pyrite (including framboids). The rock has probably undergone diagenesis,
followed by hydrothermal alteration, with the latter process indicated by the occurrence of
elongate to irregular aggregates of fine to medium grained marcasite, commonly
overgrowing aggregates of pyrite. There is no strong evidence for the rock to have undergone
silicification.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a rather massive, fine grained, dark brown-
grey sedimentary rock, e.g. mudstone. It is probably rich in clays and quartz and there are
scattered aggregates and fine disseminations of pyrite up to several millimetres across. The
sample is essentially non-magnetic, with susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, relict fine grained detrital grain texture is
present along with diffuse, weak and irregular bedding phenomena. The latter are partly
disrupted, e.g. by soft sediment deformation, and are defined by slight differences in detrital
grain size, by the amount of fine grained pyrite disseminations and possibly by diffuse
carbonaceous pigmentation. Detrital grains are up to 0.4 mm across, but mostly <0.1 mm, and
are dominated by quartz, with rare quartz-muscovite lithics and flakes of muscovite. The
matrix is dominated by fine grained illite-sericite and quartz, with fine disseminations and
aggregates of pyrite and traces of leucoxene, with possible faint carbonaceous pigmentation.
The rock is interpreted as a mudstone/siltstone.

Fig. 12: Fine grained mudstone, composed of illite-sericite and quartz (dark grey) containing
an elongate aggregate of pyrite (creamy) overgrown by crustiform marcasite (whiter than
pyrite). Plane polarised reflected light, field of view 1 mm across.
b) Alteration and structure: It is likely that the rock has undergone diagenetic alteration, with
recrystallisation of the matrix and development of abundant fine grained illite-sericite, some
of which has a weak preferred orientation. Fine grained pyrite, some framboidal, occurs
irregularly throughout, in irregular to elongate aggregates. Hydrothermal alteration effects
are interpreted to have occurred, indicated by the growth of irregular to elongate aggregates
up to 1 cm across of fine to medium grained marcasite and subordinate pyrite (Fig. 12). In
places, the Fe sulphides are concentrated along possible bedding laminations.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The rock contains considerable fine to medium grained Fe-
sulphides. In the matrix, fine disseminations and aggregates of pyrite are common, with local
framboidal aggregates and slightly coarser microcrystalline aggregates. There are scattered
porphyroblastic masses, some elongate, of fine to medium grained marcasite and subordinate
pyrite (Fig. 12). These aggregates are up to several millimetres across and commonly display
marcasite growths surrounding earlier deposited pyrite (Fig. 12). Marcasite also forms a few
sheaf-like aggregates of acicular, sub-radiating grains.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: quartz 50%, illite/sericite 42%,
marcasite 5% pyrite 2% and traces of muscovite, leucoxene and carbonaceous material.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample represents a fine grained,
diffusely and irregularly laminated mudstone/siltstone, with scattered small detrital grains
of quartz in a matrix of fine grained illite-sericite and quartz. The matrix also contains minor
fine grained disseminations and aggregates of pyrite (including framboids). The rock has
probably undergone diagenesis causing development of matrix illite-sericite and pyrite,
followed by hydrothermal alteration, with the latter process indicated by the occurrence of
elongate to irregular aggregates of fine to medium grained marcasite, commonly
overgrowing aggregates of pyrite. There is no strong evidence for the rock to have undergone
silicification.
FIK7 ABD21 29.0m PTS
Summary: Fine to medium grained, strongly altered intermediate to mafic igneous rock,
originally dominated by plagioclase laths, with minor amounts of ferromagnesian
phenocrysts and interstitial groundmass material. There has been complete replacement of
the igneous rock by albite, carbonate, illite-sericite, and clay, with minor disseminated fine
grained marcasite, pyrite and leucoxene. The altered rock has been cut by several irregular to
sub-planar veins that range from carbonate-rich to Fe-sulphide-rich. Sulphides are dominated
by fine to medium grained marcasite, in places enclosing pyrite aggregates. There is no
textural evidence that the sample represents a pyroclastic rock.

Handspecimen: The drill core is composed of a buff to pale grey coloured, strongly altered
igneous rock. It is relatively massive, except for being cut by a few veins up to 4 mm wide
that are sub-planar to anastomosing and range from being dominated by white carbonate
(probably calcite) and dark fine grained Fe-sulphides. The rock has probably been strongly
replaced by fine grained sericite, clay and carbonate. It is essentially non-magnetic, with
susceptibility <10 x 10-5 SI units.

Petrographic Section:
a) Primary mineralogy and textures: In the section, relict igneous texture is moderately well
preserved (Fig. 13). The rock contains abundant altered feldspar laths up to 1.5 mm long.
These were most likely plagioclase. There are a few pseudomorphs after former
ferromagnesian phenocrysts up to 1.5 mm across, with relict shapes suggesting that they
might have been pyroxene. Interstitial to plagioclase grains was a subordinate amount of fine
grained groundmass, now totally altered. The relict texture and inferred primary mineralogy
of the rock is interpreted as indicating that it represents a former intermediate to mafic
igneous composition; textures are equivocal as to whether it might have been a lava or a
shallow intrusive. There is no textural evidence for a pyroclastic origin.

Fig. 13: Altered intermediate to mafic igneous rock, with pseudomorphs after former
plagioclase laths. The rock has been altered to albite, illite-sericite and carbonate with a little
disseminated pyrite, with crosscutting veins of carbonate (smooth-polishing, grey), marcasite
(whitish) and pyrite (creamy). Plane polarised reflected light, field of view 2 mm across.

b) Alteration and structure: The rock has undergone very strong pervasive hydrothermal
alteration, perhaps of transitional propylitic-argillic type, with complete replacement of all
igneous minerals. Former plagioclase has been replaced by albite, with minor carbonate and
fine grained illite-sericite (Fig. 13). Ferromagnesian material has been replaced by carbonate ±
minor Fe-sulphides. The groundmass has been replaced by fine grained, low-birefringent clay
(e.g. kaolinite), illite-sericite, carbonate and a little fine grained disseminated pyrite, marcasite
and leucoxene. The altered rock has been cut by several irregular to sub-planar veins up to 4
mm wide. The veins have been filled with medium grained carbonate and fine to medium
grained Fe-sulphides (Fig. 13); some are carbonate-rich, whereas others are dominated by Fe-
sulphides. A trace of fine grained quartz is associated with the vein sulphides. In the veins,
marcasite is the dominant sulphide and it commonly includes small masses of pyrite.

c) Mineragraphy and paragenesis: The altered rock contains minor fine grained disseminated
marcasite and pyrite (Fig. 13), with individual grains up to 0.2 mm across and a few small
aggregates. Most sulphides occur in the veins, where they commonly form semi-massive
elongate, fine to medium grained masses up to 2 mm wide. Fine to medium grained
marcasite is dominant in the veins and it locally encloses pyrite (Fig. 13). No discrete precious
metal phase has been observed.

Mineral Mode: Approximate modal proportions are: carbonate 35%, albite 30%, clay 16%,
illite/sericite 10%, marcasite 6% pyrite 2%, leucoxene 1% and a trace of quartz.

Interpretation and Comments: It is interpreted that the sample is a strongly and pervasively
altered, fine to medium grained, intermediate to mafic igneous rock, originally dominated by
plagioclase laths, with minor amounts of ferromagnesian phenocrysts and interstitial
groundmass material. There has been complete replacement of the igneous rock by albite,
carbonate, illite-sericite, and clay, with minor disseminated fine grained marcasite, pyrite and
leucoxene. The altered rock has been cut by several irregular to sub-planar veins that range
from carbonate-rich to Fe-sulphide-rich. Sulphides are dominated by fine to medium grained
marcasite, in places enclosing pyrite aggregates. There is no textural evidence that the sample
represents a pyroclastic rock.